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BIOLOGY (1529 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
AAPS Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.118
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 23  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 1550-7416
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Tumor-Targeted Chemoimmunotherapy with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade for
           Enhanced Anti-Melanoma Efficacy
    • Authors: Man Li; Yuting Yang; Chaoqun Xu; Jiaojie Wei; Yingke Liu; Xingli Cun; Qianwen Yu; Xian Tang; Sheng Yin; Zhirong Zhang; Qin He
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Chemoimmunotherapy with chemotherapeutics and immunoadjuvant inhibits tumor growth by activating cytotoxic T cells. However, this process also upregulates the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 and consequently leads to immune suppression. To maximize the anti-tumor immune responses and alleviate immunosuppression, PD-L1 antibody was combined with paclitaxel (PTX) and the immunoadjuvant α-galactosylceramide (αGC), which were coencapsulated into pH-sensitive TH peptide-modified liposomes (PTX/αGC/TH-Lip) to treat melanoma and lung metastasis. Compared to treatment with PD-L1 antibody or PTX/αGC/TH-Lip alone, the combination of PD-L1 antibody and PTX/αGC/TH-Lip further elevated the tumor-specific cytotoxic T cell responses and promoted apoptosis in tumor cells, leading to enhanced anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects. In adoptive therapy, PD-L1 antibody further alleviated immunosuppression and enhanced the anti-tumor effect of CD8+ T cells. The combination of PD-L1 antibody and chemoimmunotherapy PTX/αGC/TH-Lip provides a promising strategy for enhancing treatment for melanoma and lung metastasis.
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0289-3
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Survival Prolongation Index as a Novel Metric to Assess Anti-Tumor
           Activity in Xenograft Models
    • Authors: Fiona Chandra; Lihi Zaks; Andy Zhu
      Abstract: A single efficacy metric quantifying anti-tumor activity in xenograft models is useful in evaluating different tumors’ drug sensitivity and dose-response of an anti-tumor agent. Commonly used metrics include the ratio of tumor volume in treated vs. control mice (T/C), tumor growth inhibition (TGI), ratio of area under the curve (AUC), and growth rate inhibition (GRI). However, these metrics have some limitations. In particular, for biologics with long half-lives, tumor volume (TV) of treated xenografts displays a delay in volume reduction (and in some cases, complete regression) followed by a growth rebound. These observed data cannot be described by exponential functions, which is the underlying assumption of TGI and GRI, and the fit depends on how long the tumor volumes are monitored. On the other hand, T/C and TGI only utilizes information from one chosen time point. Here, we propose a new metric called Survival Prolongation Index (SPI), calculated as the time for drug-treated TV to reach a certain size (e.g., 600 mm3) divided by the time for control TV to reach 600mm3 and therefore not dependent on the chosen final time point tf. Simulations were conducted under different scenarios (i.e., exponential vs. saturable growth, linear vs. nonlinear kill function). For all cases, SPI is the most linear and growth-rate independent metric. Subsequently, a literature analysis was conducted using 11 drugs to evaluate the correlation between pre-clinically obtained SPI and clinical overall response. This retrospective analysis of approved drugs suggests that a predicted SPI of 2 is necessary for clinical response.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0284-8
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Sorafenib N -Oxide Is an Inhibitor of Human Hepatic CYP3A4
    • Authors: Sussan Ghassabian; Tina B. Gillani; Tristan Rawling; Severine Crettol; Pramod C. Nair; Michael Murray
      Abstract: The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (SOR) is clinically important in the treatment of hepatocellular and renal cancers and undergoes CYP3A4-dependent oxidation in liver to the pharmacologically active N-oxide metabolite (SNO). There have been reports that kinase inhibitors such as SOR may precipitate pharmacokinetic interactions with coadministered drugs that compete for CYP3A4-mediated biotransformation, but these occur non-uniformly in patients. Clinical evidence also indicates that SNO accumulates in serum of some patients during prolonged SOR therapy. In this study undertaken in hepatic microsomes from individual donors, we assessed the possibility that SNO might contribute to pharmacokinetic interactions mediated by SOR. Enzyme kinetics of CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1′-hydroxylation in individual human hepatic microsomes were analyzed by non-linear regression and appropriate replots. Thus, SNO and SOR were linear-mixed inhibitors of microsomal CYP3A4 activity (Kis 15 ± 4 and 33 ± 14 μM, respectively). To assess these findings, further molecular docking studies of SOR and SNO with the 1TQN crystal structure of CYP3A4 were undertaken. SNO elicited a larger number of interactions with key amino acid residues located in substrate recognition sequences of the enzyme. In the optimal docking pose, the N-oxide moiety of SNO was also found to interact directly with the heme moiety of CYP3A4. These findings suggest that SNO could contribute to pharmacokinetic interactions involving SOR, perhaps in individuals who produce high circulating concentrations of the metabolite.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0262-1
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • What Does it Take to Make Model-Informed Precision Dosing Common
           Practice' Report from the 1st Asian Symposium on Precision Dosing
    • Authors: Thomas M. Polasek; Amin Rostami-Hodjegan; Dong-Seok Yim; Masoud Jamei; Howard Lee; Holly Kimko; Jae Kyoung Kim; Phuong Thi Thu Nguyen; Adam S. Darwich; Jae-Gook Shin
      Abstract: Model-informed precision dosing (MIPD) is modeling and simulation in healthcare to predict the drug dose for a given patient based on their individual characteristics that is most likely to improve efficacy and/or lower toxicity in comparison to traditional dosing. This paper describes the background and status of MIPD and the activities at the 1st Asian Symposium of Precision Dosing. The theme of the meeting was the question, “What does it take to make MIPD common practice'” Formal presentations highlighted the distinction between genetic and non-genetic sources of variability in drug exposure and response, the use of modeling and simulation as decision support tools, and the facilitators to MIPD implementation. A panel discussion addressed the types of models used for MIPD, how the pharmaceutical industry views MIPD, ways to upscale MIPD beyond academic hospital centers, and the essential role of healthcare professional education as a way to progress. The meeting concluded with an ongoing commitment to use MIPD to improve patient care.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0286-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Scientific Considerations for the Review and Approval of First Generic
           Mometasone Furoate Nasal Suspension Spray in the United States from the
           Bioequivalence Perspective
    • Authors: Qing Liu; Mohammad Absar; Bhawana Saluja; Changning Guo; Badrul Chowdhury; Robert Lionberger; Dale P. Conner; Bing V. Li
      Abstract: In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first Abbreviated New Drug Application for Mometasone Furoate Nasal Suspension Spray. To establish the bioequivalence of this generic nasal suspension spray with the reference listed drug product (RLD), Nasonex®, a “weight-of-evidence” approach was utilized by the applicant that included formulation and device similarities, equivalent in vitro performance, equivalent systemic exposure, and equivalent local delivery. In addition to these testing for comprehensive evaluation of the drug product, FDA also considered supportive data generated by a novel in vitro method, Morphologically-Directed Raman Spectroscopy (MDRS), to characterize the particle size distribution (PSD) of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in the drug product. In this case, MDRS data eliminated the need for a comparative clinical endpoint bioequivalence study. The approval of the first generic Mometasone Furoate Nasal Suspension Spray is precedent-setting and paves a new pathway to establish bioequivalence for generic nasal suspension sprays. This approval also exemplifies FDA’s commitment to advance regulatory science for evaluation of generic drug products.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0283-9
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Cellular Uptake of MCT1 Inhibitors AR-C155858 and AZD3965 and Their
           Effects on MCT-Mediated Transport of L-Lactate in Murine 4T1 Breast Tumor
           Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Xiaowen Guan; Vivian Rodriguez-Cruz; Marilyn E. Morris
      Abstract: AR-C155858 and AZD3965, pyrrole pyrimidine derivatives, represent potent monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibitors, with potential immunomodulatory and chemotherapeutic properties. Currently, there is limited information on the inhibitory properties of this new class of MCT1 inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to characterize the concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of L-lactate transport and the membrane permeability properties of AR-C155858 and AZD3965 in the murine 4T1 breast tumor cells that express MCT1. Our results demonstrated time-dependent inhibition of L-lactate uptake by AR-C155858 and AZD3965 with maximal inhibition occurring after a 5-min pre-incubation period and prolonged inhibition. Following removal of AR-C155858 or AZD3965 from the incubation buffer, inhibition of L-lactate uptake was only fully reversed after 3 and 12 h, respectively, indicating that these inhibitors are slowly reversible. The uptake of AR-C155858 was concentration-dependent in 4T1 cells, whereas the uptake of AZD3965 exhibited no concentration dependence over the range of concentrations examined. The uptake kinetics of AR-C155858 was best fitted to a Michaelis-Menten equation with a diffusional clearance component, P (Km = 0.399 ± 0.067 μM, Vmax = 4.79 ± 0.58 pmol/mg/min, and P = 0.330 ± 0.088 μL/mg/min). AR-C155858 uptake, but not AZD3965 uptake, was significantly inhibited by alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, a known nonspecific inhibitor of MCTs 1, 2, and 4. AR-C155858 demonstrated a trend toward higher uptake at lower pH, a characteristic of proton-dependent MCT1. These findings provide evidence that AR-C155858 and AZD3965 exert slowly reversible inhibition of MCT1-mediated L-lactate uptake in 4T1 cells, with AR-C155858 representing a potential substrate of MCT1.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0279-5
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Evaluation of a Particulate Breast Cancer Vaccine Delivered via Skin
    • Authors: Lipika Chablani; Suprita A. Tawde; Archana Akalkotkar; Martin J. D’Souza
      Abstract: Breast cancer impacts female population globally and is the second most common cancer for females. With various limitations and adverse effects of current therapies, several immunotherapies are being explored. Development of an effective breast cancer vaccine can be a groundbreaking immunotherapeutic approach. Such approaches are being evaluated by several clinical trials currently. On similar lines, our research study aims to evaluate a particulate breast cancer vaccine delivered via skin. This particulate breast cancer vaccine was prepared by spray drying technique and utilized murine breast cancer whole cell lysate as a source of tumor-associated antigens. The average size of the particulate vaccine was 1.5 μm, which resembled the pathogenic species, thereby assisting in phagocytosis and antigen presentation leading to further activation of the immune response. The particulate vaccine was delivered via skin using commercially available metal microneedles. Methylene blue staining and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the microchannels. The results showed that microneedles created aqueous conduits of 50 ± 10 μm to deliver the microparticulate vaccine to the skin layers. Further, an in vivo comparison of immune response depicted significantly higher concentration of serum IgG, IgG2a, and B and T cell (CD4+ and CD8+) populations in the vaccinated animals than the control animals (p < 0.001). Upon challenge with live murine breast cancer cells, the vaccinated animals showed five times more tumor suppression than the control animals confirming the immune response activation and protection (p < 0.001). This research paves a way for individualized immunotherapy following surgical tumor removal to prolong relapse episodes.
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0285-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2019)
  • Covariates in Pharmacometric Repeated Time-to-Event Models: Old and New
           (Pre)Selection Tools
    • Authors: Sebastiaan C. Goulooze; Elke H. J. Krekels; Thomas Hankemeier; Catherijne A. J. Knibbe
      Abstract: During covariate modeling in pharmacometrics, computational time can be reduced by using a fast preselection tool to identify a subset of promising covariates that are to be tested with the more computationally demanding likelihood ratio test (LRT), which is considered to be the standard for covariate selection. There is however a lack of knowledge on best practices for covariate (pre)selection in pharmacometric repeated time-to-event (RTTE) models. Therefore, we aimed to systematically evaluate the performance of three covariate (pre)selection tools for RTTE models: the likelihood ratio test (LRT), the empirical Bayes estimates (EBE) test, and a novel Schoenfeld-like residual test. This was done in simulated datasets with and without a “true” time-constant covariate, and both in the presence and absence of high EBE shrinkage. In scenarios with a “true” covariate effect, all tools had comparable power to detect this effect. In scenarios without a “true” covariate effect, the false positive rates of the LRT and the Schoenfeld-like residual test were slightly inflated to 5.7% and 7.2% respectively, while the EBE test had no inflated false positive rate. The presence of high EBE shrinkage (> 40%) did not affect the performance of any of the covariate (pre)selection tools. We found the EBE test to be a fast and accurate tool for covariate preselection in RTTE models. The novel Schoenfeld-like residual test proposed here had a similar performance in the tested scenarios and might be applied more readily to time-varying covariates, such as drug concentration and dynamic biomarkers.
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0278-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Golimumab Dried Blood Spot Analysis (GOUDA): a Prospective Trial Showing
           Excellent Correlation with Venepuncture Samples and More Detailed
           Pharmacokinetic Information
    • Authors: Iris Detrez; Ganel Schops; Jolien Lefrère; Sophie Tops; Gert Van Assche; Séverine Vermeire; Wouter Van Moerkercke; Marc Ferrante; Ann Gils
      Abstract: Development of a dried blood spot (DBS) method for golimumab will facilitate sample collection in a study setting and will give a more complete insight in the total drug exposure (area under the curve, AUC). We established a DBS method and assessed its robustness, user-friendliness and clinical usefulness in 10 patients with ulcerative colitis during golimumab induction and maintenance regimens. DBS was obtained through spotting of golimumab spiked in whole citrated blood to a filter paper. Several extraction conditions were evaluated and the selected extraction condition analytically validated. In a clinical setting, DBS and serum samples were taken simultaneously through intensive sampling regimens and a conversion factor was determined. Golimumab concentrations were measured using an in-house-developed ELISA and a CE-marked ELISA kit. User-friendliness was evaluated using a questionnaire. Mucosal healing was evaluated at week 14. A total of 79 matched pairs of serum and DBS sample golimumab concentrations revealed an overall conversion factor of 3.9. DBS golimumab concentrations after conversion correlated strongly with serum golimumab concentrations (ICC = 0.984). During induction, no linear correlation was found between golimumab trough concentration (TC) and AUC (R2 = 0.29). Multiple peaks emerged during drug absorption. Patients who achieved mucosal healing appeared to have less fluctuating TC and a constant AUC over time. Nine out of 10 patients reported DBS sampling as user-friendly. The GOUDA study showed that DBS sampling is a robust and patient-friendly alternative to venous blood collection. DBS sampling may provide better insights into golimumab absorption and exposure. ( NCT02910375)
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0282-x
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Measurement of IL-17AA and IL-17FF as Pharmacodynamic Biomarkers to
           Demonstrate Target Engagement in the Phase I Study of MCAF5352A
    • Authors: Kun Peng; Yehong Wang; Ketevan Siradze; Rich Erickson; Saloumeh K. Fischer; Tracy L. Staton
      Abstract: The interleukin (IL)-17 pathway has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many autoimmune diseases. MCAF5352A is a humanized monoclonal antibody which targets both IL-17A and IL-17F, thereby inhibiting the activity of IL-17 dimers (IL-17AA, IL-17AF, and IL-17FF). The pharmacokinetic profile of MCAF5352A has been characterized in both a Phase Ia single ascending dose study and a Phase Ib multiple ascending dose study. Two qualified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure total IL-17AA and IL-17FF levels in serum as pharmacodynamic biomarkers in the Phase I studies. The two assays demonstrated specificity for IL-17AA or IL-17FF with sensitivity at low picogram/milliliter levels. The assay precision and accuracy also met acceptance criteria. Although total serum IL-17AA and IL-17FF levels were below the assay detection limits prior to administration of MCAF5352A, post-treatment levels in both the single and multiple dose cohorts became detectable and increased in a dose-dependent manner. These data are consistent with target engagement by MCAF5352A. Our work highlights bioanalytical challenges encountered while developing biomarker assays requiring high sensitivity and specificity. Data generated using these assays enabled the confirmation of target engagement during early clinical drug development.
      PubDate: 2018-12-13
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0280-z
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • PBPK and its Virtual Populations: the Impact of Physiology on Pediatric
           Pharmacokinetic Predictions of Tramadol
    • Authors: Huybrecht T’jollyn; An Vermeulen; Jan Van Bocxlaer
      Abstract: In pediatric PBPK models, age-related changes in the body are known to occur. Given the sparsity of and the variability associated with relevant physiological parameters, different PBPK software providers may vary in their system’s data. In this work, three commercially available PBPK software packages (PK-Sim®, Simcyp®, and Gastroplus®) were investigated regarding their differences in system-related information, possibly affecting clearance prediction. Three retrograde PBPK clearance models were set up to enable prediction of pediatric tramadol clearance. These models were qualified in terms of total, CYP2D6, and renal clearance in adults. Tramadol pediatric clearance predictions from PBPK were compared with a pooled popPK model covering clearance ranging from neonates to adults. Fold prediction errors were used to evaluate the results. Marked differences in liver clearance prediction between PBPK models were observed. In general, the prediction bias of total clearance was greatest at the youngest population and decreased with age. Regarding CYP2D6 and renal clearance, important differences exist between PBPK software tools. Interestingly, the PBPK model with the shortest CYP2D6 maturation half-life (PK-Sim) agreed best with the in vivo CYP2D6 maturation model. Marked differences in physiological data explain the observed differences in hepatic clearance prediction in early life between the various PBPK software providers tested. Consensus on the most suited pediatric data to use should harmonize and optimize pediatric clearance predictions. Moreover, the combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches, using a convenient probe substrate, has the potential to update system-related parameters in order to better represent pediatric physiology.
      PubDate: 2018-11-29
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0277-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Assessment of Quality Attributes for Biosimilars: a Statistical
           Perspective on Current Practice and a Proposal
    • Authors: Johanna Mielke; Franz Innerbichler; Martin Schiestl; Nicolas M. Ballarini; Byron Jones
      Abstract: Establishing comparability of the originator and its biosimilar at the structural and functional level, by analyzing so-called quality attributes, is an important step in biosimilar development. The statistical assessment of quality attributes is currently in the focus of attention because both the FDA and the EMA are working on regulatory documents for advising companies on the use of statistical approaches for strengthening their comparability claim. In this paper, we first discuss “comparable” and “not comparable” settings and propose a shift away from the usual comparison of the mean values: we argue that two products can be considered comparable if the range of the originator fully covers the range of the biosimilar. We then introduce a novel statistical testing procedure (the “tail-test”) and compare the operating characteristics of the proposed approach with approaches currently used in practice. In contrast to the currently used approaches, we note that our proposed methodology is compatible with the proposed understanding of comparability and has, compared to other frequently applied range-based approaches, the advantage of being a formal statistical testing procedure which controls the patient’s risk and has reasonable large-sample properties.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0275-9
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Overlooked Issues on Pharmacokinetics Data Interpretation of Protein
           Drugs—a Case Example of Erythropoietin
    • Authors: Guohua An; Robert L. Schmidt; Donald M. Mock; Peter Veng-Pedersen; John A. Widness
      PubDate: 2018-11-26
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0269-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effect of the Plasticizer DEHP in Blood Collection Bags on Human Plasma
           Fraction Unbound Determination for Alpha-1-Acid Glycoprotein (AAG) Binding
    • Authors: Nicholas Ingram; Christopher Dishinger; Jennifer Wood; J. Matthew Hutzler; Sherri Smith; Michael Huskin
      Abstract: Fraction unbound (fu) is a critical drug distribution parameter commonly utilized for modeling efficacious dosage and safety margin predictions. An over-estimation of fu for 13 chemically diverse small molecule drugs primarily bound to alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) in human plasma was discovered when in vitro results from our screening lab were compared to literature values. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer known to be used in the manufacture of blood collection bags, was extracted from plasma obtained through three common techniques that allowed contact with DEHP, and drug fu values in plasma from each collection method were estimated using the HTDialysis protein binding methodology. Additionally, fu of test compounds in plasma spiked with varying concentrations of DEHP (0–800 μM) was determined, and DEHP extractions were performed from plasma stored in Terumo bags over 7 days. Blood stored in Terumo bags, blood collected in Terumo bags, but immediately transferred to conical vials, and vacutainer-collected blood yielded DEHP concentrations of 300–1000 μM, 1–10 μM, and 0.1–2 μM, respectively. This finding corresponded with the fu of tested drugs in DEHP-spiked plasma increasing between 2- and 5-fold. Additionally, DEHP was discovered to leach from the Terumo bag, with concentrations increasing 10-fold over a 7-day test period. In summary, the presence of DEHP in commercially available blood collection bags confounds in vitro fu estimation for drugs that bind primarily to AAG. It is recommended that vacutainer-collected human plasma, which contains negligible DEHP, be used for the most accurate estimation of fu in human plasma.
      PubDate: 2018-11-16
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0276-8
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Approaches to Resolve False Reporting in Neutralizing Antibody Assays
           Caused by Reagent Leaching from Affinity Capture Elution Solid Phase
    • Authors: Yuhong Xiang; John Kamerud; Jean Donley; Katrina Olson; Teresa Caiazzo; Dave Yeung; Chuenlei Parng; Boris Gorovits
      Abstract: Insufficient drug tolerance presents a major challenge in the development of neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays for biotherapeutics. Sample pre-treatment using solid-phase extraction with acid dissociation (SPEAD) is widely reported to improve drug tolerance. In this paper, a case study is presented in which SPEAD was used in conjunction with a competitive ligand binding NAb assay format. A significant degree of biotin-drug conjugate leaching was observed resulting in the reporting of both false positive and false negative results in NAb assay. Mitigation steps have been evaluated to address drug/biotin-drug conjugate leaching. These steps included assessment of the streptavidin-coated plate in conjunction with biotin-drug conjugates at various biotin molar challenge ratios (MCR). In addition, an alternative method based on covalent capture of the drug on an aldehyde-activated plate was assessed. Both approaches were compared for the degree of drug/biotin-drug conjugate leaching during the second elution step of the SPEAD procedure. Moreover, the impact of various conditions on the assay performance was assessed, including elution pH, sample incubation time, and biotin MCR. For the covalent drug capture method, capture conditions were evaluated. Optimized conditions in both streptavidin capture and covalent capture methods enabled a significant reduction of drug/biotin-drug conjugate leaching. A streptavidin high binding capacity approach using biotin-drug conjugate with a MCR of 50:1 was chosen as the optimal method yielding a NAb assay with a fit for purpose sensitivity (153 ng/mL) and a drug tolerance of up to 50 μg/mL with 500 ng/mL PC.
      PubDate: 2018-11-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0274-x
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of the Monocarboxylate Transporter 1
           Inhibitor AR-C155858 in the Murine 4T1 Breast Cancer Tumor Model
    • Authors: Xiaowen Guan; Mark A. Bryniarski; Marilyn E. Morris
      Abstract: Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), also known as a l-lactate transporter, is a potential therapeutic target in cancer. The objectives of this study were to evaluate efficacy and assess concentration-effect relationships of AR-C155858 (a selective and potent MCT1 inhibitor) in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells and in the 4T1 tumor xenograft model. Western blotting of 4T1 cells demonstrated triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) characteristics and overexpression of MCT1 and CD147 (a MCT1 accessory protein), but absence of MCT4 expression. AR-C155858 inhibited the cellular l-lactate uptake and cellular proliferation at low nanomolar potencies (IC50 values of 25.0 ± 4.2 and 20.2 ± 0.2 nM, respectively). In the xenograft 4T1 mouse model of immunocompetent animals, AR-C155858 (10 mg/kg i.p. once daily) had no effect on tumor volume and weight. Treatment with AR-C155858 resulted in slightly increased tumor lactate concentrations; however, the changes were not statistically significant. AR-C155858 was well tolerated, as demonstrated by the unchanged body weight and blood lactate concentrations. Average blood and tumor AR-C155858 concentrations (110 ± 22 and 574 ± 245 nM, respectively), 24 h after the last dose, were well above the IC50 values. These data indicate that AR-C155858 penetrated 4T1 xenograft tumors and was present at high concentrations but was ineffective in decreasing tumor growth. Evaluations of AR-C155858 in other preclinical models of breast cancer are needed to further assess its efficacy.
      PubDate: 2018-11-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0261-2
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Journey to AAPS 2020: a Reflection from Strategic Planning to PharmSci
    • Authors: Joseph W. Polli; for the AAPS Leadership; Christopher R. McCurdy; Dale Eric Wurster; Binodh S. DeSilva; Annette Bak; Reina Bendayan; Bernd Meibohm; Allen C. Templeton; William Weiser
      PubDate: 2018-11-03
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0273-y
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Population Pharmacokinetics of AL-335 and Its Two Main Metabolites
           (ALS-022399, ALS-022227) in Monotherapy and in Combination with Odalasvir
           and/or Simeprevir
    • Authors: Elodie Valade; Thomas N. Kakuda; Matthew W. McClure; Christopher Westland; Belén Valenzuela; Sivi Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan; Juan José Perez-Ruixo; Oliver Ackaert
      Abstract: The aim of the current study was to characterize the time course of plasma concentrations of AL-335 and its main metabolites (ALS-022399 and ALS-022227) after oral administration in healthy and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects, in monotherapy as well as in combination with simeprevir and/or odalasvir. AL-335, ALS-022399, and ALS-022227 plasma concentrations from subjects receiving 800 mg of AL-335 orally once daily (qd) as monotherapy or in combination were pooled and analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effect modeling approach. The typical values (between subject variability) of AL-335 and ALS-022399 apparent linear clearances were 3300 L/h (33.9%) and 1910 L/h (30.0%), respectively. ALS-022227 elimination was characterized as a nonlinear process, with typical values of Vmax,ALS-022227 and Km,ALS-022227 estimated to be 84,799 ng/h (14.9%) and 450.2 ng/mL, respectively. AL-335 and ALS-022399 plasma concentrations were increased more than 2-fold in presence of simeprevir and/or odalasvir, while the effect on ALS-022227 plasma concentrations was limited. The effect of simeprevir and/or odalasvir might be explained by their capacity to inhibit P-glycoprotein. Internal evaluation confirmed that the population pharmacokinetic model developed was deemed appropriate to describe the time course of AL-335, ALS-022399, and ALS-022227 plasma concentrations and their associated variability in both healthy and HCV-infected subjects, as well as the interaction effect of simeprevir and/or odalasvir over AL-335 and its metabolites in healthy subjects. This model can be used as a starting point to evaluate drug-drug interaction processes in HCV-infected patients and support the development of a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination.
      PubDate: 2018-10-24
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0272-z
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018)
  • Conjugation to Ascorbic Acid Enhances Brain Availability of Losartan
           Carboxylic Acid and Protects Against Parkinsonism in Rats
    • Authors: Bharat Bhusan Subudhi; Pratap Kumar Sahu; Vijay Kumar Singh; Shaktiketan Prusty
      Abstract: Identification of renin-angiotensin system in the interplay of hypertension and neurodegeneration has paved the way for the repurposing of antihypertensive drugs against Parkinsonism. Losartan carboxylic acid (LCA), the potent AT1 blocker metabolite of losartan, suffers from poor bioavailability and brain access. Since ascorbate transporters have earlier shown enough flexibility as carriers, we have conjugated losartan carboxylic acid to ascorbic acid with the aim of achieving higher oral/brain availability. Ester of LCA and ascorbic acid (FED) was developed keeping in view the substrate specificity of ascorbate transporters. Oral/brain bioavailability was assessed using in vivo pharmacokinetic model. Effect on central nervous system (CNS) and protection against Parkinsonism was evaluated using in vivo models. FED enhanced bioavailability of LCA. The higher brain availability of LCA enabled CNS protection as evident from the increase in locomotor activity, improved motor coordination, and protection against drug-induced catatonia. In conclusion, FED offers an approach to repurpose LCA against Parkinsonism. This can encourage further investigation to simultaneously address hypertension and neurodegeneration.
      PubDate: 2018-10-22
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0270-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
  • Characterizing the Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Simeprevir and
           Odalasvir in Healthy Volunteers Using a Population Modeling Approach
    • Authors: Elodie Valade; Belén Valenzuela; Thomas N. Kakuda; Christopher Westland; Matthew W. McClure; Sivi Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan; Juan José Perez-Ruixo; Oliver Ackaert
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic drug–drug interaction (DDI) between simeprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and odalasvir (NS5A inhibitor) after oral administration to support the design and dose selection of clinical studies with this combination for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV). Simeprevir and odalasvir plasma concentrations from 30 healthy subjects receiving these drugs in monotherapy as well as in combination were pooled and analyzed using a population pharmacokinetic modeling approach. Previous pharmacokinetic models developed to characterize the pharmacokinetics for each drug were used as starting point. The dual effect of simeprevir and odalasvir on their pharmacokinetic parameters was explored. Simulations were performed to assess the impact of the DDI on exposure parameters. In presence of odalasvir, the relative bioavailability of simeprevir increased by 26% and the apparent clearance was reduced following competitive inhibition depending on odalasvir plasma concentrations, with an inhibitory constant (Ki) estimated to be 1610 ng/mL. The apparent odalasvir clearance was reduced by simeprevir plasma concentrations following an Imax model, characterized by a maximum inhibitory effect of 46.7% and an IC50 of 257 ng/mL. Model-based simulations indicated that both Cmax and AUC24h increased for both drugs, when co-administered. The pharmacokinetic model adequately describes the time course of plasma concentrations and their variability when simeprevir and/or odalasvir were orally administered. This model can be used as a first step to predict the exposures of concomitant administration of simeprevir and odalasvir in HCV-infected subjects. Data from study AL355-602 (NCT02512562) were used for this analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-10-22
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0271-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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