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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3153 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1504 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (139 journals)

BIOLOGY (1504 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 306)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
AAPS Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.118
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 22  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 1550-7416
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Risk-Based Comparability Assessment for Monoclonal Antibodies During Drug
           Development: A Clinical Pharmacology Perspective
    • Authors: Yanli Zhuang; Di Chen; Amarnath Sharma; Zhenhua Xu
      Abstract: Due to complexities in the structure, function, and manufacturing process of antibody-based therapeutic proteins, comparability assessment for supporting manufacturing changes can sometimes be a challenging task. Regulatory guidance recommends a hierarchical risk-based approach, starting with Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) analytical characterizations, followed by non-clinical and/or clinical studies to ensure that any potential changes in quality attributes have no adverse impact on efficacy and safety of the product. This review focuses on the changes in quality attributes which may potentially affect the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and immunogenicity of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) product, and provides general guidelines in designing non-clinical and clinical PK/PD studies to help support comparability assessments. A decision tree for comparability assessment is proposed depending on the nature of the changes in quality attributes, the potential impact of such changes, and the timing of the manufacturing change relative to the development process. Ideally, the optimization of manufacturing process should take place in the early stage of drug development (i.e., preclinical to phase 2a) as more stringent comparability criteria would have to be met if manufacturing changes occur in the late stage of drug development (i.e., phase 2b and after), and consequently, major changes in manufacturing process should be avoided during confirmatory phase 3 studies and post-approval of drug products.
      PubDate: 2018-10-15
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0268-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Nanoparticle-Based Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 Genome-Editing Therapeutics
    • Authors: Brittany E. Givens; Youssef W. Naguib; Sean M. Geary; Eric J. Devor; Aliasger K. Salem
      Abstract: The recent progress in harnessing the efficient and precise method of DNA editing provided by CRISPR/Cas9 is one of the most promising major advances in the field of gene therapy. However, the development of safe and optimally efficient delivery systems for CRISPR/Cas9 elements capable of achieving specific targeting of gene therapy to the location of interest without off-target effects is a primary challenge for clinical therapeutics. Nanoparticles (NPs) provide a promising means to meet such challenges. In this review, we present the most recent advances in developing innovative NP-based delivery systems that efficiently deliver CRISPR/Cas9 constructs and maximize their effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2018-10-10
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0267-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Tissue Physiology of Cynomolgus Monkeys: Cross-Species Comparison and
           Implications for Translational Pharmacology
    • Authors: Danielle Mandikian; Isabel Figueroa; Amy Oldendorp; Hanine Rafidi; Sheila Ulufatu; Michelle G. Schweiger; Jessica A. Couch; Noel Dybdal; Sean B. Joseph; Saileta Prabhu; Gregory Z. Ferl; C. Andrew Boswell
      Abstract: We previously performed a comparative assessment of tissue-level vascular physiological parameters in mice and rats, two of the most commonly utilized species in translational drug development. The present work extends this effort to non-human primates by measuring tissue- and organ-level vascular volumes (Vv), interstitial volumes (Vi), and blood flow rates (Q) in cynomolgus monkeys. These measurements were accomplished by red blood cell labeling, extracellular marker infusion, and rubidium chloride bolus distribution, respectively, the same methods used in previous rodent measurements. In addition, whole-body blood volumes (BV) were determined across species. The results demonstrate that Vv, Vi, and Q, measured using our methods scale approximately by body weight across mouse, rat, and monkey in the tissues considered here, where allometric analysis allowed extrapolation to human parameters. Significant differences were observed between the values determined in this study and those reported in the literature, including Vv in muscle, brain, and skin and Q in muscle, adipose, heart, thymus, and spleen. The impact of these differences for selected tissues was evaluated via sensitivity analysis using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The blood-brain barrier in monkeys was shown to be more impervious to an infused radioactive tracer, indium-111-pentetate, than in mice or rats. The body weight-normalized total BV measured in monkey agreed well with previously measured value in rats but was lower than that in mice. These findings have important implications for the common practice of scaling physiological parameters from rodents to primates in translational pharmacology.
      PubDate: 2018-10-08
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0264-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Reverse Engineering the 1-Month Lupron Depot®
    • Authors: Jia Zhou; Keiji Hirota; Rose Ackermann; Jennifer Walker; Yan Wang; Stephanie Choi; Anna Schwendeman; Steven P. Schwendeman
      Abstract: The 1-month Lupron Depot® (LD) encapsulating water-soluble leuprolide in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres is a benchmark product upon which modern long-acting release products are often compared. Despite expiration of patent coverage, no generic product for the LD has been approved in the USA, likely due to the complexity of components and manufacturing processes involved in the product. Here, we describe the reverse engineering of the LD composition and important product attributes. Specific attributes analyzed for microspheres were as follows: leuprolide content by three methods; gelatin content, type, and molecular weight distribution; PLGA content, lactic acid/glycolic acid ratio, and molecular weight distribution; mannitol content; in vitro drug release; residual solvent and moisture content; particle size distribution and morphology; and glass transition temperature. For the diluent, composition, viscosity, and specific gravity were analyzed. Analyzed contents of the formulation and the determined PLGA characteristics matched well with the official numbers stated in the package insert and those found in literature, respectively. The gelatin was identified as type B consistent with ~ 300 bloom. The 11-μm volume-median microspheres in the LD slowly released the drug in vitro in a zero-order manner after ~ 23% initial burst release. Very low content of residual moisture (< 0.5%) and methylene chloride (< 1 ppm) in the product indicates in-water drying is capable of removing solvents to extremely low levels during manufacturing. The rigorous approach of reverse engineering described here may be useful for development of generic leuprolide-PLGA microspheres as well as other new and generic PLGA microsphere formulations.
      PubDate: 2018-10-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0253-2
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • A Gyrolab Assay for the Quantitation of Free Complement Protein C5a in
           Human Plasma
    • Authors: Mark Dysinger; Mark Ma
      Abstract: Complement protein C5a is recognized as an important component of the alternative complement pathway. Its role is prominent enough to garner interest not only as a biomarker, but also as a potential therapeutic target. Bioanalytical challenges have been posed in proper quantitation of free C5a due to interference from its precursor, C5. Additionally, free therapeutic target quantitation can be difficult due to effects of sample dilution and prolonged sample incubation when therapeutic is used as capture reagent. Gyrolab technology enables quantitation of free target analyte with minimal sample dilution and rapid sample incubations, thus enabling in vitro results that are more representative of in vivo pharmacodynamics. When coupled with strategic sample pretreatment, Gyrolab offers an opportunity to quantitate free C5a in human plasma with an assay that vastly diminishes C5 interference. A Gyrolab assay for the quantitation of free C5a in human plasma was developed and validated. Validation results confirmed that proper sample pretreatment and use of the Gyrolab platform yield accurate and reliable results. Due to the advantages that it provides, Gyrolab has become our default technology of choice for quantitation of free target.
      PubDate: 2018-10-02
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0266-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Correction to: Reflections on FDA Draft Guidance for Products Containing
           Nanomaterials: Is the Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) a Suitable
           Pathway for Nanomedicines'
    • Authors: Emily Marden; Ioanna Ntai; Scott Bass; Beat Flühmann
      Abstract: In the published article the given name and the family name for each author is listed in the incorrect order and therefore cited incorrectly. The correct order (given name followed by family name) of names is listed above.
      PubDate: 2018-09-25
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0265-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • The Properties of Cysteine-Conjugated Antibody-Drug Conjugates Are
           Impacted by the IgG Subclass
    • Authors: Amita Datta-Mannan; Hiuwan Choi; David Stokell; Jason Tang; Anthony Murphy; Aaron Wrobleski; Yiqing Feng
      Abstract: Among the numerous antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) clinical candidates, one of the most prevalent types utilizes the interchain cysteines in antibodies to conjugate auristatin via a maleimide-containing linker. In this class of ADCs, there are a paucity of systematic studies characterizing how IgG subclass influences the biophysical properties and in vivo pharmacokinetics of the ADC molecules. In the current investigation, we studied cysteine-conjugated ADCs using a model system consisting of human IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 antibodies with the same variable region. Our findings identified some unforeseen differences among the three ADCs. Drug conjugation profiling by LC-MS revealed that 50% of inter heavy-light chain disulfide bonds are disrupted to conjugate drugs in IgG1 antibody while only 10% in IgG2 antibody and 20% in IgG4 antibody. The solution behavior of the ADCs was interrogated in concentrating experiments and diffusion interaction parameter measurements. We found that drug conjugation affected the solution property of the three antibodies differently, with the IgG2-based ADC having the most increased propensity to aggregate. Rat PK studies using a sensitive LC-MS-based bioanalytical method showed that the IgG1-based ADC has poor peripheral linker-payload stability while the IgG2- and IgG4-based ADCs are stable. The conjugate stability of the IgG2-based ADC was further confirmed in a cynomolgus monkey PK study. Overall, the IgG2-based ADC exhibited the best PK/conjugate stability but also the most deterioration in stability among the three ADCs. Our findings provide important information and present multifactorial considerations for the selection of IgG subclass during ADC drug discovery when employing stochastic cysteine conjugation.
      PubDate: 2018-09-25
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0263-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Additive Manufacturing with 3D Printing: Progress from Bench to Bedside
    • Authors: Ziyaur Rahman; Sogra F. Barakh Ali; Tanil Ozkan; Naseem A. Charoo; Indra K. Reddy; Mansoor A. Khan
      Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) printing was discovered in the 1980s, and many industries have embraced it, but the pharmaceutical industry is slow or reluctant to adopt it. Spiritam® is the first and only 3D-printed drug product approved by FDA in 2015. Since then, the FDA has not approved any 3D-printed drug product due to technical and regulatory issues. The 3D printing process cannot compete with well-established and understood conventional processes for making solid dosage forms. However, pharmaceutical companies can utilize it where mass production is not required; rather, consistency, precision, and accuracy in quality are paramount. There are many 3D printing technologies available, and not all of them are amenable to pharmaceutical manufacturing. Each 3D technology has certain prerequisites in terms of material that it can handle. Some of the pertinent technical and regulatory issues are as follows: Current Good Manufacturing Practice, in-process tests and process control, and cleaning validation. Other promising area of 3D printing use is printing medications for patients with special needs in a hospital and/or pharmacy setting with minimum regulatory oversight. This technology provides a novel opportunity for in-hospital compounding of necessary medicines to support patient-specific medications. However, aspects of the manufacturing challenges and quality control considerations associated with the varying formulation and processing methods need to be fully understood before 3D printing can emerge as a therapeutic tool. With these points in mind, this review paper focuses on 3D technologies amenable for pharmaceutical manufacturing, excipient requirement, process understanding, and technical and regulatory challenges.
      PubDate: 2018-09-12
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0225-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Michaelis-Menten from an In Vivo Perspective: Open Versus Closed Systems
    • Authors: Johan Gabrielsson; Lambertus A. Peletier
      Abstract: After a century of applications of the seminal Michaelis-Menten equation since its advent it is timely to scrutinise its principal parts from an in vivo point of view. Thus, the Michaelis-Menten system was revisited in which enzymatic turnover, i.e. synthesis and elimination was incorporated. To the best of our knowledge, previous studies of the Michaelis-Menten system have been mainly based on the assumption that the total pool of enzyme, free and bound, is constant. However, in fact this may not always be the case, particularly for chronic indications. Chronic (periodic) administration of drugs is often related to induction or inhibition of enzymatic processes and even changes in the free enzymatic load per se. This may account for the fact that translation of in vitro metabolism data have shown to give systematic deviations from experimental in vivo data. Interspecies extrapolations of metabolic data are often challenged by poor predictability due to insufficient power of applied functions and methods. By incorporating enzyme turnover, a more mechanistic expression of substrate, free enzyme and substrate-enzyme complex concentrations is derived. In particular, it is shown that whereas in closed systems there is a threshold for chronic dosing beyond which the substrate concentration keeps rising, in open systems involving enzyme turnover this is no longer the case. However, in the presence of slow enzyme turnover, after an initial period of adjustment which may be quite long, the relation between substrate concentration and dose rate reduces to a linear expression. This new open framework is also applicable to transporter systems.
      PubDate: 2018-09-12
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0256-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • In Vivo Predictive Dissolution and Simulation Workshop Report:
           Facilitating the Development of Oral Drug Formulation and the Prediction
           of Oral Bioperformance
    • Authors: Yasuhiro Tsume; Sanjaykumar Patel; Nikoletta Fotaki; Christel Bergstrӧm; Gordon L. Amidon; James G. Brasseur; Deanna M. Mudie; Duxin Sun; Marival Bermejo; Ping Gao; Wei Zhu; David C. Sperry; Maria Vertzoni; Neil Parrott; Robert Lionberger; Atsushi Kambayashi; Andre Hermans; Xujin Lu; Gregory E. Amidon
      PubDate: 2018-09-06
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0260-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Adding the T to ADME: Predictive Toxicity in Renal Drug Development
    • Authors: Raymond E. Lai; Rosalinde Masereeuw
      PubDate: 2018-09-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0258-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Imaging Techniques in the Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Tumors:
           Prospects and Challenges
    • Authors: Rabin Neupane; Ripal Gaudana; Sai H. S. Boddu
      Abstract: Different types of imaging modalities are used in the diagnosis of ocular cancer. Selection of an imaging modality is based on the features of a tumor as well as the inherent characteristics of the imaging technique. It is vital to select an appropriate imaging modality in diagnosis of ocular tumor with confidence. This review focuses on five most commonly used imaging modalities, i.e., positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), optical coherence tomography (OCT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The principal of imaging modalities is briefly explained, along with their role in the diagnosis and management of the most common ocular tumors such as retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma. Further, the diagnostic features of ocular tumors corresponding to each imaging modality and possibilities of utilizing imaging techniques in the process of ocular drug development are included in this review.
      PubDate: 2018-09-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0259-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Individualized Dosing of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies—a
           Changing Treatment Paradigm'
    • Authors: Anne S. Strik; Yow-Ming C. Wang; Laura E. Ruff; William Yashar; Bradley T. Messmer; Diane R. Mould
      Abstract: The introduction of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was an important medical milestone. MAbs have been demonstrated as safe and efficacious treatments of IBD. However, a large percentage of patients either fail to respond initially or lose response to therapy after a period of treatment. Although there are factors associated with poor treatment outcomes in IBD, one cause for treatment failure may be low mAb exposure. Consequently, gastroenterologists have begun using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to guide dose adjustment. However, while beneficial, TDM does not provide sufficient information to effectively adjust doses. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of mAbs are complex, with numerous factors impacting on mAb PK and PD. The concept of dashboard-guided dosing based on Bayesian PK models allows physicians to combine TDM with factors influencing mAb PK to individualize therapy more effectively. One issue with TDM has been the slow turnaround of assay results, either necessitating an additional clinic visit for a sample or reacting to TDM results at a subsequent, rather than the current, dose. New point-of-care (POC) assays for mAbs are being developed that would potentially allow physicians to determine drug concentration quickly. However, work remains to understand how to determine what target exposure is needed for an individual patient, and whether the combination of POC assays and dashboards presents a safe approach with substantial outcome benefit over the current standard of care.
      PubDate: 2018-09-05
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0257-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Porcine and Human In Vivo Simulations for Doxorubicin-Containing
           Formulations Used in Locoregional Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment
    • Authors: Ilse R. Dubbelboer; Erik Sjögren; Hans Lennernäs
      Abstract: It is important to be able to simulate and predict formulation effects on the pharmacokinetics of a drug in order to optimize effectivity in clinical practice and drug development. Two formulations containing doxorubicin are used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): a Lipiodol-based emulsion (LIPDOX) and a loadable microbead system (DEBDOX). Although equally effective, the formulations are vastly different, and little is known about the parameters affecting doxorubicin release in vivo. However, mathematical modeling can be used to predict doxorubicin release properties from these formulations and its in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles. A porcine semi-physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was scaled to a human physiologically based biopharmaceutical (PBBP) model that was altered to include HCC. DOX in vitro and in vivo release data from LIPDOX or DEBDOX were collected from the literature and combined with these in silico models. The simulated pharmacokinetic profiles were then compared with observed porcine and human HCC patient data. DOX pharmacokinetic profiles of LIPDOX-treated HCC patients were best predicted from release data sets acquired by in vitro methods that did not use a diffusion barrier. For the DEBDOX group, the best predictions were from the in vitro release method with a low ion concentration and a reduced loading dose. The in silico modeling combined with historical release data was effective in predicting in vivo plasma exposure. This can give useful insights into the release method properties necessary for correct in vivo predictions of pharmacokinetic profiles of HCC patients dosed with LIPDOX or DEBDOX.
      PubDate: 2018-08-30
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0251-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Time Scaling for In Vitro-In Vivo Correlation: the Inverse Release
           Function (IRF) Approach
    • Authors: Jean Michel Cardot; John C Lukas; Paula Muniz
      Abstract: In vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) are methods used to create a link between biopharmaceutical properties such as dissolution and physiological response such as plasma concentration. Level A IVIVC defines 1:1 relationship between the percent absorbed in vivo and the percent dissolved in vitro. A successful level A IVIVC provides the capacity to predict in vivo behavior based only on in vitro data with application in formulation development and support of biowaivers recognized by regulatory agencies across the world. Level A regression may be complicated due to differences in time scales as well as the lack of coincident times of similar release in vitro and in vivo leading to approximate time-to-time links and subsequent loss of information. Here, a novel method to establish Levy’s plot and to provide time scaling for improved IVIVC predictive capacity is presented. The method is mathematically closed and is an inverse release function (IRF) characterizing the single (or more) phases of dissolution/absorption. It uses the complete set of information available from all time points both in vitro and in vivo. An extended-release formulation development situation is presented with three increasing release rate test products compared in a trial versus a reference product. First, the standard level A regression was made. Prediction errors for internal validation were higher than 10% for Cmax. The IRF method was applied to obtain the in vitro times of percentage dissolved equivalent to percentage absorbed. The prediction errors from the IRF level A correlation were nearly negligible.
      PubDate: 2018-08-29
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0250-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Emerging Cancer Therapeutic Targets in Protein Homeostasis
    • Authors: Prabhakar Bastola; Derek B. Oien; Megan Cooley; Jeremy Chien
      Abstract: Genomic aberrations inside malignant cells through copy number alterations, aneuploidy, and mutations can exacerbate misfolded and unfolded protein burden resulting in increased proteotoxic stress. Increased proteotoxic stress can be deleterious to malignant cells; therefore, these cells rely heavily on the protein quality control mechanisms for survival and proliferation. Components of the protein quality control, such as the unfolded protein response, heat shock proteins, autophagy, and the ubiquitin proteasome system, orchestrate a cascade of downstream events that allow the mitigation of the proteotoxic stress. This dependency makes components of the protein quality control mechanisms attractive targets in cancer therapeutics. In this review, we explore the components of the protein homeostasis especially focusing on the emerging cancer therapeutic agents/targets that are being actively pursued actively.
      PubDate: 2018-08-27
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0254-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Applications of Clinically Relevant Dissolution Testing: Workshop Summary
           Report
    • Authors: Sandra Suarez-Sharp; Michael Cohen; Filippos Kesisoglou; Andreas Abend; Patrick Marroum; Poonam Delvadia; Evangelos Kotzagiorgis; Min Li; Anna Nordmark; Nagesh Bandi; Erik Sjögren; Andrew Babiskin; Tycho Heimbach; Shinichi Kijima; Haritha Mandula; Kimberly Raines; Paul Seo; Xinyuan Zhang
      Abstract: This publication summarizes the proceedings of day 3 of a 3-day workshop on “Dissolution and Translational Modeling Strategies Enabling Patient-Centric Product Development.” Specifically, this publication discusses the current approaches in building clinical relevance into drug product development for solid oral dosage forms, along with challenges that both industry and regulatory agencies are facing in setting clinically relevant drug product specifications (CRDPS) as presented at the workshop. The concept of clinical relevance is a multidisciplinary effort which implies an understanding of the relationship between the critical quality attributes (CQAs) and their impact on predetermined clinical outcomes. Developing this level of understanding, in many cases, requires introducing deliberate but meaningful variations into the critical material attributes (CMAs) and critical process parameters (CPPs) to establish a relationship between the resulting in vitro dissolution/release profiles and in vivo PK performance, a surrogate for clinical outcomes. Alternatively, with the intention of improving the efficiency of the drug product development process by limiting the burden of conducting in vivo studies, this understanding can be either built, or at least enhanced, through in silico efforts, such as IVIVC and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) absorption modeling and simulation (M&S). These approaches enable dissolution testing to establish safe boundaries and reject drug product batches falling outside of the established safe range (e.g., due to inadequate in vivo performance) enabling the method to become clinically relevant. Ultimately, these efforts contribute towards patient-centric drug product development and allow regulatory flexibility throughout the lifecycle of the drug product.
      PubDate: 2018-08-27
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0252-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Reflections on FDA Draft Guidance for Products Containing Nanomaterials:
           Is the Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) a Suitable Pathway for
           Nanomedicines'
    • Authors: Marden Emily; Ntai Ioanna; Bass Scott; Flühmann Beat
      Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently released a draft guidance for industry titled “Drug Products, Including Biological Products, that Contain Nanomaterials.” The FDA’s attention to the unique safety and efficacy aspects of drugs containing nanomaterials is commendable. This Draft Guidance succeeds in acknowledging the complexity of these products, as well as the challenges associated with approving safe and therapeutically equivalent complex generic versions. However, the challenge posed by the manufacturing process for drugs containing nanomaterials is insufficiently addressed. The critical quality attributes of such products cannot be properly defined, and therefore it is not possible to design informative comparative physicochemical assessments for equivalence. As a consequence, the 505(j) Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) pathway, currently advised as the standard from the FDA, is not suitable for the approval of complex generic products. Drawing from the successful story of biologics, we propose instead a stepwise totality-of-evidence approach, demonstrating similarity and including clinical studies when deemed necessary, as an appropriate alternative to the 505(j) ANDA pathway.
      PubDate: 2018-08-20
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0255-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • A Population Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model of Pegfilgrastim
    • Authors: Ari Brekkan; Luis Lopez-Lazaro; Gunnar Yngman; Elodie L. Plan; Chayan Acharya; Andrew C. Hooker; Suresh Kankanwadi; Mats O. Karlsson
      Abstract: Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN) are serious side effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy which may be alleviated with the administration of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) derivatives, such as pegfilgrastim (PG) which increases absolute neutrophil count (ANC). In this work, a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model was developed based on data obtained from healthy volunteers receiving multiple administrations of PG. The developed model was a bidirectional PKPD model, where PG stimulated the proliferation, maturation, and margination of neutrophils and where circulating neutrophils in turn increased the elimination of PG. Simulations from the developed model show disproportionate changes in response with changes in dose. A dose increase of 10% from the 6 mg therapeutic dose taken as a reference leads to area under the curve (AUC) increases of ~50 and ~5% for PK and PD, respectively. A full random effects covariate model showed that little of the parameter variability could be explained by sex, age, body size, and race. As a consequence, little of the secondary parameter variability (Cmax and AUC of PG and ANC) could be explained by these covariates.
      PubDate: 2018-08-15
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0249-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 5 (2018)
       
  • Nephrotoxicity and Kidney Transport Assessment on 3D Perfused Proximal
           Tubules
    • Authors: Marianne K. Vormann; Linda Gijzen; Simon Hutter; Lisette Boot; Arnaud Nicolas; Angelique van den Heuvel; Jelle Vriend; Chee Ping Ng; Tom T. G. Nieskens; Vincent van Duinen; Bjorn de Wagenaar; Rosalinde Masereeuw; Laura Suter-Dick; Sebastiaan J. Trietsch; Martijn Wilmer; Jos Joore; Paul Vulto; Henriette L. Lanz
      Abstract: Proximal tubules in the kidney play a crucial role in reabsorbing and eliminating substrates from the body into the urine, leading to high local concentrations of xenobiotics. This makes the proximal tubule a major target for drug toxicity that needs to be evaluated during the drug development process. Here, we describe an advanced in vitro model consisting of fully polarized renal proximal tubular epithelial cells cultured in a microfluidic system. Up to 40 leak-tight tubules were cultured on this platform that provides access to the basolateral as well as the apical side of the epithelial cells. Exposure to the nephrotoxicant cisplatin caused a dose-dependent disruption of the epithelial barrier, a decrease in viability, an increase in effluent LDH activity, and changes in expression of tight-junction marker zona-occludence 1, actin, and DNA-damage marker H2A.X, as detected by immunostaining. Activity and inhibition of the efflux pumps P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) were demonstrated using fluorescence-based transporter assays. In addition, the transepithelial transport function from the basolateral to the apical side of the proximal tubule was studied. The apparent permeability of the fluorescent P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 was decreased by 35% by co-incubation with cyclosporin A. Furthermore, the activity of the glucose transporter SGLT2 was demonstrated using the fluorescent glucose analog 6-NBDG which was sensitive to inhibition by phlorizin. Our results demonstrate that we developed a functional 3D perfused proximal tubule model with advanced renal epithelial characteristics that can be used for drug screening studies.
      PubDate: 2018-08-14
      DOI: 10.1208/s12248-018-0248-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 5 (2018)
       
 
 
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