Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3497 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1683 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Biologica et Oecologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Biosystems     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de Biología     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioeduscience     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Arthropod Structure & Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.811
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1467-8039 - ISSN (Online) 1873-5495
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3203 journals]
  • Small, but oh my! Head morphology of adult Aleuropteryx spp. and effects
           of miniaturization (Insecta: Neuroptera: Coniopterygidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 50Author(s): Susanne Randolf, Dominique ZimmermannAbstractWe present the first morphological study of the internal head structures of adults of the coniopterygid genus Aleuropteryx, which belong to the smallest known lacewings. The head is ventrally closed with a gula, which is unique in adult Neuroptera and otherwise developed in Megaloptera, the sister group of Neuroptera. The dorsal tentorial arms are directed posteriorly and fused, forming an arch that fulfills functions otherwise taken by the tentorial bridge. A newly found maxillary gland is present in both sexes.Several structural modifications correlated with miniaturization are recognized: a relative increase in the size of the brain, a reduction in the number of ommatidia and diameter of the facets, a countersunken cone-shaped ocular ridge, and a simplification of the tracheal system. The structure of the head differs strikingly from that of the previously studied species Coniopteryx pygmaea, indicating a greater variability in the family Coniopterygidae, which might be another effect of miniaturization.
  • Pygidial glands of Harpalus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) contain
           resilin-rich structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 49Author(s): Adam M. Rork, István Mikó, Tanya RennerAbstractThe pygidial gland system is a key innovation in adephagan beetles, producing, storing, and spraying defensive chemical compounds. As the source of defensive chemical production and storage, the pygidial gland system experiences severe chemical stress which challenges the integrity of the entire gland system. Here, we utilize autofluorescence-based confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the morphology of pygidial gland secretory lobes and collecting ductules in a common Pennsylvanian harpaline species, Harpalus pensylvanicus. The glandular units are composed of type-III exocrine cells which empty into resilin-rich ductules, which themselves lead into a larger resilin-rich collecting duct, and ultimately the pygidial reservoir pump. We also utilize histological staining with toluidine blue and brightfield imaging to provide additional support for the presence of resilin in the collecting duct, as toluidine blue has been shown to stain resilin without metachromasia. We hypothesize that the high resilin content of the collecting ducts might be a widespread key evolutionary adaptation to prevent damage caused by physical and chemical stress generated in pump-containing insect exocrine gland systems.
  • Micro- and nanoscopic observations of sexual dimorphisms in Mecynorhina
           polyphemus confluens (Kraatz, 1890) (Coleoptera, Cetoniidae, Goliathini)
           and consequences for surface wettability
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 49Author(s): Olivier Montreuil, Christophe Candet, Alexandre Bonaccorso, Caroline R. Szczepanski, François Orange, René-Paul Godeau, Frédéric Guittard, Thierry Darmanin, Guilhem GodeauIn the animal kingdom, macroscopic variations in size, color, and even hairiness are frequently observed between male and female, making the sex of various species easy to discern. In the case of insects, similar variances also exist. While direct observation is a quick and efficient way to differentiate between sexes, there are also variations which are unseen to the naked eye and occur on a micro- or nanoscopic scale. Sometimes, these micro/nanoscopic variations can lead to significant variations in surface properties as a function of sex. Such is the case for the Mecynorhina polyphemus confluens (Kraatz, 1890). In this work, we characterize these micro- and nanoscale differences, and describe their impact on the surface properties (e.g. wettability). It is found that water interacts quite differently with the surface of the cuticle of Mecynorhina polyphenus confluens, depending on the specimen sex. On a female, water spreads readily across the elytra indicating hydrophilic behavior. However, on the surface of the male elytra, strong hydrophobicity is observed. Microscopic observations reveal differences in microscale surface morphology across the male and female cuticle. These observations contribute to a better, global understanding of the wettability behavior observed on M. polyphemus confluens.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Sexual size and shape dimorphism in two ground beetle taxa, Carabus
           (Procrustes) coriaceus cerisyi and C. (Morphocarabus) kollari praecellens
           (Coleoptera: Carabidae) - A geometric morphometric approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 49Author(s): Nikola Vesović, Ana Ivanović, Srećko ĆurčićWe investigated morphometric variation in size and shape of the head, pronotum, and abdomen between the taxa and sexes of two ground beetles, Carabus coriaceus cerisyi Dejean, 1826 and C. kollari praecellens Palliardi, 1825. These two taxa differ in overall size, and both of them are characterized by significant sexual size dimorphism. In many taxa, allometry, the relationship between changes in shape and changes in size, can be a major component of intra- and interspecific variation in body shape. In the present study, we applied landmark-based geometric morphometrics to explore allometric and non-allometric components of shape variation between the taxa and more importantly between sexes within the taxa. We were able to show that the differences of shape between the taxa cannot be explained by allometric changes, as allometry explains only a small amount of total shape variation between the taxa, which was expected due to the fact that the taxa belong to separate subgenera. Between the sexes, on the other hand, allometry contributes largely to the variation, particularly in abdomen shape. However, the differences of head and pronotum shape between the sexes cannot be entirely explained in terms of allometric scaling. Our results indicate that allometry contributes largely to differences of body shape between the sexes, while differences between the taxa are influenced by other factors and processes.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • The cephalic anatomy of workers of the ant species Wasmannia affinis
           (Formicidae, Hymenoptera, Insecta) and its evolutionary implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 49Author(s): Adrian Richter, Roberto A. Keller, Félix Baumgarten Rosumek, Evan P. Economo, Francisco Hita Garcia, Rolf G. BeutelAbstractDespite the ecological significance of ants and the intensive research attention they have received, thorough treatments of the anatomy and functional morphology are still scarce. In this study we document the head morphology of workers of the myrmicine Wasmannia affinis with optical microscopy, μ-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and 3D reconstruction, providing the first complete anatomical treatment of an ant head with a broad array of modern techniques. We discuss the potential of the applied methods to generate detailed and well-documented morphological data sets with increased efficiency. We also address homology problems, particularly in the context of the cephalic digestive tract. According to our analyses the “pharynx” of previous ant studies is homologous to the prepharynx of other insects. We also discuss the phylogenetic potential and functional significance of the observed characters, with internal features such as tentorium and musculature discussed for the first time. Our investigation underlines that detailed anatomical data for Formicidae are still very fragmentary, which in turn limits our understanding of the major design elements underlying the ant bauplan. We attempt to provide a template for further anatomical studies, which will help to understand the evolution of this fascinating group on the phenotypic level.
  • Maja+brachydactyla+Balss,+1922+(Brachyura,+Majidae)&rft.title=Arthropod+Structure+&+Development&rft.issn=1467-8039&">Morphology and ultrastructure of the midgut gland ("hepatopancreas")
           during ontogeny in the common spider crab Maja brachydactyla Balss, 1922
           (Brachyura, Majidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2019Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Diego Castejón, Guiomar Rotllant, Javier Alba-Tercedor, Maria Font-i-Furnols, Enric Ribes, Mercè Durfort, Guillermo GueraoAbstractWe studied the anatomy and cytology of the midgut gland (MGl) of the common spider crab Maja brachydactyla Balss, 1922 at several life stages (zoea, megalopa, first juvenile, and adult) using dissection, histology, electron microscopy, computed tomography, and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). In newly hatched larvae, 14 blind-end tubules form the MGl. The length of the tubules increases during the larval development. In the late megalopa, the number of tubules also increases. In adults, 35,000 to 60,000 blind-ending tubules comprise the MGl. In all life stages, a square-net network of muscle fibers surround the tubules. We describe five cell types in the MGl in all larval stages, which have a similar location, histology, and ultrastructure in larvae and adults: embryonary (E-) cells, resorptive (R-) cells, fibrillar (F-) cells, blister-like (B-) cells, and midget (M-) cells. Major difference between larval and adult cells is the larger size of the adult cells. Microapocrine secretion occurs from the microvilli of the B-cells. No ultrastructural changes were observed during larval development, which suggests that the function of each cell type might be similar in all life stages. The role of each epithelial cell type in larvae and adults is discussed.
  • Fine structure of the midgut epithelium of Thulinius ruffoi (Tardigrada,
           Eutardigrada, Parachela) in relation to oogenesis and simplex stage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2019Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska, Kamil Janelt, Izabela PoprawaAbstractThulinius ruffoi is a small freshwater tardigrade that lives in both non-polluted and polluted freshwater environments. As a result of tardigradan body miniaturization, the digestive system is reduced and simplified. It consists of a short fore- and hindgut, and the midgut in the shape of a short tube is lined with a simple epithelium. The midgut epithelium is formed by the digestive cells and two rings of crescent-shaped cells were also detected. The anterior ring is located at the border between the fore- and midgut, while the posterior ring is situated between the mid- and hindgut. The precise ultrastructure of the digestive and crescent-shaped cells was examined using transmission electron microscopy, serial block face scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. We analyzed the changes that occurred in the midgut epithelial cells according to oogenesis (the species is parthenogenetic and there were only females in the laboratory culture). We focused on the accumulation of reserve material and the relationship between this and the intensity of autophagy. We concluded that autophagy supplies energy during a natural period of starvation (the simplex stage) and delivers the energy and probably the substances that are required during oogenesis. Apoptosis was not detected in the midgut epithelium of T. ruffoi.
  • Genital morphology and copulatory behavior in triatomine bugs (Reduviidae:
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): A.A. Tellez–Garcia, R. Bello-Bedoy, J.N. Enríquez-Vara, A. Córdoba–Aguilar, A.E. Gutiérrez–CabreraAbstractTriatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) include around 139 species, widely known as vectors of Chagas disease. Our aim is to review the existing knowledge of the genital morphology and sexual behavior and provide some functional analysis of these traits in triatomines. A complex set of traits comprise genitalia and these are highly variable among species. The components of the phallus and seminal products (secreted by action of testes and two accessory glands) interact to allow successful sperm transfer to the female spermathecae (usually a pair of blind tubes that emerge from the common oviduct). Seminal products may inhibit female physiology and extend mating duration. Mating behavior in triatomines is best characterized as scramble competition. We suggest that males may evaluate female condition prior to copulation, given that female fitness is largely affected by food (blood) source. Although rearing several triatomine species may be difficult and discourage from undertaking studies on this group, any further investigation on sexual behavior and mating interactions may provide data for applicative studies including Chagas disease vectors control.
  • Morphological comparison of proboscides and associated sensilla of
           Helicoverpa armigera and Mythimna separate (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Qing-Xiao Chen, Wen-Liang Li, Ying-Wu Chen, Jing Chen, Yue-Qin SongAbstractProboscides are important feeding devices for most adult Lepidoptera and exhibit significant morphological modifications and types of sensilla associated with feeding habits. In this study the architectures of the proboscides and sensilla were compared between the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and the armyworm Mythimna separate (Walker) using scanning electron microscopy. The proboscides of both species consist of two elongated maxillary galeae joined by dorsal and ventral legulae, forming a food canal. The dorsal legulae in H. armigera disappear a short distance from the proboscis apex, whereas those in M. separate exist up to the apex. Three types of sensilla are present on the proboscides of both species: sensilla chaetica, basiconica, and styloconica. The morphological differences of the sensilla mainly concern the sensilla styloconica, whose styli have six to seven smooth-edged ridges in H. armigera but six serrate-edged ridges in M. separate. No significant sexual dimorphism was found in the proboscides and sensilla of both species except for the length of the zone without the dorsal legulae in H. armigera. The morphological similarities and differences of the proboscides and sensilla between the two species are briefly discussed.
  • Ultrastructure and functional morphology of dermal glands in the
           freshwater mite Limnochares aquatica (L., 1758)
           (Acariformes, Limnocharidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Andrey B. Shatrov, Elena V. Soldatenko, Vitaliy A. Stolbov, Petr A. Smirnov, Olga A. PetukhovaAbstractThis study is the first attempt to describe the ultrastructure and functional morphology of the dermal glands in Limnochares aquatica (L., 1758). The dermal glands were studied using light-optical, SEM and TEM microscopy methods during different stages of their activity. In contrast to the vast majority of other fresh water mites, dermal glands of the studied species are originally multiplied and scattered freely over the mite body surface. The opening of the glands is saddle-like, formed of several tight cuticular folds and oriented freely to the long axis of the mite body. Either a small cuticular spine or, rarely, a slim sensitive seta is placed on one pole of the opening. On the inside, the central gland portion is provided with a complex cuticular helicoid armature. The glands are composed of prismatic cells situated around the intra-alveolar lumen, variously present, and look like a fig-fruit with the basal surface facing the body cavity. The glands are provided with extremely numerous microtubules, frequently arranged in bundles, and totally devoid of synthetic apparatus such as RER cisterns and Golgi bodies. Three states of the gland morphology depending on their functional activity may be recognized: (i) glands without secretion with highly folded cell walls and numerous microtubules within the cytoplasm, (ii) glands with an electron-dense granular secretion in the expanded vacuoles and (iii) glands with the secretion totally extruded presenting giant empty vacuoles bordered with slim cytoplasmic strips on the periphery. Summer specimens usually show the first gland state, whereas winter specimens, conversely, more often demonstrate the second and the third states. This situation may depend on some factors like changes of the seasonal temperature, pH, or oxygenation of the ambient water. On the assumption of the morphological characters, dermal glands may be classified not as secretory but as a special additional excretory organ system of the body cavity. Despite the glands lack cambial cells, restoration of functions after releasing of ‘secretion’ looks possible. Organization of dermal glands is discussed in comparison to other water mites studied.
  • The peculiar structure of the flagellar axoneme in Coccinellidae
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Romano Dallai, David Mercati, José Lino-Neto, Glenda Dias, Camilla Folly, Pietro LupettiAbstractThe ultrastructure of the complex organisation of the spermatozoa in Harmonia axyridis and Adalia decempunctata (Coccinellidae) was studied, with particular emphasis on the origin of the anterior shifting of the axonemal structure, which becomes parallel to the nucleus in the sperm flagellum. In studying the spermiogenesis, a centriolar remodelling was observed with the long centriole, present in the early spermatids, transformed in the spermatozoa into an exceptionally long and narrowed basal body (about 0.16 × 3.5–4.0 μm long) displaying a 9 + 0 microtubular pattern in the proximal part and a 9 + 2 pattern in the following part; this is a characteristic not observed in any other pterygotan insect. The sperm also have a very long acrosome surrounded by a dense layer of material extending along the whole basal body. These two uncommon features were discussed in the light of sperm movement.
  • Occurrence and predictive utility of isochronal, equiproportional,
           and other types of development among arthropods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Brady K. QuinnAbstractIn isochronal (ICD) and equiproportional development (EPD), the proportion of total immature (egg, larval, and/or juvenile) development spent in each stage (developmental proportion) does not vary among stages or temperatures, respectively. ICD and EPD have mainly been reported in copepods, and whether they occur in other arthropods is not known. If they did, then rearing studies could be simplified because the durations of later developmental stages could be predicted based on those of earlier ones. The goal of this study was to test whether different taxa have ICD, EPD, or an alternative development type in which stage-specific proportions depend on temperature, termed ‘variable proportional’ development (VPD), and also how well each development type allowed later-stage durations to be predicted from earlier ones. Data for 71 arthropods (arachnids, copepod and decapod crustaceans, and insects) were tested, and most (85.9%) species were concluded to have VPD, meaning that ICD and EPD do not occur generally. However, EPD predicted later-stage durations comparably well to VPD (within 19–23%), and thus may still be useful. Interestingly, some species showed a ‘mixed’ form of development, where some stages' developmental proportions varied with temperature while those of others did not, which should be further investigated.
  • Was the ancestral panarthropod mouth ventral or terminal'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Claus NielsenAbstractIt has recently been suggested that the panarthropod mouth was ancestrally terminal, based on the assumption that the ancestral tardigrade had a terminal mouth and on the observations of a terminal mouth in adults of some stem-group fossils. This is shown to be unlikely, and it is concluded that the ancestral panarthropod had a ventral mouth.
  • The last common ancestor of Ecdysozoa had an adult terminal mouth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Javier Ortega-Hernández, Ralf Janssen, Graham E. BuddAbstractThe Ecdysozoa is a major animal clade whose main uniting feature is a distinctive growth strategy that requires the periodical moulting of the external cuticle. The staggering diversity within Ecdysozoa has prompted substantial efforts to reconstruct their origin and early evolution. Based on palaentological and developmental data, we proposed a scenario for the early evolution of the ecdysozoan clade Panarthropoda (Onychophora, Tardigrada, Euarthropoda), and postulated that a terminal mouth is ancestral for this lineage. In light of the accompanying comment by Claus Nielsen, we take this opportunity to clarify the significance of our argumentation for Panarthropoda in the phylogenetic context of Ecdysozoa, and Bilateria more broadly. We conclude that the ancestral ecdysozoan most likely had an adult terminal mouth, and that the last common ancestors of all the phyla that constitute Ecdysozoa almost certainly also had an adult terminal mouth. The occurrence of a ventral-facing mouth in various adult ecdysozoans – particularly panarthropods – is the result of convergence. Despite the paucity of embryological data on fossil taxa, we contemplate the likelihood that a developmentally early ventral mouth opening could be ancestral for Ecdysozoa, and if so, then this would represent a symplesiomorphy of Bilateria as a whole.
  • Morphogenesis of serial abdominal outgrowths during development of the
           viviparous dermapteran, Arixenia esau (Insecta, Dermaptera)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Szczepan M. Bilinski, Waclaw TworzydloAbstractThe embryos and first instar larvae of the epizoic earwig, Arixenia esau, develop sequentially in two different compartments of the female reproductive system, that is ovarian follicles and the lateral oviducts (the uterus). Here we show that the second (intrauterine) phase of development consists of three physiologically disparate stages: early embryos (before dorsal closure, surrounded by an egg envelope), late embryos (after dorsal closure, surrounded by an egg envelope) and the first instar larvae (after “hatching” from an egg envelope). Early and late embryos float in the fluid filling the uterus, whereas the first instar larvae develop attached to the uterus wall. Our analyses revealed also that in Arixenia serial multilobed outgrowths develop on dorso-lateral aspects of all abdominal segments. At the onset of the third developmental stage and after liberation from an egg envelope, these outgrowths (or more precisely their lobes) adhere to the epithelium lining the uterus, forming a series of small contact sites, where the mother and embryo tissues are separated only by a thin, presumably permeable, embryonic cuticle. We suggest that all these contact sites collectively constitute a dispersed placenta-like organ involved in the nourishment of the embryo.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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