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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3172 journals)
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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
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Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
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Journal Cover
Arthropod Structure & Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.811
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1467-8039
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Beyond aerodynamics: The critical roles of the circulatory and tracheal
           systems in maintaining insect wing functionality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Günther Pass Insect wings consist almost entirely of lifeless cuticle; yet their veins host a complex multimodal sensory apparatus and other tissues that require a continuous supply of water, nutrients and oxygen. This review provides a survey of the various living components in insect wings, as well as the specific contribution of the circulatory and tracheal systems to provide all essential substances. In most insects, hemolymph circulates through the veinal network in a loop flow caused by the contraction of accessory pulsatile organs in the thorax. In other insects, hemolymph oscillates into and out of the wings due to the complex interaction of several factors, such as heartbeat reversal, intermittent pumping of the accessory pulsatile organs in the thorax, and the elasticity of the wall of a special type of tracheae. A practically unexplored subject is the need for continuous hydration of the wing cuticle to retain its flexibility and toughness, including the associated problem of water loss due to evaporation. Also, widely neglected is the influence of the hemolymph mass and the circulating flow in the veins on the aerodynamic properties of insect wings during flight. Ventilation of the extraordinarily long wing tracheae is probably accomplished by intricate interactions with the circulatory system, and by the exchange of oxygen via cutaneous respiration.
       
  • Detailed analysis of the prothoracic tissues transforming into wings in
           the Cephalothorax mutants of the Tribolium beetle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Courtney M. Clark-Hachtel, Madison R. Moe, Yoshinori Tomoyasu Despite the immense importance of the wing in the evolution and successful radiation of the insect lineages, the origin of this critical structure remains a hotly-debated mystery. Two possible tissues have been identified as an evolutionary origin of wings; the lateral expansion of the dorsal body wall (tergal edge) and structures related to an ancestral proximal leg segment (pleural tissues). Through studying wing-related tissues in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we have previously presented evidence in support of a dual origin of insect wings, a third hypothesis proposing that wings evolved from a combination of both tergal and pleural tissues. One key finding came from the investigation of a Cephalothorax (Cx) mutant, in which the ectopic wing characteristic to this mutant was found to be formed from both tergal and pleural contributions. However, the degree of contribution of the two tissues to the wing remains elusive. Here, we took advantage of multiple Cx alleles available in Tribolium, and produced a variety of degrees and types of ectopic wing tissues in their prothoracic segments. Through detailed phenotypic scoring of the Cx phenotypes based on nine categories of mutant traits, along with comprehensive morphological analysis of the ectopic wing tissues, we found that (i) ectopic wing tissues can be formed at various locations in the prothorax, even internally, (ii) the lateral external ectopic wing tissues have tergal origin, while the internal and posterior external ectopic wing tissues appear to be of pleural origin, and (iii) the ectopic wing tissues of both tergal and pleural origin are capable of transforming into wing surface tissues. Collectively, these outcomes suggest that the evolutionary contribution of each tissue to a complete wing may be more complex than the simple binary view that is typically invoked by a dual origin model (i.e. the wing blade from the tergal contribution + musculature and articulation from the pleural contribution).
       
  • Micro-computed tomography of pupal metamorphosis in the solitary bee
           Megachile rotundata
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Bryan R. Helm, Scott Payne, Joseph P. Rinehart, George D. Yocum, Julia H. Bowsher, Kendra J. Greenlee Insect metamorphosis involves a complex change in form and function. In this study, we examined the development of the solitary bee, Megachile rotundata, using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and volume analysis. We describe volumetric changes of brain, tracheae, flight muscles, gut, and fat bodies in prepupal, pupal, and adult M. rotundata. We observed that individual organ systems have distinct patterns of developmental progression, which vary in their timing and duration. This has important implications for commercial management of this agriculturally relevant pollinator.
       
  • Structure and evolution of the stigmapophysis—A unique repose
           wing-coupling structure in Psocodea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Naoki Ogawa, Kazunori Yoshizawa The gain of foldable wings is regarded as one of the key innovations enabling the present-day diversity of neopteran insects. Wing folding allows compact housing of the wings and shields the insect body from damage. Wing-fixing systems have evolved in some insects, probably to increase the durability of the shielding function by the wings. Bark lice (Psocodea) are known to possess a unique wing-to-wing repose coupling system, but a detailed morphological and evolutionary study of this system is lacking. In this study, we examined this repose coupling structure by SEM in 32 species including representatives of all three suborders of bark lice (Trogiomorpha, Troctomorpha and Psocomorpha). We concluded that the repose wing-coupling apparatus independently evolved twice within Psocodea. In Trogiomorpha, the apparatus is located on the subcostal vein of the forewing and is composed of elongated rib-like structures. In Troctomorpha and Psocomorpha, in contrast, the repose coupling structure is located on the radius vein of the forewing and is formed by a swollen vein. These morphological and developmental differences in the repose coupling structures also provide phylogenetic information at different systematic levels.
       
  • The legs of “spider associated” parasitic primary larvae of Mantispa
           aphavexelte (Mantispidae, Neuroptera) – Attachment devices and
           phylogenetic implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Kenny Jandausch, Rolf G. Beutel, Hans Pohl, Stanislav N. Gorb, Sebastian Büsse The legs of the primary larva of Mantispa aphavexelte, parasite in egg sacks of spiders, were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The leg morphology is described in detail, including intrinsic muscles. Functional adaptations of the leg attachment devices are discussed, especially regarding the material composition. For example, a sole-like flexible ventral tarsal surface containing resilin is combined with sclerotized pseudo-claws. This likely enables the larvae to cope with surface structures on the spider's body, with substrates on the ground, and also with various structural elements in the spider's nest. The leg morphology is evaluated with respect to phylogenetic affinities. A trumpet-shaped, elongated empodium has likely evolved early in the evolution of Neuroptera and may consequently belong to the groundplan of a large subgroup of the order. It characterizes most groups of the hemerobiform lineage and is also present in the myrmeleontiform Psychopsidae. The presence of a tarsal protrusion resembling a pretarsus confirms the monophyletic origin of Mantispoidea. A single fixed tooth and a specific surface structure are potential autapomorphies of Mantispidae. A distal tibial subunit partly separated from the main part of the leg segment is an apomorphy only described for larvae of M. aphavexelte.
       
  • CRISPR/Cas9-based heritable targeted mutagenesis in Thermobia domestica: A
           genetic tool in an apterygote development model of wing evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Takahiro Ohde, Yusuke Takehana, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Teruyuki Niimi Despite previous developmental studies on basally branching wingless insects and crustaceans, the evolutionary origin of insect wings remains controversial. Knowledge regarding genetic regulation of tissues hypothesized to have given rise to wings would help to elucidate how ancestral development changed to allow the evolution of true wings. However, genetic tools available for basally branching wingless species are limited. The firebrat Thermobia domestica is an apterygote species, phylogenetically related to winged insects. T. domestica presents a suitable morphology to investigate the origin of wings, as it forms the tergal paranotum, from which wings are hypothesized to have originated. Here we report the first successful CRISPR/Cas9-based germline genome editing in T. domestica. We provide a technological platform to understand the development of tissues hypothesized to have given rise to wings in an insect with a pre-wing evolution body plan.
       
  • Pronymphs, hatching, and proboscis assembly in leafhoppers and froghoppers
           (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae and Aphrophoridae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Roman Rakitov Pharate 1st instar nymphs enclosed in the embryonic cuticle, referred to as pronymphs, were studied in a froghopper Aphrophora pectoralis Mats. (Aphrophoridae) and the leafhoppers Oncopsis flavicollis (L.), Populicerus populi (L.), Alebra wahlbergi (Boh.), Igutettix oculatus (Lindb.), and Scenergates viridis (Vilb.) (Cicadellidae). The species vary in the relative length of the pronymphal antennae and details of sculpturing of the cephalic region. No egg bursting structures were observed, except small denticles on the crown region of S. viridis pronymphs. Rudimentary mandibular and maxillary stylets of a pronymph are external, short, tubular appendages containing tips of the corresponding nymphal stylets, whose more basal parts develop inside of the head. Casting off of the embryonic cuticle results in the nymphal stylets being passively pulled out and assuming a close-set parallel orientation. Once the sheaths of unsclerotized cuticle secreted by the peripodial epithelium and enveloping each developing stylet have been cast off with the exuviae, the bare stylets become squeezed and interlocked into a functional bundle. The roles of the maxillary plates, clypeus, labrum, and labium in the stylet bundle assembly are discussed. The process repeats after each molt.
       
  • Flight duration and flight muscle ultrastructure of unfed hawk moths
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Bernard W.M. Wone, Jaika Pathak, Goggy Davidowitz Flight muscle breakdown has been reported for many orders of insects, but the basis of this breakdown in insects with lifelong dependence on flight is less clear. Lepidopterans show such muscle changes across their lifespans, yet how this change affects the ability of these insects to complete their life cycles is not well documented. We investigated the changes in muscle function and ultrastructure of unfed aging adult hawk moths (Manduca sexta). Flight duration was examined in young, middle-aged, and advanced-aged unfed moths. After measurement of flight duration, the main flight muscle (dorsolongitudinal muscle) was collected and histologically prepared for transmission electron microscopy to compare several measurements of muscle ultrastructure among moths of different ages. Muscle function assays revealed significant positive correlations between muscle ultrastructure and flight distance that were greatest in middle-aged moths and least in young moths. In addition, changes in flight muscle ultrastructure were detected across treatment groups. The number of mitochondria in muscle cells peaked in middle-aged moths. Many wild M. sexta do not feed as adults; thus, understanding the changes in flight capacity and muscle ultrastructure in unfed moths provides a more complete understanding of the ecophysiology and resource allocation strategies of this species.
       
  • Reanalyzing the Palaeoptera problem – The origin of insect flight
           remains obscure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Sabrina Simon, Alexander Blanke, Karen Meusemann The phylogenetic relationships of the winged insect lineages – mayflies (Ephemeroptera), damselflies and dragonflies (Odonata), and all other winged insects (Neoptera) – are still controversial with three hypotheses supported by different datasets: Palaeoptera, Metapterygota and Chiastomyaria. Here, we reanalyze available phylogenomic data with a focus on detecting confounding and alternative signal. In this context, we provide a framework to quantitatively evaluate and assess incongruent molecular phylogenetic signal inherent in phylogenomic datasets. Despite overall support for the Palaeoptera hypothesis, we also found considerable signal for Chiastomyaria, which is not easily detectable by standardized tree inference approaches. Analyses of the accumulation of signal across gene partitions showed that signal accumulates gradually. However, even in case signal only slightly supported one over the other hypothesis, topologies inferred from large datasets switch from statistically strongly supported Palaeoptera to strongly supported Chiastomyaria. From a morphological point of view, Palaeoptera currently appears to be the best-supported hypothesis; however, recent analyses were restricted to head characters. Phylogenetic approaches covering all organ systems including analyses of potential functional or developmental convergence are still pending so that the Palaeoptera problem has to be considered an open question in insect systematics.
       
  • The wing base of the palaeodictyopteran genus Dunbaria Tillyard:
           Where are we now'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Jakub Prokop, Martina Pecharová, André Nel, Thomas Hörnschemeyer The structure of insect wing articulation is considered as reliable source of high level characters for phylogenetic analyses. However, the correct identification of homologous structures among the main groups of Pterygota is a hotly debated issue. Therefore, the reconstruction of the wing bases in Paleozoic extinct relatives is of great interest, but at the same time it should be treated with extreme caution due to distortions caused by taphonomic effects. The present study is focused on the wing base in Dunbaria (Spilapteridae). The articulation in Dunbariaquinquefasciata is mainly formed by a prominent upright axillary plate while the humeral plate is markedly reduced. Due to unique preservation of surface relief of the axillary plate, its composition shows a detailed pattern of three fused axillary sclerites and presumable position of the sclerite 3Ax. The obtained structures were compared among Spilapteridae and to other palaeodictyopterans Ostrava nigra (Homoiopteridae) and Namuroningxia elegans (Namuroningxiidae). The comparative study uncovered two patterns of 3Ax in Dunbaria and Namuroningxia, which correspond to their different suprafamilial classification. In contrast to previous studies these new results reveal the homologous structural elements in the wing base between Paleozoic Palaeodictyoptera and their extant relatives of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Neoptera.
       
  • Morphology of hindwing veins in the shield bug Graphosoma italicum
           (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Paavo Bergmann, Sandra Richter, Nina Glöckner, Oliver Betz Light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy were applied to cross sections and -breakage and whole-mount preparations of the anterior hindwing vein of the shield bug Graphosoma italicum. These analyses were complemented by investigations of the basal part of the forewing Corium and Clavus. The integration of structural, histological, and fluorescence data revealed a complex arrangement of both rigid and elastic structures in the wall of wing veins and provided insights into the constitution of transition zones between rigid and elastic regions. Beneath the exocuticular layers, which are continuous with the dorsal and ventral cuticle of the wing membrane, the lumen of the veins is encompassed by a mesocuticular layer, an internal circular exocuticular layer, and an internal longitudinal endocuticular layer. Separate parallel lumina within the anterior longitudinal vein of the hindwing, arranged side-by-side rostro-caudally, suggest that several veins have fused in the phylogenetic context of vein reduction in the pentatomid hindwing. Gradual structural transition zones and resilin enrichment between sclerotized layers of the vein wall and along the edges of the claval furrow are interpreted as mechanical adaptations to enhance the reliability and durability of the mechanically stressed wing veins.
       
  • Comparative morphology of the thorax musculature of adult Anisoptera
           (Insecta: Odonata): Functional aspects of the flight apparatus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Fabian Bäumler, Stanislav N. Gorb, Sebastian Büsse Due to their unique flight mechanism including a direct flight musculature, Odonata show impressive flight skills. Several publications addressed the details of this flight apparatus like: sclerites, wings, musculature, and flight aerodynamics. However, 3D-analysis of the thorax musculature of adult dragonflies was not studied before and this paper allows for a detailed insight. We, therefore, focused on the thorax musculature of adult Anisoptera using micro-computed tomography. Herewith, we present a comparative morphological approach to identify differences within Anisoptera: Aeshnidae, Corduliidae, Gomphidae, and Libellulidae. In total, 54 muscles were identified: 16 prothoracic, 19 mesothoracic, and 19 metathoracic. Recorded differences were for example, the reduction of muscle Idlm4 and an additional muscle IIIdlm1 in Aeshna cyanea, previously described as rudimentary or missing. Muscle Iscm1, which was previously reported missing in all Odonata, was found in all investigated species. The attachment of muscle IIpcm2 in Pantala flavescens is interpreted as a probable adaption to its long-distance migration behaviour. Furthermore, we present a review of functions of the odonatan flight muscles, considering previous publications. The data herein set a basis for functional and biomechanical studies of the flight apparatus and will therefore lay the foundation for a better understanding of the odonatan flight.
       
  • Morphological and electrophysiological differences in tarsal chemosensilla
           between the wild silkmoth Bombyx mandarina and the domesticated species
           Bombyx mori
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 3Author(s): Hiroki Takai, Kiyoshi Asaoka, Fumiko Ishizuna, Takashi Kiuchi, Susumu Katsuma, Toru Shimada Gustatory and olfactory senses of phytophagous insects play important roles in the recognition of host plants. In the domestic silkmoth Bombyx mori and its wild species Bombyx mandarina, the morphologies and responses of adult olfactory organs (antennae) have been intensely investigated. However, little is known about these features of adult gustatory organs and the influence of domestication on the gustatory sense. Here we revealed that both species have two types of sensilla (thick [T] and slim [S] types) on the fifth tarsomeres of the adult legs. In both species, females have 3.6–6.9 times more T-sensilla than males. Therefore, T-sensilla seem to play more important roles in females than in males. Moreover, gustatory cells of T-sensilla of B. mandarina females responded intensely to mulberry leaf extract in electrophysiological experiments, while T-sensilla of B. mori females (N4 strain) hardly responded to mulberry leaf extract. These results suggest that T-sensilla of B. mandarina females are involved in the recognition of oviposition sites. We also observed that, in three B. mori strains (N4, p50T, and Kinshu × Showa), the densities of sensilla on the fifth tarsomeres were much lower than in B. mandarina. These results indicate that domestication has influenced the tarsal gustatory system of B. mori.
       
  • Novel thoracic glands in the ant Myopias hollandi
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 3Author(s): Johan Billen, Fuminori Ito Besides the common labial and metapleural glands, four novel exocrine glands are described in the thorax of both workers and queens of the ponerine ant Myopias hollandi. From anterior to posterior, these glands were designated as the propleural pit gland, the posterolateral pronotal gland, the anterolateral propodeal gland and the metasternal process gland. They all correspond with class-3 glands, that are made up of bicellular units that each comprise a secretory cell and a duct cell. In the propleural pit gland, the ducts are characterized by a gradually widening diameter, while in the three other glands the ducts show a portion which displays a balloon-like expansion, that on semithin sections stains very dark. For none of these novel glands the function is known as yet, although ultrastructural examination indicates that they produce a non-proteinaceous and therefore possibly pheromonal secretion.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Postembryonic development of pycnogonids: A deeper look inside
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 3Author(s): Nina Alexeeva, Yuta Tamberg, Natalia Shunatova Sea spiders form a small, enigmatic group of recent chelicerates, with an unusual bodyplan, oligosegmented larvae and a postembryonic development that is punctuated by many moults. To date, only a few papers examined the anatomical and ultrastructural modifications of the larvae and various instars. Here we traced both internal and external events of the whole postembryonic development in Nymphon brevirostre HODGE 1863 using histology, SEM, TEM and confocal microscopy. During postembryonic development, larvae of this species undergo massive reorganization: spinning apparatus and chelar glands disappear; larval legs redifferentiate; three new segments and the abdomen are formed with their corresponding internal organs and appendages; circulatory and reproductive systems develop anew and the digestive and the nervous systems change dramatically. The body cavity remains schizocoelic throughout development, and no traces of even transitory coeloms were found in any instar. In Nymphon brevirostre, just like in Artemia salina LINNAEUS 1758 the heart arises through differentiation of the already existing schizocoel, and thus the circulatory systems of arthropods and annelids are not homologous. We found that classical chelicerate tagmata, prosoma and opisthosoma, are inapplicable to adult pycnogonids, with the most striking difference being the fate and structure of the seventh appendage-bearing segment.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Fine structure of the ladybird spermatozoa (Insecta, Coleoptera,
           Coccinellidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 3Author(s): Romano Dallai, José Lino-Neto, Glenda Dias, Pedro H.A. Nere, David Mercati, Pietro Lupetti The sperm structure of several ladybird species belonging to different subfamilies of Coccinellidae was studied. Three main sperm types were clearly recognized, and were characterized by differences in acrosomal length, the presence of a dense coat around the acrosome, the length of the basal body, the amount of the centriole adjunct material, and the diameter of the mitochondrial derivatives. However, the whole group shares a pattern of the posterior sperm region uncommon for insects, in which the axoneme and other flagellar components are running parallel with the nucleus. As a general conclusion, this study has revealed an inconsistency between the sperm structure and the systematics of the group, indicating that the generic concepts within the group do not reflect a natural classification, a statement also shared by molecular studies.
       
  • Chonopeltis australis (Crustacea: Branchiura); the female
           reproductive system
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 3Author(s): Lourelle Alicia Martins Neethling, Annemariè Avenant-Oldewage The female reproductive system has been described for Dolops ranarum (Stuhlman, 1891) and various Argulus spp. but, there is no description of the reproductive system for Dipteropeltis spp. Calman, 1912 or Chonopeltis spp. Thiele, 1900. This paper describes the female reproductive system and egg laying behaviour of Chonopeltisaustralis Boxshall, 1976 using histology, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and observations. The histological study of six specimens showed that the organ structure is similar to that of Argulus spp. and D. ranarum. The oocytes therefore develop in the gonocoel, are ovulated into the lumen of the ovary which is continuous with the functional oviduct and eventually the gonopore. Females of C. australis deposit eggs on the surrounding substrate while the fish is at rest, without leaving the host, thereby mitigating the risk of not locating a host again.
       
  • Diversity of symbiotic microbiota in Deltocephalinae leafhoppers (Insecta,
           Hemiptera, Cicadellidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 3Author(s): Michał Kobiałka, Anna Michalik, Jacek Szwedo, Teresa Szklarzewicz Symbiotic microorganisms associated with thirteen species of the subfamily Deltocephalinae were examined using microscopic and molecular techniques. Athysanus argentarius, Euscelis incisus, Doratura stylata, Arthaldeus pascuellus, Errastunus ocellaris, Jassargus flori, Jassargus pseudocellaris, Psammotettix alienus, Psammotettix confinis, Turrutus socialis and Verdanus abdominalis harbor two types of ancient bacteriome-associated microorganisms: bacteria Sulcia (phylum Bacteroidetes) and bacteria Nasuia (phylum Proteobacteria, class Betaproteobacteria). In Balclutha calamagrostis and Balclutha punctata, the bacterium Nasuia has not been detected. In the bacteriomes of both species of Balclutha examined, only bacteria Sulcia occur, whereas Sodalis-like symbionts (phylum Proteobacteria, class Gammaproteobacteria) are localized in the fat body cells, in close vicinity of the bacteriomes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the co-existence in Deltocephalinae leafhoppers of the ancient symbiont Sulcia and the more recently acquired Sodalis-like bacterium. The obtained results provide further evidence indicating that Deltocephalinae leafhoppers are characterized by a large diversity of symbiotic systems, which results from symbiont acquisition and replacement. The obtained results are additionally discussed in phylogenetic context.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Constant morphological patterns in the hemolymph vascular system of
           crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 3Author(s): Stephan Scholz, Stefan Richter, Christian S. Wirkner We present a study of the hemolymph vascular system of the marbled crayfish, Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, the only crayfish species known to be parthenogenetic. To identify potential evolutionary patterns, we compared data from a total of 48 specimens of P. fallax with 22 specimens of Orconectes limosus. Visualizations (2D and 3D) were carried out using a combination of classical and modern morphological techniques. Our data were compared to the existing literature.Like all Decapoda, both P. fallax and O. limosus have a hemolymph vascular system, consisting of a globular heart with seven off-branching arteries. We were able to visualize in detail the heart of crayfish for the first time, i.e., the myocard with its clusters of muscles running through the lumen of the heart, the valves and flaps of ostia and arteries. Furthermore, the branching patterns of the seven artery systems were analyzed. Anatomical structures identified to be consistent in all specimens of both species were combined as ground pattern of hemolymph vascular system features for Astacida.
       
  • Wing vein development in the sawfly Athalia rosae is regulated by spatial
           transcription of Dpp/BMP signaling components
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Yunxian Huang, Masatsugu Hatakeyama, Osamu Shimmi Wing venation among insects serves as an excellent model to address how diversified patterns are produced. Previous studies suggest that evolutionarily conserved Decapentaplegic (Dpp)/Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signal plays a critical role in wing vein development in the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster and the hymenopteran sawfly Athalia rosae. In sawfly, dpp is ubiquitously expressed in the wing during prepupal stages, but Dpp/BMP signal is localized in the future vein cells. Since localized BMP signaling involves BMP binding protein Crossveinless (Cv), redistribution of BMP ligands appears to be crucial for sawfly wing vein formation. However, how ubiquitously expressed ligands lead to a localized signal remains to be addressed. Here, we found that BMP binding protein short gastrulation (Sog) is highly expressed in the intervein cells. Our data also reveal that BMP type I receptors thickveins (Tkv) and saxophone (Sax) are highly expressed in intervein cells and at lower levels in the vein progenitor cells. RNAi knockdown of Ar-tkv or Ar-sax indicates that both receptors are required for localized BMP signaling in the wing vein progenitor cells. Taken together, our data suggest that spatial transcription of core- and co-factors of the BMP pathway sustain localized BMP signaling during sawfly wing vein development.
       
  • Development of calcium bodies in Hylonsicus riparius (Crustacea:
           Isopoda)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): Miloš Vittori, Mohammed Khurshed, Daisy I. Picavet, Cornelis J.F. van Noorden, Jasna Štrus Calcium bodies are internal epithelial sacs found in terrestrial isopods of the family Trichoniscidae that contain a mineralized extracellular matrix that is deposited and resorbed in relation to the molt cycle. Calcium bodies in several trichoniscids are filled with bacteria, the function of which is currently unknown. The woodlouse Hyloniscus riparius differs from other trichoniscids in that it possesses two different pairs of calcium bodies, the posterior pair being filled with bacteria and the anterior pair being devoid of bacteria. We explored the development of these organs and bacterial colonization of their lumen during the postmarsupial development with the use of optical clearing and whole-body confocal imaging of larval and juvenile stages. Our results show that calcium bodies are formed as invaginations of the epidermis in the region of intersegmental membranes during the postmarsupial development. The anterior pair of calcium bodies is generated during the first postmarsupial manca stage, whereas the posterior calcium bodies first appear in juveniles and are immediately colonized by bacteria, likely through a connection between the calcium body lumen and the body surface. Mineral is deposited in calcium bodies as soon as they are present.
       
  • The sensory equipment of a spider – A morphological survey of different
           types of sensillum in both sexes of Argiope bruennichi (Araneae,
           Araneidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): Anne-Sarah Ganske, Gabriele Uhl Spiders show a wide range of sensory capabilities as evidenced by behavioural observations. Accordingly, spiders possess diverse sensory structures like mechano-, hygro-, thermo- or chemoreceptive sensilla. As to chemoreceptive structures, only trichoid tip-pore sensilla were found so far that were tested for gustation. That spiders are also able to receive airborne signals is corroborated by numerous behavioural experiments but the responsible structures have not been determined yet. Here, we provide sensilla distribution maps of pedipalps and walking legs of both sexes of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi whose biology and mating system is well explored. By means of scanning electron microscopy, we scrutinized whether there is in fact only one type of trichoid pore sensillum and if so, if there are deviations in the outer structure of the tip-pore sensilla depending on their position on the body. We also describe the external structure and distribution of slit sense organs, trichobothria and tarsal organs. Our study shows that all four sensillum types occur on pedipalps and walking legs of both sexes. As to chemosensory organs, only tip-pore sensilla were found, suggesting that this sensillum type is used for both gustation and olfaction. The highest numbers of tip-pore sensilla were observed on metatarsi and tarsi of the first two walking legs. Mechanosensitive slit sense organs occur as single slit sensilla in rows along all podomers or as lyriform organs next to the joints. The mechanosensitive trichobothria occur on the basal part of tibiae and metatarsi. Tarsal organs occur on the dorsal side of all tarsi and the male cymbium. The distribution maps of the sensilla are the starting point for further exploration of internal, morphological differences of the sensilla from different regions on the body. Cryptic anatomical differences might be linked to functional differences that can be explored in combination with electrophysiological analyses. Consequently, the maps will help to elucidate the sensory world of spiders.
       
  • Independent suboesophageal neuronal innervation of the defense gland and
           longitudinal muscles in the stick insect (Peruphasma schultei) prothorax
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): Konrad Stolz, Johannes Strauß, Joscha Arne Alt, Reinhard Lakes-Harlan This study investigates the neuroanatomy of the defense gland and a related muscle in the stick insect Peruphasma schultei with axonal tracing and histological sections. The gland is innervated by three neurons through the Nervus anterior of the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), the ipsilateral neuron (ILN), the contralateral neuron (CLN) and the prothoracic intersegmental neuron (PIN). The ILN has a large soma which is typical for motoneurons that cause fast contraction of large muscles and its dendrites are located in motor-sensory and sensory neuropile areas of the SOG. The CLN might be involved in the coordination of bilateral or unilateral discharge as its neurites are closely associated to the ILN of the contralateral gland. Close to the ejaculatory duct of the gland lies a dorsal longitudinal neck muscle, musculus pronoto-occipitalis (Idlm2), which is likely indirectly involved in gland discharge by controlling neck movements and, therefore, the direction of discharge. This muscle is innervated by three ventral median neurons (VMN). Thus, three neuron types (ILN, CLN, and PIN) innervate the gland muscle directly, and the VMNs could aid secretion indirectly. The cytoanatomy of motorneurons innervating the defense gland and neck muscle are discussed regarding the structure and functions of the neuropile in the SOG. As a basis for the neuroanatomical study on the defense gland we assembled a map of the SOG in Phasmatodea.
       
  • Ultrastructure and function of the seminal vesicle of Bittacidae (Insecta:
           Mecoptera)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): Qi-Hui Lyu, Bei-Bei Zhang, Bao-Zhen Hua The fine structure of the seminal vesicle and reproductive accessory glands was investigated in Bittacidae of Mecoptera using light and transmission electron microscopy. The male reproductive system of Bittacidae mainly consists of a pair of testes, a pair of vasa deferentia, and an ejaculatory sac. The vas deferens is greatly expanded for its middle and medio-posterior parts to form a well-developed seminal vesicle. The seminal vesicle is composed of layers of developed muscles and a mono-layered epithelium surrounding the small central lumen. The epithelium is rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and secretes vesicles and granules into the central lumen by merocrine mechanisms. A pair of elongate mesodermal accessory glands opens into the lateral side of the seminal vesicles. The accessory glands are similar to the seminal vesicle in structure, also consisting of layers of muscle fibres and a mono-layered elongated epithelium, the cells of which contain numerous cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and a few Golgi complexes. The epithelial cells of accessory glands extrude secretions via apocrine and merocrine processes. The seminal vesicles mainly serve the function of secretion rather than temporarily storing spermatozoa. The sperm instead are temporarily stored in the epididymis, the greatly coiled distal portion of the vas deferens.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Book lung development in juveniles and adults of the cobweb spider,
           Parasteatoda tepidariorum C. L. Koch, 1841 (Araneomorphae, Theridiidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): Roger D. Farley Light and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the development of new book lung lamellae in juvenile and adult spiders (Parasteatoda tepidariorum). As hypothesized earlier in a study of embryos, mesenchyme cells dispersed throughout the opisthosoma (EMT) are a likely source of precursor epithelial cells (MET) for the new lamellae. The precursor cells in juveniles and adults continue many of the complex activities observed in embryos, e.g., migration, alignment, lumen formation, thinning, elongation, and secretion of the cuticle of air channel walls and trabeculae. The apicobasal polarity of precursor cells for new channels is apparently induced by the polarity pattern of precursor cells of channels produced earlier. Thus, new air and hemolymph channels extend and continue the alternating pattern of older channels. At sites more distant from the spiracle and atrium, new channels are usually produced by the mode II process (intracellular alignment and merging of vesicles). These air channels have bridging trabeculae and are quite stable in size throughout their length. At sites closer to the spiracle and atrium, new channels may be produced by mode I (coalescence of merocrine vesicle secretion). This raises the hypothesis that structural and functional differences in mode I and II channels and differing oxygen and fluid conditions with distance from the spiracle and atrium determine the mode of formation of new channels. Observations herein support an earlier hypothesis that there is some intercellular apical/apical and basal/basal affinity among the opposed surfaces of aligned precursor cells. This results in the alternating pattern of air channels at the apical and hemolymph channels at the basal cell surfaces.
       
  • Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. II. Weevils (Coleoptera:
           Curculionidae: Rhamphini)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): Konstantin Nadein, Oliver Betz We describe the kinematics and performance of the natural jump in the weevil Orchestes fagi (Fabricius, 1801) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its jumping apparatus with underlying anatomy and functional morphology. In weevils, jumping is performed by the hind legs and involves the extension of the hind tibia. The principal structural elements of the jumping apparatus are (1) the femoro-tibial joint, (2) the metafemoral extensor tendon, (3) the extensor ligament, (4) the flexor ligament, (5) the tibial flexor sclerite and (6) the extensor and flexor muscles. The kinematic parameters of the jump (from minimum to maximum) are 530–1965 m s−2 (acceleration), 0.7–2.0 m s−1 (velocity), 1.5–3.0 ms (time to take-off), 0.3–4.4 μJ (kinetic energy) and 54–200 (g-force). The specific joint power as calculated for the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement is 0.97 W g−1. The full extension of the hind tibia during the jump was reached within up to 1.8–2.5 ms. The kinematic parameters, the specific joint power and the time for the full extension of the hind tibia suggest that the jump is performed via a catapult mechanism with an input of elastic strain energy. A resilin-bearing elastic extensor ligament that connects the extensor tendon and the tibial base is considered to be the structure that accumulates the elastic strain energy for the jump. According to our functional model, the extensor ligament is loaded by the contraction of the extensor muscle, while the co-contraction of the antagonistic extensor and flexor muscles prevents the early extension of the tibia. This is attributable to the leverage factors of the femoro-tibial joint providing a mechanical advantage for the flexor muscles over the extensor muscles in the fully flexed position. The release of the accumulated energy is performed by the rapid relaxation of the flexor muscles resulting in the fast extension of the hind tibia propelling the body into air.
       
  • A first phylogenetic analysis of the pill millipedes of the order
           Glomerida, with a special assessment of mandible characters (Myriapoda,
           Diplopoda, Pentazonia)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & Development, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): Jan Philip Oeyen, Thomas Wesener The pill millipedes of the order Glomerida are a moderately diverse group with a classical Holarctic distribution pattern. Their classification is based on a typological system utilizing mainly a single character complex, the male telopods. In order to infer the apomorphies of the Glomerida, to elucidate its position in the Pentazonia, and to test the monophyly of its families and subfamilies, we conduct the first phylogenetic analysis of the order. To provide additional characters, we comparatively analyze the mandible using scanning electron microscopy. The final character matrix consists of 69 characters (11 mandible characters) and incorporates 22 species from 20 of the 34 pill millipede genera, representing all families and subfamilies, except the monotypic Mauriesiinae. Two species from each of the two other Pentazonian orders Sphaerotheriida and Glomeridesmida, as well as two Spirobolida, are included as outgroup taxa. The Glomerida are recovered as monophyletic and are supported by five apomorphies. Within the Pentazonia, the Glomeridesmida are recovered as the sister group to the classical Oniscomorpha (Sphaerotheriida + Glomerida) with weak support. The analysis provides little resolution within the Glomerida, resulting in numerous polytomies. Further morphological characters and/or the addition of molecular analyses are needed to produce a robust phylogenetic classification of the Glomerida.
       
  • Morphology of the elytral base sclerites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): Miwa Sugimoto, Naoki Ogawa, Kazunori Yoshizawa The elytral base sclerites (= sclerites located at the articular region between the forewing and thorax in Coleoptera) of selected taxa were examined and homologized. Although the elytral base sclerites are highly modified compared to the wing base sclerites of the other neopterans, they can be homologized by using the conservative wing flapping and folding lines as landmarks. A reduction of the first axillary sclerite was identified as a general trend of the elytral base sclerites, although the sclerite usually has a very important function to mediate flight power from the notum to the wing. This result indicates that the functional constraint against the basal sclerites is relaxed because of the lack of an ability to produce flight power by elytra. In contrast, the elytral folding system formed by the basal sclerites is well retained, which probably occurs because proper wing folding is a key for the shelter function of the elytra. The elytral base sclerites apparently contain more homoplasies than the serially homologous hindwing base sclerites of Coleoptera, which suggests that the structure is less useful for higher-level systematics. However, the faster evolutionary rate of the elytral base sclerites suggests there is potential for studying the lower-level phylogeny of Coleoptera.
       
  • Micro-morphological adaptations of the wing nodus to flight behaviour in
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2018Source: Arthropod Structure & DevelopmentAuthor(s): H. Rajabi, K. Stamm, E. Appel, S.N. Gorb Adult dragonflies can be divided into two major groups, perchers and fliers, exhibiting notably different flight behaviour. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the link between the wing macro-morphology and flight style in these two groups. In this study, we present the first systematic investigation of the micro-morphological differences of wings of percher and flier dragonflies in four closely related species from the family Libellulidae. Our results suggest that the shape and material composition of wing microstructural components and, in particular, the nodus are adapted to facilitate the specific wing functioning in fliers and perchers. The findings further indicate a decreasing trend in the area proportion of the soft resilin-dominated cuticle in the nodus in the series of species from typical perchers to typical fliers. Such a reduction in the resilin proportion in the nodus of fliers is associated with an increase in the wing aspect ratio. The knot-shaped protrusion at the nodus of perchers, which becomes notably smaller in that of strong fliers, is likely to act as a mechanical stopper, avoiding large wing displacements. This study aims to develop a novel framework for future research on the relationship between wing morphology and flight behaviour in dragonflies.
       
 
 
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