for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3003 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (237 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (108 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1427 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (46 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (218 journals)
    - BOTANY (220 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (28 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (63 journals)
    - GENETICS (162 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (256 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (10 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (25 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (70 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (133 journals)

BIOLOGY (1427 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 287)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
  [SJR: 1.2]   [H-I: 42]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1661-4917 - ISSN (Online) 0004-069X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from unconventional
           sources: an innovative approach to multiple sclerosis therapy
    • Authors: Sabrina Giacoppo; Placido Bramanti; Emanuela Mazzon
      Pages: 363 - 379
      Abstract: Abstract In recent years, in the effort to find a potential innovative therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), researchers focused on transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) due to their well-recognized ability to suppress inflammatory/autoimmune responses and exert neuroregenerative properties. MSCs are a heterogeneous subset of pluripotent non-hematopoietic stromal cells that can be isolated from many different adult tissues, characterized by the capability to differentiate into various cell lineages, and to translocate into damaged areas, providing immunomodulatory effects. To date, several encouraging results were obtained mainly from the use of MSCs derived from the bone marrow (BM-MSCs) in experimental models of MS as well as in clinical trials. However, their use in clinic is limited due to the invasive collecting procedure and the low yield of viable stem cells. Consequently, these restrictions have prompted researchers to look for alternative tissue sources for stem cells such as adipose tissue, fetal annexes, and dental tissues that could represent a novel therapeutic option for MS treatment. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about the most explored BM-MSCs in MS treatment in experimental and clinical studies. Moreover, we propose that unconventional sources of stem cells, which show characteristics similar to that of BM-MSCs, and being less invasive for removal, could be considered an excellent alternative to BM-MSCs and thus could be a promising innovative approach for MS treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0460-z
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • The Potential Role of Krüppel-Like Zinc-Finger Protein Glis3 in
           Genetic Diseases and Cancers
    • Authors: Chon-Kit Chou; Chin-Ju Tang; Han-Lin Chou; Chun-Yen Liu; Ming-Chong Ng; Yu-Ting Chang; Shyng-Shiou F. Yuan; Eing-Mei Tsai; Chien-Chih Chiu
      Pages: 381 - 389
      Abstract: Abstract Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) belongs to a Glis subfamily of Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factors characterized to regulate a set of downstream targets essential for cellular functions, including pancreatic development, β-cell maturation and maintenance, and insulin production. Examination of the DNA-binding domain of Glis3 reveals that this domain contains a repeated cysteine 2/histidine 2 (Cys2/His2) zinc-finger motif in the central region where the recognized DNA sequence binds. The loss of the production of pancreatic hormones, such as insulin 1 and 2, is linked to the down-regulation of β cells-related genes and promotes the apoptotic death of β cells found in mutant Glis3. Although accumulating studies converge on the Glis3 functioning in β cells, recently, there have been developments in the field of Glis3 using knockdown/mutant mice to better understand the role of Glis3 in diseases. The Glis3 mutant mice have been characterized for their propensity to develop congenital hypothyroidism, polycystic kidney disease, and some types of cancer. In this review, we attempt to comprehensively summarize the knowledge of Glis3, including its structure and general function in cells. We also collected and organized the academic achievements related to the possible mechanisms of Glis3-related diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0470-x
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • KIR , LILRB and their Ligands’ Genes as Potential Biomarkers in
           Recurrent Implantation Failure
    • Authors: Izabela Nowak; Karolina Wilczyńska; Jacek R. Wilczyński; Andrzej Malinowski; Paweł Radwan; Michał Radwan; Piotr Kuśnierczyk
      Pages: 391 - 399
      Abstract: Abstract Reproductive failure in humans is a very important social and economic problem, because nowadays women decide to conceive later in life and delay motherhood. Unfortunately, with increasing age they have less chance for natural fertilization and maintenance of pregnancy. Many of them need assisted reproductive technology. Approximately 10% of women after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfers experience recurrent implantation failure (RIF). Multiple factors may contribute to RIF, including oocyte and sperm quality, parental chromosomal anomalies, genetic or metabolic abnormalities of the embryo, poor uterine receptivity, immunological disturbances in the implantation site, and some gynecologic pathologies such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, hydrosalpinx and endometrial polyps. Moreover, the procedure of in vitro fertilization itself could adversely influence the implantation. Nowadays, many studies are focused on the role of natural killer (NK) cells in normal and pathologic pregnancy because NK cells constitute the dominant cell population in the endometrium and they come in close contact with the allogeneic extravillous trophoblast cells in early pregnancy decidua. The majority of these cells are of CD56bright phenotype. These cells can express killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), which, upon recognition of HLA class I molecules (HLA-C and HLA-G) on trophoblasts, may either stimulate or inhibit NK cells to produce soluble factors, and display low cytotoxicity necessary for maintenance of the allogeneic embryo and fetus in the next steps of pregnancy. Moreover, some members of the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR) family, also named ILT (immunoglobulin-like transcript), are present in the human placenta. LILRB1 (ILT2) was described mainly on stromal cells, while LILRB2 (ILT4), in addition to stromal cells, was also found around vessels in the smooth muscle layer. In this review we focus on the possible role of polymorphism of KIR, LILRB and their ligands (HLA-C, HLA-G) in susceptibility to recurrent implantation failure, which could serve as diagnostic biomarkers of this disease.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0474-6
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Acute Thymic Involution and Mechanisms for Recovery
    • Authors: Abdur Rahman Ansari; Huazhen Liu
      Pages: 401 - 420
      Abstract: Abstract Acute thymic involution (ATI) is usually regarded as a virulence trait. It is caused by several infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi) and other factors, including stress, pregnancy, malnutrition and chemotherapy. However, the complex mechanisms that operate during ATI differ substantially from each other depending on the causative agent. For instance, a transient reduction in the size and weight of the thymus and depletion of populations of T cell subsets are hallmarks of ATI in many cases, whereas severe disruption of the anatomical structure of the organ is also associated with some factors, including fungal, parasitic and viral infections. However, growing evidence shows that ATI may be therapeutically halted or reversed. In this review, we highlight the current progress in this field with respect to numerous pathological factors and discuss the possible mechanisms. Moreover, these new observations also show that ATI can be mechanistically reversed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0462-x
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Neuronal Differentiation Capability of Nasal Polyps of Chronic
           Rhinosinusitis
    • Authors: Michael Koennecke; Robert Böscke; Ann-Christin Pfannerstill; Stefan Reers; Martina Elsner; Benjamin Fell; Anja Richter; Karl-Ludwig Bruchhage; Sandra Schumann; Ralph Pries; Ludger Klimek; Barbara Wollenberg
      Pages: 431 - 443
      Abstract: Abstract Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is considered a subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis and a significant health problem, but the pathogenesis remains unclear to date. Therefore, we investigated the stemness to determine the role of stem cells in nasal polyps, with additional analysis of the neuronal differentiation potential of nasal polyp cells. We determined gene and protein expression profiles of stem cells in nasal polyp tissues, using whole genome microarray, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. To evaluate the neuronal differentiation potential of nasal polyp cells, we used an efficient xenogeneic co-culture model with unsliced adult rat brain biopsies, followed by qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and growth factor antibody arrays. During gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry, we were able to detect different stem cell markers, like Oct-4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, ABCG2, Nanog, CD133, and Nestin, which confirmed the existence of stem cell like cells within nasal polyps. In addition, co-culture experiments give evidence for a guided differentiation into the neuronal lineage by overexpression of Nestin, Neurofilament, and GM-CSF. Our study demonstrated the expression of stem cell-related markers in nasal polyps. Furthermore, we characterized, for the first time, the stemness and neuronal differentiation potential of nasal polyp cells. These results gave new insights into the pathogenesis of nasal polyps and its therapeutic effectiveness could represent a promising strategy in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0456-8
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Regulatory T Cells Infiltration and the
           Clinical Outcome in Colorectal Cancer
    • Authors: Dariusz Waniczek; Zbigniew Lorenc; Mirosław Śnietura; Mariusz Wesecki; Agnieszka Kopec; Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń
      Pages: 445 - 454
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study is the assessment of the intensity of the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) CD68+/iNOS− and Tregs CD8+/FoxP3+ in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients as prognostic factors with respect to disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In this retrospective study, tissue samples were obtained from 89 patients undergoing resection for CRC (stage IIA, pT3N0M0 and stages IIIB and IIIC, pT3N1-2M0). Recurrence was observed in 45 patients at the time of the follow-up (10 local recurrences, 35 distant metastases). In patients with recurrence the following were present: a tendency to an older average age at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.07), higher nodal involvement (p = 0.002) and more advanced clinical disease (p = 0.01). The analysis of the clinical data and immunohistochemical studies were performed with the methodology of identification of TAM and Treg subsets in histological sections, with the aim to use it in routine clinical management. Both DSF and OS were the clinical parameters assessed in the study. The presence of intense infiltration of TAMs in the tumor stroma was related to shorter DFS (p = 0.005) and OS (p = 0.006). The opposite tendency was observed in the tumor front (p = 0.061). The relative risks of recurrence and cancer-related death were more than twice higher in the group of patients with intense infiltration of TAMs in the tumor stroma (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.33–3.14; p = 0.001 and RR 2.08, 95% CI 1.28–3.39; p = 0.003, respectively). Intense infiltration of Tregs in the tumor stroma was related to shorter DFS and OS (p < 0.0001). The relative risks of recurrence and death in a group of patients with intense infiltration of Tregs in the tumor stroma were more than 12 times higher than in patients with less intense infiltration (RR 12.3, 95% CI 5.44–27.9; p < 0.0001 and RR 12.5, 95% CI 4.9–32.4; p < 0.0001, respectively). Infiltration of TAMs CD68+/iNOS− and Tregs CD8+/FoxP3+ in the tumor stroma are negative prognostic factors with a positive correlation between them. Tregs may constitute an independent prognostic factor in patients with CRC.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0463-9
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • LL-37 but Not 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D Serum Level Correlates with Healing of
           Venous Leg Ulcers
    • Authors: Alicja Krejner; Małgorzata Litwiniuk; Tomasz Grzela
      Pages: 455 - 461
      Abstract: Abstract Human cathelicidin, LL-37, is small antimicrobial peptide, which reveals also some immunomodulatory and proangiogenic properties and, therefore, may promote wound healing. The expression of LL-37 is controlled by various factors, including vitamin D. Thus, any disturbances in vitamin D level may influence LL-37 production and, possibly, affect wound healing. Since deficiency of vitamin D was identified as a common problem in the population, this proof of concept study aimed to verify the relationship between serum levels of LL-37, vitamin D, and healing rate of venous leg ulcers. The study involved small group (n = 19) of patients with venous leg ulcers. Apart from non-venous ulcer aethiology, compression intolerance, active vein thrombosis, and wound infection, the exclusion criteria concerned also kidney insufficiency. The results of the analysis of wound healing rates were correlated with patients’ serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and LL-37. In addition, serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF) were analyzed. We have found strong association between serum concentrations of LL-37 and the healing rates in patients with leg ulcers. Despite the fact that 25(OH) vitamin D levels in all patients were below the normal range, they did not show any correlation with healing rates. Furthermore, no association was observed between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and LL-37. No significant correlation between tested pro-inflammatory cytokines and healing rate, LL-37, or 25(OH) vitamin D levels was also observed. Regardless of small study group, our results suggest that the assessment of serum concentration of LL-37, but not 25-hydroxy vitamin D, may help in predicting the wound healing efficacy. Moreover, this assessment may be useful in pre-selection of patients, which could benefit from local treatment with exogenous LL-37.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0423-9
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Apportioning Blame: Autoreactive CD4 + and CD8 + T Cells in Type 1
           Diabetes
    • Authors: Rubén Varela-Calvino; Cristina Calviño-Sampedro; Iria Gómez-Touriño; Oscar J. Cordero
      Pages: 275 - 284
      Abstract: Abstract Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most studied archetypal organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Although many clinical, epidemiological, and pathological characteristics have been described, there are still important issues which need to be resolved as these will have a major impact on the development of future antigen-specific immunotherapies. An important question relates to T lymphocytes in the development of the disease, in particular their role in the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Since the discovery that certain class II histocompatibility complex molecules (HLA) are linked to the development of T1D, much research has focused on CD4+ helper T lymphocytes; however, recent studies highlight class I HLA molecules as an independent risk factor; hence, research into the role played by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes has gained momentum. In this review, we summarize recent studies clarifying the role played by both sets of autoreactive T lymphocytes in T1D, discuss the targets recognized by these cells and their phenotype in T1D patients. Finally, we will examine the possible generation of regulatory CD8+ T lymphocytes upon different immuno-intervention strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0452-4
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Functions of Cancer-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Immunosuppression
    • Authors: Liliana Czernek; Markus Düchler
      Pages: 311 - 323
      Abstract: Abstract Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, constitute an important element of intercellular communication by carrying a variety of molecules from producer to target cells. The transport of mRNA and miRNA can directly modulate gene expression in the target cells. The miRNA content in exosomes is characteristic for the cell from which the vesicles were derived enabling the usage of exosomes as biomarkers for the diagnosis various diseases, including cancer. Cancer-derived exosomes support the survival and progression of tumors in many ways and also contribute to the neutralization of the anti-cancer immune response. Exosomes participate in all known mechanisms by which cancer evades the immune system. They influence the differentiation and activation of immune suppressor cells, they modulate antigen presentation, and are able to induce T-cell apoptosis. Although cancer-derived exosomes mainly suppress the immune system and facilitate tumor progression, they are also important sources of tumor antigens with potential clinical application in stimulating immune responses. This review summarizes how exosomes assist cancer to escape immune recognition and to acquire control over the immune system.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0453-3
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effects of IFN-β1a and IFN-β1b treatment on the expression of cytokines,
           inducible NOS (NOS type II), and myelin proteins in animal model of
           multiple sclerosis
    • Authors: Natalia Lubina-Dąbrowska; Adam Stepień; Grzegorz Sulkowski; Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta; Józef Langfort; Małgorzata Chalimoniuk
      Pages: 325 - 338
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interferon (IFN)-β1a and IFN-β1b treatment on inflammatory factors and myelin protein levels in the brain cortex of the Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of multiple sclerosis. To induce EAE, rat were immunized with inoculums containing spinal cord guinea pig homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline and emulsified in Freund’s complete adjuvant containing 110 µg of the appropriate antigen in 100 µl of an emulsion and additionally 4-mg/ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra). The rats were treated three times per week with subcutaneous applications of 300,000 units IFN-β1a or IFN-β1b. The treatments were started 8 days prior to immunization and continued until day 14 after immunization. The rats were killed on the 14th day of the experiment. EAE induced dramatic increase in interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-concentrations and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in the brain, which closely corresponded to the course of neurological symptoms and the loss of weight. Both IFN-β1b and IFN-β1a treatments inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ), decreased the activation of astrocytes, increased the myelin protein level in the brain cortex, and improved the neurological status of EAE rats by different mechanisms; IFN-β1a reduced iNOS expression, at least in part, by the enhancement of IL-10, while IFN-β1b diminished IL-10 concentration and did not decrease EAE-induced iNOS expression.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0458-6
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Pre-Pregnancy Levels of Peripheral Natural Killer Cells as Markers for
           Immunomodulatory Treatment in Patients with Recurrent Miscarriage
    • Authors: Ruben J. Kuon; Franziska Müller; Kilian Vomstein; Maja Weber; Hannes Hudalla; Sabine Rösner; Thomas Strowitzki; Udo Markert; Volker Daniel; Bettina Toth
      Pages: 339 - 346
      Abstract: Abstract Immunological risk factors in patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM) are discussed controversially. Abnormalities of natural killer cells (NK) have been described in RM patients. Lipid infusions are known to modulate lymphocyte subsets. The aim of this study was to identify immune parameters that predict success of treatment with lipid infusions in RM patients with elevated NK. In sum, n = 341 couples with RM were screened for established risk factors and peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations as well as uterine NK cells. We identified n = 136 patients with ≥ 2 consecutive RM and elevated NK. So far, n = 40 RM patients with NK disorders were treated with lipid infusions starting at positive pregnancy test, every 2 weeks until 12 + 0 weeks of gestation (GW) or miscarriage. The pre-pregnancy immune diagnostics in idiopathic RM (iRM) patients with ongoing pregnancy were compared to the group with miscarriages and healthy controls (n = 15). Pre-pregnancy immune diagnostics differed significantly between the groups, with significant higher levels of peripheral NK (% and /µL) in iRM patients who miscarried again compared to controls (p = 0.0035 and p = 0.0019). Furthermore, iRM patients show lower percentages of CD3+ lymphocytes than healthy controls (p = 0.0049). In n = 22/40 (55%) patients, pregnancy is ongoing >12 + 0 GW. RM patients with very high pre-pregnancy peripheral NK (pNK) lymphocytes might not benefit from lipid infusions. Pre-pregnancy immunomodulatory treatment in RM patients might be helpful to lower pNK levels and establish an immune environment which is supportive for fetal development.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0457-7
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Sildenafil, a Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor, Downregulates
           Osteopontin in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
    • Authors: Beata Kaleta; Agnieszka Boguska
      Pages: 347 - 353
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of sildenafil to regulate osteopontin (OPN) gene and protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy blood donors. OPN is expressed by a wide variety of cell types, including immune cells. OPN functions are linked to various physiological and pathological conditions. Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of type 5 phosphodiesterase. Sildenafil has recently been found to have immunomodulatory effects in animal models and in studies performed in humans. PMA-stimulated and unstimulated PBMCs from 16 healthy blood donors (men) were cultured with sildenafil (at concentrations of 400 ng/ml and 4 µg/ml). OPN level in culture supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The analysis of OPN gene expression was performed by real-time PCR. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue staining. PMA plus ionomycin stimulation of PBMCs resulted in a significant increase of OPN production and gene expression (p < 0.001). Sildenafil significantly decreased OPN secretion (p < 0.05) and gene expression (p < 0.05) in stimulated PBMCs; however, had no effect on OPN in unstimulated PBMCs. Sildenafil did not affect PBMCs viability. Sildenafil downregulates OPN in PBMCs from healthy men. Despite accumulating evidence for the immunomodulatory effects of sildenafil on human immune system cells, further studies are needed to determine if this drug affects the level of cGMP and NF-κB in PBMCs. In addition, it is needed to evaluate sildenafil’s activity in PBMCs from patients with elevated OPN levels.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0455-9
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on HNP1-3 Level in Gingival
           Crevicular Fluid of Chronic Periodontitis Patients
    • Authors: Ewa Dolińska; Anna Skurska; Małgorzata Pietruska; Violetta Dymicka-Piekarska; Robert Milewski; Jan Pietruski; Anton Sculean
      Pages: 355 - 361
      Abstract: Abstract The rich bacterial flora of oral cavity is controlled by innate immune response, including antibacterial peptides and among them human neutrophil peptides 1–3 (HNP1-3). The knowledge of the involvement of HNPs in innate and acquired immunity of the periodontium is fragmentary. The aim of the study was to assess alterations in HNP1-3 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis patients before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Nineteen patients with chronic periodontitis were qualified to the study. After periodontal examination, one site with pocket depth (PD) ≥4 mm was selected. All the patients received periodontal treatment involving scaling and root planing with additional systemic antibiotic therapy (Amoxicillin 375 mg three times daily and Metronidazole 250 mg three times daily for 7 days). Prior to therapy, 3 and 6 months after it, clinical periodontal parameters were measured and GCF was collected from previously chosen site. The level of HNP1-3 in GCF was determined by means of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. The periodontal therapy caused a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in all the assessed clinical parameters at the sites of sample collection except for bleeding on probing. The level of HNP1-3 per measure point showed a statistically significant increase (baseline—3 months: p = 0.05, baseline—6 months: p = 0.007). Within the limits of the study, it can be stated that nonsurgical periodontal therapy with additional systemic administration of Amoxicillin and Metronidazole increases the level of HNP1-3 in GCF.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0451-5
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • The Effects of Intestinal Nematode L4 Stage on Mouse Experimental
           Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
    • Authors: Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska; Katarzyna Krawczak; Katarzyna Bocian; Maria Doligalska
      Abstract: Abstract Helminths use various immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory strategies to evade immune attack by the host. During pathological conditions, these strategies alter the course of disease by reducing immune-mediated pathology. The study examines the therapeutic effect of the nematode L4 stage based on an in vivo model of multiple sclerosis, monophasic encephalomyelitis (EAE), induced by sensitization with MOG35–55 peptide in C57BL/6 female mice infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The EAE remission was correlated with altered leukocyte number identified in the central nervous system (CNS), and temporary permeability of the blood–brain barrier at the histotrophic phase of infection. At 6 days post-infection, when the L4 stage had almost completely attenuated the clinical severity and pathological signs of EAE, CD25+ cell numbers expanded significantly, with parallel growth of CD8+ and CD4+, both CD25+Foxp3+ and CD25+Foxp3− subsets and alternatively activated macrophages. The phenotypic changes in distinct subsets of cerebrospinal fluid cells were correlated with an inhibited proliferative response of encephalitogenic T cells and elevated levels of nerve growth factor and TGF-β. These results enhance our understanding of mechanisms involved in the inhibition of immune responses in the CNS during nematode infection.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0489-z
       
  • Biological and Pro-Angiogenic Properties of Genetically Modified Human
           Primary Myoblasts Overexpressing Placental Growth Factor in In Vitro and
           In Vivo Studies
    • Authors: Agnieszka Zimna; Bartosz Wiernicki; Tomasz Kolanowski; Natalia Rozwadowska; Agnieszka Malcher; Wojciech Labedz; Tomasz Trzeciak; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Katarzyna Bednarek-Rajewska; Przemyslaw Majewski; Maciej Kurpisz
      Abstract: Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are a growing problem in developing countries; therefore, there is an ongoing intensive search for new approaches to treat these disorders. Currently, cellular therapies are focused on healing the damaged heart by implanting stem cells modified with pro-angiogenic factors. This approach ensures that the introduced cells are capable of fulfilling the complex requirements of the environment, including the replacement of the post-infarction scar with cells that are able to contract and promote the formation of new blood vessels that can supply the ischaemic region with nutrients and oxygen. This study focused on the genetic modification of human skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs). We chose myoblast cells due to their close biological resemblance to cardiomyocytes and the placental growth factor (PlGF) gene due to its pro-angiogenic potential. In our in vitro studies, we transfected SkMCs with the PlGF gene using electroporation, which has previously been proven to be efficient and generate robust overexpression of the PlGF gene and elevate PlGF protein secretion. Moreover, the functionality of the secreted pro-angiogenic proteins was confirmed using an in vitro capillary development assay. We have also examined the influence of PlGF overexpression on VEGF-A and VEGF-B, which are well-known factors described in the literature as the most potent activators of blood vessel formation. We were able to confirm the overexpression of VEGF-A in myoblasts transfected with the PlGF gene. The results obtained in this study were further verified in an animal model. These data were able to confirm the potential therapeutic effects of the applied treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0486-2
       
  • Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Atopic Dermatitis
    • Authors: Katarzyna Osinka; Karolina Dumycz; Bartłomiej Kwiek; Wojciech Feleszko
      Abstract: Abstract Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases. The number of people affected by AD is relatively high and seems to be rising. Although mild and moderate forms of the disease can be well controlled by the use of emollients, topical corticosteroids, and topical calcineurin inhibitors, treatment of severe is still a huge challenge. The new hope is biologic drugs, magic bullets in allergy, targeted at different points of the complex pathomechanism of inflammation in AD. In this review, novel biologic therapies are discussed, including recombinant monoclonal antibodies directed against various interleukin pathways (such as IL-4, IL-13, TSLP, IL-31, and IL-12/23), on immunoglobulin E, molecules acting as T cells, B cells, etc. Of biological drugs, the most promising seems to be anti-IL-4/IL-13 therapy (dupilumab—the biological agent) and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor (crisaborole—a small molecule). A deep understanding of the AD pathomechanism provides a new perspective for tailor-made treatment of severe atopic dermatitis.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0487-1
       
  • Natural Agents-Mediated Targeting of Histone Deacetylases
    • Authors: Ammad Ahmad Farooqi; Syed Kamran-ul-Hassan Naqvi; Aliye Aras Perk; Onur Yanar; Sobia Tabassum; Muhammad Sheeraz Ahmad; Qaisar Mansoor; Mohamed S. Ashry; Muhammad Ismail; George E. Naoum; Waleed O. Arafat
      Abstract: Abstract In the past few years, basic and clinical scientists have witnessed landmark achievements in many research projects, such as those conducted by the US National Institutes of Health Roadmap Epigenomics Mapping Consortium, the International Human Epigenome Consortium, The Cancer Genome Atlas Network and the International Cancer Genome Consortium, which have provided near-complete resolution of epigenetic landscape in different diseases. Furthermore, genome sequencing of tumors has provided compelling evidence related to frequent existence of mutations in readers, erasers and writers of epigenome in different cancers. Histone acetylation is an intricate mechanism modulated by two opposing sets of enzymes and deeply studied as a key biological phenomenon in 1964 by Vincent Allfrey and colleagues. The research group suggested that this protein modification contributed substantially in transcriptional regulation. Subsequently, histone deacetylases (HDACs), histone acetyltransferases and acetyl-Lys-binding proteins were identified as transcriptional mediators, which further deepened our comprehension regarding biochemical modifications. Overwhelmingly increasing high-impact research is improving our understanding of this molecularly controlled mechanism; moreover, quantification and identification of lysine acetylation by mass spectrometry has added new layers of information. We partition this multi-component review into how both activity and expression of HDAC are targeted using natural agents. We also set spotlight on how oncogenic fusion proteins tactfully utilize HDAC-associated nano-machinery to modulate expression of different genes and how HDAC inhibitors regulate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. HDAC inhibitors have been reported to upregulate expression of TRAIL receptors and protect TRAIL from proteasomal degradation. Deeper understanding of HDAC biology will be useful for stratification and selection of patients who are responders, non-responders and poor-responders for HDACi therapy, and for the rational design of combination studies using HDACi.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0488-0
       
  • Comparative Assessment of Induced Immune Responses Following Intramuscular
           Immunization with Fusion and Cocktail of LeIF, LACK and TSA Genes Against
           Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice
    • Authors: Nahid Maspi; Fatemeh Ghaffarifar; Zohreh Sharifi; Abdolhossein Dalimi; Mohammad Saaid Dayer
      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, we evaluated induced immune responses following DNA vaccine containing cocktail or fusion of LeIF, LACK and TSA genes or each gene alone. Mice were injected with 100 µg of each plasmid containing the gene of insert, plasmid DNA alone as the first control group or phosphate buffer saline as the second control group. Then, cellular and humoral responses, lesion size were measured for all groups. All vaccinated mice induced Th1 immune responses against Leishmania characterized by higher IFN-γ and IgG2a levels compared with control groups (p < 0.05). In addition, IFN-γ levels increased in groups immunized with fusion and cocktail vaccines in comparison with LACK (p < 0.001) and LeIF (p < 0.01) groups after challenge. In addition, fusion and cocktail groups produced higher IgG2a values than groups vaccinated with a gene alone (p < 0.05). Lesion progression delayed for all immunized groups compared with control groups from 5th week post-infection (p < 0.05). Mean lesion size decreased in immunized mice with fusion DNA than three groups vaccinated with one gene alone (p < 0.05). While, lesion size decreased significantly in cocktail recipient group than LeIF recipient group (p < 0.05). There was no difference in lesion size between fusion and cocktail groups. Overall, immunized mice with cocktail and fusion vaccines showed stronger Th1 response by production of higher IFN-γ and IgG2a and showed smaller mean lesion size. Therefore, use of multiple antigens can improve induced immune responses by DNA vaccination.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0484-4
       
  • The PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitory Pathway is Altered in Primary
           Glomerulonephritides
    • Authors: Ewelina Grywalska; Iwona Smarz-Widelska; Ewelina Krasowska-Zajac; Izabela Korona-Glowniak; Karolina Zaluska-Patel; Michal Mielnik; Martyna Podgajna; Anna Malm; Jacek Rolinski; Wojciech Zaluska
      Abstract: Abstract The pathogenesis of primary proliferative and non-proliferative glomerulonephritides (PGN and NPGN) is still not fully understood, however, current evidence suggests that most cases of PGN and NPGN are the results of immunologic response to different etiologic agents that activates various biological processes leading to glomerular inflammation and injury. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is the major inhibitory receptor regulating T cell exhaustion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of PD-1-positive and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive T and B lymphocytes in patients with NPGN and PGN in relation to clinical parameters for the first time. The study included peripheral blood (PB) samples from 20 newly diagnosed PGN and NPGN patients. The control group comprised of 20 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. The viable PB lymphocytes underwent labelling with fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1, and were analyzed using a flow cytometer. The frequencies of CD4+/PD1+ T lymphocytes, CD8+/PD1+ T lymphocytes, and CD19+/PD-1+ B lymphocytes in the PGN group exceeded values obtained both in the NPGN group, and the control group. Alteration of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be involved in poorer prognosis, as patients with PGN are characterized by higher frequencies of PD-1-positive and PD-L1-positive T and B lymphocytes than patients with NPGN. Our results suggest that deregulation of PD-1/PD-L1 axis may contribute to the PGN and NPGN pathogenesis. High percentages of lymphocytes with PD-1 and PD-L1 expression may be related to the continuous T-cell activation and development of glomerular inflammation and injury.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0485-3
       
  • The Immune Response in Periodontal Tissues
    • Authors: Małgorzata Nędzi-Góra; Jan Kowalski; Renata Górska
      Abstract: Abstract The uniqueness of periodontal diseases is caused by several factors. This group of diseases is caused by numerous bacterial species formed in the dental biofilm, and one cannot distinguish the specific pathogen that is responsible for the disease initiation or progress (though Gram-negative anaerobic rods are associated with the advanced form of the disease). The disease is both infectious and inflammatory in its nature, and in the state of health there is always a subclinical level of inflammatory response, caused by the so-called harmless bacteria. Negligence in oral hygiene may result in maturation of the biofilm and trigger host response, manifesting clinically as gingivitis or—later and in susceptible subjects—as periodontitis. The article presents the contemporary knowledge of the inflammatory reaction occurring in tissues surrounding the tooth during periodontal inflammation. The most important mechanisms are described, together with implications for clinicists.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0472-8
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.81.110.114
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016