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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2992 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1423 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 297)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
  [SJR: 1.2]   [H-I: 42]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1661-4917 - ISSN (Online) 0004-069X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Apportioning Blame: Autoreactive CD4 + and CD8 + T Cells in Type 1
           Diabetes
    • Authors: Rubén Varela-Calvino; Cristina Calviño-Sampedro; Iria Gómez-Touriño; Oscar J. Cordero
      Pages: 275 - 284
      Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most studied archetypal organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Although many clinical, epidemiological, and pathological characteristics have been described, there are still important issues which need to be resolved as these will have a major impact on the development of future antigen-specific immunotherapies. An important question relates to T lymphocytes in the development of the disease, in particular their role in the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Since the discovery that certain class II histocompatibility complex molecules (HLA) are linked to the development of T1D, much research has focused on CD4+ helper T lymphocytes; however, recent studies highlight class I HLA molecules as an independent risk factor; hence, research into the role played by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes has gained momentum. In this review, we summarize recent studies clarifying the role played by both sets of autoreactive T lymphocytes in T1D, discuss the targets recognized by these cells and their phenotype in T1D patients. Finally, we will examine the possible generation of regulatory CD8+ T lymphocytes upon different immuno-intervention strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0452-4
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Perillyl alcohol, a pleiotropic natural compound suitable for brain tumor
           therapy, targets free radicals
    • Authors: Aline C. Gomes; Angélica L. Mello; Manuel G. Ribeiro; Diogo G. Garcia; Clovis O. Da Fonseca; Marcela D’Alincourt Salazar; Axel H. Schönthal; Thereza Quirico-Santos
      Pages: 285 - 297
      Abstract: Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol (POH) are promising natural compounds with pro-oxidant properties partly due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activity owing to their activity as free radical scavengers, inhibition of coenzyme Q synthesis, activation of antioxidant-responsive elements (inducing detoxification enzymes) and induction of apoptosis. Activation of ER-stress responses generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are highly reactive free radicals mainly produced during mitochondrial electron transfer for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. When cells are subjected to oxidative stress conditions, there is an accumulation of ROS that can lead to irreversible cell injury caused primarily by lipid peroxidation, protein aggregation and/or DNA damage. Malignant tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme, display elevated rates of oxygen consumption, necrosis and abnormal structural microvasculature. Alterations in the tumor microenvironment are tightly linked to tumor progression and occur as a result of activation of complex signaling networks involving inter-clonal cooperation, cell–matrix interactions and an ongoing inflammatory response leading to genetic and epigenetic alterations. This review will focus on the pro- and anti-oxidant activities of POH, which are greatly dependent on the respective ROS levels within the tumor microenvironment and involve the ER stress response system. As well, some critical aspects of tumor-associated metabolic changes and the consequences of endogenous ROS production for tumor progression will be discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0459-5
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Primary Biliary Cholangitis Associated with Skin Disorders: A Case Report
           and Review of the Literature
    • Authors: Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli; Caroline Guillod; Igor Marsteller; Roland Blum; Luca Mazzucchelli; Chiara Mondino; Pietro Invernizzi; M. Eric Gershwin; Carlo Mainetti
      Pages: 299 - 309
      Abstract: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare autoimmune cholestatic liver disease. It is often associated with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases. Skin disorders are sporadically reported in association with PBC. We report an unusual case of PBC associated with acquired reactive perforating dermatosis (ARPD) and present a review of the literature on skin disorders associated with PBC. Our patient presented to the dermatology department with generalized pruritus associated with nodular perforating skin lesions on the trunk, and cholestatic liver disease of unknown origin. After having established both diagnosis of ARPD and PBC, she was managed in an interdisciplinary manner, and both her skin and liver conditions improved gradually. Only one similar case is reported in the literature, in that case, the liver disease was not treated. By reviewing the literature, we found that lichen planus, vitiligo, and psoriasis are the most frequent skin disorders associated with PBC. However, there is only limited data about specific skin disorders associated with PBC. This case report of a patient with PBC associated with ARPD underlines the importance of interdisciplinary management of patients with rare liver diseases combined with rare skin disorders. The present review of the literature shows that probably, immune-mediated skin conditions are not more frequent in PBC patients than in the general population. However, the available data are scant; there is a need for high-quality data on skin conditions associated with PBC.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0448-0
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Functions of Cancer-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Immunosuppression
    • Authors: Liliana Czernek; Markus Düchler
      Pages: 311 - 323
      Abstract: Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, constitute an important element of intercellular communication by carrying a variety of molecules from producer to target cells. The transport of mRNA and miRNA can directly modulate gene expression in the target cells. The miRNA content in exosomes is characteristic for the cell from which the vesicles were derived enabling the usage of exosomes as biomarkers for the diagnosis various diseases, including cancer. Cancer-derived exosomes support the survival and progression of tumors in many ways and also contribute to the neutralization of the anti-cancer immune response. Exosomes participate in all known mechanisms by which cancer evades the immune system. They influence the differentiation and activation of immune suppressor cells, they modulate antigen presentation, and are able to induce T-cell apoptosis. Although cancer-derived exosomes mainly suppress the immune system and facilitate tumor progression, they are also important sources of tumor antigens with potential clinical application in stimulating immune responses. This review summarizes how exosomes assist cancer to escape immune recognition and to acquire control over the immune system.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0453-3
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effects of IFN-β1a and IFN-β1b treatment on the expression of cytokines,
           inducible NOS (NOS type II), and myelin proteins in animal model of
           multiple sclerosis
    • Authors: Natalia Lubina-Dąbrowska; Adam Stepień; Grzegorz Sulkowski; Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta; Józef Langfort; Małgorzata Chalimoniuk
      Pages: 325 - 338
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interferon (IFN)-β1a and IFN-β1b treatment on inflammatory factors and myelin protein levels in the brain cortex of the Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of multiple sclerosis. To induce EAE, rat were immunized with inoculums containing spinal cord guinea pig homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline and emulsified in Freund’s complete adjuvant containing 110 µg of the appropriate antigen in 100 µl of an emulsion and additionally 4-mg/ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra). The rats were treated three times per week with subcutaneous applications of 300,000 units IFN-β1a or IFN-β1b. The treatments were started 8 days prior to immunization and continued until day 14 after immunization. The rats were killed on the 14th day of the experiment. EAE induced dramatic increase in interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-concentrations and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in the brain, which closely corresponded to the course of neurological symptoms and the loss of weight. Both IFN-β1b and IFN-β1a treatments inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ), decreased the activation of astrocytes, increased the myelin protein level in the brain cortex, and improved the neurological status of EAE rats by different mechanisms; IFN-β1a reduced iNOS expression, at least in part, by the enhancement of IL-10, while IFN-β1b diminished IL-10 concentration and did not decrease EAE-induced iNOS expression.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0458-6
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Pre-Pregnancy Levels of Peripheral Natural Killer Cells as Markers for
           Immunomodulatory Treatment in Patients with Recurrent Miscarriage
    • Authors: Ruben J. Kuon; Franziska Müller; Kilian Vomstein; Maja Weber; Hannes Hudalla; Sabine Rösner; Thomas Strowitzki; Udo Markert; Volker Daniel; Bettina Toth
      Pages: 339 - 346
      Abstract: Immunological risk factors in patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM) are discussed controversially. Abnormalities of natural killer cells (NK) have been described in RM patients. Lipid infusions are known to modulate lymphocyte subsets. The aim of this study was to identify immune parameters that predict success of treatment with lipid infusions in RM patients with elevated NK. In sum, n = 341 couples with RM were screened for established risk factors and peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations as well as uterine NK cells. We identified n = 136 patients with ≥ 2 consecutive RM and elevated NK. So far, n = 40 RM patients with NK disorders were treated with lipid infusions starting at positive pregnancy test, every 2 weeks until 12 + 0 weeks of gestation (GW) or miscarriage. The pre-pregnancy immune diagnostics in idiopathic RM (iRM) patients with ongoing pregnancy were compared to the group with miscarriages and healthy controls (n = 15). Pre-pregnancy immune diagnostics differed significantly between the groups, with significant higher levels of peripheral NK (% and /µL) in iRM patients who miscarried again compared to controls (p = 0.0035 and p = 0.0019). Furthermore, iRM patients show lower percentages of CD3+ lymphocytes than healthy controls (p = 0.0049). In n = 22/40 (55%) patients, pregnancy is ongoing >12 + 0 GW. RM patients with very high pre-pregnancy peripheral NK (pNK) lymphocytes might not benefit from lipid infusions. Pre-pregnancy immunomodulatory treatment in RM patients might be helpful to lower pNK levels and establish an immune environment which is supportive for fetal development.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0457-7
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Sildenafil, a Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor, Downregulates
           Osteopontin in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
    • Authors: Beata Kaleta; Agnieszka Boguska
      Pages: 347 - 353
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of sildenafil to regulate osteopontin (OPN) gene and protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy blood donors. OPN is expressed by a wide variety of cell types, including immune cells. OPN functions are linked to various physiological and pathological conditions. Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of type 5 phosphodiesterase. Sildenafil has recently been found to have immunomodulatory effects in animal models and in studies performed in humans. PMA-stimulated and unstimulated PBMCs from 16 healthy blood donors (men) were cultured with sildenafil (at concentrations of 400 ng/ml and 4 µg/ml). OPN level in culture supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The analysis of OPN gene expression was performed by real-time PCR. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue staining. PMA plus ionomycin stimulation of PBMCs resulted in a significant increase of OPN production and gene expression (p < 0.001). Sildenafil significantly decreased OPN secretion (p < 0.05) and gene expression (p < 0.05) in stimulated PBMCs; however, had no effect on OPN in unstimulated PBMCs. Sildenafil did not affect PBMCs viability. Sildenafil downregulates OPN in PBMCs from healthy men. Despite accumulating evidence for the immunomodulatory effects of sildenafil on human immune system cells, further studies are needed to determine if this drug affects the level of cGMP and NF-κB in PBMCs. In addition, it is needed to evaluate sildenafil’s activity in PBMCs from patients with elevated OPN levels.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0455-9
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on HNP1-3 Level in Gingival
           Crevicular Fluid of Chronic Periodontitis Patients
    • Authors: Ewa Dolińska; Anna Skurska; Małgorzata Pietruska; Violetta Dymicka-Piekarska; Robert Milewski; Jan Pietruski; Anton Sculean
      Pages: 355 - 361
      Abstract: The rich bacterial flora of oral cavity is controlled by innate immune response, including antibacterial peptides and among them human neutrophil peptides 1–3 (HNP1-3). The knowledge of the involvement of HNPs in innate and acquired immunity of the periodontium is fragmentary. The aim of the study was to assess alterations in HNP1-3 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis patients before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Nineteen patients with chronic periodontitis were qualified to the study. After periodontal examination, one site with pocket depth (PD) ≥4 mm was selected. All the patients received periodontal treatment involving scaling and root planing with additional systemic antibiotic therapy (Amoxicillin 375 mg three times daily and Metronidazole 250 mg three times daily for 7 days). Prior to therapy, 3 and 6 months after it, clinical periodontal parameters were measured and GCF was collected from previously chosen site. The level of HNP1-3 in GCF was determined by means of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. The periodontal therapy caused a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in all the assessed clinical parameters at the sites of sample collection except for bleeding on probing. The level of HNP1-3 per measure point showed a statistically significant increase (baseline—3 months: p = 0.05, baseline—6 months: p = 0.007). Within the limits of the study, it can be stated that nonsurgical periodontal therapy with additional systemic administration of Amoxicillin and Metronidazole increases the level of HNP1-3 in GCF.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0451-5
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • CRISPR/Cas9 Immune System as a Tool for Genome Engineering
    • Authors: Magdalena Hryhorowicz; Daniel Lipiński; Joanna Zeyland; Ryszard Słomski
      Pages: 233 - 240
      Abstract: CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) adaptive immune systems constitute a bacterial defence against invading nucleic acids derived from bacteriophages or plasmids. This prokaryotic system was adapted in molecular biology and became one of the most powerful and versatile platforms for genome engineering. CRISPR/Cas9 is a simple and rapid tool which enables the efficient modification of endogenous genes in various species and cell types. Moreover, a modified version of the CRISPR/Cas9 system with transcriptional repressors or activators allows robust transcription repression or activation of target genes. The simplicity of CRISPR/Cas9 has resulted in the widespread use of this technology in many fields, including basic research, biotechnology and biomedicine.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0427-5
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The Impact of Sex and Age on the Prevalence of Clinically Relevant
           Sensitization and Asymptomatic Sensitization in the General Population
    • Authors: Anna Dor-Wojnarowska; Jerzy Liebhart; Jadwiga Miecielica; Marek Rabski; Andrzej Fal; Bolesław Samoliński; Marita Nittner-Marszalska
      Pages: 253 - 261
      Abstract: The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of sex and age on the prevalence of sensitization to inhalant allergens. The study was performed as a part of Polish Epidemiology of Allergic Diseases study, and data concerning citizens of Wroclaw were analyzed. The participants were divided into three age groups (6–7, 13–14, and 20–44 years) with a subdivision according to sex. We randomly selected 1409 individuals, 439 people complied; the complete set of tests was performed on 421 of them. We found that 37.7 % of the study population demonstrated sensitization to at least one of the allergens tested. Positive skin tests were found more frequently in males than in females (p = 0.003); among 6–7-year-old children, the sensitization was independent of sex (p = 0.26), while in two other groups, it was higher in males (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03, respectively). Clinically asymptomatic sensitization (AS) was found more often in females than in males (p = 0.04). The higher rate of AS in women was observed only in the two younger age groups, while in the 20–44-year-old group AS did not differ between the sexes (p = 0.72). Female sex hormones may contribute to a later change in the nature of sensitization from clinically asymptomatic to symptomatic. Further studies are needed to confirm the results of our study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0425-7
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Activated and Memory T Lymphocytes in Children with Gaucher Disease
    • Authors: Asmaa M. Zahran; Azza A. Eltayeb; Khalid I. Elsayh; Khaled Saad; Faisal-Alkhateeb Ahmad; Ahmad I. M. Ibrahim
      Pages: 263 - 269
      Abstract: Gaucher disease (GD) is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder. Gaucher disease is associated with remarkable alterations in the immune system, and GD patients are more susceptible to infections and are at a higher risk of developing autoimmune disorders and malignancies. In a case–control study, we used three-color flow cytometric immunophenotyping for determination of the frequency of lymphocyte subpopulations and activated T lymphocytes among 18 children with GD1 under enzyme replacement therapy managed in Assiut University Hospitals. We found significant increases in the frequencies of total lymphocytes, CD19+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ in children with GD1 when compared to healthy control. The frequencies of activated T lymphocytes (CD3+HLA-DR+), activated T-helper cells (CD4+HLA-DR+), and activated T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells (CD8+HLA-DR+) were significantly higher in GD1 as compared to healthy children. Our data show that the increased proportion of activated T lymphocytes in children with GD1 raises the issue of their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of the immune dysfunction seen in these patients. Our data suggested that the activated T lymphocytes could play a role in the clinical course of GD1. The relationship of these cells to immune disorders in GD1 children remains to be determined.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0421-y
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • MAVS is not a Likely Susceptibility Locus for Addison’s Disease and
           Type 1 Diabetes
    • Authors: Magdalena Zurawek; Marta Fichna; Marta Kazimierska; Piotr Fichna; Agnieszka Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk; Grzegorz Przybylski; Marek Ruchala; Jerzy Nowak
      Pages: 271 - 274
      Abstract: Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is an intracellular adaptor molecule, downstream of viral sensors, retinoid acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs). Impaired antiviral cell signaling might contribute to autoimmunity. Studies have recently shown variations in genes encoding RLRs as risk factors for autoimmune diseases. We investigated whether MAVS coding polymorphisms are associated with Addison’s disease (AD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Polish population. We genotyped 140 AD, 532 T1D patients and 600 healthy controls for MAVS rs17857295, rs7262903, rs45437096 and rs7269320. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan assays. Distribution of the MAVS genotypes and alleles did not reveal significant differences between patients and controls (p > 0.05). This analysis did not indicate the association of the MAVS locus with susceptibility to AD and T1D.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0426-6
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Role of TGF-β in Self-Peptide Regulation of Autoimmunity
    • Authors: Bhagirath Singh; Michael D. Krawetz; Rachel M. De Lima; Rinee Mukherjee; Pratibha Chaturvedi; Edwin Lee-Chan; Edward H. Leiter; Kelly L. Summers
      Abstract: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been implicated in regulation of the immune system, including autoimmunity. We have found that TGF-β is readily produced by T cells following immunization with self-peptide epitopes that downregulate autoimmune responses in type 1 diabetes (T1D) prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. These include multiple peptide epitopes derived from the islet β-cell antigens GAD65 (GAD65 p202-221, GAD65 p217-236), GAD67 (GAD67 p210-229, GAD67 p225-244), IGRP (IGRP p123-145, IGRP p195-214) and insulin B-chain (Ins. B:9-23) that protected NOD mice from T1D. Immunization of NOD mice with the self-MHC class II I-Ag7 β-chain-derived peptide, I-Aβg7 p54-76 also induced large amounts of TGF-β and also protected these mice from diabetes development. These results indicate that peptides derived from disease related self-antigens and MHC class II molecules primarily induce TGF-β producing regulatory Th3 and Tr1-like cells. TGF-β produced by these cells could enhance the differentiation of induced regulatory iTreg and iTreg17 cells to prevent induction and progression of autoimmune diseases. We therefore suggest that peripheral immune tolerance could be induced and maintained by immunization with self-peptides that induce TGF-β producing T cells.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0482-6
       
  • Possible Immunomodulating Effect of Retinol on Cytokines Secretion in
           Patients with Recurrent Furunculosis
    • Authors: Danuta Nowicka; Ewelina Grywalska; Anna Hymos; Michał Mielnik; Jacek Roliński
      Abstract: Recurrent furunculosis is an infection of hair follicles which results in formation of abscesses. Previous studies showed that the pathogenesis of the disease may include an immune-mediated component as the proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to staphylococcal antigen is depressed. The aim of our study was to evaluate cytokines concentration in the plasma of patients with recurrent furunculosis and to determine whether retinol affects the secretion of those cytokines in patients with recurrent furunculosis and healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from 15 patients with recurrent furunculosis and 15 age-matched healthy subjects. A quantitative determination of selected cytokines (IL-17, 13, 2, 10, 4, IFN-γ, TNF-α) was performed in the plasma at baseline and after 72-h culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with and without retinol in both groups. In the plasma of patients with recurrent furunculosis, concentration of IL-10, 2, and TNF-α was significantly higher, whereas IL-13 significantly lower when compared with healthy subjects. After retinol stimulation, the concentration of IL-17 and IFN-γ increased significantly in both groups. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-10 (p < 0.002) and 13 (p < 0.01), achieved lower levels in recurrent furunculosis samples than in those of healthy controls. Network of cytokines differs in patients with recurrent furunculosis from healthy subjects. Retinol stimulation affects secretion of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Further studies are recommended for better understanding the pathomechanism of recurrent furunculosis and potential clinical use of retinol in patients affected by recurrent furunculosis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0483-5
       
  • Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Target for Antitumor Therapy
    • Authors: Katarzyna Sawa-Wejksza; Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń
      Abstract: It is well known that the microenvironment of solid tumors is rich in inflammatory cells that influence tumor growth and development. Macrophages, called tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), are the most abundant immune cell population present in tumor tissue. Several studies have demonstrated that the density of TAMs is associated with a poor prognosis and positively correlates with tumor growth. Several studies have proved that TAMs may activate and protect tumor stem cells, stimulate their proliferation as well as promote angiogenesis and metastasis. Furthermore, TAMs-derived cytokines and other proteins, such as CCL-17, CCL-22, TGF-β, IL-10, arginase 1, and galectin-3, make a significant contribution to immunosuppression. Since TAMs influence various aspects of cancer progression, there are many attempts to use them as a target for immunotherapy. The numerous studies have shown that the primary tumor growth and the number of metastatic sites can be significantly decreased by decreasing the population of macrophages in tumor tissue, for example, by blocking recruitment of monocytes or eliminating TAMs already present in the tumor tissue. Moreover, there are attempts at reprogramming TAMs into proinflammatory M1 macrophages or neutralizing the protumoral products of TAMs. Another approach uses TAMs for anticancer drug delivery into the tumor environment. In this review, we would like to summarize the clinical and preclinical trials that were focused on macrophages as a target for anticancer therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0480-8
       
  • Anti-GITR Antibody Treatment Increases TCR Repertoire Diversity of
           Regulatory but not Effector T Cells Engaged in the Immune Response Against
           B16 Melanoma
    • Authors: Bozena Scirka; Edyta Szurek; Maciej Pietrzak; Grzegorz Rempala; Pawel Kisielow; Leszek Ignatowicz; Arkadiusz Miazek
      Abstract: Crosslinking of glucocorticoid-induced TNF family-related receptor (GITR) with agonist antibodies restores cancer immunity by enhancing effector T cell (Teff) responses while interfering with intra-tumor regulatory T cell (Treg) stability and/or accumulation. However, how anti-GITR antibody infusion changes T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of Teffs and Tregs engaged in anti-tumor immune response is unclear. Here, we used a transgenic mouse model (TCRmini) where T cells express naturally generated but limited TCR repertoire to trace the fate of individual T cells recognizing B16 melanoma in tumor-bearing mice, treated or non-treated with an anti-GITR monoclonal antibody DTA-1. Analysis of TCRs of CD4+ T cells from these mice revealed that the TCR repertoire of dominant tumor-reactive Teff clones remained rather similar in treated and non-treated mice. In contrast, both tumor-associated and peripheral TCR repertoire of Tregs, which were mostly distinct from that of Teffs, underwent DTA-1 mediated remodeling characterized by depletion of dominant clones and an emergence of more diverse, low-frequency clones bearing increased numbers of TCRs shared with Teffs. We conclude that the DTA-1 infusion eliminates activated Tregs engaged in the initial maintenance of tolerogenic niche for tumor growth, but over time, it favors tumor replenishment by Tregs expressing an array of TCRs able to compete with Teffs for recognition of the same tumor antigens which may prevent its complete eradication.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0479-1
       
  • Skin Immunity
    • Authors: Agata Matejuk
      Abstract: Skin is the largest organ of the body with a complex network of multitude of cell types that perform plastic and dynamic cellular communication to maintain several vital processes such as inflammation, immune response including induction of tolerance and disease prevention, wound healing, and angiogenesis. Of paramount importance are immunological functions of the skin that protect from harmful exposure coming from external and internal environments. Awareness of skin immunity can provide a better comprehension of inflammation, autoimmunity, cancer, graft-versus-host disease, vaccination, and immunotherapy approaches. This paper will update on what we currently know about immune sentinels contributing to skin immunity.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0477-3
       
  • Exocrine Gland Morphogenesis: Insights into the Role of Amphiregulin from
           Development to Disease
    • Authors: Margherita Sisto; Loredana Lorusso; Giuseppe Ingravallo; Sabrina Lisi
      Abstract: Amphiregulin (AREG) is a well-characterized member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family and is one of the ligands of the EGF receptor (EGFR). AREG plays a key role in mammalian development and in the control of branching morphogenesis in various organs. Furthermore, AREG participates in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes activating the major intracellular signalling cascades governing cell survival, proliferation and motility. In this article, we review current advances in exocrine glands morphogenesis, focusing on the salivary gland, and discuss the essential aspects of AREG structure, function and regulation, and its differential role within the EGFR family of ligands. Finally, we identify emerging aspects in AREG research applied to mammary gland development and the salivary gland autoimmune disease, Sjögren’s syndrome.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0478-2
       
  • The Immune Response in Periodontal Tissues
    • Authors: Małgorzata Nędzi-Góra; Jan Kowalski; Renata Górska
      Abstract: The uniqueness of periodontal diseases is caused by several factors. This group of diseases is caused by numerous bacterial species formed in the dental biofilm, and one cannot distinguish the specific pathogen that is responsible for the disease initiation or progress (though Gram-negative anaerobic rods are associated with the advanced form of the disease). The disease is both infectious and inflammatory in its nature, and in the state of health there is always a subclinical level of inflammatory response, caused by the so-called harmless bacteria. Negligence in oral hygiene may result in maturation of the biofilm and trigger host response, manifesting clinically as gingivitis or—later and in susceptible subjects—as periodontitis. The article presents the contemporary knowledge of the inflammatory reaction occurring in tissues surrounding the tooth during periodontal inflammation. The most important mechanisms are described, together with implications for clinicists.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0472-8
       
  • CD1: A Singed Cat of the Three Antigen Presentation Systems
    • Authors: Radoslaw Kaczmarek; Mariola Pasciak; Katarzyna Szymczak-Kulus; Marcin Czerwinski
      Abstract: Contrary to general view that the MHC Class I and II are the kapellmeisters of recognition and response to antigens, there is another big player in that part of immunity, represented by CD1 glycoproteins. In contrast to MHC Class I or II, which present peptides, CD1 molecules present lipids. Humans express five CD1 proteins (CD1a-e), four of which (CD1a-d) are trafficked to the cell surface, where they may display lipid antigens to T-cell receptors. This interaction may lead to both non-cognate and cognate T cell help to B cells, the latter eliciting anti-lipid antibody response. All CD1 proteins can bind a broad range of structurally different exogenous and endogenous lipids, but each shows a preference to one or more lipid classes. This unorthodox binding behavior is the result of elaborate architectures of CD1 binding clefts and distinct intracellular trafficking routes. Together, these features make CD1 system a versatile player in immune response, sitting at the crossroads of innate and adaptive immunity. While CD1 system may be involved in numerous infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases, its involvement may lead to opposite outcomes depending on different pathologies. Despite these ambiguities and complexity, CD1 system draws growing attention and continues to show glimmers of therapeutic potential. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about CD1 proteins, their structures, lipid-binding profiles, and roles in immunity, and evaluate the role of CD1 proteins in eliciting humoral immune response.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0461-y
       
 
 
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