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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3126 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1490 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 304)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.946
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1661-4917 - ISSN (Online) 0004-069X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Allergen-Specific T Cells in IgE-Mediated Food Allergy
    • Authors: Aziza Saidova; Ahuva Magder Hershkop; Marta Ponce; Thomas Eiwegger
      Pages: 161 - 170
      Abstract: Abstract Food allergy is the major reason for severe anaphylaxis in childhood and adolescence. Currently, effective and safe treatments for food allergy are unavailable. Allergen-specific CD4+ T cells have a pivotal role in causing and maintaining the allergic response to food allergens. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the role of allergen-specific T cells in food allergy during allergic sensitization, natural tolerance development and allergen immunotherapy. Allergen-specific T cells in the context of food allergy are predominantly of a Th2 type with slightly different surface marker expression patterns in different food allergies. During the process of reverting food allergy to a status of tolerance or sustained unresponsiveness there is a loss of this Th2 committed compartment with an asymptotic approximation to a regulatory and Th0/Th1 dominated compartment seen in non-allergic individuals. This process is accompanied by a significant reduction of absolute frequencies of allergen-specific T cells. Particularly, regulatory T cells may provide significant help to achieve sustained control of the effector cell populations via suppression of effector cell function and possibly induction of blocking antibodies.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0501-7
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Atopic Dermatitis
    • Authors: Katarzyna Osinka; Karolina Dumycz; Bartłomiej Kwiek; Wojciech Feleszko
      Pages: 171 - 181
      Abstract: Abstract Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases. The number of people affected by AD is relatively high and seems to be rising. Although mild and moderate forms of the disease can be well controlled by the use of emollients, topical corticosteroids, and topical calcineurin inhibitors, treatment of severe is still a huge challenge. The new hope is biologic drugs, magic bullets in allergy, targeted at different points of the complex pathomechanism of inflammation in AD. In this review, novel biologic therapies are discussed, including recombinant monoclonal antibodies directed against various interleukin pathways (such as IL-4, IL-13, TSLP, IL-31, and IL-12/23), on immunoglobulin E, molecules acting as T cells, B cells, etc. Of biological drugs, the most promising seems to be anti-IL-4/IL-13 therapy (dupilumab—the biological agent) and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor (crisaborole—a small molecule). A deep understanding of the AD pathomechanism provides a new perspective for tailor-made treatment of severe atopic dermatitis.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0487-1
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The Impact of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on Cancer Progression
    • Authors: Chon-Kit Chou; Ya-Ting Yang; Ho-Chun Yang; Shih-Shin Liang; Tsu-Nai Wang; Po-Lin Kuo; Hui-Min David Wang; Eing-Mei Tsai; Chien-Chih Chiu
      Pages: 183 - 197
      Abstract: Abstract Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a widely used plasticizer, mainly serves as an additive to render polyvinyl chloride (PVC) soft and flexible. PVC plastics have become ubiquitous in our modern society. Yet, the leaching of DEHP from PVC-based consumables ultimately results in the deposition in certain tissues via inadvertent applications. Health risks for human populations exposed to DEHP has been assumed by studies on rodents and other species, including the DEHP-induced developmental dysregulation, reproductive impairments, tumorigenesis, and diseases in a transgenerational manner. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the accumulated literature regarding the multifaceted roles of DEHP in the activation of the nuclear receptors, the alteration of the redox homeostasis, epigenetic modifications and the acquisition of chemoresistance.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0494-2
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Adaptive Immune Cell Dysregulation and Role in Acute Pancreatitis Disease
           Progression and Treatment
    • Authors: Pascaline Fonteh; Martin Smith; Martin Brand
      Pages: 199 - 209
      Abstract: Abstract Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammation of the pancreas caused by various stimuli including excessive alcohol consumption, gallstone disease and certain viral infections. Managing specifically the severe form of AP is limited due to lack of an understanding of the complex immune events that occur during AP involving immune cells and inflammatory molecules such as cytokines. The relative abundance of various immune cells resulting from the immune dysregulation drives disease progression. In this review, we examine the literature on the adaptive immune cells in AP, the prognostic value of these cells in stratifying patients into appropriate care and treatment strategies based on cell frequency in different AP severities are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0495-1
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Oxidative Stress in Kidney Diseases: The Cause or the Consequence'
    • Authors: Natalia Krata; Radosław Zagożdżon; Bartosz Foroncewicz; Krzysztof Mucha
      Pages: 211 - 220
      Abstract: Abstract Exaggerated oxidative stress (OS) is usually considered as a disturbance in regular function of an organism. The excessive levels of OS mediators may lead to major damage within the organism’s cells and tissues. Therefore, the OS-associated biomarkers may be considered as new diagnostic tools of various diseases. In nephrology, researchers are looking for alternative methods replacing the renal biopsy in patients with suspicion of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, CKD is a frequent health problem in world population, which can lead to progressive loss of kidney function and eventually to end-stage renal disease. The course of CKD depends on the primary disease. It is assumed that one of the factors influencing the course of CKD might be OS. In the current work, we review whether monitoring the OS-associated biomarkers in nephrology patients can support the decision-making process regarding diagnosis, prognostication and treatment initiation.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0496-0
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Bindarit Attenuates Pain and Cancer-Related Inflammation by Influencing
           Myeloid Cells in a Model of Bone Cancer
    • Authors: Shenghou Liu; Hongwei Gao; Chunzheng Gao; Wenguang Liu; Deguo Xing
      Pages: 221 - 229
      Abstract: Abstract C–C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is a small cytokine that functions in inflammation and cancer development. Bindarit, a CCL2 inhibitor, is a small anti-inflammatory molecule proven safe by phase II trials in type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients. As cancer-related inflammation is a cause of pain, we investigated whether Bindarit suppresses cancer-related inflammation and pain. We established a bone-cancer mouse model by inoculating cancer cells. After applying Bindarit, we preformed pain sensitivity tests and checked cancer development by X-ray. Using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR assays, we assessed the effect of Bindarit on peripheral blood monocyte mobilization and M2 macrophage polarization. We also investigated the targets of Bindarit using western blotting and luciferase assay. Bindarit-treated mice performed better in pain sensitivity tests compare to control mice. X-ray imaging showed that Bindarit-treated mice had fewer cancer cell colonies and smaller overall tumor burden. Bindarit reduced the number of monocytes in peripheral blood and down-regulated the expression of M2 macrophage polarization makers. Bindarit also inhibited IKKβ phosphorylation. Bindarit efficiently relieves cancer-related pain and suppresses cancer development. Bindarit inhibits monocyte mobilization in peripheral blood as well as M2 macrophage polarization. IKKβ is identified as a target of Bindarit.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0497-z
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The Effects of Intestinal Nematode L4 Stage on Mouse Experimental
           Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
    • Authors: Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska; Katarzyna Krawczak; Katarzyna Bocian; Maria Doligalska
      Pages: 231 - 243
      Abstract: Abstract Helminths use various immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory strategies to evade immune attack by the host. During pathological conditions, these strategies alter the course of disease by reducing immune-mediated pathology. The study examines the therapeutic effect of the nematode L4 stage based on an in vivo model of multiple sclerosis, monophasic encephalomyelitis (EAE), induced by sensitization with MOG35–55 peptide in C57BL/6 female mice infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The EAE remission was correlated with altered leukocyte number identified in the central nervous system (CNS), and temporary permeability of the blood–brain barrier at the histotrophic phase of infection. At 6 days post-infection, when the L4 stage had almost completely attenuated the clinical severity and pathological signs of EAE, CD25+ cell numbers expanded significantly, with parallel growth of CD8+ and CD4+, both CD25+Foxp3+ and CD25+Foxp3− subsets and alternatively activated macrophages. The phenotypic changes in distinct subsets of cerebrospinal fluid cells were correlated with an inhibited proliferative response of encephalitogenic T cells and elevated levels of nerve growth factor and TGF-β. These results enhance our understanding of mechanisms involved in the inhibition of immune responses in the CNS during nematode infection.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0489-z
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Immunotherapy as an Option for Cancer Treatment
    • Authors: Tillmann Rusch; Jagadeesh Bayry; Jens Werner; Ivan Shevchenko; Alexandr V. Bazhin
      Pages: 89 - 96
      Abstract: Abstract The progress in melanoma immunotherapy highlights the importance of immunotherapy for cancer treatment. Although the concept of immunotherapy emerged in the beginning of the twentieth century, the end of the century signaled the start of modern immunotherapy, which has recently allowed a staggering progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Currently, there is a wide variety of immunotherapeutic approaches and critical improvements are continually being made. Among different immunotherapeutic strategies, therapies based on the blockade of immune checkpoint molecules have shown unparalleled efficacy in late-stage cancer patients. Pre-clinical research using ex vivo and in vivo approaches demonstrates the promise of numerous novel strategies for the immunotherapy of cancer.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0491-5
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Target for Antitumor Therapy
    • Authors: Katarzyna Sawa-Wejksza; Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń
      Pages: 97 - 111
      Abstract: Abstract It is well known that the microenvironment of solid tumors is rich in inflammatory cells that influence tumor growth and development. Macrophages, called tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), are the most abundant immune cell population present in tumor tissue. Several studies have demonstrated that the density of TAMs is associated with a poor prognosis and positively correlates with tumor growth. Several studies have proved that TAMs may activate and protect tumor stem cells, stimulate their proliferation as well as promote angiogenesis and metastasis. Furthermore, TAMs-derived cytokines and other proteins, such as CCL-17, CCL-22, TGF-β, IL-10, arginase 1, and galectin-3, make a significant contribution to immunosuppression. Since TAMs influence various aspects of cancer progression, there are many attempts to use them as a target for immunotherapy. The numerous studies have shown that the primary tumor growth and the number of metastatic sites can be significantly decreased by decreasing the population of macrophages in tumor tissue, for example, by blocking recruitment of monocytes or eliminating TAMs already present in the tumor tissue. Moreover, there are attempts at reprogramming TAMs into proinflammatory M1 macrophages or neutralizing the protumoral products of TAMs. Another approach uses TAMs for anticancer drug delivery into the tumor environment. In this review, we would like to summarize the clinical and preclinical trials that were focused on macrophages as a target for anticancer therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0480-8
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment: Current
           Knowledge and Future Perspectives
    • Authors: Maria Ibáñez-Vea; Miren Zuazo; Maria Gato; Hugo Arasanz; Gonzalo Fernández-Hinojal; David Escors; Grazyna Kochan
      Pages: 113 - 123
      Abstract: Abstract The current knowledge on tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is based mainly on the extensive work performed in murine models. Data obtained for human counterparts are generated on the basis of tumor analysis from patient samples. Both sources of information led to determination of the main suppressive mechanisms used by these cell subsets in tumor-bearing hosts. As a result of the identification of protein targets responsible for MDSCs suppressive activity, different therapeutics agents have been used to eliminate/reduce their adverse effect. In the present work, we review the current knowledge on suppressive mechanisms of MDSCs and therapeutic treatments that interfere with their differentiation, expansion or activity. Based on the accumulation of new evidences supporting their importance for tumor progression and metastasis, the interest in these cell types is increasing. We revise the methods of MDSC generation/differentiation ex vivo that may help in overcoming problems associated with limited numbers of cells available from animals and patients for their study.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0492-4
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • STING Signaling in Cancer Cells: Important or Not'
    • Authors: Olga Sokolowska; Dominika Nowis
      Pages: 125 - 132
      Abstract: Abstract Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an adaptor protein that plays an important role in the activation of type I interferons in response to cytosolic nucleic acid ligands. Recent evidence indicates involvement of the STING pathway in the induction of antitumor immune response. Therefore, STING agonists are now being extensively developed as a new class of cancer therapeutics. However, little is known about the consequences of activated STING-mediated signaling in cancer cells on the efficacy of the antitumor treatment. It has been shown that activation of the STING-dependent pathway in cancer cells can result in tumor infiltration with immune cells and modulation of the anticancer immune response. Understanding the function of STING pathway in cancer cells might provide important insights into the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on the role of STING pathway in cancer cells, the largely unknown topic that has recently emerged to be important in the context of STING-mediated antitumor responses.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0481-7
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • The PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitory Pathway is Altered in Primary
           Glomerulonephritides
    • Authors: Ewelina Grywalska; Iwona Smarz-Widelska; Ewelina Krasowska-Zajac; Izabela Korona-Glowniak; Karolina Zaluska-Patel; Michal Mielnik; Martyna Podgajna; Anna Malm; Jacek Rolinski; Wojciech Zaluska
      Pages: 133 - 143
      Abstract: Abstract The pathogenesis of primary proliferative and non-proliferative glomerulonephritides (PGN and NPGN) is still not fully understood, however, current evidence suggests that most cases of PGN and NPGN are the results of immunologic response to different etiologic agents that activates various biological processes leading to glomerular inflammation and injury. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is the major inhibitory receptor regulating T cell exhaustion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of PD-1-positive and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive T and B lymphocytes in patients with NPGN and PGN in relation to clinical parameters for the first time. The study included peripheral blood (PB) samples from 20 newly diagnosed PGN and NPGN patients. The control group comprised of 20 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. The viable PB lymphocytes underwent labelling with fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1, and were analyzed using a flow cytometer. The frequencies of CD4+/PD1+ T lymphocytes, CD8+/PD1+ T lymphocytes, and CD19+/PD-1+ B lymphocytes in the PGN group exceeded values obtained both in the NPGN group, and the control group. Alteration of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be involved in poorer prognosis, as patients with PGN are characterized by higher frequencies of PD-1-positive and PD-L1-positive T and B lymphocytes than patients with NPGN. Our results suggest that deregulation of PD-1/PD-L1 axis may contribute to the PGN and NPGN pathogenesis. High percentages of lymphocytes with PD-1 and PD-L1 expression may be related to the continuous T-cell activation and development of glomerular inflammation and injury.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0485-3
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Biological and Pro-Angiogenic Properties of Genetically Modified Human
           Primary Myoblasts Overexpressing Placental Growth Factor in In Vitro and
           In Vivo Studies
    • Authors: Agnieszka Zimna; Bartosz Wiernicki; Tomasz Kolanowski; Natalia Rozwadowska; Agnieszka Malcher; Wojciech Labedz; Tomasz Trzeciak; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Katarzyna Bednarek-Rajewska; Przemyslaw Majewski; Maciej Kurpisz
      Pages: 145 - 159
      Abstract: Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are a growing problem in developing countries; therefore, there is an ongoing intensive search for new approaches to treat these disorders. Currently, cellular therapies are focused on healing the damaged heart by implanting stem cells modified with pro-angiogenic factors. This approach ensures that the introduced cells are capable of fulfilling the complex requirements of the environment, including the replacement of the post-infarction scar with cells that are able to contract and promote the formation of new blood vessels that can supply the ischaemic region with nutrients and oxygen. This study focused on the genetic modification of human skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs). We chose myoblast cells due to their close biological resemblance to cardiomyocytes and the placental growth factor (PlGF) gene due to its pro-angiogenic potential. In our in vitro studies, we transfected SkMCs with the PlGF gene using electroporation, which has previously been proven to be efficient and generate robust overexpression of the PlGF gene and elevate PlGF protein secretion. Moreover, the functionality of the secreted pro-angiogenic proteins was confirmed using an in vitro capillary development assay. We have also examined the influence of PlGF overexpression on VEGF-A and VEGF-B, which are well-known factors described in the literature as the most potent activators of blood vessel formation. We were able to confirm the overexpression of VEGF-A in myoblasts transfected with the PlGF gene. The results obtained in this study were further verified in an animal model. These data were able to confirm the potential therapeutic effects of the applied treatments.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0486-2
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Differences in the Expression of TLR-2, NOD2, and NF-κB in Placenta
           Between Twins
    • Authors: Łukasz Szylberg; Magdalena Bodnar; Anna Lebioda; Patrycja Krepska; Adam Kowalewski; Grzegorz Bręborowicz; Andrzej Marszałek
      Abstract: Abstract Dizygotic twins share the same type of genetic relationship as non-twin siblings. Whereas monozygotic (MZ) twins are considered to have identical genetic material, they still differ. There is a number of reasons for early MZ twin discordance, including differences in the in utero environment, stochasticity, genetic mosaicism, and epigenetic factors. During gestation, the efficient innate immune system is of utmost importance. Our study was based on immunohistochemical evaluation of the differences in innate immune protein expression (TLR-2, NOD2, and NF-κB) in the 95 placentas between twins. Our study revealed statistical significant differences between diamniotic–dichorionic and monoamniotic–dichorionic twins. Monoamniotic–monochorionic twins exhibited no significant differences in protein expressions. To identify epigenetic factors causing the differences between twins, we made a series of comparisons with clinical data. The study revealed more cases with infections, miscarriages, in vitro fertilization, and premature rupture of membranes within the group with higher differences level of NF-κB, NOD2 and TLR-2 between twins. In case of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, there were no significant differences in innate immune protein expressions between twins. These results show that dissimilar genetic material and separate in utero environment promote discordance in innate immune protein expressions between twins. Moreover, additional blood flow between twins may be favorable in life-threatening conditions ensuring similar microenvironment.
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0514-x
       
  • Changes in MiRNA-5196 Expression as a Potential Biomarker of Anti-TNF-α
           Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients
    • Authors: Marzena Ciechomska; Krzysztof Bonek; Michal Merdas; Patryk Zarecki; Jerzy Swierkot; Piotr Gluszko; Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik; Wlodzimierz Maslinski
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we analysed the expression level of sera circulating miRNA-5196 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients before and after tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy as biomarkers predicting positive treatment outcome. We enrolled 10 RA patients, 13 AS patients, and 12 healthy individuals in the study. The expression of miRNA-5196 was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction before and after anti-TNF-α therapy. Disease activity of RA patients was assessed using disease activity score 28 (DAS28), whereas ankylosing spondylitis DAS (ASDAS) was used in AS patients. MiRNA-5196 expression was significantly higher in patients with RA and AS before TNF-α therapy than in those following anti-TNF-α therapy and healthy controls. Changes in miRNA-5196 expression positively correlated with delta DAS28 or delta ASDAS, respectively, following TNF-α therapy. In contrast, changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in RA and AS patients did not positively correlate with DAS28 or ASDAS changes. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed better diagnostic accuracy of miRNA-5196 expression both in RA (area under curve (AUC) = 0.87, p = 0.055) and AS patients (AUC = 0.90, p = 0.050) compared to CRP levels in RA (AUC = 0.75, p = 0.201) and AS patients (AUC = 0.85, p = 0.086) upon biologic therapy treatment. Finding novel biomarkers, including miRNA-5196 which allow to predict and monitor anti-TNF-α response, would be of clinical value especially during the early phase of RA or AS development.
      PubDate: 2018-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0513-y
       
  • Detection of 16α-Hydroxyestrone-histone 1 Adduct as High-Affinity Antigen
           for Rheumatoid Arthritis Autoantibodies
    • Authors: Wahid Ali Khan; Gaffar Sarwar Zaman
      Abstract: Abstract Increased concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE1) have been observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the underlying mechanism of this remains elusive. Here we aimed to identify the role played by 16α-OHE1 in RA. In 40 RA patients, the specificities of antibodies from the sera of these patients were checked by direct binding, inhibition ELISA, and quantitative precipitation titration. Competition ELISA was also used for the estimation of 16α-OHE1 in the serum of different RA patients. RA IgG from a patient’s sera showed strong recognition to 16α-OHE1-H1 (histone 1) adduct in comparison to control subjects (p < 0.001), as the formation of this adduct brings out various biochemical changes that might generate neo-epitopes, which have been well-recognized by these antibodies. The affinity of RA antibodies for 16α-OHE1-H1 (1.10 × 10− 7 M) was high, as detected by the Langmuir plot. Comparing RA patients to the controls, no significant differences were detected in the level of 16α-OHE1 or 2-hydroxyestrone/16α-OHE1 ratio. 16α-OHE1-H1 might have an antigenic role and function as a high-affinity antigen for RA autoantibodies and, therefore, could be used as a biomarker for this disease.
      PubDate: 2018-04-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0512-z
       
  • Role of Chicoric Acid and 13- Cis Retinoic Acid in Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis Infection Control by Human U937 Macrophage
    • Authors: Bahareh Abd-Nikfarjam; Marjan Nassiri-Asl; Mehri Hajiaghayi; Taghi Naserpour Farivar
      Abstract: Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survives and proliferates within the main cells of the innate immune system, macrophages. The goal of our study was to investigate the immunostimulatory effects of 13-cis retinoic acid (RA) and chicoric acid (CA) in human U937 macrophages against H37Ra Mtb infection by evaluating its potential role in the cell surface expression of HLA-DR, CD14 molecules as well as nitric oxide (NO) production and prevention of the Mtb growth within macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effects of 13-cis RA and CA on Mtb-infected macrophages using flowcytometry and Griess methods, respectively. Moreover, inhibitory effect of 13-cis RA and CA on Mtb growth within macrophages were assessed using colony-forming unit. 13-Cis RA and CA enhanced the cell surface expression of HLA-DR and CD14 molecules on U937 macrophages and prevented the growth of Mtb within macrophages. In addition, 13-cis RA and CA, have increased NO generation compared to untreated control macrophages, significantly (p < 0.001). Both drugs have a significant inhibitory effect on Mtb growth but CA at the highest concentration was more potent than 13-cis RA (p < 0.05). The results of our study showed that infected U937 macrophages treated with 13-cis RA and CA represented significant increases in NO production, CD14 and HLA-DR expression and also prevents intracellular survival of Mtb. Therefore, 13-cis RA and CA may have a significant therapeutic approach in the control of Mtb infection.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0511-0
       
  • The Microbial Endocrinology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa : Inflammatory and
           Immune Perspectives
    • Authors: Valerie F. L. Yong; Min Min Soh; Tavleen Kaur Jaggi; Micheál Mac Aogáin; Sanjay H. Chotirmall
      Abstract: Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for both acute and chronic infection. Known as a colonising pathogen of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, it is implicated in other settings such as bronchiectasis. It has the ability to cause acute disseminated or localised infection particularly in the immunocompromised. Human hormones have been highlighted as potential regulators of bacterial virulence through crosstalk between analogous “quorum sensing” (QS) systems present in the bacteria that respond to mammalian hormones. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to utilise interconnected QS systems to coordinate its virulence and evade various aspects of the host immune system activated in response to infection. Several human hormones demonstrate an influence on P. aeruginosa growth and virulence. This inter-kingdom signalling, termed “microbial endocrinology” has important implications for host–microbe interaction during infection and, potentially opens up novel avenues for therapeutic intervention. This phenomenon, supported by the existence of sexual dichotomies in both microbial infection and chronic lung diseases such as CF is potentially explained by sex hormones and their influence on the infective process. This review summarises our current understanding of the microbial endocrinology of P. aeruginosa, including its endogenous QS systems and their intersection with human endocrinology, pathogenesis of infection and the host immune system.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0510-1
       
  • Muscle Stem/Progenitor Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Bone Marrow
           Origin for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in Muscular Dystrophies
    • Authors: Aleksandra Klimczak; Urszula Kozlowska; Maciej Kurpisz
      Abstract: Abstract Muscular dystrophies represent a group of diseases which may develop in several forms, and severity of the disease is usually associated with gene mutations. In skeletal muscle regeneration and in muscular dystrophies, both innate and adaptive immune responses are involved. The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin was confirmed by the ability to differentiate into diverse tissues and by their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties by secretion of a variety of growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Skeletal muscle comprises different types of stem/progenitor cells such as satellite cells and non-satellite stem cells including MSCs, interstitial stem cells positive for stress mediator PW1 expression and negative for PAX7 called PICs (PW1+/PAX7− interstitial cells), fibro/adipogenic progenitors/mesenchymal stem cells, muscle side population cells and muscle resident pericytes, and all of them actively participate in the muscle regeneration process. In this review, we present biological properties of MSCs of bone marrow origin and a heterogeneous population of muscle-resident stem/progenitor cells, their interaction with the inflammatory environment of dystrophic muscle and potential implications for cellular therapies for muscle regeneration. Subsequently, we propose—based on current research results, conclusions, and our own experience—hypothetical mechanisms for modulation of the complete muscle regeneration process to treat muscular dystrophies.
      PubDate: 2018-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0509-7
       
  • Thymus Colonization: Who, How, How Many'
    • Authors: Andreas Krueger
      Abstract: Abstract De novo generation of T cells depends on continual colonization of the thymus by bone marrow-derived progenitors. Thymus seeding progenitors (TSPs) constitute a heterogeneous population comprising multipotent and lineage-restricted cell types. Entry into the thymic microenvironment is tightly controlled and recent quantitative studies have revealed that the adult murine thymus only contains approximately 160 niches to accommodate TSPs. Of these niches only about 6% are open for seeding on average at steady-state. Here, I review the state of understanding of colonization of the adult murine thymus with a particular focus on past and current controversies in the field. Improving thymus colonization and/or maintaining intact TSP niches during the course of pre-conditioning regimens are likely to be critical for efficient T-cell regeneration after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0503-5
       
 
 
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