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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2982 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1420 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
  [SJR: 1.2]   [H-I: 42]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1661-4917 - ISSN (Online) 0004-069X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • The Use of Omalizumab in Food Oral Immunotherapy
    • Authors: Roxane Labrosse; François Graham; Anne Des Roches; Philippe Bégin
      Pages: 189 - 199
      Abstract: Food allergy is an important health issue that affects up to 8 % of the population. The management of allergic patients involves allergen avoidance and prompts the treatment of accidental reactions, as no curative treatment is available so far in routine practice. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising therapeutic alternative, but it is associated with frequent allergic reactions and cost-effectiveness issues. In hopes of reducing such reactions, a number of trials have used omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal humanized antibody, as adjunctive therapy in OIT. The allergens studied in these omalizumab-enabled OIT trials include peanuts, milk, eggs, or mixes of multiple foods. In this article, we review the major findings from these studies and discuss potential benefits and issues related to omalizumab-enabled OIT. Results from the previous trials suggest that the use of omalizumab could potentially lead to safer and more efficient OIT protocols, by reducing the number and severity of reactions, and increasing allergen tolerance threshold. While more evidence is needed with regard to the maintenance of the long-term tolerance after OIT, omalizumab’s potential immunomodulatory role could be of benefit. More studies are needed to further document this new indication for omalizumab.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0420-z
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Clinical Use and Therapeutic Potential of IVIG/SCIG, Plasma-Derived IgA or
           IgM, and Other Alternative Immunoglobulin Preparations
    • Authors: Peter J. Späth; Christoph Schneider; Stephan von Gunten
      Pages: 215 - 231
      Abstract: Intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin preparations, consisting of IgG class antibodies, are increasingly used to treat a broad range of pathological conditions, including humoral immune deficiencies, as well as acute and chronic inflammatory or autoimmune disorders. A plethora of Fab- or Fc-mediated immune regulatory mechanisms has been described that might act separately or in concert, depending on pathogenesis or stage of clinical condition. Attempts have been undertaken to improve the efficacy of polyclonal IgG preparations, including the identification of relevant subfractions, mild chemical modification of molecules, or modification of carbohydrate side chains. Furthermore, plasma-derived IgA or IgM preparations may exhibit characteristics that might be exploited therapeutically. The need for improved treatment strategies without increase in plasma demand is a goal and might be achieved by more optimal use of plasma-derived proteins, including the IgA and the IgM fractions. This article provides an overview on the current knowledge and future strategies to improve the efficacy of regular IgG preparations and discusses the potential of human plasma-derived IgA, IgM, and preparations composed of mixtures of IgG, IgA, and IgM.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0422-x
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • CRISPR/Cas9 Immune System as a Tool for Genome Engineering
    • Authors: Magdalena Hryhorowicz; Daniel Lipiński; Joanna Zeyland; Ryszard Słomski
      Pages: 233 - 240
      Abstract: CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) adaptive immune systems constitute a bacterial defence against invading nucleic acids derived from bacteriophages or plasmids. This prokaryotic system was adapted in molecular biology and became one of the most powerful and versatile platforms for genome engineering. CRISPR/Cas9 is a simple and rapid tool which enables the efficient modification of endogenous genes in various species and cell types. Moreover, a modified version of the CRISPR/Cas9 system with transcriptional repressors or activators allows robust transcription repression or activation of target genes. The simplicity of CRISPR/Cas9 has resulted in the widespread use of this technology in many fields, including basic research, biotechnology and biomedicine.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0427-5
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A Quinone-Containing Compound Enhances Camptothecin-Induced Apoptosis of
           Lung Cancer Through Modulating Endogenous ROS and ERK Signaling
    • Authors: Han-Lin Chou; Yao Fong; Chi-Ku Wei; Eing-Mei Tsai; Jeff Yi-Fu Chen; Wen-Tsan Chang; Chang-Yi Wu; Hurng-Wern Huang; Chien-Chih Chiu
      Pages: 241 - 252
      Abstract: The natural compound camptothecin (CPT) derivatives have widely been used for anti-cancer treatments, including lung cancer. However, many chemoresistant cancer cells often develop a relatively higher threshold for inducing apoptosis, causing a limited efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. Likewise, lung cancer cells acquire chemoresistance against CPT analogs, such as irinotecan and topotecan, finally resulting in an unsatisfied outcome and poor prognosis of lung cancer patients. TFPP is a quinone-containing compound as a candidate for CPT-based combination chemotherapy. In this study, we examined the effect of TFPP and CPT cotreatment on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Cell proliferation and flow cytometry-based Annexin-V/PI staining assays demonstrated the synergistic effect of TFPP on CPT-induced apoptosis in both NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells. The results of CPT and TFPP cotreatment cause the regulation of the ERK-Bim axis and the activation of mitochondrial-mediated caspase cascade, including caspase-9 and caspase-3. Besides, TFPP significantly enhanced CPT-induced endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the two NSCLC cells. In contrast, the treatment of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, rescues the apoptosis of NSCLC cells induced by TFPP and CPT cotreatment, suggesting that the synergistic effect of TFPP on CPT-induced anti-NSCLC cells is through upregulating ROS production. Consequently, our results suggest that TFPP sensitizes NSCLC towards CPT-based chemotherapy may act through decreasing the apoptosis-initiating threshold. Therefore, TFPP may be a promising chemosensitizer for lung cancer treatment, and the underlying mechanism warrants further.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0424-8
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The Impact of Sex and Age on the Prevalence of Clinically Relevant
           Sensitization and Asymptomatic Sensitization in the General Population
    • Authors: Anna Dor-Wojnarowska; Jerzy Liebhart; Jadwiga Miecielica; Marek Rabski; Andrzej Fal; Bolesław Samoliński; Marita Nittner-Marszalska
      Pages: 253 - 261
      Abstract: The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of sex and age on the prevalence of sensitization to inhalant allergens. The study was performed as a part of Polish Epidemiology of Allergic Diseases study, and data concerning citizens of Wroclaw were analyzed. The participants were divided into three age groups (6–7, 13–14, and 20–44 years) with a subdivision according to sex. We randomly selected 1409 individuals, 439 people complied; the complete set of tests was performed on 421 of them. We found that 37.7 % of the study population demonstrated sensitization to at least one of the allergens tested. Positive skin tests were found more frequently in males than in females (p = 0.003); among 6–7-year-old children, the sensitization was independent of sex (p = 0.26), while in two other groups, it was higher in males (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03, respectively). Clinically asymptomatic sensitization (AS) was found more often in females than in males (p = 0.04). The higher rate of AS in women was observed only in the two younger age groups, while in the 20–44-year-old group AS did not differ between the sexes (p = 0.72). Female sex hormones may contribute to a later change in the nature of sensitization from clinically asymptomatic to symptomatic. Further studies are needed to confirm the results of our study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0425-7
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Activated and Memory T Lymphocytes in Children with Gaucher Disease
    • Authors: Asmaa M. Zahran; Azza A. Eltayeb; Khalid I. Elsayh; Khaled Saad; Faisal-Alkhateeb Ahmad; Ahmad I. M. Ibrahim
      Pages: 263 - 269
      Abstract: Gaucher disease (GD) is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder. Gaucher disease is associated with remarkable alterations in the immune system, and GD patients are more susceptible to infections and are at a higher risk of developing autoimmune disorders and malignancies. In a case–control study, we used three-color flow cytometric immunophenotyping for determination of the frequency of lymphocyte subpopulations and activated T lymphocytes among 18 children with GD1 under enzyme replacement therapy managed in Assiut University Hospitals. We found significant increases in the frequencies of total lymphocytes, CD19+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ in children with GD1 when compared to healthy control. The frequencies of activated T lymphocytes (CD3+HLA-DR+), activated T-helper cells (CD4+HLA-DR+), and activated T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells (CD8+HLA-DR+) were significantly higher in GD1 as compared to healthy children. Our data show that the increased proportion of activated T lymphocytes in children with GD1 raises the issue of their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of the immune dysfunction seen in these patients. Our data suggested that the activated T lymphocytes could play a role in the clinical course of GD1. The relationship of these cells to immune disorders in GD1 children remains to be determined.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0421-y
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • MAVS is not a Likely Susceptibility Locus for Addison’s Disease and
           Type 1 Diabetes
    • Authors: Magdalena Zurawek; Marta Fichna; Marta Kazimierska; Piotr Fichna; Agnieszka Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk; Grzegorz Przybylski; Marek Ruchala; Jerzy Nowak
      Pages: 271 - 274
      Abstract: Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is an intracellular adaptor molecule, downstream of viral sensors, retinoid acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs). Impaired antiviral cell signaling might contribute to autoimmunity. Studies have recently shown variations in genes encoding RLRs as risk factors for autoimmune diseases. We investigated whether MAVS coding polymorphisms are associated with Addison’s disease (AD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Polish population. We genotyped 140 AD, 532 T1D patients and 600 healthy controls for MAVS rs17857295, rs7262903, rs45437096 and rs7269320. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan assays. Distribution of the MAVS genotypes and alleles did not reveal significant differences between patients and controls (p > 0.05). This analysis did not indicate the association of the MAVS locus with susceptibility to AD and T1D.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0426-6
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Immunosensors for Biomarker Detection in Autoimmune Diseases
    • Authors: Xuezhu Zhang; Amarayca Zambrano; Zuan-Tao Lin; Yikun Xing; Justin Rippy; Tianfu Wu
      Pages: 111 - 121
      Abstract: Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system generates proinflammatory molecules and autoantibodies that mistakenly attack their own body. Traditional diagnosis of autoimmune disease is primarily based on physician assessment combined with core laboratory tests. However, these tests are not sensitive enough to detect early molecular events, and quite often, it is too late to control these autoimmune diseases and reverse tissue damage when conventional tests show positivity for disease. It is fortunate that during the past decade, research in nanotechnology has provided enormous opportunities for the development of ultrasensitive biosensors in detecting early biomarkers with high sensitivity. Biosensors consist of a biorecognition element and a transducer which are able to facilitate an accurate detection of proinflammatory molecules, autoantibodies and other disease-causing molecules. Apparently, novel biosensors could be superior to traditional metrics in assessing the drug efficacy in clinical trials, especially when specific biomarkers are indicative of the pathogenesis of disease. Furthermore, the portability of a biosensor enables the development of point-of-care devices. In this review, various types of biomolecule sensing systems, including electrochemical, optical and mechanical sensors, and their applications and future potentials in autoimmune disease treatment were discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0419-5
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Hormonal Modulation of Dendritic Cells Differentiation, Maturation and
           Function: Implications for the Initiation and Progress of Systemic
           Autoimmunity
    • Authors: Juan Pablo Mackern-Oberti; Evelyn L. Jara; Claudia A. Riedel; Alexis M. Kalergis
      Pages: 123 - 136
      Abstract: Hormonal homeostasis is crucial for keeping a competent and healthy immune function. Several hormones can modulate the function of various immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) by influencing the initiation of the immune response and the maintenance of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. Hormones, such as estrogens, prolactin, progesterone and glucocorticoids may profoundly affect DCs differentiation, maturation and function leading to either a pro-inflammatory or an anti-inflammatory (or tolerogenic) phenotype. If not properly regulated, these processes can contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. An unbalanced hormonal status may affect the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the expression of activating/inhibitory receptors and co-stimulatory molecules on conventional and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), conferring susceptibility to develop autoimmunity. Estrogen receptor (ER)-α signaling in conventional DCs can promote IFN-α and IL-6 production and induce the expression of CD40, CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, estrogen modulates the pDCs response to Toll-like receptor ligands enhancing T cell priming. During lupus pathogenesis, ER-α deficiency decreased the expression of MHC II on pDCs from the spleen. In contrast, estradiol administration to lupus-prone female mice increased the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, enhanced the immunogenicity and produced large amounts of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α by bone marrow-derived DCs. These data suggest that estradiol/ER signaling may play an active role during lupus pathology. Similarly, understanding hormonal modulation of DCs may favor the design of new therapeutic strategies based on autologous tolerogenic DCs transfer, especially in sex-biased systemic autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss recent data relative to the role of different hormones (estrogen, prolactin, progesterone and glucocorticoids) in DC function during systemic autoimmune pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0418-6
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Autoreactive IgE in Chronic Spontaneous/Idiopathic Urticaria and
           Basophil/Mastocyte Priming Phenomenon, as a Feature of Autoimmune Nature
           of the Syndrome
    • Authors: Bernard Panaszek; Robert Pawłowicz; Jędrzej Grzegrzółka; Andrzej Obojski
      Pages: 137 - 143
      Abstract: Recent years of research have shed a new light on the role of IgE in immune reactions. It seems to be more than just a contribution to immediate type of allergic response. It appears that monomeric IgE may enhance mast cell activity without cross-linking of FcεRI by IgE specific allergen or autoreactive IgG anti-IgE antibodies. Monomeric IgE molecules are heterogeneous concerning their ability to induce survival and activation of mast cells only by binding the IgE to FcεRI, but not affecting degranulation of cells. It also turned out that IgE may react to autoantigens occurring in the blood not only in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) but also in other autoimmune diseases. The aforementioned phenomena may promote the activity of mast cells/basophils in CSU that easily degranulate when influenced by various inner (autoreactive IgG against IgE and FcεRI, autoreactive IgE for self-antigens) and outer factors (cold, heat, pressure) or allergens. These findings forced the new approach to the role of autoimmunity, self-antigens and IgE autoantibodies in the pathology of CSU. CSU put in the scheme of autoreactive IgG and autoreactive IgE seems to be either a kind of an autoimmune disease or a clinical manifestation of some other defined autoimmune diseases or both.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0417-7
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • In Vivo Cardioprotective Effects and Pharmacokinetic Profile of N -Propyl
           Caffeamide Against Ischemia Reperfusion Injury
    • Authors: Yuan-Yuan Cheng; Dan Luo; Zhengyuan Xia; Hung-Fat Tse; Xuechen Li; Jianhui Rong
      Pages: 145 - 156
      Abstract: Caffeic acid derivatives constitute a class of potent anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective drug candidates. We recently synthesized a new caffeic acid derivative N-propyl caffeamide (PCA). Our pilot experiments demonstrated that PCA enhanced the survival of rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells against oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation challenge in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, PCA exhibited better cardioprotective potential than caffeic acid phenethyl ester and propyl caffeate. Thus, we hypothesized that PCA could protect heart against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. We first determined the stability and pharmacokinetic profile of PCA in male Sprague–Dawley rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV and MS/MS detections. The stability of PCA in rat plasma was defined by the half-life of 31.39, 7.19 and 1.37 h in rat plasma at 25, 37 and 60 °C, respectively. To study the pharmacokinetic profiles, PCA was injected into male SD rats at the dose of 15 mg/kg via intravenous bolus administration. PCA showed the elimination half-life of approximate 235 min in rats. We subsequently evaluated the cardioprotective potential of PCA in mice model of myocardial infarction. Our results demonstrated that PCA effectively reduced infarct size and release of myocardial enzymes (e.g., CK, CK-MB and LDH). Biochemical analyses suggested that PCA increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (e.g., CAT and SOD) while attenuated lipid peroxidation. Moreover, PCA profoundly reduced the number of apoptotic cells in infarcted myocardium. Consistently, PCA increased the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 whereas suppressed the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax in cardiac tissues. Collectively, PCA appears to be a novel bioavailable and stable pharmacological treatment for myocardial infarction.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0413-y
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Differences
           Revealed Between Epithelial Cells from Nasal Polyps and Inferior
           Turbinates
    • Authors: Michael Könnecke; Maike Burmeister; Ralph Pries; Robert Böscke; Karl-Ludwig Bruchhage; Hendrik Ungefroren; Ludger Klimek; Barbara Wollenberg
      Pages: 157 - 173
      Abstract: The pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains unclear to date. The tissue remodeling in nasal polyps may be the result of inflammatory mediators and may involve epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and EMT-associated features such as cell motility in nasal epithelial cells (NECs). We determined whether NEC in nasal polyps of CRS already display features of EMT in vivo or respond with EMT to growth factor stimulation in vitro. Nasal polyp tissues expressed both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Primary NEC from inferior turbinates and nasal polyps responded to the EMT-inducing agents transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) with different expression patterns of EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, Twist), however, only NEC from nasal polyps were susceptible to TGF-β1 and EGF-dependent cell migration. Our data suggest that a partial EMT is associated with the pathogenesis of nasal polyps in CRS patients. Furthermore, we show for the first time that epithelial cells from both nasal polyps and inferior turbinates were able to undergo an EMT-like process following exposure to TGF-β1 or EGF in vitro but that only NEC from nasal polyps responded with enhanced cell motility. Our data suggest that NEC from CRS patients have undergo partial EMT and that this process may be involved in the pathogenesis of CRS.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0409-7
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Expression Profiles of Toll-Like Receptors in the Differentiation of an
           Infection with Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Spirochetes
    • Authors: Slawomir Dudek; Ewa Ziółko; Magdalena Kimsa-Dudek; Krzysztof Solarz; Urszula Mazurek; Aleksander Wierzgoń; Teresa Kokot; Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń
      Pages: 175 - 182
      Abstract: The similarity of Lyme borreliosis to other diseases and its complex pathogenesis present diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The changes that occur at the cellular and molecular levels after a Borrelia sp. infection still remain poorly understood. Therefore, the present study focused on the expression of TLR and TLR-signaling genes in human dermal fibroblasts in the differentiation of an infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes. Normal human dermal fibroblasts were cultured with the spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii. Total RNA was extracted from the cells using TRIzol reagent. The analysis of the expression profiles of TLRs and TLR-related genes was performed using commercially available oligonucleotide microarrays of HG-U133A. The GeneSpring 12.0 platform and significance analysis of microarrays were used for the statistical analysis of microarray data. The analyses using the oligonucleotide microarray and QRT-PCR techniques permitted to identify the genes encoding TLR4 and TLR6 as specific for infection with B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. In turn, TLR3 was only characteristic for an infection with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. There were no changes in the TLR gene expression after infection with B. garinii. Our findings confirm that Borrelia has a major effect on fibroblast gene expression. Further characterization of changes in gene expression may lead to valuable insights into the role of the toll-like receptor in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease and may provide guidelines for the development of diagnostic markers for an infection with a particular Borrelia genospecies. Moreover, this will help to identify better treatment strategies for Lyme disease.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0416-8
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Polymorphic Variants 279R and 668Q Augment Activity of Matrix
           Metalloproteinase-9 in Breath Condensates of Children with Asthma
    • Authors: Katarzyna Grzela; Wioletta Zagórska; Alicja Krejner; Malgorzata Litwiniuk; Anna Zawadzka-Krajewska; Marek Kulus; Tomasz Grzela
      Pages: 183 - 187
      Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is involved in pathophysiology of asthma, mainly asthma-associated airway remodeling. Exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of asthmatics contain increased amounts of MMP-9 with activity higher, than in healthy controls. The increased activity of MMP-9 may originate from its excessive production and activation, but may also result from variations in MMP-9 structure, which are determined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this pilot study we aimed to assess the possible influence of two functional MMP-9 polymorphisms, Q279R and R668Q, on enzymatic activity of MMP-9, measured in EBC of asthmatic children. The concentration and activity of MMP-9 were analyzed in EBC of 20 children with allergic asthma using specific standard ELISA and novel immunoenzymatic activity assay. The SNPs of MMP-9 were assessed using real-time PCR-based genotyping test. We have found that MMP-9 concentration in breath condensates of children with stable asthma was slightly higher in ELISA, than in the activity assay. Moreover, these results and activity-to-amount ratio have revealed some relationship with a presence of specific 279R and/or 668Q MMP-9 gene variants. Our observation suggests that at least in some patients MMP-9 hyperactivity may result from genetic predisposition, determined by polymorphic variants of MMP-9 gene. Moreover, it supports previous reports postulating significance of MMP-9 in pathogenesis of asthma. However, this issue still requires further studies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-016-0412-z
      Issue No: Vol. 65, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The Potential Role of Krüppel-Like Zinc-Finger Protein Glis3 in
           Genetic Diseases and Cancers
    • Authors: Chon-Kit Chou; Chin-Ju Tang; Han-Lin Chou; Chun-Yen Liu; Ming-Chong Ng; Yu-Ting Chang; Shyng-Shiou F. Yuan; Eing-Mei Tsai; Chien-Chih Chiu
      Abstract: Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) belongs to a Glis subfamily of Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factors characterized to regulate a set of downstream targets essential for cellular functions, including pancreatic development, β-cell maturation and maintenance, and insulin production. Examination of the DNA-binding domain of Glis3 reveals that this domain contains a repeated cysteine 2/histidine 2 (Cys2/His2) zinc-finger motif in the central region where the recognized DNA sequence binds. The loss of the production of pancreatic hormones, such as insulin 1 and 2, is linked to the down-regulation of β cells-related genes and promotes the apoptotic death of β cells found in mutant Glis3. Although accumulating studies converge on the Glis3 functioning in β cells, recently, there have been developments in the field of Glis3 using knockdown/mutant mice to better understand the role of Glis3 in diseases. The Glis3 mutant mice have been characterized for their propensity to develop congenital hypothyroidism, polycystic kidney disease, and some types of cancer. In this review, we attempt to comprehensively summarize the knowledge of Glis3, including its structure and general function in cells. We also collected and organized the academic achievements related to the possible mechanisms of Glis3-related diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0470-x
       
  • KIR , LILRB and their Ligands’ Genes as Potential Biomarkers in
           Recurrent Implantation Failure
    • Authors: Izabela Nowak; Karolina Wilczyńska; Jacek R. Wilczyński; Andrzej Malinowski; Paweł Radwan; Michał Radwan; Piotr Kuśnierczyk
      Abstract: Reproductive failure in humans is a very important social and economic problem, because nowadays women decide to conceive later in life and delay motherhood. Unfortunately, with increasing age they have less chance for natural fertilization and maintenance of pregnancy. Many of them need assisted reproductive technology. Approximately 10% of women after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfers experience recurrent implantation failure (RIF). Multiple factors may contribute to RIF, including oocyte and sperm quality, parental chromosomal anomalies, genetic or metabolic abnormalities of the embryo, poor uterine receptivity, immunological disturbances in the implantation site, and some gynecologic pathologies such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, hydrosalpinx and endometrial polyps. Moreover, the procedure of in vitro fertilization itself could adversely influence the implantation. Nowadays, many studies are focused on the role of natural killer (NK) cells in normal and pathologic pregnancy because NK cells constitute the dominant cell population in the endometrium and they come in close contact with the allogeneic extravillous trophoblast cells in early pregnancy decidua. The majority of these cells are of CD56bright phenotype. These cells can express killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), which, upon recognition of HLA class I molecules (HLA-C and HLA-G) on trophoblasts, may either stimulate or inhibit NK cells to produce soluble factors, and display low cytotoxicity necessary for maintenance of the allogeneic embryo and fetus in the next steps of pregnancy. Moreover, some members of the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR) family, also named ILT (immunoglobulin-like transcript), are present in the human placenta. LILRB1 (ILT2) was described mainly on stromal cells, while LILRB2 (ILT4), in addition to stromal cells, was also found around vessels in the smooth muscle layer. In this review we focus on the possible role of polymorphism of KIR, LILRB and their ligands (HLA-C, HLA-G) in susceptibility to recurrent implantation failure, which could serve as diagnostic biomarkers of this disease.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0474-6
       
  • Expanding Diversity and Common Goal of Regulatory T and B Cells. I:
           Origin, Phenotype, Mechanisms
    • Authors: Katarzyna Bocian; Ewelina Kiernozek; Joanna Domagała-Kulawik; Grażyna Korczak-Kowalska; Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel; Nadzieja Drela
      Abstract: Immunosuppressive activity of regulatory T and B cells is critical to limit autoimmunity, excessive inflammation, and pathological immune response to conventional antigens or allergens. Both types of regulatory cells are intensively investigated, however, their development and mechanisms of action are still not completely understood. Both T and B regulatory cells represent highly differentiated populations in terms of phenotypes and origin, however, they use similar mechanisms of action. The most investigated CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are characterized by the expression of Foxp3+ transcription factor, which is not sufficient to maintain their lineage stability and suppressive function. Currently, it is considered that specific epigenetic changes are critical for defining regulatory T cell stability in the context of their suppressive function. It is not yet known if similar epigenetic regulation determines development, lineage stability, and function of regulatory B cells. Phenotype diversity, confirmed or hypothetical developmental pathways, multiple mechanisms of action, and role of epigenetic changes in these processes are the subject of this review.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0469-3
       
  • Expanding Diversity and Common Goal of Regulatory T and B Cells. II: In
           Allergy, Malignancy, and Transplantation
    • Authors: Grażyna Korczak-Kowalska; Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel; Katarzyna Bocian; Ewelina Kiernozek; Nadzieja Drela; Joanna Domagała-Kulawik
      Abstract: Regulation of immune response was found to play an important role in the course of many diseases such as autoimmune diseases, allergy, malignancy, organ transplantation. The studies on immune regulation focus on the role of regulatory cells (Tregs, Bregs, regulatory myeloid cells) in these disorders. The number and function of Tregs may serve as a marker of disease activity. As in allergy, the depletion of Tregs is observed and the results of allergen-specific immunotherapy could be measured by an increase in the population of IL-10+ regulatory cells. On the basis of the knowledge of anti-cancer immune response regulation, new directions in therapy of tumors are introduced. As the proportion of regulatory cells is increased in the course of neoplasm, the therapeutic action is directed at their inhibition. The depletion of Tregs may be also achieved by an anti-check-point blockade, anti-CD25 agents, and inhibition of regulatory cell recruitment to the tumor site by affecting chemokine pathways. However, the possible favorable role of Tregs in cancer development is considered and the plasticity of immune regulation should be taken into account. The new promising direction of the treatment based on regulatory cells is the prevention of transplant rejection. A different way of production and implementation of classic Tregs as well as other cell types such as double-negative cells, Bregs, CD4+ Tr1 cells are tested in ongoing trials. On the basis of the results of current studies, we could show in this review the significance of therapies based on regulatory cells in different disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0471-9
       
  • Human Gyrovirus-Apoptin Interferes with the Cell Cycle and Induces G2/M
           Arrest Prior to Apoptosis
    • Authors: Wiem Chaabane; Saeid Ghavami; Andrzej Małecki; Marek J. Łos
      Abstract: The human gyrovirus-Apoptin (HGyv-Apoptin) is a protein that gained attention because it is selectively cytotoxic toward cancer cells. In this study, we have investigated the effect of HGyv-Apoptin on cell cycle progression of cancer cells. We also compared HGyv-Apoptin’s action to its homologue chicken anemia virus Apoptin (CAV-Apoptin). We show that HGyv-Apoptin induces G2/M arrest in cancer cells. This is at least in part due to the fact that HGyv-Apoptin induces an abnormal spindle formation in mitotic cells that do not progress properly throughout the cell cycle. HGyv-Apoptin most likely inhibits APC function leading to a sustained cyclin-B1-expression. These results indicate that HGyv-Apoptin has a similar mechanism of action as its homolog CAV-Apoptin and further supports its cancer therapeutic potential.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0464-8
       
  • CD1: A Singed Cat of the Three Antigen Presentation Systems
    • Authors: Radoslaw Kaczmarek; Mariola Pasciak; Katarzyna Szymczak-Kulus; Marcin Czerwinski
      Abstract: Contrary to general view that the MHC Class I and II are the kapellmeisters of recognition and response to antigens, there is another big player in that part of immunity, represented by CD1 glycoproteins. In contrast to MHC Class I or II, which present peptides, CD1 molecules present lipids. Humans express five CD1 proteins (CD1a-e), four of which (CD1a-d) are trafficked to the cell surface, where they may display lipid antigens to T-cell receptors. This interaction may lead to both non-cognate and cognate T cell help to B cells, the latter eliciting anti-lipid antibody response. All CD1 proteins can bind a broad range of structurally different exogenous and endogenous lipids, but each shows a preference to one or more lipid classes. This unorthodox binding behavior is the result of elaborate architectures of CD1 binding clefts and distinct intracellular trafficking routes. Together, these features make CD1 system a versatile player in immune response, sitting at the crossroads of innate and adaptive immunity. While CD1 system may be involved in numerous infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases, its involvement may lead to opposite outcomes depending on different pathologies. Despite these ambiguities and complexity, CD1 system draws growing attention and continues to show glimmers of therapeutic potential. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about CD1 proteins, their structures, lipid-binding profiles, and roles in immunity, and evaluate the role of CD1 proteins in eliciting humoral immune response.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0461-y
       
 
 
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