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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3104 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (245 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (114 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1470 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (47 journals)
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    - ORNITHOLOGY (26 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (136 journals)

BIOLOGY (1470 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
  [SJR: 1.2]   [H-I: 42]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1661-4917 - ISSN (Online) 0004-069X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Immunotherapy as an Option for Cancer Treatment
    • Authors: Tillmann Rusch; Jagadeesh Bayry; Jens Werner; Ivan Shevchenko; Alexandr V. Bazhin
      Pages: 89 - 96
      Abstract: The progress in melanoma immunotherapy highlights the importance of immunotherapy for cancer treatment. Although the concept of immunotherapy emerged in the beginning of the twentieth century, the end of the century signaled the start of modern immunotherapy, which has recently allowed a staggering progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Currently, there is a wide variety of immunotherapeutic approaches and critical improvements are continually being made. Among different immunotherapeutic strategies, therapies based on the blockade of immune checkpoint molecules have shown unparalleled efficacy in late-stage cancer patients. Pre-clinical research using ex vivo and in vivo approaches demonstrates the promise of numerous novel strategies for the immunotherapy of cancer.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0491-5
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Target for Antitumor Therapy
    • Authors: Katarzyna Sawa-Wejksza; Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń
      Pages: 97 - 111
      Abstract: It is well known that the microenvironment of solid tumors is rich in inflammatory cells that influence tumor growth and development. Macrophages, called tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), are the most abundant immune cell population present in tumor tissue. Several studies have demonstrated that the density of TAMs is associated with a poor prognosis and positively correlates with tumor growth. Several studies have proved that TAMs may activate and protect tumor stem cells, stimulate their proliferation as well as promote angiogenesis and metastasis. Furthermore, TAMs-derived cytokines and other proteins, such as CCL-17, CCL-22, TGF-β, IL-10, arginase 1, and galectin-3, make a significant contribution to immunosuppression. Since TAMs influence various aspects of cancer progression, there are many attempts to use them as a target for immunotherapy. The numerous studies have shown that the primary tumor growth and the number of metastatic sites can be significantly decreased by decreasing the population of macrophages in tumor tissue, for example, by blocking recruitment of monocytes or eliminating TAMs already present in the tumor tissue. Moreover, there are attempts at reprogramming TAMs into proinflammatory M1 macrophages or neutralizing the protumoral products of TAMs. Another approach uses TAMs for anticancer drug delivery into the tumor environment. In this review, we would like to summarize the clinical and preclinical trials that were focused on macrophages as a target for anticancer therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0480-8
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment: Current
           Knowledge and Future Perspectives
    • Authors: Maria Ibáñez-Vea; Miren Zuazo; Maria Gato; Hugo Arasanz; Gonzalo Fernández-Hinojal; David Escors; Grazyna Kochan
      Pages: 113 - 123
      Abstract: The current knowledge on tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is based mainly on the extensive work performed in murine models. Data obtained for human counterparts are generated on the basis of tumor analysis from patient samples. Both sources of information led to determination of the main suppressive mechanisms used by these cell subsets in tumor-bearing hosts. As a result of the identification of protein targets responsible for MDSCs suppressive activity, different therapeutics agents have been used to eliminate/reduce their adverse effect. In the present work, we review the current knowledge on suppressive mechanisms of MDSCs and therapeutic treatments that interfere with their differentiation, expansion or activity. Based on the accumulation of new evidences supporting their importance for tumor progression and metastasis, the interest in these cell types is increasing. We revise the methods of MDSC generation/differentiation ex vivo that may help in overcoming problems associated with limited numbers of cells available from animals and patients for their study.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0492-4
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • STING Signaling in Cancer Cells: Important or Not'
    • Authors: Olga Sokolowska; Dominika Nowis
      Pages: 125 - 132
      Abstract: Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an adaptor protein that plays an important role in the activation of type I interferons in response to cytosolic nucleic acid ligands. Recent evidence indicates involvement of the STING pathway in the induction of antitumor immune response. Therefore, STING agonists are now being extensively developed as a new class of cancer therapeutics. However, little is known about the consequences of activated STING-mediated signaling in cancer cells on the efficacy of the antitumor treatment. It has been shown that activation of the STING-dependent pathway in cancer cells can result in tumor infiltration with immune cells and modulation of the anticancer immune response. Understanding the function of STING pathway in cancer cells might provide important insights into the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on the role of STING pathway in cancer cells, the largely unknown topic that has recently emerged to be important in the context of STING-mediated antitumor responses.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0481-7
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • The PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitory Pathway is Altered in Primary
           Glomerulonephritides
    • Authors: Ewelina Grywalska; Iwona Smarz-Widelska; Ewelina Krasowska-Zajac; Izabela Korona-Glowniak; Karolina Zaluska-Patel; Michal Mielnik; Martyna Podgajna; Anna Malm; Jacek Rolinski; Wojciech Zaluska
      Pages: 133 - 143
      Abstract: The pathogenesis of primary proliferative and non-proliferative glomerulonephritides (PGN and NPGN) is still not fully understood, however, current evidence suggests that most cases of PGN and NPGN are the results of immunologic response to different etiologic agents that activates various biological processes leading to glomerular inflammation and injury. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is the major inhibitory receptor regulating T cell exhaustion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of PD-1-positive and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive T and B lymphocytes in patients with NPGN and PGN in relation to clinical parameters for the first time. The study included peripheral blood (PB) samples from 20 newly diagnosed PGN and NPGN patients. The control group comprised of 20 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. The viable PB lymphocytes underwent labelling with fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1, and were analyzed using a flow cytometer. The frequencies of CD4+/PD1+ T lymphocytes, CD8+/PD1+ T lymphocytes, and CD19+/PD-1+ B lymphocytes in the PGN group exceeded values obtained both in the NPGN group, and the control group. Alteration of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be involved in poorer prognosis, as patients with PGN are characterized by higher frequencies of PD-1-positive and PD-L1-positive T and B lymphocytes than patients with NPGN. Our results suggest that deregulation of PD-1/PD-L1 axis may contribute to the PGN and NPGN pathogenesis. High percentages of lymphocytes with PD-1 and PD-L1 expression may be related to the continuous T-cell activation and development of glomerular inflammation and injury.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0485-3
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Biological and Pro-Angiogenic Properties of Genetically Modified Human
           Primary Myoblasts Overexpressing Placental Growth Factor in In Vitro and
           In Vivo Studies
    • Authors: Agnieszka Zimna; Bartosz Wiernicki; Tomasz Kolanowski; Natalia Rozwadowska; Agnieszka Malcher; Wojciech Labedz; Tomasz Trzeciak; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Katarzyna Bednarek-Rajewska; Przemyslaw Majewski; Maciej Kurpisz
      Pages: 145 - 159
      Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases are a growing problem in developing countries; therefore, there is an ongoing intensive search for new approaches to treat these disorders. Currently, cellular therapies are focused on healing the damaged heart by implanting stem cells modified with pro-angiogenic factors. This approach ensures that the introduced cells are capable of fulfilling the complex requirements of the environment, including the replacement of the post-infarction scar with cells that are able to contract and promote the formation of new blood vessels that can supply the ischaemic region with nutrients and oxygen. This study focused on the genetic modification of human skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs). We chose myoblast cells due to their close biological resemblance to cardiomyocytes and the placental growth factor (PlGF) gene due to its pro-angiogenic potential. In our in vitro studies, we transfected SkMCs with the PlGF gene using electroporation, which has previously been proven to be efficient and generate robust overexpression of the PlGF gene and elevate PlGF protein secretion. Moreover, the functionality of the secreted pro-angiogenic proteins was confirmed using an in vitro capillary development assay. We have also examined the influence of PlGF overexpression on VEGF-A and VEGF-B, which are well-known factors described in the literature as the most potent activators of blood vessel formation. We were able to confirm the overexpression of VEGF-A in myoblasts transfected with the PlGF gene. The results obtained in this study were further verified in an animal model. These data were able to confirm the potential therapeutic effects of the applied treatments.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0486-2
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Role of TGF-β in Self-Peptide Regulation of Autoimmunity
    • Authors: Bhagirath Singh; Michael D. Krawetz; Rachel M. De Lima; Rinee Mukherjee; Pratibha Chaturvedi; Edwin Lee-Chan; Edward H. Leiter; Kelly L. Summers
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been implicated in regulation of the immune system, including autoimmunity. We have found that TGF-β is readily produced by T cells following immunization with self-peptide epitopes that downregulate autoimmune responses in type 1 diabetes (T1D) prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. These include multiple peptide epitopes derived from the islet β-cell antigens GAD65 (GAD65 p202-221, GAD65 p217-236), GAD67 (GAD67 p210-229, GAD67 p225-244), IGRP (IGRP p123-145, IGRP p195-214) and insulin B-chain (Ins. B:9-23) that protected NOD mice from T1D. Immunization of NOD mice with the self-MHC class II I-Ag7 β-chain-derived peptide, I-Aβg7 p54-76 also induced large amounts of TGF-β and also protected these mice from diabetes development. These results indicate that peptides derived from disease related self-antigens and MHC class II molecules primarily induce TGF-β producing regulatory Th3 and Tr1-like cells. TGF-β produced by these cells could enhance the differentiation of induced regulatory iTreg and iTreg17 cells to prevent induction and progression of autoimmune diseases. We therefore suggest that peripheral immune tolerance could be induced and maintained by immunization with self-peptides that induce TGF-β producing T cells.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0482-6
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Heterogeneity Among Neutrophils
    • Authors: Marzena Garley; Ewa Jabłońska
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: Neutrophils (PMNs) play a key role in innate defence mechanisms. Generally, PMNs were considered to have a homogeneous population of mature and diversified cells. It seems, however, that their pleiotropic action results from the existence of different subpopulations in this group of cells. There are data that confirm the involvement of PMNs in the direct activation of other cells in non-specific response, as well as specialised cells in specific response. For example, there have been observations of PMNs with different levels of activity in relation to lymphocytes, and a population was identified which had characteristics similar to those of cells which are capable of presenting antigens. There are also reports of PMNs which demonstrate different survival time or capacity for chemotaxis. Other studies suggest that the neutrophil response to Staphylococcus aureus is diverse (not identical among all neutrophil). There are also reports of PMNs with varying activity during inflammation, which might explain many as yet unknown pathophysiological aspects of their hyperreactivity. The functional dualism of PMNs in the course of neoplastic disorders raises a lot of controversy. This paper presents the current state of knowledge of the heterogeneity of PMNs and their potential roles in different stages of disease.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0476-4
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Skin Immunity
    • Authors: Agata Matejuk
      Pages: 45 - 54
      Abstract: Skin is the largest organ of the body with a complex network of multitude of cell types that perform plastic and dynamic cellular communication to maintain several vital processes such as inflammation, immune response including induction of tolerance and disease prevention, wound healing, and angiogenesis. Of paramount importance are immunological functions of the skin that protect from harmful exposure coming from external and internal environments. Awareness of skin immunity can provide a better comprehension of inflammation, autoimmunity, cancer, graft-versus-host disease, vaccination, and immunotherapy approaches. This paper will update on what we currently know about immune sentinels contributing to skin immunity.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0477-3
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Ficolin-2 Gene rs7851696 Polymorphism is Associated with Delayed Graft
           Function and Acute Rejection in Kidney Allograft Recipients
    • Authors: Ewa Dabrowska-Zamojcin; Michal Czerewaty; Damian Malinowski; Maciej Tarnowski; Sylwia Słuczanowska-Głabowska; Leszek Domanski; Krzysztof Safranow; Andrzej Pawlik
      Pages: 65 - 72
      Abstract: Ficolin-2 is an activator of the complement system that acts via the lectin pathway. Complement activation plays a substantial role in the renal injury inherent to kidney transplantation. In this study, we examined the associations between ficolin-2 gene polymorphisms in exon 8 and kidney allograft function. This study comprised 270 Caucasian deceased-donor renal transplant recipients. The following parameters were recorded in each case: delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection (AR), and chronic allograft dysfunction. Among patients with DGF, we observed a significantly increased frequency of rs7851696 GT and TT genotypes as well as T allele (TT + GT vs GG OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.12–3.48, p = 0.02; T vs G OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.27–3.41, p = 0.005). There was also an increased frequency of rs4521835 GG and TG genotypes as well as G alleles; however, these differences were on the borderline of statistical significance (GG + TG vs TT, OR 1.75, 95% CI 0.98–3.12, p = 0.07; G vs T OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00–2.09, p = 0.050). In addition, we observed an increased frequency of acute allograft rejection in carriers of ficolin-2 rs7851696 T alleles on the borderline of statistical significance (TT + GT vs GG OR 1.75, 95% CI 0.97–3.16, p = 0.08), but the frequency of T allele was significantly higher in patients with AR (T vs G OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.02–2.87, p = 0.048). The results of our study suggest that ficolin-2 rs7851696 gene polymorphism influences kidney allograft functions, with T allele increasing the risk of DGF and AR.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0475-5
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Possible Immunomodulating Effect of Retinol on Cytokines Secretion in
           Patients with Recurrent Furunculosis
    • Authors: Danuta Nowicka; Ewelina Grywalska; Anna Hymos; Michał Mielnik; Jacek Roliński
      Pages: 73 - 79
      Abstract: Recurrent furunculosis is an infection of hair follicles which results in formation of abscesses. Previous studies showed that the pathogenesis of the disease may include an immune-mediated component as the proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to staphylococcal antigen is depressed. The aim of our study was to evaluate cytokines concentration in the plasma of patients with recurrent furunculosis and to determine whether retinol affects the secretion of those cytokines in patients with recurrent furunculosis and healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from 15 patients with recurrent furunculosis and 15 age-matched healthy subjects. A quantitative determination of selected cytokines (IL-17, 13, 2, 10, 4, IFN-γ, TNF-α) was performed in the plasma at baseline and after 72-h culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with and without retinol in both groups. In the plasma of patients with recurrent furunculosis, concentration of IL-10, 2, and TNF-α was significantly higher, whereas IL-13 significantly lower when compared with healthy subjects. After retinol stimulation, the concentration of IL-17 and IFN-γ increased significantly in both groups. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-10 (p < 0.002) and 13 (p < 0.01), achieved lower levels in recurrent furunculosis samples than in those of healthy controls. Network of cytokines differs in patients with recurrent furunculosis from healthy subjects. Retinol stimulation affects secretion of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Further studies are recommended for better understanding the pathomechanism of recurrent furunculosis and potential clinical use of retinol in patients affected by recurrent furunculosis.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0483-5
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Role of Chicoric Acid and 13- Cis Retinoic Acid in Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis Infection Control by Human U937 Macrophage
    • Authors: Bahareh Abd-Nikfarjam; Marjan Nassiri-Asl; Mehri Hajiaghayi; Taghi Naserpour Farivar
      Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survives and proliferates within the main cells of the innate immune system, macrophages. The goal of our study was to investigate the immunostimulatory effects of 13-cis retinoic acid (RA) and chicoric acid (CA) in human U937 macrophages against H37Ra Mtb infection by evaluating its potential role in the cell surface expression of HLA-DR, CD14 molecules as well as nitric oxide (NO) production and prevention of the Mtb growth within macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effects of 13-cis RA and CA on Mtb-infected macrophages using flowcytometry and Griess methods, respectively. Moreover, inhibitory effect of 13-cis RA and CA on Mtb growth within macrophages were assessed using colony-forming unit. 13-Cis RA and CA enhanced the cell surface expression of HLA-DR and CD14 molecules on U937 macrophages and prevented the growth of Mtb within macrophages. In addition, 13-cis RA and CA, have increased NO generation compared to untreated control macrophages, significantly (p < 0.001). Both drugs have a significant inhibitory effect on Mtb growth but CA at the highest concentration was more potent than 13-cis RA (p < 0.05). The results of our study showed that infected U937 macrophages treated with 13-cis RA and CA represented significant increases in NO production, CD14 and HLA-DR expression and also prevents intracellular survival of Mtb. Therefore, 13-cis RA and CA may have a significant therapeutic approach in the control of Mtb infection.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0511-0
       
  • The Microbial Endocrinology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa : Inflammatory and
           Immune Perspectives
    • Authors: Valerie F. L. Yong; Min Min Soh; Tavleen Kaur Jaggi; Micheál Mac Aogáin; Sanjay H. Chotirmall
      Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for both acute and chronic infection. Known as a colonising pathogen of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, it is implicated in other settings such as bronchiectasis. It has the ability to cause acute disseminated or localised infection particularly in the immunocompromised. Human hormones have been highlighted as potential regulators of bacterial virulence through crosstalk between analogous “quorum sensing” (QS) systems present in the bacteria that respond to mammalian hormones. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to utilise interconnected QS systems to coordinate its virulence and evade various aspects of the host immune system activated in response to infection. Several human hormones demonstrate an influence on P. aeruginosa growth and virulence. This inter-kingdom signalling, termed “microbial endocrinology” has important implications for host–microbe interaction during infection and, potentially opens up novel avenues for therapeutic intervention. This phenomenon, supported by the existence of sexual dichotomies in both microbial infection and chronic lung diseases such as CF is potentially explained by sex hormones and their influence on the infective process. This review summarises our current understanding of the microbial endocrinology of P. aeruginosa, including its endogenous QS systems and their intersection with human endocrinology, pathogenesis of infection and the host immune system.
      PubDate: 2018-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0510-1
       
  • Muscle Stem/Progenitor Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Bone Marrow
           Origin for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in Muscular Dystrophies
    • Authors: Aleksandra Klimczak; Urszula Kozlowska; Maciej Kurpisz
      Abstract: Muscular dystrophies represent a group of diseases which may develop in several forms, and severity of the disease is usually associated with gene mutations. In skeletal muscle regeneration and in muscular dystrophies, both innate and adaptive immune responses are involved. The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin was confirmed by the ability to differentiate into diverse tissues and by their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties by secretion of a variety of growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Skeletal muscle comprises different types of stem/progenitor cells such as satellite cells and non-satellite stem cells including MSCs, interstitial stem cells positive for stress mediator PW1 expression and negative for PAX7 called PICs (PW1+/PAX7− interstitial cells), fibro/adipogenic progenitors/mesenchymal stem cells, muscle side population cells and muscle resident pericytes, and all of them actively participate in the muscle regeneration process. In this review, we present biological properties of MSCs of bone marrow origin and a heterogeneous population of muscle-resident stem/progenitor cells, their interaction with the inflammatory environment of dystrophic muscle and potential implications for cellular therapies for muscle regeneration. Subsequently, we propose—based on current research results, conclusions, and our own experience—hypothetical mechanisms for modulation of the complete muscle regeneration process to treat muscular dystrophies.
      PubDate: 2018-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0509-7
       
  • Intestinal Barrier Impairment and Immune Activation in HIV-Infected
           Advanced Late Presenters are Not Dependent on CD4 Recovery
    • Authors: Kamila Wójcik-Cichy; Anna Piekarska; Elżbieta Jabłonowska
      Abstract: Damage of the mucosal barrier in HIV infection, microbial translocation, and immune activation can persist even in patients on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) especially advanced late presenters. The aim of this study was to find factors that determine immune activation and bacterial translocation in HIV-infected advanced late presenters on suppressive ART. Forty-three late presenters (CD4 < 200 cells/µl prior to ART) on successful ART (more than 2 years of ART) with optimal and suboptimal CD4 recovery were enrolled into this study. The serum concentrations of intestinal fatty acid-binding peptide (I-FABP), zonulin-1, programmed cell death-1 protein (PCDP-1), and soluble (s)CD14 were measured using the ELISA test. We found higher serum levels of I-FABP and sCD14 in successfully antiretroviral-treated advanced late presenters compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0004). The serum concentration of PCDP-1 and zonulin-1 in HIV-infected patients did not differ from healthy controls. The levels of microbial translocation and immune activation markers were not associated with the degree of CD4 recovery. A serum concentration of I-FABP above 2.03 ng/ml was independently associated with a shorter ART (OR 0.78; p = 0.03). Older age was related to serum levels of sCD14 above 2.35 µg/ml (OR 1.1; p = 0.01). Higher serum levels of I-FABP and sCD14 in successfully antiretroviral-treated advanced late presenters compared to healthy subjects suggest an incomplete reconstruction of the intestinal barrier and sustained immune activation despite good CD4 recovery. It was not the CD4 level, but the length of the suppressive ART that was found to be associated with the restoration of the intestinal barrier.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0508-8
       
  • Adverse Effects Associated with Clinical Applications of CAR Engineered T
           Cells
    • Authors: Zohreh Sadat Badieyan; Sayed Shahabuddin Hoseini
      Abstract: Cancer has been ranked as the second leading cause of death in the United States. To reduce cancer mortality, immunotherapy is gaining momentum among other therapeutic modalities, due to its impressive results in clinical trials. The genetically engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are emerging as a new approach in cancer immunotherapy, with the most successful outcomes in the refractory/relapse hematologic malignancies. However, the widespread clinical applications are limited by adverse effects some of which are life-threatening. Strategies to reduce the chance of side effects as well as close monitoring, rapid diagnosis and proper treatment of side effects are necessary to take the most advantages of this valuable therapy. Here we review the reported toxicities associated with CAR engineered T cells, the strategies to ameliorate the toxicity, and further techniques and designs leading to a safer CAR T-cell therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0507-9
       
  • Humanized Mice as Unique Tools for Human-Specific Studies
    • Authors: Kylie Su Mei Yong; Zhisheng Her; Qingfeng Chen
      Abstract: With an increasing human population, medical research is pushed to progress into an era of precision therapy. Humanized mice are at the very heart of this new forefront where it is acutely required to decipher human-specific disease pathogenesis and test an array of novel therapeutics. In this review, “humanized” mice are defined as immunodeficient mouse engrafted with functional human biological systems. Over the past decade, researchers have been conscientiously making improvements on the development of humanized mice as a model to closely recapitulate disease pathogenesis and drug mechanisms in humans. Currently, literature is rife with descriptions of novel and innovative humanized mouse models that hold a significant promise to become a panacea for drug innovations to treat and control conditions such as infectious disease and cancer. This review will focus on the background of humanized mice, diseases, and human-specific therapeutics tested on this platform as well as solutions to improve humanized mice for future clinical use.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0506-x
       
  • The Phenomenon of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Vascular Diseases
    • Authors: Dorota Dąbrowska; Ewa Jabłońska; Marzena Garley; Jolanta Sawicka-Powierza; Karolina Nowak
      Abstract: Vascular diseases constitute a global health issue due to the increasing number of cases of patients with these diseases. The pathogenesis of the majority of these diseases, including atherosclerosis and thrombosis, is complex and not yet fully understood. One of the major causes for their occurrence can be immune disorders resulting in the development of a chronic inflammation within the vessels. In recent years, studies have placed emphasis on the role of neutrophils in the development of these diseases, i.e., the discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) demonstrated that the structures released by the cells may contribute to the enhancement of inflammatory reactions and cell damage. This article summarizes current knowledge on the role of NETs during atherosclerosis, thrombosis and small-vessel vasculitis, especially in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small-vessel vasculitis (AAV).
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-018-0505-y
       
  • Biomedical Research in Wrocław: A Combined Density-Equalizing Mapping and
           Scientometric Analysis
    • Authors: David A. Groneberg
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of biomedical scientific activities of Wrocław scientists in the post-war time when this field of academics was rebuilt by the works of Ludwik Hirszfeld and colleagues. Using the NewQIS platform and the Web of Science database, novel procedures such as density-equalizing mapping were combined to bibliometric tools to visualize scientific progression. In total, 10,366 biomedical research articles originating from Wrocław were identified. Since 1972, there is a steady increase in research activity with the year 2015 holding the largest number of published items (895). A total of 2934 published research cooperations with 104 different countries is present. This is a percentage of 28.3% of all publications. In total, 101 research areas are present in Wrocław biomedical research with the highest number of articles being published in the area of biochemistry/molecular biology (2140). Research in this field was cited 27,360 times. The field of immunology has 1186 articles with 9247 citations. Density-equalizing mapping and network techniques revealed a distinct global pattern of research collaborations with German, US and UK affiliations as the primary cooperating partners of Wrocław. In summary, the present study supplies the first density-equalizing mapping approach that visualizes research activity in Wrocław over the past decades.
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0502-6
       
  • Thymus Colonization: Who, How, How Many'
    • Authors: Andreas Krueger
      Abstract: De novo generation of T cells depends on continual colonization of the thymus by bone marrow-derived progenitors. Thymus seeding progenitors (TSPs) constitute a heterogeneous population comprising multipotent and lineage-restricted cell types. Entry into the thymic microenvironment is tightly controlled and recent quantitative studies have revealed that the adult murine thymus only contains approximately 160 niches to accommodate TSPs. Of these niches only about 6% are open for seeding on average at steady-state. Here, I review the state of understanding of colonization of the adult murine thymus with a particular focus on past and current controversies in the field. Improving thymus colonization and/or maintaining intact TSP niches during the course of pre-conditioning regimens are likely to be critical for efficient T-cell regeneration after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s00005-017-0503-5
       
 
 
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