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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
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Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
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Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
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African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
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American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
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American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
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Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
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Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
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Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
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Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
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Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
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Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
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Journal Cover Archives of Oral Biology
  [SJR: 0.713]   [H-I: 64]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-9969
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Influence of age on the electromyographic fatigue threshold of the
           masseter and temporal muscles of healthy individuals
    • Authors: Lígia Franco Oliveira; Marcelo Palinkas; Paulo Batista de Vasconcelos; Isabela Hallak Regalo; Flávia Argentato Cecilio; Erica Franco Oliveira; Marisa Semprini; Selma Siéssere; Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Lígia Franco Oliveira, Marcelo Palinkas, Paulo Batista de Vasconcelos, Isabela Hallak Regalo, Flávia Argentato Cecilio, Erica Franco Oliveira, Marisa Semprini, Selma Siéssere, Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
  • Chronic high-protein diet induces oxidative stress and alters the salivary
           gland function in rats
    • Authors: Urszula Kołodziej; Mateusz Maciejczyk; Wiesława Niklińska; Danuta Waszkiel; Małgorzata Żendzian-Piotrowska; Piotr Żukowski; Anna Zalewska
      Pages: 6 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Urszula Kołodziej, Mateusz Maciejczyk, Wiesława Niklińska, Danuta Waszkiel, Małgorzata Żendzian-Piotrowska, Piotr Żukowski, Anna Zalewska
      Objective Chronic high protein intake leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, there is no data on the impact of high-protein diet on the antioxidant barrier, oxidative stress and secretory function in the salivary glands of healthy individuals. Design 16 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n =8): normal protein (C) and high-protein diet (HP) for 8 weeks. Salivary antioxidants: peroxidase (Px), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD 1), uric acid (UA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and the oxidative stress index (OSI), as well as protein carbonyls (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE protein adduct), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and protein content were determined in the salivary glands and plasma. Salivary unstimulated and stimulated flow rates were examined. Results Parotid Px, TAS, UA, TOS, OSI, PC were significantly higher, the total protein content was statistically lower in the HP group as compared to the control. Submandibular UA, TOS, OSI, 8-isoP, 4-HNE-protein adduct, 8-OHdG were statistically elevated, SOD 1 and Px were significantly lower in the HP group as compared to the control rats. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly depressed in the HP group as compared to the controls. Conclusions Higher antioxidant capacity in the parotid glands of HP rats vs. control rats seems to be a response to a higher ROS formation. In the submandibular glands severe oxidative modification of almost all cellular components was observed. Administration of HP resulted in the weakening of the salivary gland function.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
  • Evaluation of tooth root surface area using a three-dimensional scanning
           technique and cone beam computed tomographic reconstruction in vitro
    • Authors: Tong Wang; Xibo Pei; Feng Luo; Lingling Jia; Han Qin; Xinting Cheng; Yiyuan Xue; Jian Wang; Qianbing Wan
      Pages: 13 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Tong Wang, Xibo Pei, Feng Luo, Lingling Jia, Han Qin, Xinting Cheng, Yiyuan Xue, Jian Wang, Qianbing Wan
      Objective To study the feasibility of measuring root surface area (RSA) by 3D scanning technique and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction in vitro. Design Twenty extracted teeth (10 single-rooted teeth and 10 multi-rooted teeth) were collected in this study. The RSA of the extracted teeth was measured by the membrane technique, 3D scanning technique, and CBCT reconstruction. A standard part was also designed to check the accuracy of each method. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Results According to the results of one-way ANOVA, there was no significant difference among the values of RSA measured by the three techniques (p >0.05). The results of Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test further demonstrated that there was no significant difference among the values of RSA in both single- and multi-rooted teeth measured by the three techniques (p >0.05). Conclusions The membrane technique, the 3D scanning technique, and CBCT reconstruction are novel reliable techniques for measuring the RSA in both single- and multi-rooted teeth, which will provide wide clinical applications in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
  • A collagen membrane containing osteogenic protein-1 facilitates bone
           regeneration in a rat mandibular bone defect
    • Authors: Manami Ozaki; Tadahiro Takayama; Takanobu Yamamoto; Yasumasa Ozawa; Mayu Nagao; Natsuko Tanabe; Akira Nakajima; Naoto Suzuki; Masao Maeno; Seiichi Yamano; Shuichi Sato
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Manami Ozaki, Tadahiro Takayama, Takanobu Yamamoto, Yasumasa Ozawa, Mayu Nagao, Natsuko Tanabe, Akira Nakajima, Naoto Suzuki, Masao Maeno, Seiichi Yamano, Shuichi Sato
      Objectives Osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) has shown osteoinductive activities and is useful for clinical treatments, including bone regeneration. Regenerative procedures using a bioabsorbable collagen membrane (BCM) are well established in periodontal and implant dentistry. We evaluated the subsequent effects of the BCM in combination with OP-1 on bone regeneration in a rat mandibular circular critical-sized bone defect in vivo. Design We used 8 rats that received surgery in both sides of the mandible, and created the total 16 defects which were divided into 4 groups: Group 1; no treatment, as a control, Group 2; BCM alone, Group 3; BCM containing low dose 0.5μg of OP-1 (L-OP-1), and Group 4; BCM containing high dose 2.0μg of OP-1 (H-OP-1). Newly formed bone was evaluated by micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analyses at 8 weeks postoperatively. In quantitative and qualitative micro-CT analyses of the volume of new bone formation, bone density, and percentage of new bone area was evaluated. Results BCM with rhOP-1 significantly increased and accelerated bone volume, bone mineral density, and percentage of new bone area compared to control and BCM alone at 8 weeks after surgery; these enhancements in bone regeneration in the OP-1-treated groups were dose-dependent. Conclusions OP-1 delivered with a BCM may have effective osteoinductive potency and be a good combination for bone regeneration. The use of such a combination device for osteogenesis may result in safer and more predictable bone regenerative outcomes in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
  • Effect of proanthocyanidin on ultrastructure and mineralization of dentine
    • Authors: D.J. Epasinghe; M.F. Burrow; C.K.Y. Yiu
      Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): D.J. Epasinghe, M.F. Burrow, C.K.Y. Yiu
      Objective Proanthocyanidin (PA) is a natural collagen cross-linker that has been used in dentine matrix biomodification for reparative and preventive therapies. This study evaluated the ultrastructure of collagen after its interaction with PA. Furthermore, the mineralization of PA-biomodified collagen matrix was observed. Methods Ten freshly extracted sound human molars were sectioned into 0.5mm×1.7mm×7mm beams for ultrastructural evaluation of PA and dentine matrix under Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Specimens for TEM were completely demineralized and divided into three groups according to PA treatments: deionized water, 2% PA and 6.5% PA. The specimens were fixed, dehydrated, sectioned and examined using TEM. Specimens for FESEM were lightly conditioned with EDTA and similarly divided into the three groups for observation using FESEM. Type I collagen from calf skin was used to analyse the mineral interaction after treatment with 6.5% PA. Formvar- and carbon-coated 400-mesh Ni grids (EMS, Hatfiels, PA, USA) were placed over a 2mg/mL collagen solution prepared from calf skin-derived Type I collagen to achieve self-assembly of collagen fibrils. Grids were treated with 6.5% PA and divided into two groups. One group was floated over a remineralization solution containing 20mM HEPES, 2.25mM CaCl2-2H2O, 1.35mM KH2PO4, 3.08mM NaN3 and 130mM KCl and the other group was over a CPP-ACP solution (Tooth mousse 1:100 dilution with deionized water). The floating samples were kept in a 37°C and 100% humidity chamber. Grids were taken out at selected time durations (24h, 48h and 72h for mineralization solution/24h for CPP-ACP) and observed under TEM without staining. Selected area electron diffractions (SAEDs) were performed at 110kV. Results Following treatment of demineralized dentine collagen matrix with PA, the size and number of interfibrillar spaces were reduced. The collagen fibrils aggregated together with a reduction in porosity. A characteristic banding pattern of collagen fibrils was observed under TEM. Treatment of PA-biomodified collagen fibrils with remineralization solution increased mineral aggregation along its long axis, when compared to the control group. Furthermore, treatment of PA-biomodified collagen fibrils with CPP-ACP solution enhanced mineral uptake and deposition as well as initiated apatite formation within 24h. Conclusion Proanthocyanidin alters the ultrastructure of demineralized dentine collagen matrix. The PA-biomodified collagen matrix promotes remineralization.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
  • Effects of connective tissue growth factor on human periodontal ligament
    • Authors: Xuejing Duan; Mei Ji; Fengying Deng; Zhe Sun; Zhiyong Lin
      Pages: 37 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Xuejing Duan, Mei Ji, Fengying Deng, Zhe Sun, Zhiyong Lin
      Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts(HPLFs). Design HPLFs were cultured and identified. Then, different concentrations of CTGF (1, 5, 10, 50, 100ng/ml) were added to the HPLF culture. Next, CCK-8 assays, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays, hydroxyproline determination, alizarin red staining methods, Transwell chambers and real-time PCR methods were applied to observe the effects of CTGF on the proliferation, ALP activity, synthesis of collagen, formation of mineralized nodules and migration. We also studied expression of ALP, fiber link protein (FN), integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP), osteocalcin (OC), and integrin beta 1 (ITGB1) mRNA by HPLFs. Statistical significance was assumed if P <0.05 or P <0.01. Results The addition of CTGF (1, 5, 10ng/ml) remarkably promoted the proliferation and collagen synthesis of HPLFs compared with controls. CTGF (1, 5, 10, 50ng/ml) improved ALP activity of HPLFs, and at all concentrations, CTGF (1, 5, 10, 50, 100ng/ml) improved the expression of ALP, FN, IBSP and ITGB1 mRNA. In addition, CTGF (1, 5, 10, 50, 100ng/ml) promoted the migration of HPLFs, which was dose-dependent, with maximal promotion in the 10ng/ml group (P <0.05 or P <0.01). Conclusions Thus, in a certain range of concentrations, CTGF can promote the biological effects, including proliferation, migration and collagen synthesis of HPLFs, to promote the differentiation of HPLFs in the process of osteogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
  • Does pain in the masseter and anterior temporal muscles influence maximal
           bite force'
    • Authors: Marcelo Coelho Goiato; Paulo Renato Junqueira Zuim; Amália Moreno; Daniela Micheline dos Santos; Emily Vivianne Freitas da Silva; Fernanda Pereira de Caxias; Karina Helga Leal Turcio
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Marcelo Coelho Goiato, Paulo Renato Junqueira Zuim, Amália Moreno, Daniela Micheline dos Santos, Emily Vivianne Freitas da Silva, Fernanda Pereira de Caxias, Karina Helga Leal Turcio
      Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pain and muscle force, and the relationship between them, in patients with muscle pain and bruxism, prior to and after treatment. Methods Thirty women with bruxism and myofascial pain (Ia) were included in this study. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was made based on clinical diagnostic criteria, and awake bruxism diagnosis was made by patient questionnaires and the presence of tooth wear. The diagnosis of myofascial pain was established according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC-TMD). Dentulous or partially edentulous patients (rehabilitated with conventional fixed prostheses) were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pain treatment protocol included occlusal splints, patient education, and physiotherapy for 30days. Bite force was measured using a dynamometer at the central incisor and the first molar regions on both sides. The exams were performed at baseline, after 7days, and 30days after treatment. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare patient pain level response among the periods analyzed in the study. Bite force data were submitted to two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, followed by the Tukey HSD test (p <0.05). A simple regression analysis was performed to verify the relation between pain level and bite force. Results Results revealed that there was a statistical difference in pain level over time for both muscles and sides (p <0.01). In the molar region, the bite force exhibited significantly higher values after 30days of treatment, when compared with the baseline (p <0.001). There was a correlation between pain level and bite force only for the temporal muscle in all periods analyzed (p<0.05). There was no strong correlation in the response level points to support the association of pain and bite force. Conclusions Pain level decreased and bite force increased in the molar region after treatment. No strong correlation or dispersion in the relationship between pain levels and bite force was seen in women with myofascial pain and bruxism.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T03:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.06.029
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Pathogenicity and genetic profile of oral Porphyromonas species from
           canine periodontitis
    • Authors: Amanda do Nascimento Silva; Erica Dorigatti de Avila; Viviane Nakano; Mario J. Avila-Campos
      Pages: 20 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Amanda do Nascimento Silva, Erica Dorigatti de Avila, Viviane Nakano, Mario J. Avila-Campos
      Objective In this study, the presence of the prtC and fimA genes involved in the pathogenicity of oral Porphyromonas spp. isolated from dogs with periodontitis and healthy, as well as their genetic diversity was investigated. Design Thirty-two Beagle dogs, 24 with periodontitis and 8 healthy were evaluated. Subgingival samples from only one gingival site of both groups were collected. Bacteria grown in anaerobiosis were identified by RAPID ID 32A kits. From each strain the respective DNA was obtained and used to genotyping by conventional PCR and AP-PCR. Results Dogs with periodontitis harbored 28 P. gulae, 2 P. creviocaricanis, 1 P. cangingivalis and 7 P. macacae; and from healthy dogs, 11 P. gulae and 5 P. circumdentaria. In P. gulae isolated from periodontal dogs the gene prtC was observed in 19 (67.85%) and in 7 (63.63%) from healthy dogs. P. gulae strains from periodontal dogs harbored either the gene fimA I or fimA II; while strains from healthy dogs harbored the gene fimA I, fimA II, fimA III or fimA IV, as well as 1 P. circumdentaria the gene fimA II. By AP-PCR strains were grouped in different clusters suggesting heterogeneity of these microorganisms. Conclusions The results presented herein inform that Porphyromonas spp. isolated from dogs with and without periodontitis harbored the prtC and fimA genes and it could be a role in the establishment of the infectious process.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T03:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Sleep bruxism and related risk factors in adults: A systematic literature
    • Authors: Tommaso Castroflorio; Andrea Bargellini; Gabriele Rossini; Giovanni Cugliari; Andrea Deregibus
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Tommaso Castroflorio, Andrea Bargellini, Gabriele Rossini, Giovanni Cugliari, Andrea Deregibus
      Objective The aim of this article was to systematically review the literature to assess the relationship between risk factors and sleep bruxism (SB) in adults (age ≥18 years). Design A systematic search of the following databases was carried out: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Oral Health Group’s Trial Register and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACs and SciELO. Nine out of the 4583 initially identified articles were selected. This review was conducted according to the guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, with reporting in agreement to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Results Among the nine analyzed articles, associations between SB and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR=6.6, CI=1.4–30.9) was found in one randomized clinical trial (RCT). Four cross-sectional studies suggested history of SB during childhood (OR=8.1 CI=5.4–12–2), age (OR=3.1, CI=2.3–4.1) and chronic migraine (OR=3.8, C.I=1.8–7.8) as determinant factors for the development of SB. In one case-control study, patients with genetic polymorphisms were more likely to present SB (OR=4.3, CI=1.6–11.3). Smoking (OR=2.8, CI=2.2–3.5) and alcohol intake (OR=1.9, CI=1.2–2.8) showed moderate association in two case-control studies. Conclusions History of SB during childhood, gastro-esophageal reflux disease and genetic polymorphisms seem to be important risk factors associated to SB in adults. Dry mouth on awakening seems to be a protective factor. Association does not infer with causality. Even if the evidence emerged from the considered studies was clinically relevant, further studies are requested to better understand the biological mechanisms behind the described associations.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T03:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Effects of melatonin on the proliferation and differentiation of human
           dental pulp cells
    • Authors: Qin Liu; Wenguo Fan; Yifan He; Fuping Zhang; Xiaoyan Guan; Qianyi Deng; Xianjun Lu; Hongwen He; Fang Huang
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Qin Liu, Wenguo Fan, Yifan He, Fuping Zhang, Xiaoyan Guan, Qianyi Deng, Xianjun Lu, Hongwen He, Fang Huang
      Objective Effects of melatonin on the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the proliferation and differentiation of the hDPCs. Design Primary hDPCs were obtained from the third molar of volunteer aged from 18 to 25. CCK8 assay evaluated the effect of melatonin upon cell proliferation at day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. After 7days’ osteogenic induction with melatonin or vehicle, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured with a commercial kit. Then levels of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) were determined by immunocytochemical staining and western blot analysis, followed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyse mRNA levels of ALP and DSPP. Finally hDPCs exposed to osteogenic medium containing melatonin or vehicle for 14days were stained with alizarin red to detect mineralization nodules formation. Results Melatonin significantly inhibited the proliferative ability of the hDPCs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The hDPCs cultured in osteogenic induction medium with melatonin presented an increase of ALP activity, expression of DSPP, mRNA levels of ALP and DSPP, and mineralization nodules formation. Conclusions These findings indicate that melatonin at physiological concentrations can inhibit proliferation and promote the differentiation of hDPCs, which might give some new insights into the mechanism of regulating DPCs to achieve dentine regeneration.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T03:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.06.034
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Influence of the RPL34 gene on the growth and metastasis of oral squamous
           cell carcinoma cells
    • Authors: Jing Dai; Wei Wei
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Jing Dai, Wei Wei
      Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for almost 3% of all malignant tumors all over the world. This study aims to investigate the correlation of RPL34 with the cell growth and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as well as its clinical prognosis. Method Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were conducted to determine the RPL34 expression in 85 OSCC tissues and 30 normal oral mucosa tissues. Besides, OSCC cell lines SCC-4 were divided into blank group, negative control (NC) group and RPL34-shRNA group. The qRT-PCR and western blot were performed to measure RPL34 expression, CCK-8 and flow cytometry to observe cell growth and apoptosis, and wound healing and transwell to detect cell migration and invasion. Results The RPL34 gene expression was up-regulated in OSCC tissues and cells. The RPL34 expression was significantly correlated with differentiation degree, TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Patients with positive RPL34 expression had a poorer prognosis. After inhibition of RPL34 expression, the proliferation of SCC-4 cells was slowed down at 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h respectively, and both the migration distance and the number of invasive cells were reduced, while there was an increase in the ratio of cells at G0/G1 stage and cell apoptosis. Conclusion The RPL34 gene was highly expressed in OSCC, while silencing RPL34 could block cell proliferation and metastasis, but promote cell apoptosis, suggesting the RPL34 gene to be a new promising clinical target for OSCC therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T03:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.06.035
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Gingival crevicular fluid and plasma oxidative stress markers and TGM-2
           levels in chronic periodontitis
    • Authors: Sema Becerik; Veli Özgen Öztürk; Peter Celec; Natalia Kamodyova; Gül Atilla; Gülnur Emingil
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Sema Becerik, Veli Özgen Öztürk, Peter Celec, Natalia Kamodyova, Gül Atilla, Gülnur Emingil
      Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and plasma transglutaminase-2 (TGM-2), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in patients with chronic periodontal disease. Materials and methods Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 20 patients with gingivitis and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical periodontal parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index and papillary bleeding index were recorded. GCF and plasma levels of TGM-2, TAC, TOS, TBARS and FRAP were analyzed. Results GCF TGM-2 was significantly lower in CP group than in gingivitis patients (P=0.006). GCF FRAP in CP and gingivitis groups was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (P<0.001). Plasma FRAP level was lower in gingivitis group when compared to healthy subjects (P=0.003). There was no significant difference in GCF and plasma TAC, TOS, TBARS and plasma TGM-2 levels among the study groups (P>0.05). GCF TGM-2 level was positively correlated with GCF TAC and negatively correlated with CAL. Conclusions Decreased FRAP in GCF and plasma indicating lower antioxidant status of CP patients might suggest the role of oxidative stress in periodontitis. GCF TGM-2 data might suggest that TGM2 is associated with stabilization of the extracellular matrix and wound healing in periodontium rather than gingival inflammation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.06.032
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Immunohistochemical investigations on the expression of programmed cell
           death ligand 1, human leukocyte antigens G and E, and granzyme B in
           intraoral mucoepidermoid carcinoma
    • Authors: Carla Mosconi; Diego Antônio Costa Arantes; Andréia Souza Gonçalves; Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alencar; José Carlos Oliveira; Tarcília Aparecida Silva; Elismauro Francisco Mendonça; Aline Carvalho Batista
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Carla Mosconi, Diego Antônio Costa Arantes, Andréia Souza Gonçalves, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alencar, José Carlos Oliveira, Tarcília Aparecida Silva, Elismauro Francisco Mendonça, Aline Carvalho Batista
      Objective To identify the expression of nonclassical human leukocyte antigen G and E (HLA-G and -E), programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and granzyme B (GB) in intraoral mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs), and to assess whether such expressions are related to metastasis, survival, staging, tumor grade and number of GB-positive cells. Design For this cross-sectional study, samples of MEC (n=30) were selected and classified as low-grade (LG), intermediate-grade (IG) or high-grade (HG), according to the WHO grading system. HLA-G, -E and PD-L1 were identified by immunohistochemistry and quantified as the proportion of positive neoplastic cells. The density of GB+ cells was also evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used with a 5% significance level. Results Expressions of HLA-G, -E and PD-L1 were identified in the majority of epidermoid, intermediate and clear cells, but not in the mucous cells of the MECs. The quantitative analysis of the total percentage of positive neoplastic cells showed overexpression of this set of proteins in all MEC samples. The expression of these proteins and histological grading were positively correlated [HLA-G (LG=79% positive cells, IG=96%, HG=99%; p =0.0004), HLA-E (LG=70%, IG=96%, HG=99%; p< 0.0001) and PD-L1 (LG=34%, IG=79%, HG=80%; p =0.01)]. No relationship was observed between the immunosuppressive proteins and other clinicopathological parameters. Low GB density was found in all MEC samples. Conclusions The augmented expression of HLA-G, -E and PD-L1 in the intraoral MEC might suggest a role of these molecules in the scape of neoplastic cells from immunosurveillance.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Expression of MyHC isoforms mRNA transcripts in different regions of the
           masseter and medial pterygoid muscles in chimpanzees
    • Authors: Neus Ciurana; Rosa Artells; Carmen Muñoz; Júlia Arias-Martorell; Gaëlle Bello-Hellegouarch; Alejandro Pérez-Pérez; Juan Francisco Pastor; Josep Maria Potau
      Pages: 63 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Neus Ciurana, Rosa Artells, Carmen Muñoz, Júlia Arias-Martorell, Gaëlle Bello-Hellegouarch, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez, Juan Francisco Pastor, Josep Maria Potau
      Objective The aim of this study is to examine the expression pattern of the different myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to obtain information at molecular level which can be related to the functional characteristics of these two muscles. Design The masseter, deep and superficial portion, and medial pterygoid muscles of five adult Pan troglodytes were dissected in order to obtain samples of the anterior and posterior regions of each portion of the masseter and of the medial pterygoid. The expression of MyHC isoforms mRNA transcripts was analyzed by RT-qPCR. Results No significant differences in expression of MyHC isoforms between the masseter and the medial pterygoid were found. In contrast, when comparing the superficial and the deep portion of the masseter, we found that the MyHC-IIM isoform was expressed at a significantly higher level in the superficial portion. Conclusions The superficial portion of the masseter and the medial pterygoid muscle have the same expression pattern regarding the different MyHC isoforms. On the other hand, the deep portion of the masseter, which is activated mainly during lateral and repositioning movements of the mandible, has a lower MyHC-IIM isoform expression than the superficial portion. Our findings provide new data on functional aspects of the masseter and medial pterygoid that can complement results obtained by other techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • In silico search of inhibitors of Streptococcus mutans for the control of
           dental plaque
    • Authors: Rodrigo Ochoa; María Cecilia Martínez-Pabón; María Adelaida Arismendi-Echeverri; Willer Leandro Rendón-Osorio; Carlos Enrique Muskus-López
      Pages: 68 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Rodrigo Ochoa, María Cecilia Martínez-Pabón, María Adelaida Arismendi-Echeverri, Willer Leandro Rendón-Osorio, Carlos Enrique Muskus-López
      Biofilm is an extremely complex microbial community arranged in a matrix of polysaccharides and attached to a substrate. Its development is crucial in the pathophysiology of oral infections like dental caries, as well as in periodontal, pulp, and periapical diseases. Streptococcus mutans is one of the most effective microorganisms in lactic acid production of the dental biofilm. Identifying essential Streptococcus mutans proteins using bioinformatics methods helps to search for alternative therapies. To this end, the bacterial genomes of several Streptococcus mutans strains and representative strains of other cariogenic and non-cariogenic bacteria were analysed by identifying pathogenicity islands and alignments with other bacteria, and by detecting the exclusive genes of cariogenic species in comparison to the non-pathogenic ones. This study used tools for orthology prediction such as BLAST and OrthoMCL, as well as the server IslandViewer for the detection of pathogenicity islands. In addition, the potential interactome of Streptococcus mutans was rebuilt by comparing it to interologues of other species phylogenetically close to or associated with cariogenicity. This protocol yielded a final list of 20 proteins related to potentially virulent factors that can be used as therapeutic targets in future analyses. The EIIA and EIIC enzymatic subunits of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) were prioritized, as well as the pyruvate kinase enzyme, which are directly involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and in obtaining the necessary energy for the microorganism’s survival. These results will guide a subsequent experimental trial to develop new, safe, and effective molecules in the treatment of dental caries.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.06.027
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone ameliorated alveolar
           bone loss in experimental periodontitis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic
    • Authors: Helin Chen; Taozi Fu; Yuanyuan Ma; Xiangnan Wu; Xianxian Li; Xinyi Li; Jiefei Shen; Hang Wang
      Pages: 76 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Helin Chen, Taozi Fu, Yuanyuan Ma, Xiangnan Wu, Xianxian Li, Xinyi Li, Jiefei Shen, Hang Wang
      Objective Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been demonstrated to have anabolic effects on bone metabolism and is approved for use in the treatment of osteoporosis. This study evaluates the role of intermittent PTH administration on alveolar bone loss in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Design Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: (1) a control group (saline placebo without ligature and STZ injection), (2) a PTH group (PTH administration without ligature and STZ injection), (3) an L group (saline placebo with ligature), (4) an L+STZ group (saline placebo with ligature and STZ injection), and (5) an L+STZ+PTH group (PTH administration with ligature and STZ injection). PTH was administered at 75μg/kg per dose four times a week for 28days. Subsequently, all rats were sacrificed, and their mandibles were extracted for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning, as well as histological and immunochemical evaluation. Results Micro-CT scanning demonstrated the anabolic effect of PTH on alveolar bone metabolism in STZ-induced diabetic rats (P<0.05), and histomorphometry indicated that PTH inhibited inflammation of the periodontium and increased the level of osteoblastic activity (P<0.05). Immunochemical evaluation showed that rats subjected to both ligature placement and STZ injection had the highest receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio and that PTH administration decreased this ratio. Conclusion Intermittent systemic PTH administration effectively reduced alveolar bone loss and ameliorated the manifestation of experimental periodontitis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.06.033
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Expression of planar cell polarity genes during mouse tooth development
    • Authors: Nobuko Obara; Yuko Suzuki; Kazuharu Irie; Shunichi Shibata
      Pages: 85 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Nobuko Obara, Yuko Suzuki, Kazuharu Irie, Shunichi Shibata
      Objective Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the cell polarity across the tissue plane and controls various cell behaviors and structures. Although the expression of several PCP signaling components has been detected in tooth germs, knowledge of the gene expression patterns of these PCP components during tooth development remains incomplete. The aim of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial changes in PCP gene expression during tooth development. Design Expression of Celsr1 and 2, Fzd3 and 6, Vangl1 and 2, and Dvl1-3 genes was analyzed in mouse molar germs from the bud to the bell stage using in situ hybridization. Results At the bud stage, all target genes were expressed in all areas of the tooth bud. In the enamel organ at the cap stage, expression of Fzd3 was suppressed in the enamel knot, whereas Fzd6 was strongly expressed there. Expression of Vangl2 was strongly expressed in the inner dental epithelium from the cap stage onwards. In the inner dental epithelium, strong expression of Fzd3, Dvl2 and Vangl2 was noted at the early bell stage, and of Celsr1, Fzd3, Fzd6, Vangl2 and Dvl2 at the bell stage. Furthermore, differentiated odontoblasts strongly expressed Celsr1, Vangl2, and Dvl2. Conclusion The gene expression patterns delineated in this study improve our understanding of the role(s) of PCP components during tooth development.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • MicroRNA-27b inhibits cell proliferation in oral squamous cell carcinoma
           by targeting FZD7 and Wnt signaling pathway
    • Authors: Bingyao Liu; Wei Chen; Gang Cao; Zhen Dong; Jinke Xu; Tingyuan Luo; Senlin Zhang
      Pages: 92 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Bingyao Liu, Wei Chen, Gang Cao, Zhen Dong, Jinke Xu, Tingyuan Luo, Senlin Zhang
      This study intended to investigate the role of microRNA-27b (miR-27b) in proliferation of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells and to explore the potential molecular mechanism. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay. The expression levels of miR-27b, Frizzled7 (FZD7), cyclin D1 and c-myc were detected by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The protein expression level of FZD7 was detected by western blot analysis. The relationship between miR-27b and FZD7, and the activity of Wnt signaling pathway were determined using luciferase reporter assay. The miR-27b expression in OSCC cell lines was significantly decreased compared with control. Overexpression of miR-27b remarkably inhibited OSCC cell proliferation. Additionally, miR-27b could target and inhibit FZD7 expression and decrease the activity of Wnt signaling pathway.miR-27b could inhibit OSCC cell proliferation through inhibiting FZD7 and FZD7-mediated Wnt signaling pathway.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T03:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark essential oil on the
           halitosis-associated bacterium Solobacterium moorei and in vitro
    • Authors: Geneviève LeBel; Bruno Haas; Andrée-Ann Adam; Marie-Pier Veilleux; Amel Ben Lagha; Daniel Grenier
      Pages: 97 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Geneviève LeBel, Bruno Haas, Andrée-Ann Adam, Marie-Pier Veilleux, Amel Ben Lagha, Daniel Grenier
      Objectives Halitosis, also known as bad breath or oral malodour, is a condition affecting a large proportion of the population. Solobacterium moorei is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that has been specifically associated with halitosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of essential oils, more particularly cinnamon bark oil, on growth, biofilm formation, eradication and killing, as well as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production by S. moorei. Methods A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils. Biofilm formation was assessed by a crystal violet staining assay and scanning electron microscopy. The biofilm of S. moorei was characterized by enzymatic treatments. Biofilm killing was determined by a luminescence assay monitoring ATP production. H2S production was quantified with a colorimetric assay. The biocompatibility of cinnamon oil was investigated using a gingival keratinocyte cell line. Results Among the ten essential oils tested, cinnamon oil was found to be the most powerful against S. moorei with MIC and MBC values of 0.039% and 0.156%, respectively. The biofilm formed by S. moorei was then characterized. The fact that DNase I and to a lesser extent proteinase K significantly reduced biofilm formation by S. moorei and induced its eradication suggests that the extracellular matrix of S. moorei biofilm may be mainly containing a DNA backbone associated with proteins. At concentrations below the MIC, cinnamon oil reduced S. moorei biofilm formation that resulted from an attenuation of bacterial growth. It was also found that treatment of a pre-formed biofilm of S. moorei with cinnamon oil significantly decreased its viability although it did not cause its eradication. Cinnamon oil had an inhibitory effect on the production of H2S by S. moorei. Lastly, it was found that at concentrations effective against S. moorei, no significant loss of viability in gingival keratinocytes occurred after a 1-h exposure. Conclusions Our study brought evidence that cinnamon oil may be a promising substance to incorporate into oral hygiene products for controlling bad breath by inhibiting growth, killing biofilm, and reducing H2S production by S. moorei. Moreover, at the effective concentrations, cinnamon oil was found to have no toxic effects on oral keratinocytes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T03:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • The influence of food consistency on chewing rate and muscular work
    • Authors: A. van der Bilt; J.H. Abbink
      Pages: 105 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): A. van der Bilt, J.H. Abbink
      Food properties influence the parameters of the masticatory process, such as jaw movement, muscle activity and chewing rate. Firm foods will require more muscle activity than softer foods. However, the influence of food hardness on chewing rate is ambiguous as both slower and higher chewing rates have been reported for harder foods. Rheological characteristics of the food, such as plasticity and elasticity, may help to explain differences in chewing rate. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of food properties on chewing rate and muscular work in five phases of a chewing sequence. Eighty-four participants chewed on five foods, which strongly differed in consistency. Chewing gum was used as a reference food. The phase in the chewing sequence had a large significant effect on cycle duration for the five foods. A significant decrease in cycle duration at the beginning of chewing was followed by an increase in later phases, leading to U-shaped curves. Food type had a small effect on the average cycle duration. However, large significant differences in cycle duration were observed between the foods at the beginning of a chewing sequence. In that phase, the firm foods were chewed much slower than the soft foods. Muscular work was significantly influenced by both chewing phase and food type.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T03:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • The effect of active components from citrus fruits on dentin MMPs
    • Authors: Zhengya Liu; Fang Li; Ling Zhang; Haohan Yu; Fan Yu; Jihua Chen
      Pages: 111 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Zhengya Liu, Fang Li, Ling Zhang, Haohan Yu, Fan Yu, Jihua Chen
      Objectives This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) ability of active components from citrus fruits (hesperetin: Hst, hesperidin: Hsd and naringenin: Nge). Methods Inactivation effects of citrus flavonoids (Hst, Hsd, Nge) at different concentrations on soluble collagenase were measured using a fluorometric assay. Matrix-bound endogenous MMPs activity was evaluated via dry mass loss and hydroxyproline (HYP) release of demineralized human dentin. Demineralized dentin beams were pretreated with 500μg/mL citrus flavonoids for 10min. Chlorhexidine (CHX) was used as inhibitor control. Beams pretreated with distilled water served as blank control. Dentin slabs were used for in situ zymography and evaluated under confocal microscopy. Ultrastructure of demineralized collagen fibers was exhibited by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Results Citrus flavonoids exhibited inactivation function on soluble MMPs and the extent of inactivation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The inactivation percent of citrus flavonoids reached above 90% at the concentration of 500μg/mL. Compared with control group, citrus flavonoids pretreated demineralized dentin beams exhibited less dry mass loss, lower hydroxyproline release and more intact collagen architecture after 15days storage. Dentin samples pretreated with citrus flavonoids showed lower enzymes activities in in situ zymography. Conclusions Hst, Hsd or Nge have anti-MMPs ability and can preserve dentin collagen from degradation. Clinical Significance: Hst, Hsd and Nge may have the potential to be used in dentin bonding systems and improve the resin-dentin bonding durability.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Validation study of a new method for sexual prediction based on CBCT
           analysis of maxillary sinus and mandibular canal
    • Authors: Thiago de Oliveira Gamba; Mayra Cristina Yamasaki; Francisco Carlos Groppo; Heraldo Luis Dias da Silveira; Solange Maria de Almeida Boscolo; Gerard C.H. Sanderink; W. Erwin R. Berkhout
      Pages: 118 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Thiago de Oliveira Gamba, Mayra Cristina Yamasaki, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Heraldo Luis Dias da Silveira, Solange Maria de Almeida Boscolo, Gerard C.H. Sanderink, W. Erwin R. Berkhout
      Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of two craniometric methods for sexual prediction (SP) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the Dutch population and to construct a formula for each method and then the two combined. Design One-hundred sixty CBCT images were selected from a Dutch database (80 males and 80 females). The images were analyzed by two examiners taking seven measurements in the maxillary sinus (MS) region (first method) and nine in the mandibular canal (MC) region (second method). The most predictive measurements in both methods were used to develop an equation to determine the accuracy of each method. Results All measurements showed statistical difference between genders. Logistic regression results showed two variables with greater SP index with 75% accuracy in the first method and four variables with 71.9% accuracy in the second. The two methods combined showed another four variables with 78.5% accuracy. Conclusion All measurements showed statistically significant differences between sexes. The SP accuracy values were 75% for first 71.9% for the second method. When the two methods were combined, the accuracy increased to 78.5%. The formulas developed in this study can be applied as a complementary method for human identification in the Dutch population.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • An index for the evaluation of 3D masticatory cycles stability
    • Authors: Claudia Lúcia Pimenta Ferreira; Matteo Zago; Cláudia Maria de Felício; Chiarella Sforza
      Pages: 124 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Claudia Lúcia Pimenta Ferreira, Matteo Zago, Cláudia Maria de Felício, Chiarella Sforza
      Objectives To introduce an index (Masticatory Stability Index, MSI) to analyze the stability of chewing cycles in standardized conditions and test it in a group of patients with subclinical mild temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Design 23 subjects with mild subacute TMD and 21 healthy subjects were involved; they all responded to a questionnaire about signs and symptoms of TMD (ProTMDmulti) and underwent a myofunctional orofacial evaluation with scores, using the protocol of orofacial myofunctional evaluation with scores (OMES). Their mandibular kinematics was assessed with a 3D motion capture system during deliberate unilateral gum chewing. The MSI was computed synthesizing the information contained in nine kinematics parameters into a single global figure. Patients’ and controls’ MSI were compared considering the preferred and non-preferred chewing side using a 2-way ANOVA (factors: group, side). Results Together with a lower total score of myofunctional orofacial status, the TMD group showed a reduced stability based on MSI (p<0.05). Conclusions The MSI is an efficient method to measure the stability of the masticatory cycles. These preliminary results encourage validating the index on a larger sample. The variability in the motor behavior of chewing can impair the objectivity of its evaluations in several types of patients, including those with TMD. The MSI could be useful to complement clinical assessments, providing data for planning the rehabilitation of masticatory function in these patients.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Effects of prostaglandin E2 on clonogenicity, proliferation and expression
           of pluripotent markers in human periodontal ligament cells
    • Authors: Avirut Truntipakorn; Anupong Makeudom; Thanapat Sastraruji; Prasit Pavasant; Kassara Pattamapun; Suttichai Krisanaprakornkit
      Pages: 130 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Avirut Truntipakorn, Anupong Makeudom, Thanapat Sastraruji, Prasit Pavasant, Kassara Pattamapun, Suttichai Krisanaprakornkit
      Background and objective Based on our earlier work on the response of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells to mechanical stress by induction of cyclooxygenase expression and production of prostaglandin PGE2 that could regulate mineralization of PDL cells, it was hypothesized that PGE2 had potential effects on PDL stemness. In this study, we aimed to investigate clonogenicity, proliferation and expression of certain pluripotent markers, considered to be characteristics of PDL stemness, in response to treatment with exogenously-added PGE2. Material and methods Human PDL cells were cultured and treated with various doses of PGE2, and the aforementioned characteristics of PDL stemness were analyzed. Results The clonogenicity and proliferation were significantly enhanced by PGE2 at low concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1ng/ml; P< 0.05), but only the proliferation was significantly diminished by PGE2 at a high concentration (100ng/ml; P< 0.05). Expression of NANOG and OCT4 mRNA and protein was increased by PGE2 treatment at 0.1 and 1ng/ml. Consistently, expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen 4, a putative stem cell marker, was significantly augmented by PGE2 treatment at 1ng/ml (P <0.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that although a high dose of PGE2 (100ng/ml) inhibits proliferation of PDL cells, PGE2 at low doses appears to play a role in the maintenance of PDL stemness.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Expression of C-X-C motif chemokine receptors 4 and 7 in salivary gland
    • Authors: Ekarat Phattarataratip; Kittipong Dhanuthai
      Pages: 136 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Ekarat Phattarataratip, Kittipong Dhanuthai
      Objectives Chemokine receptors have been shown to overexpress in several cancer types. Binding of chemokines to their cognate chemokine receptors on tumor cells can promote tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. The purposes of this study was to examine the expression of chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, in salivary gland neoplasms and its association with pathologic characteristics. Design Sixty-two cases of salivary gland neoplasms, including 25 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC), 18 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC), 14 pleomorphic adenomas (PA) and 5 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) were investigated for CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression immunohistochemically. The immunoreactivity was categorized as low expression or high expression group, based on whether the positive staining was below or higher than 50% of the neoplastic cells, respectively. Results The majority of MECs, ACCs and PLGAs showed high CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression, whereas most PAs showed high CXCR4 but low CXCR7 expression. The levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression were significantly correlated. In MECs, the expression of both chemokine receptors was localized to squamous cells, intermediate cells and glandular epithelial cells, whereas mucous cells and clear cells were negative. In ACCs and PAs, their immunoreactivity was more intense in ductal cells than myoepithelial cells. Most neoplastic myoepithelial cells in PAs did not express CXCR7, while those in ACCs showed strong CXCR7 expression. The increased CXCR4 expression was significantly associated with advanced pathologic grade of MECs (P=0.03). Conclusion Overexpression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 is common in the 4 salivary gland neoplasms investigated. CXCR4 may play a role in the progression of MECs.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.012
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Microbiome of peri-implantitis affected and healthy dental sites in
           patients with a history of chronic periodontitis
    • Authors: Danae Apatzidou; David F. Lappin; Graham Hamilton; Christos A. Papadopoulos; Antonis Konstantinidis; Marcello P. Riggio
      Pages: 145 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Danae Apatzidou, David F. Lappin, Graham Hamilton, Christos A. Papadopoulos, Antonis Konstantinidis, Marcello P. Riggio
      Objective To determine the composition of the microbiome of peri-implantitis sites and corresponding dental sites in subjects with a history of chronic periodontitis. Design Clinical and radiographic examination assessed the periodontal/peri-implant disease status. Plaque samples were collected from one diseased implant with peri-implantitis, functional for at least two years and healthy sites in ten non-smokers who had received periodontal treatment prior to implant placement. Following DNA extraction, the bacteria present in each sample were determined by high-throughput sequencing of V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. OTUs were picked using QIIME. Differences between dental and implant sites were determined using linear discriminant analysis, effect size and diversity analyses were conducted using PAST v3.02. Results The microbiomes of healthy samples were more diverse than those found in disease, although disease was associated with a higher abundance of taxa relative to health. The genera Actinobacillus and Streptococcus were most closely associated with health, whereas Prevotella and Porphyromonas were most discriminative for disease. Synergistetes were highly associated with peri-implantitis. Conclusion In patients with a history of periodontitis, putative periodontal pathogens prevailed in the microbiome of diseased implants. Diseased implants and corresponding healthy sites appear to have distinct microbiological ecosystems.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Influences of microgap and micromotion of implant–abutment interface on
           marginal bone loss around implant neck
    • Authors: Yang Liu; Jiawei Wang
      Pages: 153 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Yang Liu, Jiawei Wang
      Objective To review the influences and clinical implications of micro-gap and micro-motion of implant-abutment interface on marginal bone loss around the neck of implant. Design Literatures were searched based on the following Keywords: implant-abutment interface/implant-abutment connection/implant-abutment conjunction, microgap, micromotion/micromovement, microleakage, and current control methods available. The papers were then screened through titles, abstracts, and full texts. Results A total of 83 studies were included in the literature review. Two-piece implant systems are widely used in clinics. However, the production error and masticatory load result in the presence of microgap and micromotion between the implant and the abutment, which directly or indirectly causes microleakage and mechanical damage. Consequently, the degrees of microgap and micromotion further increase, and marginal bone absorption finally occurs. We summarize the influences of microgap and micromotion at the implant-abutment interface on marginal bone loss around the neck of the implant. We also recommend some feasible methods to reduce their effect. Conclusions Clinicians and patients should pay more attention to the mechanisms as well as the control methods of microgap and micromotion. To reduce the corresponding detriment to the implant marginal bone, suitable Morse taper or hybrid connection implants and platform switching abutments should be selected, as well as other potential methods.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.022
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Relationships between chewing rate, occlusion, cephalometric anatomy,
           muscle activity, and masticatory performance
    • Authors: Brent A. Fulks; Kathryn X. Callaghan; Claire D. Tewksbury; Geoffrey E. Gerstner
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Brent A. Fulks, Kathryn X. Callaghan, Claire D. Tewksbury, Geoffrey E. Gerstner
      Objective Mastication consists of rhythmic jaw openings and closings. Recent studies suggest that muscle mechanical properties determine the rhythmic rate; however, speed-accuracy tradeoffs may also play a role. This study evaluated how variation in chewing rate affected chewing performance, how masticatory muscle activity varied with chewing rate, and whether morphology and demographics contributed to performance. Design Chewing performance and muscle activity were sampled in 23 healthy, fully-dentate adults, who chewed a standardized test food to a metronome set at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2 and 3 times their ‘natural’ chewing rates. Subjects produced ten chews per trial, and five trials for each of the five rates. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was sampled from masseter and temporalis muscles bilaterally. Demographic, occlusal, and cephalometric data were also obtained. Results Chewing performance, defined by median particle size, was inversely related to chewing rate; however, performance was not remarkably improved at rates slower than the natural chewing rate. Above the natural chewing rate, variability in EMG bursts diminished, suggesting a reduction in muscle activity modulation at fast rates. Occlusal contacts and most morphological features appeared to play a limited or no role in performance. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that the ‘natural’ chewing rate is selected to be as fast as possible while providing sufficient time to allow EMG modulation for improved performance. The interplay between EMG modulation and individual variation in skeletal morphology is likely critical for optimal chewing performance.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.020
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Salivary microbiome in non-oral disease: A summary of evidence and
    • Authors: Aneesha Acharya; Yuki Chan; Supriya Kheur; Li Jian Jin; Rory M. Watt; Nikos Mattheos
      Pages: 169 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Aneesha Acharya, Yuki Chan, Supriya Kheur, Li Jian Jin, Rory M. Watt, Nikos Mattheos
      Objective The advent of high-throughput sequencing and ‘omic’ technologies is facilitating an ‘open-ended’ understanding of the human microbial community and its interplay with health. This commentary aims to present key perspectives and summarize current evidence from metagenomic studies of salivary microbiota in relation to general health and systemic diseases. Design A narrative review of studies that described salivary microbiome composition in relation to various general health conditions was conducted and the main results were summarized. Results Currently available evidence shows salivary microbial patterns and fingerprints as related to a range of metabolic, autoimmune and immunodeficiency associated conditions, similar to albeit at a far lower scale than similar studies in the gut microbiome. Conclusions Considering the relative ease of collection, emerging evidence of association with non-oral diseases may imply that saliva microbiome research may have potential diagnostic or prognostic value.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.019
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Characterization of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic
           repeats sites in Streptococcus mutans isolated from early childhood caries
    • Authors: Jing Chen; Tiancheng Li; Xuedong Zhou; Lei Cheng; Yuanyuan Huo; Jing Zou; Yuqing Li
      Pages: 174 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Jing Chen, Tiancheng Li, Xuedong Zhou, Lei Cheng, Yuanyuan Huo, Jing Zou, Yuqing Li
      Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) sites in 45 clinical Streptococcus mutans strains and their relationship to the clinical manifestations of early childhood caries (ECC). Methods Forty-five S. mutans strains were isolated from the plaque samples taken from sixty-three children. CRISPR sites were sequenced and BLAST was used to compare these sites to those in the CRISPRTarget database. The association between the distribution of CRISPR sites and the manifestation of caries was analyzed by Chi-Square test. Further, biofilm formation (by crystal violet staining) and the synthesis of polysaccharide (by anthrone-sulfuric method) of all clinical isolated S. mutans strains with both CRISPR sites and no CRISPR site were comapared. Finally, acidogenicity and acidurity of two typical strains were determined using pH drop and acid tolerance assays. Biofilm formation and EPS synthesis by two typical strains were compared by 3D CLSM (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope) assays and the expression of gtf genes were evaluated using qPCR. Results We found that most of the spacers in the clinical S. mutans strains were derived from Streptococcus phages APCM01 and M102. The number of CRISPR sites in these strains was associated with the clinical manifestations of ECC. Moreover, we found that the biofilm formation and EPS synthesis ability of the S. mutans strains with both CRISPR sites was significant improved. Conclusions An association was found between the distribution of CRISPR sites and the clinical manifestations of caries. The CRISPR sites might contribute to the cariogenic potential of S. mutans.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Extracellular HSP72 induces proinflammatory cytokines in human periodontal
           ligament fibroblast cells through the TLR4/NFκB pathway in vitro
    • Authors: Chihiro Arai; Yoshiaki Nomura; Masazumi Matsuzawa; Nobuhiro Hanada; Yoshiki Nakamura
      Pages: 181 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Chihiro Arai, Yoshiaki Nomura, Masazumi Matsuzawa, Nobuhiro Hanada, Yoshiki Nakamura
      Objective The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of extracellular heat shock protein (HSP) 72 on human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (hPDLFs) in vitro. Design hPDLFs were stimulated by recombinant human HSP72 (rhHSP72). TAK-242 was used to inhibit toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activity. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time PCR and protein levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. p65/RelA phosphorylation was analyzed by western blot. Results IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by rhHSP72 stimulation. These effects were inhibited by TAK-242 treatment. Additionally, p65/RelA phosphorylation was increased after 5-min rhHSP72 stimulation, which was inhibited by TAK-242 treatment. Conclusion Extracellular HSP72 induces proinflammatory cytokines through TLR4/NF-κB in hPDLFs.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T03:47:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.021
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • A meta-analysis of randomized trials assessing the effects of probiotic
           preparations on oral candidiasis in the elderly
    • Authors: Ruixue Ai; Jiao Wei; Danhua Ma; Lu Jiang; Hongxia Dan; Yu Zhou; Ning Ji; Xin Zeng; Qianming Chen
      Pages: 187 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Ruixue Ai, Jiao Wei, Danhua Ma, Lu Jiang, Hongxia Dan, Yu Zhou, Ning Ji, Xin Zeng, Qianming Chen
      Objective Oral candidiasis is the most common fungal infection and can be attributed in part to dysbiosis, an imbalance in the resident oral microflora. Therefore, probiotics, which counter pathogenic microorganisms through competitive, antagonistic, and immunological effects, have been used by some clinicians. To date, the effect of probiotics in preventing oral candidiasis in the elderly is controversial. A systematic review that summarizes and critically appraises the available clinical trials is therefore necessary. Design Electronic searches were performed using the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Only randomized controlled trials were included. The Mantel–Haenszel test was used to appraise the odds ratio for single studies and an overall combined odds ratio for all studies combined. Results Three studies matched the inclusion criteria and were homogeneous. The data from one study that estimated candida growth from plaque and saliva were subdivided, thus a total of four studies with 595 people were included. The overall combined odds ratio was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.38–0.77). Three studies provided that active treatment reduced the risk of oral candidiasis more than placebo: Hatakka et al. (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.97; 192 participants, plaque); Kraft-Bodi et al. (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.86; 174 participants, palatal); Kraft-Bodi et al. (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.98; 174 participants, plaque), while one study provided reverse result: Ishikawa et al. (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.48 to 3.58; 55 participants, saliva). Conclusion Probiotics have a preventative effect on oral candidiasis in the elderly.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T03:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.030
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • A review of in-vitro fibrocartilage tissue engineered therapies with a
           focus on the temporomandibular joint
    • Authors: Jesse Lowe; Alejandro J. Almarza
      Pages: 193 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Jesse Lowe, Alejandro J. Almarza
      The inability of fibrocartilage, specifically the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc, to regenerate and remodel following injury presents a unique problem for clinicians. Tissue engineering then offers a potential regenerative therapy. In vitro testing provides a valuable screening tool for potential tissue engineered solutions. The conclusions drawn for TMJ in vitro research were compared against state of the art fibrocartilage studies in the knee meniscus, and annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc (IVD). For TMJ disc regeneration, in vitro tissue engineered approaches, focused on cellular therapies with fibrochondrocytes, have displayed an inability to produce enough collagen, as well as an inability to recapitulate native mechanical properties. Biomaterial approaches have recapitulated the native properties of the TMJ disc, but their in vivo efficacy has yet to be determined. By comparison, the knee meniscus field is the most progressive in the use of stem cells as a cell source. The knee meniscus field has moved away from measuring mechanical properties, and are instead more focused on biochemistry and gene expression. IVD studies mainly use electrospun scaffolds, and have produced the best success in mechanical properties. The TMJ field, in comparison to knee meniscus and IVD, needs to employ stem cell therapies, new biomaterials and manufacturing techniques, and cutting edge molecular assays, in future in vitro approaches to screen for viable technologies to move to in vivo studies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T03:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • A novel method for sex estimation using 3D computed tomography models of
           tooth roots: A volumetric analysis
    • Authors: Seyedeh M. Kazzazi; Elena F. Kranioti
      Pages: 202 - 208
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Seyedeh M. Kazzazi, Elena F. Kranioti
      Advances in technologies such as computed tomography (CT) scanning have allowed for further examination of dental sexual dimorphism in modern and archaeological populations.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T03:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.024
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Soft-diet feeding impairs neural transmission between mitral cells and
           interneurons in the mouse olfactory bulb
    • Authors: Tomohiro Noguchi; Chizuru Utsugi; Makoto Kashiwayanagi
      Pages: 209 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Tomohiro Noguchi, Chizuru Utsugi, Makoto Kashiwayanagi
      (Objective) The subventricular zone in mice generates a lot of neuroblasts even during adulthood. These neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb and differentiate into inhibitory interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells. Olfactory sensory neurons receive information from various odorants and transmit it to the olfactory bulb. Our previous study showed that soft-diet feeding impairs neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, in turn leading to the reduction of odor-induced behaviors and Fos-immunoreactivities, the latter of which are markers of neural activity, at the olfactory bulb after exposure to odors. Release of GABA from inhibitory interneurons at the olfactory bulb induces inhibitory currents at the mitral cells, which are output neurons from the olfactory bulb. (Design) In the present study, we measured spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) at the mitral cells of mice fed a soft diet in order to explore the effects of changes in texture of diets on neural function at the olfactory bulb. (Results) The soft-diet feeding extended the intervals between sIPSCs and reduced their peak amplitudes. (Conclusions) The present results suggest that soft-diet feeding in mice attenuates the neural functions of inhibitory interneurons at the olfactory bulb.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T03:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.015
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Mineralization-defects are comparable in fluorotic impacted human teeth
           and fluorotic mouse incisors
    • Authors: Rozita Jalali; Franck Guy; Samaneh Ghazanfari; Don Lyaruu; Leo van Ruijven; Pamela DenBesten; Stefania Martignon; Gina Castiblanco; Antonius L.J.J. Bronckers
      Pages: 214 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Rozita Jalali, Franck Guy, Samaneh Ghazanfari, Don Lyaruu, Leo van Ruijven, Pamela DenBesten, Stefania Martignon, Gina Castiblanco, Antonius L.J.J. Bronckers
      Objective Fluoride excess of 0.05–0.07mgF/kgbw/day in water or food additives like salt is the principal cause of endemic dental fluorosis. How fluoride causes these defects is not clear yet. Recent studies in rodents suggest that development of enamel fluorosis is associated with insufficient neutralization of protons released during the formation of hypermineralized lines. Design Here we examined whether hypermineralization could also be assessed by MicroCT in developing molar enamel of humans exposed to fluoride. Result Micro-CT analysis of hypomineralized enamel from human fluorotic molars graded by the Thylstrup–Fejerskov (TF) Index as III–IV showed weak hypermineralized lines and hypermineralized patches not seen in TF-I/II grade enamel. The mesio-distal sides of these molar teeth were significantly smaller (∼18%, p=0.02) than in TF-I/II teeth. Conclusion The patterns of changes observed in human fluorotic teeth were similar to those in fluorotic rodent incisors. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that also in developing human teeth fluoride-stimulated local acidification of enamel could be a mechanism for developing fluorotic enamel.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T03:54:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.018
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Histochemical and immunohistochemical examination of odontoblasts
           (petroblasts) in petrodentine formation of lungfish
    • Authors: Shunya Oka; Ichiro Sasagawa; Mikio Ishiyama
      Pages: 222 - 229
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Shunya Oka, Ichiro Sasagawa, Mikio Ishiyama
      Objective Petrodentine, the core of the lungfish tooth plate, is a well-mineralized tissue similar to mammalian enamel and analogous to enameloid in fish teeth. Petrodentine is formed solely by petroblasts, which are specialized odontoblasts, whereas enameloid is a composite tissue produced by both odontoblasts and dental epithelial cells. To clarify the details of petrodentine formation, petroblasts were investigated using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Methods Extant lungfish (Lepidosiren paradoxa) were used in this study. Tooth plates during the stage of petrodentine formation were observed by means of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Commercial kits were used to detect enzyme activity. Correlative sections were immunostained using antibodies against selected peptides. Routine staining such as periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction to identify glycogen and Elastica van Gieson staining for the detection of elastic fibers in histological sections were performed. In addition, conventional transmission electron microscopy was used for observing the fine structure. Results Petroblasts showed marked acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, and positive immunoreactivities against anti-nestin, anti-V-ATPase, and anti-Ca2+-ATPase, during the maturation stage, but in the matrix formation stage, reactions were much weaker than that of the maturation stage. During the maturation stage, petroblasts showed intense PAS reactivity, and glycogen particles were observed in petroblasts by transmission electron microscopy. Glucose transporter 1-immunoreactivity was observed in petroblasts in the matrix formation stage and the initial to mid part of the maturation stage. Conclusions The results in this study suggested that petroblasts have two functional stages, matrix formation and maturation, and glycogen plays an important role in the modulation of petroblasts.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T04:02:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.025
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Diabetes increases interleukin-17 levels in periapical, hepatic, and renal
           tissues in rats
    • Authors: Mariane Maffei Azuma; João Eduardo Gomes-Filho; Annelise Katrine Carrara Prieto; Renata Oliveira Samuel; Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima; Dóris Hissako Sumida; Edilson Ervolino; Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra
      Pages: 230 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Mariane Maffei Azuma, João Eduardo Gomes-Filho, Annelise Katrine Carrara Prieto, Renata Oliveira Samuel, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima, Dóris Hissako Sumida, Edilson Ervolino, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra
      Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the association between endodontic infection and diabetes on interleukin-17 levels in periapical, hepatic, and renal tissues of rats. Design Forty male rats were divided into groups: normoglycemic rats (N), normoglycemic rats with apical periodontitis (N-AP), rats with experimental diabetes (ED), and rats with experimental diabetes and apical periodontitis (ED-AP). Diabetes was induced by intravenous streptozotocin injection, and blood sugar levels were monitored to confirm disease development. Apical periodontitis (AP) was induced by pulp exposure to the oral environment during 30days. After 30days, hepatic and renal tissues were obtained, and IL-17 levels were quantified by ELISA. The right hemi-jaw was used to quantify IL-17 levels by immunohistochemistry. The values obtained in parametric tests were tabulated and analyzed statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests, and the values obtained for scores were statistically analyzed by using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dun tests. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results ED and ED-AP groups expressed significantly higher IL-17 levels in both hepatic and renal tissues (p<0.05), compared to N and N-AP groups. Apical periodontitis (AP) in ED-AP group was significantly more severe than that in N-AP group (p<0.05). Furthermore, there was a significantly larger increase in the IL-17 levels in ED-AP group compared to N group (p<0.05). Conclusion Our results indicate that diabetes increases IL-17 levels in hepatic and renal tissues and also enhances IL-17 production in apical periodontitis area of rats.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T04:02:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Effect of application sequence of fluoride and CPP-ACP on remineralization
           of white spot lesions in primary teeth: An in-vitro study
    • Authors: Ola B. Al-Batayneh; Reem A. Jbarat; Susan N. Al-Khateeb
      Pages: 236 - 240
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Ola B. Al-Batayneh, Reem A. Jbarat, Susan N. Al-Khateeb
      Objective To explore how application sequence of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and fluoride influences remineralization of enamel white spot lesions (WSL) in primary teeth. Design In this in-vitro study, artificial WSLs were created in 130 primary teeth. Teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=27) and a control group (n=22) and exposed to one of the following remineralization regimens for 10 weeks: Group-1; 500ppm fluoride dentifrice; Group-2; 10% w/v CPP-ACP; Group-3; fluoride applied first, then CPP-ACP; Group-4; CPP-ACP applied first, then fluoride, and Group-5 was control. All groups were kept in a remineralizing solution. Mineral changes (ΔF) were quantified weekly using quantitative light-induced fluorescence. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0). Results Remineralization occurred in all groups to different degrees; changes from baseline were significant in groups 1–4 (P≤0.05). Group-4 showed the earliest significant remineralization (after 2 weeks) among groups, (P<0.001). Group-4 showed maximum changes in ΔF among groups; however, only differences with Groups 1 and 5 were significant (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Group-3 showed better remineralization than Groups 1, 2 and 5; however, the difference was only significant with Group-5 (P<0.001). There were no significant differences between Group 1and 2, however, only Group 2 showed better remineralization than Group 5, (P<0.01). Conclusion Combined treatment with CPP-ACP followed by fluoride exhibited the best remineralization of white spot lesions in primary teeth in this study. Combined treatment with fluoride followed by CPP-ACP showed a tendency towards better remineralization than fluoride or CPP-ACP alone.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T04:02:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Amelogenin induces M2 macrophage polarisation via PGE2/cAMP signalling
    • Authors: Kensuke Yamamichi; Takao Fukuda; Terukazu Sanui; Kyosuke Toyoda; Urara Tanaka; Yuki Nakao; Karen Yotsumoto; Hiroaki Yamato; Takaharu Taketomi; Takeshi Uchiumi; Fusanori Nishimura
      Pages: 241 - 251
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kensuke Yamamichi, Takao Fukuda, Terukazu Sanui, Kyosuke Toyoda, Urara Tanaka, Yuki Nakao, Karen Yotsumoto, Hiroaki Yamato, Takaharu Taketomi, Takeshi Uchiumi, Fusanori Nishimura
      Objectives Amelogenin, the major component of the enamel matrix derivative (EMD), has been suggested as a bioactive candidate for periodontal regeneration. Apart from producing a regenerative effect on periodontal tissues, amelogenin has also been reported to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of amelogenin on macrophages. Design Human phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated U937 macrophages and CD14+ peripheral blood-derived monocytes (PBMC)-derived macrophages were stimulated with recombinant amelogenin (rM180). After performing a detailed microarray analysis, the effects of rM180 on macrophage phenotype and signal transduction pathways were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Results The microarray analysis demonstrated that rM180 increased the expression of anti-inflammatory genes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged macrophages after 24h, while it temporarily up-regulated inflammatory responses at 4h. rM180 significantly enhanced the expression of M2 macrophage markers (CD163 and CD206). rM180-induced M2 macrophage polarisation was associated with morphological changes as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. rM180 enhanced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression, and the activation of the cAMP/cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) signaling pathway was involved in amelogenin-induced M2 macrophage polarisation. Blocking of PGE2 signaling by indomethacin specifically abrogated rM180 with or without LPS-induced M2 shift in PBMC-derived macrophages. Conclusion Amelogenin could reprogram macrophages into the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. It could therefore contribute to the early resolution of inflammation in periodontal lesions and provide a suitable environment for remodeling-periodontal tissues.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T04:02:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Effect of different dental burs for experimental induction of pulpitis in
    • Authors: Xilin Shi; Zhengmao Li; Ying He; Qianzhou Jiang; Xuechao Yang
      Pages: 252 - 257
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Xilin Shi, Zhengmao Li, Ying He, Qianzhou Jiang, Xuechao Yang
      Objective To evaluate the effect of using different dental burs on the development of pulpal inflammation after pulpal exposure in mice. Design Eighty-eight C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to group A (n=40), group B (n=40) and control group (n=8). The pulps of the maxillary first molars were occlusally exposed using ¼ round burs and polishing burs in group A and B respectively. Animals were sacrificed randomly at 0h, 4h, 8h, 12h and 24h after pulpal exposure. Micro-CT scanning was used to determine the success rate of sample preparation. Pulpal tissue changes were evaluated by histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Results The success rates of sample preparations were 85% in group A and 90% in group B. The mean maximum diameter of pulpal exposure area was 625.6±30.6μm in group A and 402.7±18.0μm in group B (p< 0.05). In addition, the mean of the minimum remaining dentine thickness at the marked region of interest was 133.2±29.9μm in group A and 261.4±16.3μm in group B (p< 0.05). Histopathologic staining demonstrated more signs of inflammation in both groups, as the duration of pulpal exposure increases. However, the rate of inflammatory progress was higher in group A, even spreading to the root pulp tissue within a few hours. For group B, the progress was relatively slow. Conclusions Pulpal exposure with different sizes of dental burs affects changes in the development of pulpal inflammation in mice.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T04:02:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • “Metabolism of Odontoblast-like cells submitted to transdentinal
           irradiation with blue and red LED”
    • Authors: Leopoldina de Fátima Dantas de Almeida; Fernanda Gonçalves Basso; Ana Paula Silveira Turrioni; Carlos Alberto de-Souza-Costa; Josimeri Hebling
      Pages: 258 - 264
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Leopoldina de Fátima Dantas de Almeida, Fernanda Gonçalves Basso, Ana Paula Silveira Turrioni, Carlos Alberto de-Souza-Costa, Josimeri Hebling
      Objectives The present study evaluated the trans-dentinal effect of light emitting diodes (LEDs) irradiation on the metabolism of odontoblast-like cells. Methods Seventy-two dentin discs (0.2mm thick) were obtained from human molar teeth. MDPC-23 cells (20,000 cells/disc) were seeded on the pulpal side of the discs using DMEM, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). After 12h, the culture medium was replaced with DMEM containing 0.5% FBS. After additional 12h, blue (455±10nm) or red (630±10nm) LEDs were used at irradiances of 80 and 40mW/cm2, respectively, to irradiate the occlusal side of the discs. The energy doses were fixed at 2 or 4J/cm2. Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), total protein production and collagen synthesis were evaluated 72h after irradiation. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Results Red light promoted proliferative effects at the energy dose of 4J/cm2 . Conversely, cell cultures irradiated with 2J/cm2 emitted by the blue light showed reduced viability. ALP production was stimulated by red light in comparison with blue light at 4J/cm2. Total protein production was reduced after exposure to blue light at 4J/cm2, while no effect was observed on collagen production. Conclusions Irradiation with red LED at 4J/cm2 bio-stimulated the viability of odontoblast-like cells, whilst blue light had unfavorable effects on the cellular metabolism.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T04:02:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Relatively low invasive capacity of Porphyromonas gingivalis strains into
           human gingival fibroblasts in vitro
    • Authors: Ju Young Jang; Keum Jin Baek; Youngnim Choi; Suk Ji
      Pages: 265 - 271
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Ju Young Jang, Keum Jin Baek, Youngnim Choi, Suk Ji
      Objective Bacterial invasion into host cells is a common strategy to escape the host immune system. Gingival fibroblasts (GFs) are the most predominant non-phagocytic cell type in gingival connective tissue. Therefore, invasion into GFs was thought to be the first strategy for the survival of Porphyromonas gingivalis. The present study compared the invasive ability of P. gingivalis into GFs with those of other red-complex and relatively less pathogenic bacterial strains, especially Fusobacterium nucleatum. Materials and methods Invasive ability of bacterial strains into GFs was measured using a flow cytometric invasion assay at a multiplicity of infection of 1000. The effect of dual infection with F. nucleatum CCUG 37843T on P. gingivalis ATCC 49417 invasion was investigated. The invasive ability of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis was confirmed using confocal microscopy. Results The invasive ability of red-complex bacteria was markedly lower than that of F. nucleatum or Campylobacter gracilis. The invasive ability of 4 types and 10 clinical strains of P. gingivalis was less than 6%, and that of F. nucleatum strains was greater than 45%. Confocal analysis revealed that the percentage of bacteria invading GFs in the cell-treated P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were 0.0068% and 1.22%, respectively. Dual infection with F. nucleatum increased the invasive ability of P. gingivalis. Conclusion The invasive capacities of P. gingivalis into GFs were comparatively lower than those of relatively less pathogenic bacteria. Invasion into GFs cannot be the first strategy for survival of P. gingivalis in gingival connective tissue.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T04:02:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Adiponectin prevents orthodontic tooth movement in rats
    • Authors: Sigrid Haugen; Kristin Matre Aasarød; Astrid Kamilla Stunes; Mats Peder Mosti; Tanya Franzen; Vaska Vandevska-Radunovic; Unni Syversen; Janne Elin Reseland
      Pages: 304 - 311
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Sigrid Haugen, Kristin Matre Aasarød, Astrid Kamilla Stunes, Mats Peder Mosti, Tanya Franzen, Vaska Vandevska-Radunovic, Unni Syversen, Janne Elin Reseland
      Objective The objective was to examine the effects of repetitive local administration of adiponectin on experimental tooth movement in rats. Materials and methods The maxillary right first molar of male Wistar rats (n=24) was moved mesially for 14days, with local adiponectin injections (0.2 or 2μg) every third day. Micro-computed tomography was performed at days 0, 6 and 14 and molar movement, bone density and bone volume fraction were calculated from the scans. Changes in extracellular matrix collagen and cell numbers in the periodontal ligament were analyzed histologically, and levels of circulating cytokines were measured by Luminex and ELISA. Results Adiponectin injections induced a reduction in tooth movement after 12 and 14days compared to controls. No tooth movement was observed between days 3 and 14 in the group receiving the highest dosage (2μg) of adiponectin. Differences in bone density and bone volume fractions between treatment and control groups were not identified. Relative size and morphology of collagen fibrils, and cell number in the periodontal region after adiponectin injections were unchanged compared to controls. Levels of circulating adiponectin or other selected factors in plasma were not influenced by the adiponectin injections. Conclusions Submucosal injections of adiponectin prevented experimental tooth movement in rats. The effect was dosage-dependent and local. Adiponectin injections caused no detectable changes in bone density, periodontal cell number or collagen content.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T14:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Observations on fluid flow from exposed dentine in primary teeth: An in
           vitro study
    • Authors: Monticha Rangcharoen; Varisara Sirimaharaj; Sitthichai Wanachantararak; Noppakun Vongsavan; Bruce Matthews
      Pages: 312 - 316
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Monticha Rangcharoen, Varisara Sirimaharaj, Sitthichai Wanachantararak, Noppakun Vongsavan, Bruce Matthews
      Objective To investigate fluid flow through dentine in primary teeth in vitro using the replica technique, and to compare the results with those obtained from permanent dentine. Design The experiments were carried out on 22 extracted, mandibular, primary, incisor teeth. The incisal edge was removed to 1mm below the dentino-enamel junction and half the exposed surface etched with phosphoric acid. The exposed dentine was blotted dry and the pressure in the pulp cavity held at 0, 15, 30 or 45cm H2O above atmospheric for 30s. Fluid that accumulated on the dentine surface was recorded with impression material and a replica made with epoxy resin which was examined in a scanning electron microscope. Results Structures resembling fluid droplets were present in the replicas of unetched dentine in all 22 teeth, and at all the pulpal pressures tested. The droplets formed at 45cm H2O were significantly larger (median diam., 5.14mm; interquartile range, 3.26mm; Friedman repeated measures analysis of variance on ranks (RMAVR) and Tukey test) than those formed at other pressures. There was no evidence of droplets in the replicas of etched dentine with any of the pulpal pressures. Conclusions These results demonstrate that fluid will tend to flow from dentine in deciduous teeth when it is exposed. They are similar to those obtained in a previous study in this laboratory on permanent teeth. The fact that fluid droplets were absent from etched dentine suggests that, after being blotted, the etched dentine matrix absorbed fluid that tended to flow out through the dentinal tubules.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T14:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Effects of dexamethasone and nimesulide on bisphosphonate-related
           osteonecrosis of the jaw: An experimental study
    • Authors: Camila Carvalho de Oliveira; Paulo Goberlânio de Barros Silva; Antonio Ernando Carlos Ferreira; Romélia Pinheiro Gonçalves; Fabrício Bitu de Sousa; Mário Rogério Lima Mota; Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves
      Pages: 317 - 326
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Camila Carvalho de Oliveira, Paulo Goberlânio de Barros Silva, Antonio Ernando Carlos Ferreira, Romélia Pinheiro Gonçalves, Fabrício Bitu de Sousa, Mário Rogério Lima Mota, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves
      Objective To evaluate the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) and nimesulide (NIM) on Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ) in rats. Design BRONJ was induced by zoledronic acid (ZA) infusion (0.2mg/kg) in Wistar rats (n=8), followed by extraction of the left lower first molar (BRONJ groups). Control groups (n=40) received saline (IV). For eight weeks, DEX (0.04, 0.4, 4mg/kg) or saline (SAL) were administered by gavage 24h before each infusion of ZA or saline (IV), or NIM (10.3mg/kg) was administered 24h and 12h before each infusion of ZA or saline (IV). The haematological analyses were conducted weekly. After euthanasia (day 70), the jaws were submitted to radiographic and microscopic analysis. Kidney, liver, spleen and stomach were analysed histopathologically. Results The BRONJ groups showed a higher radiolucent area compared with the control groups (p<0.05). Histomorphometric analysis revealed healing and new bone formation in the control groups, while the BRONJ groups exhibited devitalized bone with bacterial colonies and inflammatory infiltrate. The BRONJ-DEX 0.4 and 4mg/kg groups had a greater number of bacterial colonies (p<0.05) and an increased polymorphonuclear cell count compared to the saline-BRONJ group, while the BRONJ-NIM group had a lower polymorphonuclear count (p<0.05). The BRONJ groups had leucocytosis, which was reduced by DEX administration. Treatments with DEX with or without ZA caused white pulp atrophy. Conclusion Thus, DEX or NIM therapy was not effective in preventing radiographic and histopathologic events associated with BRONJ. Treatment with DEX attenuated leucocytosis post-infusion with ZA.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T14:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Human pulpal blood flow in different root formation stages measured with
           transmitted-light plethysmography
    • Authors: Khongorzul Ganbold; Satoko Kakino; Hideharu Ikeda; Michiyo Miyashin
      Pages: 327 - 333
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Khongorzul Ganbold, Satoko Kakino, Hideharu Ikeda, Michiyo Miyashin
      Objectives To determine the pulp vitality after traumatic injury, dentists often use pulp sensitivity tests, which can be ambiguous in young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation. Transmitted-light plethysmography (TLP) is a non-invasive objective method that uses a 525-nm LED to detect blood volume change in the pulp. The present study aimed (1) to investigate pulpal blood flow with TLP and optical characteristics in healthy permanent maxillary incisors in different root formation stages, and (2) to assess the influences of body growth of the children and tooth color on the TLP amplitude. Design Seventy-eight fully erupted maxillary central incisors were divided into four groups, according to the root formation stages. Group 1: root with wide-open apex, Group 2: root completed in length with open apex, Group 3: root with half-closed apex, Group 4: root with complete formation. The TLP amplitude, optical density, electric pulp testing, and cervical tooth color measurements of each group were compared using a one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni method. The correlation between the weights/heights of children and TLP amplitudes was analyzed using Pearson coefficient. Results The TLP amplitude was significantly higher in Group 3 than in the other groups. The amplitude was correlated with the weights/heights of children, but not with the tooth color. Optical density and electric sensitivity increased with tooth maturation. Conclusion The amplitude of TLP and optical density may be affected by growth and development in children and indicate changes in the vascular dynamics of the pulp and hard tissue maturation during root formation stages.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T14:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Human papillomavirus infection in oral potentially malignant disorders and
    • Authors: Xun Chen; Yu Zhao
      Pages: 334 - 339
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Xun Chen, Yu Zhao
      Human papillomavirus (HPV) infects keratinocytes in the mucosa or skin, and persistent infection with HPV may lead to premalignant lesions and invasive cancer, especially cervical cancer. It has also been hypothesized that HPV infection is an etiological factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral precancerous disorders such as lichen planus, leukoplakia, and erythroplakia. A high percentage of HPV in oral lesions supports the possible viral contribution, but an association of HPV infection with these lesions remains to be established. The current paper will update the latest progress of HPV infection in several oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma and discuss the impact of HPV infection on the progression of oral potentially malignant disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T14:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Difference in glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthesis and glycolysis)
           between normal and dysplastic/malignant oral epithelium
    • Authors: Hitoshi Aizawa; Shin-ichi Yamada; Tiepeng Xiao; Tetsu Shimane; Kiyonori Hayashi; Fangfang Qi; Hirokazu Tanaka; Hiroshi Kurita
      Pages: 340 - 347
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Hitoshi Aizawa, Shin-ichi Yamada, Tiepeng Xiao, Tetsu Shimane, Kiyonori Hayashi, Fangfang Qi, Hirokazu Tanaka, Hiroshi Kurita
      Background The purpose of this study was to investigate a difference in glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthesis and glycolysis) between the iodine stained (normal non-keartinized) and the unstained (dysplasctic/malignant) oral epithelium. Methods Twenty-one frozen tissue samples of iodine-stained and unstained mucosal tissue were obtained from 21 OSCC patients. Serial frozen sections were cut and examined with the hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff methods and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for Ki67, P53, molecules associated with glycogenesis (i.e., glycogen synthase (GS) and phospho-glycogen synthase (PGS)), and molecules associated with glycogenolysis (i.e., glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB) examine the glycogen metabolism in OSCC. Additionally, in vitro study, the expression levels of GS and GPBB in the cultured cells were analyzed by immunofluorescent staining, Western blot analysis, and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results There was no significant difference in GS and PGS immunoactivity between iodine stained and unstained area. On the other hand, significantly greater GPBB immunoreactivity was observed in the basal and parabasal layers of iodine-unstained epithelium, where higher positivity for p53 and Ki67 was also showed. Additionally, western blot analysis, immunofluorescent staining, and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the oral squamous cancer cells exhibited greater expression of GPBB than normal epithelial cells. Conclusions The results of this study showed that GPBB expression, which resulted in up-regulation of glycogenolysis, is enhanced in oral dysplastic/malignant epithelium compared with non-keartinized normal epithelium, in spite of the fact that glycogenesis continues in both of them. Premalignant and malignant epithelial cells consume greater quantities of energy due to their increased proliferation, and hence, exhaust their glycogen stores, which resulting in negative stain reaction with iodine solution.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T15:16:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
  • Cytotoxicity and potential anti-inflammatory activity of velutin on RAW
           264.7 cell line differentiation: Implications in periodontal bone loss
    • Authors: Carlos Brito; Alexander Stavroullakis; Tatiane Oliveira; Anuradha Prakki
      Pages: 348 - 356
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 83
      Author(s): Carlos Brito, Alexander Stavroullakis, Tatiane Oliveira, Anuradha Prakki
      Objectives Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has been implicated in periodontal tissue inflammation and possibly in osteoclast differentiation, while polyphenols are known to be anti-inflammatory natural compounds that are capable of regulating the NF-κB protein complex pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate cytotoxicity and HIF-1α expression through the NF-κB pathway by polyphenol velutin (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), found in the pulp of acai fruit, during inflammatory RAW 264.7 differentiation. Design RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte macrophage cells were stimulated with RANKL (30ng/mL) and Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (1μg/mL). Cells were treated with various concentrations of velutin (0.5–2μM) to check for viability, morphology, osteoclast differentiation, and HIF-1α expression (Western blot). Results Alamar blue cell viability assay showed no toxicity to RAW cells with the use of velutin in all concentrations tested (p>0.05). Velutin did not induce cell apoptosis based on caspase 3/7 assay (p>0.05). Fluorescence images stained by DAPI showed no alteration in the morphology of RAW cell nuclei (p>0.05) treated with velutin. TRAP assays demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in osteoclast formation by velutin when compared with control (p<0.05). Velutin showed a reduction in HIF-1α expression related to IκB phosphorylation when compared with control (p<0.001). Conclusions At the tested concentrations, velutin was not cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 and differentiated cells. Velutin reduced osteoclast differentiation and downregulated HIF-1α through the NF-κB pathway.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T15:16:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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