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BIOLOGY (1469 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
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Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
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Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 290)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Archives of Oral Biology
  [SJR: 0.713]   [H-I: 64]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-9969
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • A comprehensive analysis of human dental pulp cell spheroids in a
           three-dimensional pellet culture system
    • Authors: Siyuan Zhang; Patricia Buttler-Buecher; Bernd Denecke; Victor E. Arana-Chavez; Christian Apel
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 91
      Author(s): Siyuan Zhang, Patricia Buttler-Buecher, Bernd Denecke, Victor E. Arana-Chavez, Christian Apel
      Objective Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture methods are of high importance to studies of biological processes. This is particularly the case with spheroid cultures, which create 3D cell aggregates without the use of exogenous materials. Compared to conventional monolayer cultures, cellular spheroid cultures have been demonstrated to improve multilineage potential and extracellular matrix production. To address this issue in depth, we present a more comprehensive analysis of 3D human dental pulp cell (hDPC) spheroids. Design hDPC spheroids were fabricated by the pellet culture method and were cultured without adding any reagent to induce differentiation. The gene-expression profiles of the 3D and two-dimensional (2D) cultured hDPCs were compared by complementary DNA microarray analysis. Odontoblastic and osteoblastic differentiation marker gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to examine the morphology of hDPC spheroids and extracellular matrix components. Results Compared with 2D monolayer culture, microarray analysis identified 405 genes and 279 genes with twofold or greater differential expression after 3 days and 28 days of 3D culture, respectively. In 3D hDPC spheroids, gene ontology analysis revealed upregulation of extracellular matrix-related genes and downregulation of cell growth-related genes. RT-qPCR analysis showed higher expression levels of osteocalcin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and alkaline phosphatase. TEM revealed the morphological characteristics of the fibrillar collagen-rich matrix and cell-cell interactions. Conclusions The present findings provide clues to understanding the mechanisms of pellet-cultured hDPCs and contribute to future research in the comparative studies of different 3D culture methods.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • Exendin-4 relieves the inhibitory effects of high glucose on the
           proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of periodontal ligament
           stem cells
    • Authors: Zijun Guo; Rui Chen; Fujun Zhang; Ming Ding; Ping Wang
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 91
      Author(s): Zijun Guo, Rui Chen, Fujun Zhang, Ming Ding, Ping Wang
      Background With the impaired regenerative potential in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are regarded as an attractive source of stem cells for periodontal cytotherapy. Recent studies have shown that Exendin-4 (Ex-4) exerts cell-protective effects and bone remodeling ability on many types of cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Ex-4 alleviates the inhibition of high glucose on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. Methods PDLSCs were incubated in medium supplemented with 5.5 mM d-glucose (NG), 30 mM d-glucose (HG), NG plus Ex-4, and HG plus different concentration (1, 10, 20, 100 nM) of Ex-4 respectively. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 assay and cell cycle analysis. Osteogenesis was assessed by Alizarin Red S staining and evaluation of the mRNA expression of Runx2, ALP and Osx at day 7, 14 and 21. Intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate (CMH2DCF-DA). Results The proliferation ability, mineralized nodules forming capacity and the mRNA expression of Runx2, ALP and Osx of PDLSCs in HG group were decreased, the ROS level was increased compared to NG group. With the treatment of Ex-4, the HG-inhibited proliferation ability and osteogenic differentiation ability of PDLSCs were significantly reversed, the HG-increased ROS level could be down-regulated. Moreover, Ex-4 enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of normal PDLSCs. Conclusions Ex-4 alleviates the inhibitory effect of HG on the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of PDLSCs, and has a significant enhance in the osteoblastic differentiation of normal PDLSCs, giving new insights into the possible therapeutic method of diabetic periodontitis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • Hydroalcoholic extracts of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea
           grandiflora Mart. leaves on Streptococcus mutans biofilm and tooth
    • Authors: Juliana Gonçalves Pires; Sara Salustiano Zabini; Aline Silva Braga; Rita de Cássia Fabris; Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade; Rodrigo Cardoso de Oliveira; Ana Carolina Magalhães
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 91
      Author(s): Juliana Gonçalves Pires, Sara Salustiano Zabini, Aline Silva Braga, Rita de Cássia Fabris, Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade, Rodrigo Cardoso de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Magalhães
      Objectives This study evaluated the effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves (alone or combined) on the viability of Streptococcus mutans biofilm and on the prevention of enamel demineralization. Methods Strain of S. mutans (ATCC 21175) was reactivated in BHI broth. Minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum inhibition biofilm concentration and minimum eradication biofilm concentration were determined in order to choose the concentrations to be tested under biofilm model. S. mutans biofilm (5 × 105 CFU/ml) was produced on bovine enamel, using McBain saliva under 0.2% sucrose exposure, for 3 days. The biofilm was daily treated with the extracts for 1 min. The biofilm viability was tested by fluorescence and the enamel demineralization was measured using TMR. Results Myracrodruon urundeuva All. (Isolated or combined) at the concentrationsc ≥0.625 mg/ml was able to reduce bacteria viability, while Qualea Grandflora Mart. alone had antimicrobial effect at 5 mg/ml only (p < 0.05). On the other hand, none of the extracts were able to reduce enamel demineralization. Conclusions The hydroalcoholic extracts of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves (isolated or combined) have antimicrobial action; however, they do not prevent enamel caries under S. mutans biofilm model.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • Hemifacial microsomia (oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum) in an individual
           from the Teramo Sant’Anna archaeological site (7th–12th centuries of
           the Common Era, Italy)
    • Authors: Joan Viciano; Ruggero D’Anastasio
      Pages: 23 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 91
      Author(s): Joan Viciano, Ruggero D’Anastasio
      Background This study is based in an analysis of the skeletal remains of an adult male from the Teramo Sant’Anna archaeological site (7th–12th centuries of the Common Era, Teramo, Italy). Results and discussion The individual shows distinct abnormalities that principally involve asymmetric hypoplasia and dysmorphogenesis of the facial skeleton. The combination of these findings and the absence of abnormalities of the spine strongly suggest diagnosis of the congenital malformation known as hemifacial microsomia. This very heterogeneous syndrome affects primarily aural, ocular, oral and mandibular development. Despite the lack of clinical information and the absence of soft tissue, it was possible to perform a differential diagnosis for this palaeopathological case. Mastication was probably altered considering that the mandible is extremely asymmetric and lacks true condyles. The temporomandibular joints are present, but the right one is hypoplastic and abnormal in shape. There is evidence of bilateral dislocation, and the facial muscles are hypertrophic. Conclusions This case represents an important contribution to the palaeopathological literature because this is an uncommon condition that has not been widely documented in ancient skeletal remains.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • Study of virulence factor of Candida species in oral lesions and its
           association with potentially malignant and malignant lesions
    • Authors: Graciela del Valle Castillo; Silvia López de Blanc; Claudia Elena Sotomayor; Ana Isabel Azcurra
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 91
      Author(s): Graciela del Valle Castillo, Silvia López de Blanc, Claudia Elena Sotomayor, Ana Isabel Azcurra
      Objective The aim of this study was to explore the association between malignant and premalignant lesions and the virulence factor profile of Candida spp. recovered from different oral lesions. Design Candida spp. isolated from malignant lesions (squamous cell carcinoma, OC, n = 25), atypical lichen planus (AL, n = 11), chronic candidiasis (CC, n = 25), and asymptomatic carriers (WI, n = 15, control strains.) Isolates were identified in chromogenic medium, colony morphology and biochemical tests. The lipolytic and proteinase activity was determined on supplemented agar with olive oil and BSA, respectively. The biofilm formation with XTT reduction assay and cellular surface hydrophobicity (CSH) by water-hydrocarbon method were performed. Results All isolates recovered from oral lesions produced the four virulence factors studied with significantly higher levels than in WI isolates. Interestingly, lipolytic activity was absent in WI isolates. The proteolytic activity was similar in AL and OC isolates. OC isolates showed significantly higher CSH values than other clinical isolates. Non-albicans species showed higher biofilm formation than C.albicans (P = 0.03.) There were no significant differences in virulence factors among species. A strong positive correlation was found between proteinase and lipase activity (r = 0.90, P < 0.0001), and between hydrophobicity and biofilm (R = 0.81, P < 0.0001.) Conclusions Our results indicate that OC Candida isolates exhibited a significant higher attributes of virulence than other lesions fungus isolates, providing evidence about the association between Candida pathogenicity and lesions severity.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • Differential effects of natural Curcumin and chemically modified curcumin
           on inflammation and bone resorption in model of experimental
    • Authors: Fabiana Almeida Curylofo-Zotti; Muna S. Elburki; Priscilla Aparecida Oliveira; Paulo Sérgio Cerri; Leandro Alves Santos; Hsi-Ming Lee; Francis Johnson; Lorne M. Golub; Carlos Rossa; Morgana Rodrigues Guimarães-Stabili
      Pages: 42 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Fabiana Almeida Curylofo, Muna S. Elburki, Priscilla Aparecida Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Cerri, Leandro Alves Santos, Hsi-Ming Lee, Francis Johnson, Lorne M. Golub, Carlos Rossa, Morgana Rodrigues Guimarães-Stabili
      Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the oral administration of natural curcumin and a chemically modified curcumin (CMC2.24) on osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, apoptosis, and inflammation in a murine model of experimental periodontal disease. Design Fifty male rats were distributed among the following treatment groups: (i) 2% carboxymethylcellulose, (ii) CMC2.24 30 mg/Kg body weight, (iii) Curcumin 100 mg/Kg body weight and (iv) no treatment. Compounds were administered daily by oral intubation over a 15-day period of time. Periodontal disease was induced by injections of LPS (lipopolysaccharide) into the gingival tissues three times per week. Contralateral sides were injected with the same volume of PBS (phosphate buffered saline) vehicle. After 15 days, hemimaxillae and gingival tissues were harvested. Bone resorption was assessed by μCT (microcomputer tomography). Formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded histological sections were stained with haematoxylin/eosin (H/E) for the assessment of cellular infiltrate or subjected to immunohistochemistry for detecting TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase)-positive cells and caspase-3. Apoptosis was assessed in the gingival tissues by DNA fragmentation. Results CMC2.24 and curcumin caused a significant reduction of the inflammatory cell infiltrate, however μCT analysis showed that only CMC2.24 reduced bone resorption and the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells (osteoclasts). Curcumin, but not CMC2.24, significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the gingival tissues and of osteocytes in the alveolar bone crest. Conclusions The results suggest that CMC2.24 and curcumin inhibit inflammation by different mechanisms, but only CMC2.24 was capable of reducing alveolar bone resorption in the LPS-induced model of periodontitis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • Long-term evaluation of the stability of dentin matrix following
           treatments with aqueous solutions of titanium tetrafluoride at different
    • Authors: E.C. Bridi; A.A. Leme-Kraus; B. Aydin; R.T. Basting; A.K. Bedran-Russo
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): E.C. Bridi, A.A. Leme-Kraus, B. Aydin, R.T. Basting, A.K. Bedran-Russo
      Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous solutions of different concentrations of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) on dentin matrix stability up to six months. Design Dentin specimens prepared from fifteen nonerupted molars were demineralized and randomly distributed into groups: 2.5% TiF4, 4% TiF4, 1000 ppm NaF, and control (distilled water). The modulus of elasticity (ME) and dry masses of the dentin matrix were determined at baseline, and up to 6 months following treatment. Collagen solubilization was estimated by hydroxyproline (HYP) quantification in the simulated body fluid used to store the dentin specimens. Results The 2.5% TiF4 group presented higher ME immediately after treatment, and at 3 and 6 months storage, whereas 4% TiF4 showed higher means at 3 and 6 months (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed among the groups over time (p = 0.9325). However, the 2.5% TiF4 group showed significantly higher ME than the control group, immediately after treatment. All the groups presented significantly higher mass change immediately, compared with 3 and 6 months (p < 0.0001). Except for the 4% TiF4 group, HYP release was higher in the first quarter (p = 0.0152), when no significant differences were found among the groups. In the second quarter, the means were significantly higher in the 2.5% TiF4 and 4% TiF4 groups. The group treated with 2.5% TiF4 had a statistically higher HYP release than the control group. Conclusion An aqueous solution of 2.5% TiF4 increases the immediate stiffness values, but does not stabilize the collagenous dentin matrix.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 91 (2018)
  • pH changes of mixed biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans
           after exposure to sucrose solutions in vitro
    • Authors: Thamires Priscila Cavazana; Juliano Pelim Pessan; Thayse Yumi Hosida; Douglas Roberto Monteiro; Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem
      Pages: 9 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Thamires Priscila Cavazana, Juliano Pelim Pessan, Thayse Yumi Hosida, Douglas Roberto Monteiro, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem
      Objective This study aimed to standardize an in vitro experimental model able to reproduce the pH changes that occur in dental biofilm under in vivo conditions, using a mixed biofilm of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Design Biofilms were developed for 96 hours, and exposed to three different concentrations of sucrose (10, 20 or 30%) during 1, 3 or 5 minutes. The pH was measured before exposure to sucrose, immediately after its removal from the biofilms, and at 1, 3, 5 and 10 minutes after removal. Results Sucrose solutions at 10 and 20% required 1 minute to significantly reduce the biofilm pH, while for 30% sucrose a significant reduction was already seen immediately after its removal, even for the shortest exposure time. For an exposure of 3 minutes to 20% sucrose, the biofilm pH attained the critical value for hydroxyapatite dissolution when measured 1 minute after sucrose removal, followed by a recovery phase. Conclusions A mixed biofilm of S. mutans and C. albicans exposed to a 20% sucrose solution for 3 minutes exhibited a pattern of pH change similar to that observed in vivo, despite at a higher speed when compared to in vivo conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Relationship between severity of periodontitis and masseter muscle
           activity during waking and sleeping hours
    • Authors: Seiya Kato; Daisuke Ekuni; Shigehisa Kawakami; Acing Habibie Mude; Manabu Morita; Shogo Minagi
      Pages: 13 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): Seiya Kato, Daisuke Ekuni, Shigehisa Kawakami, Acing Habibie Mude, Manabu Morita, Shogo Minagi
      Objective This study was conducted to investigate whether the masseter muscle activity shows any specific pattern in relation to the severity of periodontitis. Design Sixteen subjects with no or mild periodontitis (NMP group) and 15 subjects with moderate or severe periodontitis (MSP group) were enrolled. Plasma IgG antibody titer was examined using Porphyromonas gingivalis as a bacterial antigen. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the masseter muscles was continuously recorded using an ambulatory surface EMG recording device while patients were awake and asleep. Masseter muscle activity was analyzed using intensities of 5%–10% maximal voluntary clenching (MVC), 10%–20% MVC, and >20% MVC. Furthermore, EMG levels of 20% MVC were adopted as the threshold for analysis of phasic, tonic, and mixed EMG activities. The cumulative duration of masseter muscle activity and bruxism episodes was calculated as duration per hour. Results There was no significant difference in plasma IgG antibody titers against P. gingivalis between the NMP and MSP groups (p = 0.423). During waking hours, the duration of masseter muscle activity with an intensity of >20% MVC was significantly longer in the MSP group than in the NMP group (p = 0.037). During sleeping hours, the duration of masseter muscle activity at all MVC intensities was significantly longer in the MSP group than in the NMP group (all p < 0.05). Additionally, the duration of phasic and mixed episodes was significantly longer in the MSP group than those in the NMP group while both awake and asleep (all p < 0.05). Conclusions The results of this study suggested that masseter muscle activity might be related to the severity of periodontitis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Inhibition of methionine gamma lyase deaminase and the growth of
           Porphyromonas gingivalis: A therapeutic target for halitosis/periodontitis
    • Authors: U. Kandalam; N. Ledra; H. Laubach; K.V. Venkatachalam
      Pages: 27 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): U. Kandalam, N. Ledra, H. Laubach, K.V. Venkatachalam
      Background and objectives Pathogenic infections caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia can result in the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC’s) and other toxic compounds from methionine catabolism that can lead to halitosis and periodontitis. Our aim is to block the activity of methionine gammalyase-deaminase (Mgld) of methionine catabolism to prevent halitosis/periodontitis. Designs Cloned, expressed, Mgld protein was tested for purity by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Mgld activity was tested by UV–vis spectroscopy and DTNB assay. Effects of Mgld inhibitor propargylglycine (PGLY) was tested on P. gingivalis growth by turbidity measurements. The effects of PGLY on oral epithelial and periodontal ligament cells in culture at different concentrations and time were tested for cell viability by MTT and Live-Dead assays. Amino acid comparisons of Mgld from different oral pathogens were done using standard bioinformatics program. Results Propargylglycine (PGLY) inhibited purified Mgld activity completely. In vivo, PGLY is a potent inhibitor on the growth of the P. gingivalis over 24 h, grown at 25 °C and 37 °C. Correspondingly in vivo Mgld activity was also affected by PGLY. Amino acid comparisons of oral pathogens showed 100% identity on the key residues of Mgld catalysis. Mammalian oral cell lines with PGLY, showed no difference in cell death over untreated controls assessed by MTT and Live-Dead assays. Conclusions PGLY arrest’s VSC’s production by P. gingivalis. Since initial Mgld activity is inhibited subsequent enzymatic and nonenzymatic products formed will be prevented. PGLY showed no toxicity towards cultured mammalian oral cells. Thus, PGLY can serve as a mouthwash ingredient to prevent halitosis/periodontitis.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T14:27:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • The role of bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 in mouse dentinogenesis
    • Authors: Priyam Jani; Chao Liu; Hua Zhang; Khaled Younes; M. Douglas Benson; Chunlin Qin
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): Priyam Jani, Chao Liu, Hua Zhang, Khaled Younes, M. Douglas Benson, Chunlin Qin
      Objective The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play crucial roles in tooth development. However, several BMPs retain expression in the dentin of the fully patterned and differentiated tooth. We hypothesized that BMP signaling therefore plays a role in the function of the differentiated odontoblast, the job of which is to lay down and mineralize the dentin matrix. Design We generated mice deficient in Bmp2 and 4 using a dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) promoter-driven cre recombinase that was expressed in differentiated odontoblasts. Results The first and second molars of these Bmp2 and Bmp4 double conditional knockout (DcKO) mice displayed reduced dentin and enlarged pulp chambers compared to cre-negative littermate controls. DcKO mouse dentin in first molars was characterized by small, disorganized dentinal fibers, a wider predentin layer, and reduced expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and bone sialoprotein (BSP). DcKO mouse odontoblasts demonstrated increased type I collagen mRNA production, indicating that the loss of BMP signaling altered the rate of collagen gene expression in these cells. Bmp2 and Bmp4 single Dmp1-cre knockout mice displayed no discernable dentin phenotype. Conclusions These data demonstrate that BMP signaling in differentiated odontoblasts is necessary for proper dentin production in mature teeth.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Supragingival and subgingival microbiota from patients with poor oral
           hygiene submitted to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment
    • Authors: Elerson Gaetti-Jardim; Ellen Cristina Gaetti Jardim; Christiane Marie Schweitzer; Júlio Cesar Leite da Silva; Murilo Moura Oliveira; Danilo Chizzolini Masocatto; Cauê Monteiro dos Santos
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): Elerson Gaetti-Jardim, Ellen Cristina Gaetti Jardim, Christiane Marie Schweitzer, Júlio Cesar Leite da Silva, Murilo Moura Oliveira, Danilo Chizzolini Masocatto, Cauê Monteiro dos Santos
      Objective This case-control study aimed to evaluate the effects of conventional radiotherapy (RT) on the prevalence and populations of oral microorganisms in head and neck cancer patients who did not receive adequate preventive dental care. It was hypothesized that side effects of radiotherapy could be associated with radiation dose, microbiological aspects, and socioeconomic conditions of the patients. Design Twenty-eight dentate patients with head and neck cancer submitted to RT were included in the study. Radiation dose received varied from 4320 to 7020 cGy. Patients with the same demographic and health conditions, but no history of cancer or antineoplastic treatment were used as controls. Clinical examinations were carried out before RT, 15–22 days after starting RT, immediately after and 6 months after RT. Supra and subgingival biofilms were collected and cultivated onto selective and non-selective media. Isolates were identified by biochemical and physiological characteristics. Stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rate and saliva buffer capacity were also determined. Results Mucositis, dermatitis, xerostomia, dysgeusia, dysphagia and candidiasis were common after starting RT and during the treatment period. Xerostomia was followed by a decrease in salivary pH and buffer capacity, which showed association with the increase of cariogenic cocci and yeast populations, which were also associated with deterioration of hygiene. Candida and family Enterobacteriaceae showed increased prevalence with RT, and were associated with the occurrence of mucositis and xerostomia. Conclusions Modifications in oral biofilms of irradiated patients showed association with xerostomia and hygiene conditions, which reinforces the necessity of improving patient compliance to oral health care programs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Comparison of peri-implant soft tissues in submerged versus transmucosal
           healing: A split mouth prospective immunohistochemical study
    • Authors: José María Martínez-González; María Martín-Ares; Natalia Martínez-Rodríguez; Cristina Barona-Dorado; Javier Sanz-Alonso; Jorge Cortés-Bretón-Brinkmann; Javier Ata-Ali
      Pages: 61 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): José María Martínez-González, María Martín-Ares, Natalia Martínez-Rodríguez, Cristina Barona-Dorado, Javier Sanz-Alonso, Jorge Cortés-Bretón-Brinkmann, Javier Ata-Ali
      Objective The present split-mouth prospective study involves an immunohistochemical evaluation of peri-implant soft tissue healing after the osseointegration period, comparing submerged and transmucosal approaches using two-piece implant systems. The null hypothesis was that both surgical procedures elicit a similar immune response of the peri-implant soft tissues. Design Thirty-one healthy patients were included in this study, in which two implants were placed in the right and left maxillary pre-molar regions. A total of 62 dental implants were analyzed, establishing a control side with 31 submerged implants, and a study side with 31 exposed implants bearing healing abutments. After a three-month healing period, a soft tissue biopsy was collected and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis of the proportions of different lymphocyte subpopulations. Results The comparative analysis between the submerged and transmucosal approaches failed to identify statistically significant differences in CD19+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD25+ T cells or γd T cells. However, significant differences in NK lymphocytes (p = 0.012) were recorded with the submerged surgical procedure. Conclusions Peri-implant soft tissue immune response with submerged or transmucosal healing protocols demonstrated comparable outcomes after the osseointegration period. There is sufficient evidence that the null hypothesis of no difference cannot be rejected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind. Further research is therefore needed to further clarify the role of these lymphocyte subpopulations in peri-implant soft tissues.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T14:27:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
    • Authors: Ana Carla Raphaelli Nahás-Scocate; Gabrielle Ferrante Alves de Moraes; Helena Bonciani Nader; Carolina Meloni Vicente; Leny Toma
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Ana Carla Raphaelli Nahás-Scocate, Gabrielle Ferrante Alves de Moraes, Helena Bonciani Nader, Carolina Meloni Vicente, Leny Toma
      Proteoglycans are glycosylated proteins which have covalently attached highly anionic glycosaminoglycans. They can be located on the extracellular matrix, cell membrane or intracellular granules. To date, few studies have reported the presence of proteoglycans in human dental pulp. Objective The aim of this study was, therefore, to analyze the expression of lumican, versican and glypican proteoglycans in deciduous and permanent human dental pulp by real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and immunofluorescence. Design Healthy human dental pulps were used: 13 from permanent teeth (group 1) and eight from deciduous teeth (group 2). Versican, lumican and glypican (glypican-1 to 6) gene expressions were quantitatively evaluated by real-time PCR technique, using the expression of the endogenous gene GAPDH as control. Pulp sections were submitted to immunostaining procedure with fluorescence labelling, the tissues being fixed and incubated with well-characterized monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against proteoglycan epitopes, including anti-versican and anti-lumican. Comparisons among the groups of the quantitative scores for each proteoglycan were analyzed using the t-test and ANOVA (P < 0.05). Results The real-time PCR analysis showed expression of versican and lumican proteoglycans in the two groups, with significant predominance of lumican gene (P = 0.03). Considering the glypican genes, glypican-3 was the proteoglycan most significantly expressed in permanent pulps (P < 0.001), while glypican-2 was not expressed in this tissue. The immunofluorescence quantification exhibited no significant differences between lumican and versican among the pulps and groups. Conclusions The lumican gene was more expressed than versican and glypican-3 was the isoform more expressed in permanent pulp compared to deciduous.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T14:27:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Clinical duration of eruption of deciduous teeth in Jordanian children: A
           cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Ola B. Al-Batayneh; Ashraf Shaweesh
      Pages: 86 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): Ola B. Al-Batayneh, Ashraf Shaweesh
      Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical duration of eruption (CDE) for deciduous teeth in Jordanian children, from the moment of gingival emergence until functional occlusal contact. Design This cross-sectional study included 1988 children (885 females, 1103 males) aged 1–45 months examined for deciduous tooth emergence. Through probit regression analysis (SPSS Version 16.0), the median ages of emergence (MAE) and of functional eruption (MAF) were calculated per tooth; time difference between the two events represented CDE in months. Mann Whitney U tests and two-tailed Spearman’s bivariate correlation test were used to investigate sexual dimorphisms in CDE, and find relationships between MAE and CDE, respectively. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results The average CDE was (4.45 ± 1.96) months; it was less in males (4.33 ± 1.99) than in females (4.57 ± 1.93) with no significant gender differences (P = 0.38). Longest and shortest CDE were for maxillary first molars and mandibular lateral incisors, respectively. None of the teeth showed statistically significant differences in CDEs between genders. In addition, there were insignificant positive moderate correlations between MAE and CDE (r = 0.60, 0.52, P = 0.07, 0.12 for males and females, respectively). Conclusions This study has established the first standards for CDE in deciduous teeth for Jordanian children with an average CDE (4.5 ± 2, range 1.6–8 months). Some variations in CDE can be explained by variations in age of emergence however, variations in CDE were not related to gender. The deciduous dentition in Jordanians is in active state of eruption between approximately 8.2–32 months.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Expression and localization of phosphodiesterase 2A in the submandibular
           gland of mice
    • Authors: Kannika Adthapanyawanich; Hiroki Nakata; Shoichi Iseki
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): Kannika Adthapanyawanich, Hiroki Nakata, Shoichi Iseki
      Objectives Phosphodiesterases comprise a superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyze and inactivate cyclic AMP (cAMP) and/or cyclic GMP (cGMP), thereby regulating cellular signaling mechanisms. We herein investigated the production of phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) in the mouse submandibular gland. Design The expression and localization of the mRNA and protein of PDE2A were examined in the submandibular gland of male and female mice using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Results Among the different species of phosphodiesterases examined in the mouse submandibular gland, PDE2A, which hydrolyzes cAMP and cGMP, exhibited a marked sexual difference; it was more abundantly expressed in females. The mRNA and protein signals for PDE2A were intense in all acinar and duct portions, including the striated duct, in females, whereas in males, these signals were markedly weaker in the granular convoluted duct, the counterpart of the female striated duct, than in acini and other duct portions. Furthermore, the signals for protein kinases A and G1, which are intracellular effectors of cAMP and cGMP, respectively, were markedly weaker in the male granular convoluted duct. Conclusions These results suggest that cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms function poorly in granular convoluted duct cells in the mouse submandibular gland.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • The role of Hedgehog signaling in cementoblast differentiation
    • Authors: Jung-Sun Moon; Min-Ju Kim; Hyun-Mi Ko; Young-Jun Kim; Ji-Yeon Jung; Jae-Hyung Kim; Sun-Hun Kim; Min-Seok Kim
      Pages: 100 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): Jung-Sun Moon, Min-Ju Kim, Hyun-Mi Ko, Young-Jun Kim, Ji-Yeon Jung, Jae-Hyung Kim, Sun-Hun Kim, Min-Seok Kim
      Objective It has been well known that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays an important role in bone development, however, its function in cementogenesis has not yet been reported. This study was intended to elucidate the role of Hh signaling in cementoblast differentiation. Design Expression changes of various Hh signaling components and levels of skeletogenic markers (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin) and osteogenic transcription factors (RUNX2, Osterix) by Hh signaling modulators during OCCM-30 cementoblast differentiation were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To investigate effects of Hh signaling modulators on the mineralization of cementoblast, alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red S staining were used. Then, the interaction between Hh and BMP signaling during cementoblast differentiation was evaluated using co-treatment of BMP7 and Hh signaling modulators. Results We observed the consistent expression of Hh signaling molecules in the OCCM-30, which were up-regulated during cementoblast differentiation. We also found that the treatment of cells with Purmo, an Hh activator, enhanced cementoblast differentiation by increasing the mRNA expression of skeletogenic markers and osteogenic transcription factors, as well as increasing alkaline phosphate activity and mineralization capability. On the contrary, an Hh antagonist, like Cyclo, effectively inhibited cementoblast differentiation. Furthermore, BMP7 promoted cementoblast differentiation through crosstalk with the Hh signaling. Conclusion These results suggest that Hh signaling is involved in cementoblast differentiation, and Hh signaling molecules may therefore represent new therapeutic targets in periodontal treatment and regeneration.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Surface free energy of enamel treated with sodium hexametaphosphate,
           calcium and phosphate
    • Authors: José Guilherme Neves; Marcelle Danelon; Juliano Pelim Pessan; Leonardo Raniel Figueiredo; Emerson Rodrigues Camargo; Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem
      Pages: 108 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): José Guilherme Neves, Marcelle Danelon, Juliano Pelim Pessan, Leonardo Raniel Figueiredo, Emerson Rodrigues Camargo, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem
      Objective This study evaluated the capacity of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) at different concentrations to alter the surface properties of dental enamel in order to increase calcium and phosphate adsorption. Design Bovine enamel blocks (4 mm × 4 mm, n = 144, 12/group) were divided: 0%; 0.25%; 0.5%; and 1% HMP, followed or not by application of solutions containing Ca or Ca-PO4, totaling 12 groups. The treatments were performed for 2 min, and the surface free energy (mN/m) was calculated by measuring the contact angles of three probing liquids (deionized water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol), which was used to determine the polar and nonpolar components of the enamel surface. Calcium (Ca), phosphate (PO4) and HMP in the solutions treatment solutions were analyzed before and after treatment. The data presented normal and homogeneous distribution and then were subjected to ANOVA, followed by Student-Newman Keuls’ test (p < 0.05). Results The higher the% of HMP in the solutions, the greater HMP adsorption and more electron-donor sites on enamel surface were achieved (p < 0.05). Also, Ca adsorption was higher with increasing% HMP in the solutions (p < 0.05), which in turn reduced electron-donor sites on enamel surface. Increased Ca and PO4 adsorption occurred at 0.5% and 1% HMP after treatment with Ca-PO4 solution, resulting in a less electron-donor sites on surface when compared to the other treatments (P < 0.05). Conclusions HMP leads to a more electron-donor sites on enamel surface, what promotes greater adsorption of Ca and PO4 ions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Individuality of masticatory performance and of masticatory muscle
           temporal parameters
    • Authors: Claire D. Tewksbury; Kathryn X. Callaghan; Brent A. Fulks; Geoffrey E. Gerstner
      Pages: 113 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): Claire D. Tewksbury, Kathryn X. Callaghan, Brent A. Fulks, Geoffrey E. Gerstner
      Objective Mammalian mastication serves to improve intra-oral food reduction. Insufficient food reduction creates potential swallowing problems, whereas over-reduction may accelerate tooth wear and increase feeding time. Either extreme has consequences. The study’s objectives were: (1) to study the relationship between food reduction, number of chews in a sequence, and chewing rate, (2) to study how controlling the number of chews and chewing rate variability affects food reduction, and (3) to assess how dentoskeletal morphological and electromyographical (EMG) characteristics impact food reduction. Design Twenty-three healthy, fully-dentate adults chewed a standardized test food under three conditions: (1) no control, (2) number of chews controlled, and (3) number of chews and chewing rate controlled. EMG activity was sampled from masseter and temporalis muscles bilaterally. Demographic, occlusal contact area in maximum intercuspation, and cephalometric data were obtained. Results In uncontrolled conditions, food reduction and bout duration varied more than expected across subjects. Subjects with poor reduction under controlled conditions were those with poor reduction under uncontrolled conditions. Only occlusal contact area correlated with chewing performance under uncontrolled conditions. Chewing cycle duration, EMG burst duration, and EMG peak onset latency increased when the number of chews was restricted. EMG amplitude, a surrogate for bite force, increased in tasks controlling the number of chews and chewing rate. Chewing rate variability was difficult to diminish below individual-specific levels. Conclusions Results: provided evidence that bite force, chewing rate, chewing performance and chewing bout duration reflected individual preferences. Future work will determine whether similar findings occur among other mammals.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Reduced heart rate variability and increased saliva cortisol in patients
           with TMD
    • Authors: Suruedee Chinthakanan; Kittipong Laosuwan; Pattriyaporn Boonyawong; Sirinart Kumfu; Nipon Chattipakorn; Siriporn C. Chattipakorn
      Pages: 125 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): Suruedee Chinthakanan, Kittipong Laosuwan, Pattriyaporn Boonyawong, Sirinart Kumfu, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C. Chattipakorn
      Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most common source of non-dental pain. The pathogenesis of TMD is multifactorial, involving biological, psychological and behavioral factors. Those factors are involved with alterations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and stressful conditions. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a marker of ANS function. Increased cortisol level (a stress indicator), has been found in chronic pain. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare pain intensity, HRV, psychological factors, and salivary cortisol level between TMD patients and a control group. Twenty-one TMD patients and twenty-three healthy control subjects participated in the study. All participants underwent 24-h-Holter monitoring to record HRV. Morning unstimulated saliva samples were collected from each participant for cortisol analysis. The pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. The participants were evaluated for anxiety and depression via the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales. We found that pain intensity and psychological distress in the TMD group were significantly greater than those of the control (p < 0.01). Pain intensity showed a positive correlation with psychological distress (p < 0.01). HRV parameters in the TMD group were significantly lower than those in the control, suggesting reduced HRV in TMD patients. Pain intensity was negatively associated with HRV. Salivary cortisol level of the TMD group was greater than that of control. Our findings indicate that reduced HRV with higher psychological distress and increased salivary cortisol levels were observed in the TMD group. Therefore, TMD patients may benefit from interventions that can restore ANS function and stress balance.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Spectral components in electromyograms from four regions of the human
           masseter, in natural dentate and edentulous subjects with removable
           prostheses and implants
    • Authors: Rodrigo A. Guzmán-Venegas; Felipe H. Palma; Jorge L. Biotti P; Francisco J. Berral de la Rosa
      Pages: 130 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): Rodrigo A. Guzmán-Venegas, Felipe H. Palma, Jorge L. Biotti P, Francisco J. Berral de la Rosa
      Objective To compare the frequency or spectral components between different regions of the superficial masseter in young natural dentate and total edentulous older adults rehabilitated with removable prostheses and fixed-implant support. A secondary objective was to compare these components between the three groups. Design 21 young natural dentate and 28 edentulous (14 with removable prostheses and 14 with fixed-implant support) were assessed. High-density surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded in four portions of the superficial masseter during submaximal isometric bites. Spectral components were obtained through a spectral analysis of the sEMG signals. An analysis of mixed models was used to compare the spectral components. Results In all groups, the spectral components of the anterior portion were lower than in the posterior region (p < 0.05). Both edentulous groups showed lower spectral components and median frequency slope than the natural dentate group (p < 0.05). The removable prostheses group showed the greatest differences with natural dentate group. Conclusions There were significant differences in the spectral components recorded in the different regions of the superficial masseter. The lower spectral components and fatigability of older adults rehabilitated with prostheses could be a cause of a greater loss of type II fibers, especially in the removable prostheses group.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Natural saliva as an adjuvant in a secondary caries model based on
           Streptococcus mutans
    • Authors: Franziska Hetrodt; Julian Lausch; Hendrik Meyer-Lueckel; Christian Apel; Georg Conrads
      Pages: 138 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 90
      Author(s): Franziska Hetrodt, Julian Lausch, Hendrik Meyer-Lueckel, Christian Apel, Georg Conrads
      Objective Two factors for secondary caries formation were evaluated using an artificial biofilm model, saliva as additive in culture medium and bonding procedures of composite materials for artificial gap creation. Design Standardized cavities were prepared in bovine tooth samples (n = 44), treated with two different bonding pretreatments, restored and after artificial ageing incubated with Streptococcus mutans in a Mueller-Hinton-Broth-Sugar medium with or without human saliva for seven days. Secondary caries formation was analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and transversal microradiography. Results Lesions were significantly pronounced in groups using saliva, but were not influenced by the bonding pretreatments. Conclusions The results indicate that the addition of saliva, but not the type of bonding procedure influences the outcome in the present biofilm-based secondary caries model.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
  • Structure, property, and function of sheepshead (Archosargus
           probatocephalus) teeth
    • Authors: J.F. Deang; A.K. Persons; A.L. Oppedal; H. Rhee; R.D. Moser; M.F. Horstemeyer
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): J.F. Deang, A.K. Persons, A.L. Oppedal, H. Rhee, R.D. Moser, M.F. Horstemeyer
      Objectives This paper studies A. probatocephalus teeth and investigates the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the enameloid and dentin. Design Nanoindentation tests with a max load of 1000 μN and X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were performed along the diameter of the polished sample. Microstructural analysis of the dentin tubules was performed from SEM images. Results From nanoindentation testing, the dentin of the sheepshead teeth has a nanoindentation hardness of 0.89 ± 0.21 (mean ± S.D.) GPa and a reduced Young’s modulus of 23.29 ± 5.30 GPa. The enameloid of A. probatocephalus has a hardness of 4.36 ± 0.44 GPa and a mean reduced Young’s modulus of 98.14 ± 6.91 GPa. Additionally, nanoindentation tests showed that the enameloid’s hardness and modulus increased closer to the surface of the tooth. X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) data further suggests that the gradient may be a result of the wt% fluoride within the enameloid, where an increase in fluoride results in an increase in reduced Young’s modulus and hardness. Conclusion The microstructural characterization of the number density and area of the dentin tubules were used to address the porosity effect in the dentin to achieve the experimentally validated microhardness. The mechanical properties of the sheepshead teeth were also compared with previous nanoindentation tests from other aquatic species. The sheepshead teeth exhibit a greater reduced Young’s modulus and hardness compared to shark and piranha teeth.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T11:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Comparative proteomic profiling of human dental pulp stem cells and
           periodontal ligament stem cells under in vitro osteogenic induction
    • Authors: He Wang; Dandan Ma; Xiaoyi Zhang; Shuaimei Xu; Tingting Ning; Buling Wu
      Pages: 9 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): He Wang, Dandan Ma, Xiaoyi Zhang, Shuaimei Xu, Tingting Ning, Buling Wu
      Objective This study aimed to compare the proteomic profiling of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) under in vitro osteogenic induction, which imitates the microenvironment during osteo-/odontogenesis of DPSCs and PDLSCs. Design The proteomic profiles of osteoinduced DPSCs and PDLSCs from a single donor were compared using the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique and subsequent bioinformatics analysis. Results A total of 159 differentially expressed proteins in PDLSCs and DPSCs were identified, 82 of which had a higher expression level in PDLSCs, while 77 were more highly expressed in DPSCs. Among these enriched proteins, certain members from the collagen, heat shock protein and protein S100 families may distinguish osteoinduced PDLSCs and DPSCs. Gene ontology (GO) classification revealed that a large number of the enriched terms distinguishing PDLSCs and DPSCs are involved in catalytic activity, protein binding, regulation of protein metabolic processes and response to stimulus. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis indicated several involved pathways, including the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis pathway, arachidonic acid metabolism pathway and PPAR signaling pathway. Further verification showed that the mineralization and migration capacities of PDLSCs were greater than those of DPSCs, in which heat shock protein beta-1, Protein S100-A10 and S100-A11 may play a part. Conclusions Less than 5% of the differentially expressed proteins make up the comparative proteomic profile between osteoinduced PDLSCs and DPSCs. This study helps to characterize the differences between osteoinduced PDLSCs and DPSCs in vitro.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T11:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • MicroRNA-186 serves as a tumor suppressor in oral squamous cell carcinoma
    • Authors: Zhen Cai; Xiu-Yan Hao; Feng-Xin Liu
      Pages: 20 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): Zhen Cai, Xiu-Yan Hao, Feng-Xin Liu
      Objective MicroRNAs (miRs) have been shown to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the current study is designed to identify the potential role of miR-186 in OSCC. Materials and methods Realtime polymerase chain reaction was used to determine miR-186 expression in paired tissue samples (OSCC and adjacent normal tissues) and multiple oral cell lines (normal oral keratinocyte HOK cell and OSCC cell lines). Cell viability, colony formation and flow cytometry assays were used to assess the biological function of miR-186. Furthermore, luciferase and western blot assays were used to verify the predicted target of miR-186. Results We found that miR-186 expression was significantly downregulated in OSCC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-186 produced an anti-growth effect and induced apoptosis in Tca8113 and SCC-25 cells. Luciferase assay revealed that miR-186 directly targeted PTPN11 (a gene encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2) mRNA 3′ untranslated region and suppressed its expression. Consistently, MiR-186 and SHP2 were negatively correlated in OSCC tissues. Consequently, miR-186 inhibited signaling activities of Extracellular Regulated protein Kinases (ERK) and Protein kinase B (AKT), which act downstream of SHP2 and are critical for growth of cancer cells. Conclusion We identify that miR-186 serves as a tumor suppressor in OSCC. Downregulation of this microRNA may lead to a higher expression of oncogenic factor SHP2, which leads to activation of growth promoting signaling. Thus, miR-186 may be a novel and effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of OSCC.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T11:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • An in vitro study on the influence of viscosity and frequency of
           application of fluoride/tin solutions on the progression of erosion of
           bovine enamel
    • Authors: Letícia Oba Sakae; Sávio José Cardoso Bezerra; Samira Helena João-Souza; Alessandra Buhler Borges; Idalina V. Aoki; Ana Cecília Côrrea Aranha; Taís Scaramucci
      Pages: 26 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): Letícia Oba Sakae, Sávio José Cardoso Bezerra, Samira Helena João-Souza, Alessandra Buhler Borges, Idalina V. Aoki, Ana Cecília Côrrea Aranha, Taís Scaramucci
      Objective To evaluate the influence of the viscosity and frequency of application of solutions containing fluoride (F) and stannous chloride (SnCl2) on enamel erosion prevention. Design Bovine enamel specimens were randomly distributed into 12 groups (n = 10), according to the following study factors: solution (C: deionized water; F: 500 ppm F−; F + Sn: 500 ppm F− + 800 ppm Sn2+); viscosity (low and high); and frequency of application (once and twice a day). Specimens were submitted to an erosive cycling model, consisting of 5 min immersion in 0.3% citric acid, followed by 60 min exposure to a mineral solution. This procedure was repeated 4×/day, for 5 days. Treatment with the experimental solutions was performed for 2 min, 1×/day or 2×/day. Enamel surface loss (SL) was determined by optical profilometry. Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). Results There were significant differences between the levels of the factor solution (p < .001), viscosity (p < .001) and in the interaction between solution and viscosity (p = .01). Regarding solution, the mean SL ± standard deviation for the groups was F + Sn (4.90 ± 1.12) < F (7.89 ± 1.19) < C (14.20 ± 1.69). High viscosity solutions demonstrated less SL than low viscosity; however, only when applied once a day (p < .001). Applying the solutions twice a day yielded lower SL than once a day, but only for the low viscosity solutions (p = .003). Conclusions Under the conditions of this short-term in vitro experiment, it could be concluded that increasing the viscosity of the oral rinse solutions reduced enamel loss by erosion; however, this effect was small and only observed when the solutions were applied once a day.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T11:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Modulation of incisor eruption in rats by sympathetic efferents
    • Authors: José Johann Chidiac; Ammar Kassab; Khaldoun Rifai; Nayef E. Saadé; Elie D. Al Chaer
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): José Johann Chidiac, Ammar Kassab, Khaldoun Rifai, Nayef E. Saadé, Elie D. Al Chaer
      Introduction Intact neural supply is necessary for tooth eruption. Sympathetic denervation accelerates or decelerates the eruption rate depending on the tooth condition (intact or injured). The aim of this study is to reexamine the role of the sympathetic innervation, through the observation of the effects of pre or post ganglionic chemical sympathectomy on the eruption of intact rat incisors. Materials and methods Different groups of rats were subjected to either ganglionic or peripheral chemical sympathectomy and the observed effects on incisor eruption were compared to those made on intact/sham groups or on rats subjected to inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) lesion. Results The total amount of eruption in control/naïve rats, measured over a total period of 144 h, was 3 ± 0.15 mm and decreased to 2.57 ± 0.06 mm (n = 8; p < 0.01) or 2.8 ± 0.10 mm (n = 8; p < 0.05) following treatment with guanethidine and hexamethonium, respectively. This amount decreased to 1.8 ± 0.14 mm (p < 0.001 vs. control, n = 7; or p < 0.01 vs. sham, n = 5) in rats subjected to IAN lesion. Conclusion Sympathectomy delayed tooth eruption. Blocking the sympathetic effectors with guanethidine exerted more potent effects than ganglionic block with hexamethonium. Intact sympathetic supply is required for tooth growth under normal conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T11:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Tongue exercise and ageing effects on morphological and biochemical
           properties of the posterior digastric and temporalis muscles in a Fischer
           344 Brown Norway rat model
    • Authors: Brittany N. Krekeler; Glen Leverson; Nadine P. Connor
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): Brittany N. Krekeler, Glen Leverson, Nadine P. Connor
      Objective This study sought to examin effects of age and tongue exercise on the posterior digastric (opener) and the temporalis (closer). We hypothesized 1) age would result in differing morphological (cross sectional area) and biochemical (myosin heavy chain isoform) components of these muscles; 2) tongue exercise would result in coactivation of these muscles inducing a decrease in age-related differences between age groups. Design Young adult (9 months) and old (32 months) Fischer 344 Brown Norway rats were randomized into a tongue exercise or control group. Post-training, posterior digastric and temporalis muscles were harvested and analyzed using: 1) Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess percent myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content; 2) Immunohistochemical staining to determine cross sectional area (CSA). Results A larger proportion of slowly contracting MyHC isoforms in the posterior digastric and temporalis muscles were found in old. No significant main effects for age or exercise in fiber size were found in posterior digastric muscle. An interaction between age and exercise for temporalis cross sectional area indicated the old exercise group had smaller average cross sectional area than all other groups. Conclusions findings suggest that: 1) Increasing age induces biochemical changes in muscles of the jaw, specifically showing an increase the proportion of slower contracting MyHC isoforms; 2) Increasing age and tongue exercise induce a reduction in muscle fiber cross sectional area in the temporalis muscle only. However, continued study of these cranial muscle systems is warranted to better understand these changes that occur with age and exercise.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T11:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Spontaneous alveolar bone loss after 4NQO exposure in Wistar rats
    • Authors: Harry J.R. Oballe; Francisco Wilker M.G. Muniz; Cheyenne C. Bueno; Isadora P. Klein; Vinicius C. Carrard; Cassiano K. Rösing; Eduardo J. Gaio
      Pages: 44 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): Harry J.R. Oballe, Francisco Wilker M.G. Muniz, Cheyenne C. Bueno, Isadora P. Klein, Vinicius C. Carrard, Cassiano K. Rösing, Eduardo J. Gaio
      Objective This study evaluated the effect of an experimental carcinogenic, 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), in the spontaneous alveolar bone loss (ABL) in an animal model. Design Twenty-two male Wistar rats were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (n = 10) received food and water ad libitum, and the test group (n = 12) receive the same food; however, 25 ppm of 4NQO was diluted in the drinking water. All animals were euthanized after 20 weeks, and the tongues were removed and analyzed macroscopically to determine the presence of oral mucosal lesions. All specimens were paraffin-embedded and histological sections were obtained. The microscopic analysis was based on routine procedure (haematoxylin and eosin stain). The analysis of spontaneous ABL was performed by a calibrated examiner using standardized photographs and imaging software. Differences in spontaneous ABL were assessed among the three resulting groups: control, 4NQO with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and 4NQO without OSCC. Results In the 4NQO-treated group, nine animals developed OSCC. The animals in the 4NQO with OSCC group presented significantly more spontaneous ABL (0.65 ± 0.21 mm) than the control group (0.34 ± 0.05) (p < 0.001). The animals in the 4NQO without OSCC group showed a mean spontaneous ABL of 0.47 ± 0.13 mm, which was not statistically significant different when compared to the control group (p = 0.096). Conclusions It was concluded that the presence of OSCC enhanced spontaneous ABL in Wistar rats when compared to control animals. Additionally, it was shown that, solely, administration of 4NQO may not be considered responsible for alveolar bone destruction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T11:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • The effect of magnolol on Ca2+ homeostasis and its related physiology in
           human oral cancer cells
    • Authors: Shu-Feng Hsieh; Chiang-Ting Chou; Wei-Zhe Liang; Chun-Chi Kuo; Jue-Long Wang; Lyh-Jyh Hao; Chung-Ren Jan
      Pages: 49 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Shu-Feng Hsieh, Chiang-Ting Chou, Wei-Zhe Liang, Chun-Chi Kuo, Jue-Long Wang, Lyh-Jyh Hao, Chung-Ren Jan
      Objective Magnolol, a polyphenol compound from herbal medicines, was shown to alter physiology in various cell models. However, the effect of magnolol on Ca2+ homeostasis and its related physiology in oral cancer cells is unclear. This study examined whether magnolol altered Ca2+ signaling and cell viability in OC2 human oral cancer cells. Methods Cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in suspended cells were measured by using the fluorescent Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2. Cell viability was examined by 4-[3-[4-lodophenyl]-2-4(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio-1,3-benzene disulfonate] water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay. Results Magnolol at concentrations of 20–100 μM induced [Ca2+]i rises. Ca2+ removal reduced the signal by approximately 50%. Magnolol (100 μM) induced Mn2+ influx suggesting of Ca2+ entry. Magnolol-induced Ca2+ entry was partially suppressed by protein kinase C (PKC) regulators, and inhibitors of store-operated Ca2+ channels. In Ca2+-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) abolished magnolol-evoked [Ca2+]i rises. Conversely, treatment with magnolol abolished BHQ-evoked [Ca2+]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 partially inhibited magnolol-induced [Ca2+]i rises. Magnolol at 20–100 μM decreased cell viability, which was not reversed by pretreatment with the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM). Conclusions Together, in OC2 cells, magnolol induced [Ca2+]i rises by evoking partially PLC-dependent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca2+ entry via PKC-sensitive store-operated Ca2+ entry. Magnolol also caused Ca2+-independent cell death. Therefore, magnolol-induced cytotoxicity may not be involved in activation mechanisms associated with intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in oral cancer cells.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T11:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Effects of Molecular Weight of Hyaluronic Acid on its Viscosity and
           Enzymatic Activities of Lysozyme and Peroxidase
    • Authors: Jihoon Kim; Ji-Youn Chang; Yoon-Young Kim; Moon-Jong Kim; Hong-Seop Kho
      Pages: 55 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Jihoon Kim, Ji-Youn Chang, Yoon-Young Kim, Moon-Jong Kim, Hong-Seop Kho
      Objectives To investigate the effects of the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid on its viscosity and enzymatic activities of lysozyme and peroxidase in solution and on the hydroxyapatite surface. Design Hyaluronic acids of four different molecular weights (10 kDa, 100 kDa, 1 MDa, and 2 MDa), hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine lactoperoxidase, and human whole saliva were used. Viscosity values of hyaluronic acids were measured using a cone-and-plate viscometer at six different concentrations (0.1-5.0 mg/mL). Enzymatic activities of lysozyme and peroxidase were examined by hydrolysis of fluorescein-labeled Micrococcus lysodeikticus and oxidation of fluorogenic 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein to fluorescing 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein, respectively. Results In solution assays, only 2 MDa-hyaluronic acid significantly inhibited lysozyme activities in saliva. In surface assays, hyaluronic acids inhibited lysozyme and peroxidase activities; the inhibitory activities were more apparent with high-molecular-weight ones in saliva than in purified enzymes. The 100 kDa-hyaluronic acid at 5.0 mg/mL, 1 MDa-one at 0.5 mg/mL, and 2 MDa-one at 0.2 mg/mL showed viscosity values similar to those of human whole saliva at a shear rate range required for normal oral functions. The differences among the influences of the three conditions on the enzymatic activities were not statistically significant. Conclusions High-molecular-weight hyaluronic acids at low concentration and low-molecular-weight ones at high concentration showed viscosity values similar to those of human whole saliva. Inhibitory effects of hyaluronic acids on lysozyme and peroxidase activities were more significant with high-molecular-weight ones on the surface and in saliva compared with in solution and on purified enzymes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T11:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Efficacy of different strategies to treat root dentin eroded by liquid or
           gaseous hydrochloric acid associated with brushing abrasion
    • Authors: Juliana Jendiroba Faraoni; Carmen Victoria Torres Toro; Laís Lopes Machado de Matos; Regina Guenka Palma-Dibb
      Pages: 65 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Juliana Jendiroba Faraoni, Carmen Victoria Torres Toro, Laís Lopes Machado de Matos, Regina Guenka Palma-Dibb
      Objective This study aims to evaluate how casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) associated with Nd:YAG or Diode laser affects dentin exposed to hydrochloric acid (HCl) with or without tooth brushing. Design One hundred and sixty human root dentin blocks were selected after they were initially eroded with liquid HCl (pH 1.2) 3x for one day. The blocks were divided into the following groups: G1– liquid HCl (HCl-l), G2– HCl-l + brushing, G3– gaseous HCl (HCl-g), and G4– HCl-g + brushing. Each group was randomly assigned to the following treatments (n = 10): A) Control (no treatment), B) CPP-ACP, C) CPP-ACP associated with Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) (40 mJ, 10 Hz, 0.4 W, 15 s), and D) CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (λ = 980 nm) (0.5 W, 200 μs, 15 s). The treatment with CPP-ACP (G2, G3 and G4) was applied on the dentine surface for 5 min. Erosion (6x/day/20 s) and erosion (6x/day/20 s) with abrasion (2x/10 s) were performed for five days. Dentin volume loss was determined by 3D confocal laser microscopy. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Results G1 - CPP-ACP (10.77 ± 1.66) and CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (9.98 ± 0.89) showed lower volume loss in relation Control group (12.86 ± 0.63) (p < 0.05). G2 - CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (12.41 ± 1.08) elicited lower volume loss as compared to the Control (14.42 ± 1.24) (p < 0.05). As for G3 and G4, all treatments showed similar volume loss. Conclusion CPP-ACP and CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser could control dental tissue loss in dentin eroded by liquid HCl. Moreover, CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser could effectively decrease dental tissue loss in dentin exposed to liquid HCl and brushing.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T11:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Stability and efficacy of combined nystatin and chlorhexidine against
           suspensions and biofilms of Candida albicans
    • Authors: Elusa Scheibler; Renata Medina da Silva; Carlos Eduardo Leite; Maria Martha Campos; Maria Antonia Figueiredo; Fernanda Gonçalves Salum; Karen Cherubini
      Pages: 70 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): Elusa Scheibler, Renata Medina da Silva, Carlos Eduardo Leite, Maria Martha Campos, Maria Antonia Figueiredo, Fernanda Gonçalves Salum, Karen Cherubini
      Objective Nystatin and chlorhexidine are extensively used in oral medicine; however, there is some controversy about the possibility of these drugs showing antagonism. To clarify this issue, this study investigated the efficacy and stability of nystatin and chlorhexidine in combination. Design An in vitro study was conducted to analyze the effect of nystatin and chlorhexidine combined on Candida albicans ATCC 18804, using the drugs mixed as a single formulation and as independent formulations used sequentially with different time intervals between them. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and effects on C. albicans suspensions and biofilms were evaluated. Also, the stability of nystatin and chlorhexidine in a mixture was tested by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results When nystatin and chlorhexidine were mixed in a single formulation, there was no significant difference in MIC compared to that of the drugs used alone (as the only treatment). However, when these drugs were used as independent formulations, sequentially with time intervals in between, their MICs were higher than the respective MIC of the drug used alone, except for the MIC of chlorhexidine with a 10-min interval. Nystatin/chlorhexidine combinations showed lower activity against C. albicans biofilms, except for that with a 30-min interval. The drugs when combined showed high percentages of degradation at all the times evaluated. Conclusions The combination of nystatin and chlorhexidine seems to interfere with the efficacy of the drugs and to increase their rate of degradation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:41:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Effect of sodium fluoride on oral biofilm microbiota and enamel
    • Authors: Thomas Thurnheer; Georgios N. Belibasakis
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): Thomas Thurnheer, Georgios N. Belibasakis
      Objective Fluoride is widely used as an anti-caries agent, e.g. in toothpastes and mouth rinses. However, the nature of the anti-caries action is not entirely clear. Mechanisms suspected to explain the cariostatic effect include inhibitory effects on acid formation by bacteria, inhibition of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, inhibition of enamel demineralization and enhancement of remineralizaton or combination thereof. The aim of this study was to examine with the supragingival Zurich in vitro biofilm model the effect of fluoride in NaF formulation, on the microbiota and on demineralization. Methods Biofilms consisting of Actinomyces oris, Candida albicans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus oralis, Veillonella dispar and Streptococcus sobrinus, were grown anaerobically on sintered hydroxyapatite or bovine enamel disks, exposed to 200, 400, and 1400 ppm of NaF, or 0.1% chlorhexidine (positive control). The biofilms were harvested after 64 h and CFUs were assessed for total bacteria. Demineralization of enamel disks was measured by quantitative light-induced fluorescence. Results NaF did not affect the bacterial numbers. No enamel mineral loss was observed at 1400 and 400 ppm of fluoride, whereas the pH of the surrounding medium was increased to 5.5 and 5.0, respectively, compared to the untreated control (pH 4.5 and mineral loss ΔF of −32%). At 1400 ppm NaF the biofilm’s EPS volume was also significantly reduced. Conclusions Administration of NaF completely prevented demineralization without affecting biofilm composition and growth. This protective effect may be attributed to the observed decrease in acid production or EPS volume, or to a shift in the de/remineralization balance.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T11:41:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Developmental characteristics of secondary cartilage in the mandibular
           condyle and sphenoid bone in mice
    • Authors: Hidetomo Hirouchi; Kei Kitamura; Masahito Yamamoto; Kento Odaka; Satoru Matsunaga; Koji Sakiyama; Shinichi Abe
      Pages: 84 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): Hidetomo Hirouchi, Kei Kitamura, Masahito Yamamoto, Kento Odaka, Satoru Matsunaga, Koji Sakiyama, Shinichi Abe
      Objective Secondary cartilage develops from osteochondral progenitor cells. Hypertrophic chondrocytes in secondary cartilage increase within a very short time and then ossify rapidly. In the present study, we investigated the sequential development process of osteochondral progenitor cells, and the morphology and size of hypertrophic chondrocytes in secondary cartilage. Design ICR mice at embryonic days (E) 14.5–17.5 were used. The mandibular condyle and the medial pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone were observed as secondary cartilage, and the cranial base and the lateral pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, which is primary cartilage, were observed as a control. Thin sections were subjected to immunostaining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining. Using a confocal laser microscope, 3D stereoscopic reconstruction of hypertrophic cells was performed. To evaluate the size of hypertrophic chondrocytes objectively, the cell size was measured in each cartilage. Results Hypertrophic chondrocytes of secondary cartilage first expressed type X collagen (Col X) at E15.5. SRY-box 9 (Sox 9) and ALP were co-expressed in the fibroblastic/polymorphic tissue layer of secondary cartilage. This layer was very thick at E15.5, and then rapidly became thin. Hypertrophic cells in secondary cartilage were markedly smaller than those in primary cartilage. Conclusions The small hypertrophic cells present in secondary cartilage may have been a characteristic acquired in order for the cartilage to smoothly promote a marked increase in hypertrophic cells and rapid calcification.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.12.027
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Corrigendum to “Tooth damage in captive orcas (Orcinus orca)” [Arch.
           Oral Biol. 84 (2017) 151–160]
    • Authors: John Jett; Ingrid N. Visser; Jeffrey Ventre; Jordan Waltz; Carolina Loch
      First page: 93
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): John Jett, Ingrid N. Visser, Jeffrey Ventre, Jordan Waltz, Carolina Loch

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) expression on the nerve
           fibers of human dental pulp is upregulated under inflammatory condition
    • Authors: Marina M. Bakri; Farhana Yahya; Khalil Munawar Makhdum Munawar; Junichi Kitagawa; Mohammad Zakir Hossain
      Pages: 94 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): Marina M. Bakri, Farhana Yahya, Khalil Munawar Makhdum Munawar, Junichi Kitagawa, Mohammad Zakir Hossain
      Objective Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) has been considered as a mechano-, thermo- and osmo-receptor. Under inflammatory conditions in dental pulp, teeth can become sensitive upon exposure to a variety of innocuous stimuli. The objective of the present study was to investigate the expression of the TRPV4 channel on nerve fibers in human dental pulp of non-symptomatic and symptomatic teeth associated with inflammatory conditions. Design Dental pulp from extracted human permanent teeth was processed for fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Ten asymptomatic (normal) and 10 symptomatic (symptoms associated with pulpitis) teeth were used in this study. Nerve fibers were identified by immunostaining for a marker, protein gene product 9.5, and the cells were counterstained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. An anti-TRPV4 antibody was used to trace TRPV4 expression. Results TRPV4 expression was co-localized with the nerve fiber marker. Immunoreactivity for TRPV4 was more intense (p < 0.05) in the nerves of symptomatic teeth than those of normal teeth. The number of co-localization spots was increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the dental pulp of symptomatic teeth compared with that of asymptomatic (normal) teeth. Conclusions There is expression of TRPV4 channels on the nerve fibers of human dental pulp. Our findings suggest upregulation of TRPV4 expression under inflammatory conditions in the pulp. The upregulation of TRPV4 channels may be associated with the exaggerated response of dental pulp to innocuous mechanical, thermal and osmotic stimuli under inflammatory conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • In vitro investigation on probiotic, anti-Candida, and antibiofilm
           properties of Lactobacillus pentosus strain LAP1
    • Authors: Chirom Aarti; Ameer Khusro; Rakesh Varghese; Mariadhas Valan Arasu; Paul Agastian; Naïf Abdullah Al-Dhabi; Soundharrajan Ilavenil; Ki Choon Choi
      Pages: 99 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): Chirom Aarti, Ameer Khusro, Rakesh Varghese, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Paul Agastian, Naïf Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Ki Choon Choi
      Objective To investigate the probiotic characteristics, anti-Candida activity, and antibiofilm attributes of Hentak derived Lactobacillus pentosus strain LAP1. Design The probiotic properties of strain LAP1 was depicted by adapting standard protocols. The anti-Candida and antibiofilm properties of isolate were determined using agar well diffusion assay and ELISA reader test, respectively. The time-kill assay was performed using viable colony count assay. Further, the co-aggregation property of strain LAP1 was determined based on standard methodology. Results Strain LAP1 exhibited not only tolerance to acidic pH but also showed resistivity (P ≤ 0.05) to simulated gastric juice exposure. Similarly, the strain was able to tolerate bile salt, showed hyperproteolytic activity, and also depicted susceptibility to most of the antibiotics tested. Auto-aggregation phenomenon (37.5–60%), hydrophobicity nature (42.85%), and survival potentiality of strain LAP1 under freeze-dried condition (9.0 ± 0.01 log CFU/ml) made the isolate a promising probiotic candidate. Cell-free neutralized supernatant (CFNS) of strain LAP1 exhibited potent antifungal activities against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei with arbitrary unit of 150 ± 4.34, 200 ± 5.21, and 130 ± 5.13 AU/ml, respectively and depicted remarkable reduction in the biofilm formation of respective Candida sp. in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, time-kill assay data provided the growth inhibition of all Candida sp. in a time dependent manner. Additionally, strain LAP1 revealed significant co-aggregate percentage with C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. Conclusions L. pentosus strain LAP1 exhibited a good probiotic characteristics, potent anti-Candida activity, and significant antibiofilm property that could be undoubtedly recommended for its vast applications not only in food industries but also as biotherapeutic agent against Candida infections in pharmaceutical industries.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Systematic review of wound healing biomarkers in peri-implant crevicular
           fluid during osseointegration
    • Authors: Amália Machado Bielemann; Raissa Micaella Marcello-Machado; Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury; Fernanda Faot
      Pages: 107 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 89
      Author(s): Amália Machado Bielemann, Raissa Micaella Marcello-Machado, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury, Fernanda Faot
      Objective To quantify and characterize the role of biomarkers in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) at each stage of healing during osseointegration. Design This systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines using several databases: MedLine (PubMed), Embase, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Medical subject headings and their indexers were used with no other limitations until December 2017. The dataset was extended with relevant papers from the reference lists of selected papers and from the gray literature. Data was summarized for study objectives, patient demographics, methods used to analyze PICF, biomarker concentrations, results and main findings. Methodologic quality of each included study was assessed using the checklist created by Downs and Black. Results Electronic search resulted in 1698 articles. After excluding the duplicates, reading titles, abstracts and reference list reviews 30 prospective studies with longitudinal follow-up were selected. In total, 52 different biomarkers were identified. The most studied cytokines were interleukin (IL)-1, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO). The earliest PICF specimens were collected immediately after implantation, and the latest at 16 weeks prior to occlusal loading. 36 biomarkers were quantified during week 1, 49 between day 10 and week 6, and 49 between weeks 8 and 12. Only 5 articles received good quality ratings. Conclusion The mechanism by which inflammatory and bone biomarkers are released during osseointegration has not yet been identified. However, some hypotheses based on immune-modulated reactions are being explored to investigate early and asymptomatic implant failures. Given the available clinical studies, it was not possible to further explore the performance of all biomarkers already analyzed and to extrapolate their results to propose a consultable data system based on release volume or concentration because of clinical study and data heterogeneity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
  • Cytotoxicity of novel fluoride solutions and their influence on mineral
           loss from enamel exposed to a Streptococcus mutans biofilm
    • Authors: Thiago Isidro Vieira; João Victor Frazão Câmara; Júlia Gabiroboertz Cardoso; Adílis Kalina Alexandria; Andréa Vaz Braga Pintor; Jaqueline Correia Villaça; Lúcio Mendes Cabral; Maria Teresa Villela Romanos; Andrea Fonseca-Gonçalves; Ana Maria Gondim Valença; Lucianne Cople Maia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Thiago Isidro Vieira, João Victor Frazão Câmara, Júlia Gabiroboertz Cardoso, Adílis Kalina Alexandria, Andréa Vaz Braga Pintor, Jaqueline Correia Villaça, Lúcio Mendes Cabral, Maria Teresa Villela Romanos, Andrea Fonseca-Gonçalves, Ana Maria Gondim Valença, Lucianne Cople Maia
      Objective This study evaluated the cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity and in vitro influence of new fluoridated nanocomplexes on dental demineralization. Design The nanocomplexes hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with 1% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) and γ-cyclodextrin with TiF4 were compared to a positive control (TiF4), a blank control (without treatment) and negative controls (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, γ-cyclodextrin, deionized water), following 12- and 72-hour complexation periods. The cytotoxicity was assessed using the neutral red dye uptake assay at T1–15 min, T2–30 min and T3–24 h. A minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) was performed. Enamel blocks were exposed to an S. mutans biofilm, and the percentage of surface microhardness loss was obtained. Biocompatibility and microhardness data were analysed using ANOVA/Tukey tests (p < 0.05). Results At T1, the cell viability results of the nanocomplexes were similar to that of the blank control. At T2 and T3, the 72 h nanocomplexes demonstrated cell viability results similar to that of the blank, while the 12 h solutions showed results different from that of the blank (p < 0.05). All fluoridated nanocompounds inhibited S. mutans (MBC = 0.25%), while the MBC of TiF4 alone was 0.13%. All fluoridated compounds presented a percentage of surface microhardness loss lower than that of deionized water (p < 0.05). Conclusions The new fluoridated nanocomplexes did not induce critical cytotoxic effects during the experimental periods, whilst they did show bactericidal potential against S. mutans and inhibited enamel mineral loss.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.04.008
  • Determining chewing efficiency using a solid test food and considering all
           phases of mastication
    • Authors: Ting Liu; Xinmiao Wang; Jianshe Chen; Hilbert W. van der Glas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Ting Liu, Xinmiao Wang, Jianshe Chen, Hilbert W. van der Glas
      Objectives Following chewing a solid food, the median particle size, X50 , is determined after N chewing cycles, by curve-fitting of the particle size distribution. Reduction of X50 with N is traditionally followed from N ≥ 15-20 cycles when using the artificial test food Optosil®, because of initially unreliable values of X50 . The aims of the study were (i) to enable testing at small N-values by using initial particles of appropriate size, shape and amount, and (ii) to compare measures of chewing ability, i.e. chewing efficiency (N needed to halve the initial particle size, N(1/2-Xo)) and chewing performance (X50 at a particular N-value, X50,N ). Design 8 subjects with a natural dentition chewed 4 types of samples of Optosil particles: (1) 8 cubes of 8 mm, border size relative to bin size (traditional test), (2) 9 half-cubes of 9.6 mm, mid-size; similar sample volume, (3) 4 half-cubes of 9.6 mm, and 2 half-cubes of 9.6 mm; reduced particle number and sample volume. All samples were tested with 4 N-values. Curve-fitting with a 2nd order polynomial function yielded log(X50)-log(N) relationships, after which N(1/2-Xo) and X50,N were obtained. Conclusions Reliable X50 -values are obtained for all N-values when using half-cubes with a mid-size relative to bin sizes. By using 2 or 4 half-cubes, determination of N(1/2-Xo) or X50,N needs less chewing cycles than traditionally. Chewing efficiency is preferable over chewing performance because of a comparison of inter-subject chewing ability at the same stage of food comminution and constant intra-subject and inter-subject ratios between and within samples respectively.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.04.002
  • In vitro effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis combined with influenza A
           virus on respiratory epithelial cells
    • Authors: Xin Li; Chen Li; Jun-chao Liu; Ya-ping Pan; Yong-gang Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Xin Li, Chen Li, Jun-chao Liu, Ya-ping Pan, Yong-gang Li
      Objective Respiratory epithelial cells are the first natural barrier against bacteria and viruses; hence, the interactions among epithelial cells, bacteria, and viruses are associated with disease occurrence and development. The effect of co-infection by P. gingivalis and influenza A virus (IAV) on respiratory epithelial cells remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro cell viability and apoptosis rates in respiratory epithelial A549 cells infected with P. gingivalis or IAV alone, or a combination of both pathogens. Design A549 cells were first divided into a control group, a P. gingivalis group, an IAV group, and a P. gingivalis + IAV group, to examine cell viability and apoptosis rates, the levels of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 B (LC3-II), microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3A (LC3-I), and sequestosome 1 (P62), and the formation of autophagosomes. The autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA), was used to assess autophagy and apoptosis in A549 cells infected with P. gingivalis or IAV. Results An MTT assay revealed that cell viability was significantly lower in the IAV group than in the P. gingivalis + IAV group (P < 0.05). Flow cytometry indicated that the apoptosis rate was significantly higher in the IAV group than in the P. gingivalis + IAV group (P < 0.05). The fluorescence levels of GFP-LC3 increased significantly, the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio was significantly higher, and the P62 protein levels were statistically lower in the P. gingivalis + IAV group compared with the IAV group (all P < 0.05). Western blotting revealed that the LC3- II/LC3-I ratio was significantly lower, and caspase-3 levels were significantly higher in the 3MA + P. gingivalis + IAV group compared to the P. gingivalis + IAV group (all P < 0.05). Conclusion In vitro studies showed that infection by P. gingivalis combined with IAV temporarily inhibited apoptosis in respiratory epithelial cells, and this may be related to the initiation of autophagy.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T16:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.04.003
  • Oral spray containing plant-derived compounds is effective against common
           oral pathogens
    • Authors: Wipawee Nittayananta; Surasak Limsuwan; Teerapol Srichana; Chutha Sae-Wong; Thanaporn Amnuaikit
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Wipawee Nittayananta, Surasak Limsuwan, Teerapol Srichana, Chutha Sae-Wong, Thanaporn Amnuaikit
      Objectives Plant-derived compounds are a good source of therapeutic agents and inhibitors of inflammatory process. Dental caries, periodontal diseases and candidiasis are common oral infections caused by virulent biofilms. The objectives of this study were to develop oral spray containing plant-derived compounds; α-mangostin (α-MG) and/or lawsone methyl ether (2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) (LME) and determine its antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and anti-inflammatory activities. Design Oral spray formulations were prepared containing α-MG (5 mg/ml) and/or LME (250 μg/ml). Antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis and anti-biofilm formation activities were determined as well as cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects. Results The oral spray demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all three of the oral pathogens tested with stronger effects on C. albicans and S. mutans than P. gingivalis. The formulation containing α-MG (2.5 mg/ml) and LME (125 ug/ml) reduced growth of the microorganisms about 1-2 Log CFU/ml at 1–3 h and the killing effects were complete at 24 h. Based on biofilm assay, the oral spray containing both α-MG and LME showed greater inhibitory effects than those with α-MG or LME. In addition, the oral spray containing both α-MG and LME demonstrated more inhibition of nitric oxide production than α-MG alone. All the formulations were safe and demonstrated greater anti-inflammatory activity at lower concentration (<6.25 μg/ml) than at a higher concentration. Conclusion Oral spray containing α-MG and/or LME is effective against common oral pathogens without significant cytotoxicity. Thus, it has the potential to prevent the infections and may serve as adjunctive treatment to conventional therapy.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.002
  • DNA damage response following X-irradiation in oral cancer cell lines HSC3
           and HSC4
    • Authors: Sirimanas Jiaranuchart; Atsushi Kaida; Yusuke Onozato; Hiroyuki Harada; Masahiko Miura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Sirimanas Jiaranuchart, Atsushi Kaida, Yusuke Onozato, Hiroyuki Harada, Masahiko Miura
      Objective The objective of this study was to characterize the DNA damage response in two human oral cancer cell lines following X-irradiation. Design To visualize radiation-induced cell cycle alterations, two human oral cancer cell lines, HSC3 and HSC4, expressing fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) were established in this study. G2 arrest kinetics following irradiation were obtained from two-color flow cytometric analysis and pedigrees of Fucci fluorescence. DNA double strand break repair kinetics were obtained from immunofluorescence staining for phosphorylated histone H2AX, p53-binding protein 1, phosphorylated DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, and breast cancer susceptibility gene 1. Results Both cell lines showed apparent G2 arrest after 10 Gy of irradiation, but it was more enhanced in the HSC3-Fucci cells. Radiosensitivity was higher in the HSC3-Fucci cells than in HSC4-Fucci cells. Pedigree analysis of Fucci fluorescence revealed that the HSC3-Fucci cells exhibited a significantly longer green phase (normally indicating S/G2/M phases, but here reflective of G2 arrest) when irradiated in the red phase (G1 phase) than HSC4-Fucci cells irradiated in either red or green phases. Non-homologous end joining was marginally suppressed during the G1 phase and markedly more likely to be impaired during the S/G2 phases in HSC3-Fucci cells. When G2 arrest was abrogated by checkpoint kinase 1 or Wee1 inhibitors, only HSC4-Fucci cells exhibited radiosensitization. Conclusions We characterized DNA damage response in HSC3-Fucci and HSC4-Fucci cells following irradiation and the former demonstrated inefficient non-homologous end joining, especially during the S/G2 phases, resulting in enhanced G2 arrest. These findings may have clinical implications for oral cancer.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.016
  • Evaluation of Interleukin-1β Level and Oxidative Status in Gingival
           Crevicular Fluid during Rapid Maxillary Expansion
    • Authors: Nur Ozel; Alev Aksoy; Fatma Yesim Kırzıoglu; Duygu Kumbul Doguc; Tutku Atış Aksoy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Nur Ozel, Alev Aksoy, Fatma Yesim Kırzıoglu, Duygu Kumbul Doguc, Tutku Atış Aksoy
      Objectives The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were determined during rapid maxillary expansion (RME) treatment. Materials and methods Fourteen patients (10–13 years old) were included. A modified hyrax appliance was used for the treatment. After periodontal parameters were recorded, GCF was collected from the first molars at each observation [T1:baseline:14 days after periodontal prophylaxis and instructions; T2:1 day later hyrax inserted, at passive position; T3:1 week later; after the first activation; T4:after 2 × 1/4 activation; T5:after 7 × 1/4 activation; T6:after 14 × 1/4 activation; T7:retention period on the 1 st month; and T8:retention period on the 3rd month]. Results Although the levels of IL1-β, NO, and PD increased significantly from T1 to T2, the GI, BOP%, and PI remained unchanged throughout treatment. GCF volume at buccal and palatal surfaces increased significantly from T1 to T4, T6, T7, and T8. The parameters in GCF and TAC levels were not only higher at palatal side in comparison with buccal, but also TOS levels increased at both buccal and palatal sides. Conclusions In this study, the differences of oxidative status and IL-1β levels during RME treatment could be attributable to orthopedic effect of the heavy forces on maxilla and minimal orthodontic forces on teeth applied by the RME apparatus.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.020
  • Fibrillin-1 insufficiency alters periodontal wound healing failure in a
           mouse model of Marfan syndrome
    • Authors: Keisuke Handa; Syouta Abe; V. Venkata Suresh; Yoshiyasu Fujieda; Masaki Ishikawa; Ai Orimoto; Yoko Kobayashi; Satoru Yamada; Satoko Yamaba; Shinya Murakami; Masahiro Saito
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Keisuke Handa, Syouta Abe, V. Venkata Suresh, Yoshiyasu Fujieda, Masaki Ishikawa, Ai Orimoto, Yoko Kobayashi, Satoru Yamada, Satoko Yamaba, Shinya Murakami, Masahiro Saito
      Objective Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic connective tissue disorder caused by insufficient fibrillin-1 (FBN-1), a major component of microfibrils that controls the elasticity and integrity of connective tissues. FBN-1 insufficiency in MFS leads to structural weakness, which causes various tissue disorders, including cardiovascular and periodontal disease. However, the role of FBN-1 insufficiency in the destruction and regeneration of connective tissue has not yet been clarified. To investigate the role of FBN-1 insufficiency in tissue destruction and regeneration. Design We used a ligature-induced (LI) periodontal disease model in fbn-1-deficient mice (fbn-1c1039G/+ mice) with MFS and investigated the regeneration level of periodontal tissue and as an inflamatic marker, the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (mmp)-9 and tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-α. Results Interestingly, fbn-1c1039G/+ mice exhibited slowed wound healing compared with wild type mice, but periodontal tissue destruction did not differ between these mice. Moreover, fbn-1c1039G/+ mice exhibited delayed bone healing in association with continuous mmp-9 and tnf-α expression. Furthermore, inflammatory cells were obvious even after the removal of ligatures. Conclusion These data suggest that fibrillin-1 insufficiency in fbn-1c1039G/+ mice interfered with wound healing in connective tissue damaged by inflammatory diseases such as periodontal disease.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.017
  • Functional and Molecular Characterization of Transmembrane Intracellular
           pH Regulators in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells
    • Authors: Gunng-Shinng Chen; Shiao-Pieng Lee; Shu-Fu Huang; Shih-Chi Chao; Chung-Yi Chang; Gwo-Jang Wu; Chung-Hsing Li; Shih-Hurng Loh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Gunng-Shinng Chen, Shiao-Pieng Lee, Shu-Fu Huang, Shih-Chi Chao, Chung-Yi Chang, Gwo-Jang Wu, Chung-Hsing Li, Shih-Hurng Loh
      Objective Homeostasis of intracellular pH (pHi) plays vital roles in many cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and metastasis. Thus far, Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE), Na+-HCO3 − co-transporter (NBC), Cl−/HCO3 − exchanger (AE) and Cl−/OH− exchanger (CHE) have been identified to co-regulate pHi homeostasis. However, functional and biological pHi-regulators in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) have yet to be identified. Design Microspectrofluorimetry technique with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, BCECF, was used to detect pHi changes. NH4Cl and Na+-acetate pre-pulse were used to induce intracellular acidosis and alkalosis, respectively. Isoforms of pHi-regulators were detected by Western blot technique. Results The resting pHi was no significant difference between that in HEPES-buffered (nominal HCO3 −-free) solution or CO2/HCO3-buffered system (7.42 and 7.46, respectively). The pHi recovery following the induced-intracellular acidosis was blocked completely by removing [Na+]o, while only slowed (-63%) by adding HOE694 (a NHE1 specific inhibitor) in HEPES-buffered solution. The pHi recovery was inhibited entirely by removing [Na+]o, while adding HOE 694 pulse DIDS (an anion-transporter inhibitor) only slowed (-55%) the acid extrusion. Both in HEPES-buffered and CO2/HCO3-buffered system solution, the pHi recovery after induced-intracellular alkalosis was entirely blocked by removing [Cl−]o. Western blot analysis showed the isoforms of pHi regulators, including NHE1/2, NBCe1/n1, AE1/2/3/4 and CHE in the hDPSCs. Conclusions We demonstrate for the first time that resting pHi is significantly higher than 7.2 and meditates functionally by two Na+-dependent acid extruders (NHE and NBC), two Cl−-dependent acid loaders (CHE and AE) and one Na+-independent acid extruder(s) in hDPSCs. These findings provide novel insight for basic and clinical treatment of dentistry.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.02.018
  • Remineralizing effect of a fluoridated gel containing sodium
           hexametaphosphate: an in vitro study
    • Authors: Francyenne Maira Castro Gonçalves; Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem; Juliano Pelim Pessan; Gabriel Pereira Nunes; Nayara Gonçalves Emerenciano; Luhana Santos Gonzales Garcia; Liliana Carolina Báez Quintero; José Guilherme Neves; Marcelle Danelon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Francyenne Maira Castro Gonçalves, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Juliano Pelim Pessan, Gabriel Pereira Nunes, Nayara Gonçalves Emerenciano, Luhana Santos Gonzales Garcia, Liliana Carolina Báez Quintero, José Guilherme Neves, Marcelle Danelon
      Objectives To evaluate in vitro the effect of neutral pH topical gels with reduced fluoride concentration (F), supplemented or not with sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) on the remineralization of dental enamel, using a pH-cycling model. Materials and methods Bovine enamel blocks with caries-like lesions were randomly treated with five gels (n = 24/group): without F/HMP (Placebo); 4,500 ppm F (4500F), 4500F plus 9% HMP (4500F + HMP); 9,000 ppm F (9000F); and 12,300 ppm F (Acid gel). After pH-cycling, the percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR), integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN), and concentrations of loosely- (CaF2) and firmly-bound (FA) fluoride formed and retained in/on enamel were determined. The results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.001). Results The 4500F + HMP gel promoted the highest %SHR among all groups; the lowest ΔKHN was achieved by 4500F + HMP and Acid gel, without significant differences between these. The Acid gel group presented the highest CaF2 and FA formed and retained on/in enamel (p < 0.001). Conclusion Based on the present results, the addition of 9% sodium hexametaphosphate to a gel with reduced fluoride concentration (4500F) was able to significantly enhance the remineralization of artificial carious lesions in vitro when compared to 4500F, reaching protective levels similar to an acidic formulation with ∼3-fold higher fluoride concentration.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T13:45:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.03.001
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