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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
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Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

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Journal Cover Archives of Oral Biology
  [SJR: 0.713]   [H-I: 64]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-9969
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Hypoxia-based strategies for regenerative dentistry—Views from the
           different dental fields
    • Authors: Anna Sonja Müller; Klara Janjić; Bledar Lilaj; Michael Edelmayer; Hermann Agis
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Anna Sonja Müller, Klara Janjić, Bledar Lilaj, Michael Edelmayer, Hermann Agis
      The understanding of the cell biological processes underlying development and regeneration of oral tissues leads to novel regenerative approaches. Over the past years, knowledge on key roles of the hypoxia-based response has become more profound. Based on these findings, novel regenerative approaches for dentistry are emerging, which target cellular oxygen sensors. These approaches include hypoxia pre-conditioning and pharmacologically simulated hypoxia. The increase in studies on hypoxia and hypoxia-based strategies in regenerative dentistry highlights the growing attention to hypoxia’s role in regeneration and its underlying biology, as well as its application in a therapeutic setting. In this narrative review, we present the current knowledge on the role of hypoxia in oral tissues and review the proposed hypoxia-based approaches in different fields of dentistry, including endodontics, orthodontics, periodontics, and oral surgery.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T03:37:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.029
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Stimulation of human gingival fibroblasts viability and growth by roots
           treated with high intensity lasers, photodynamic therapy and citric acid
    • Authors: Paula Stephania Brandão Hage Karam; Rafael Ferreira; Rodrigo Cardoso Oliveira; Sebastião Luiz Aguiar Greghi; Maria Lúcia Rubo de Rezende; Adriana Campos Passanezi Sant’Ana; Mariana Schutzer Ragghianti Zangrando; Carla Andreotti Damante
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Paula Stephania Brandão Hage Karam, Rafael Ferreira, Rodrigo Cardoso Oliveira, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar Greghi, Maria Lúcia Rubo de Rezende, Adriana Campos Passanezi Sant’Ana, Mariana Schutzer Ragghianti Zangrando, Carla Andreotti Damante
      Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effect of root biomodification by lasers, citric acid and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) on viability and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (FGH). Design Groups were divided in control (CC – only cells), and root fragments treated by: scaling and root planing (positice control – SC), Er:YAG (ER–60mJ,10pps,10Hz,10s,2940nm), Nd:YAG (ND–0.5W,15Hz,10s,1640nm), antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT–InGaAIP,30mW,45J/cm2,30s,660nm,toluidine blue O), citric acid plus tetracycline (CA). Fibroblasts (6th passage, 2×103) were cultivated in a 24-h conditioned medium by the treated root fragments. Cell viability was measured by MTT test at 24, 48, 72 and 96h. In a second experiment, FGH cells (104) were cultivated on root fragments which received the same treatments. After 24, 48, 72h the number of cells was counted in SEM pictures. In addition, chemical elements were analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Data was analyzed by two-way ANOVA (first experiment), repeated measures ANOVA (second experiment) and ANOVA (EDS experiment) tests complemented by Tukey’s test (p<0.05). Results ND, PDT and CA promoted higher cell viability (p<0.05). ND and ER groups presented higher number of cells on root surfaces (p<0.05). ER group presented higher calcium and CA group a higher carbon percentages (p<0.05). Conclusions All treatments but scaling and root planing stimulated fibroblast viability while Er:YAG and Nd:YAG treated root surfaces presented higher number of cells.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T02:46:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates with
           sortase defects
    • Authors: Jinthana Lapirattanakul; Yukiko Takashima; Pornpen Tantivitayakul; Thaniya Maudcheingka; Pattarawadee Leelataweewud; Kazuhiko Nakano; Michiyo Matsumoto-Nakano
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Jinthana Lapirattanakul, Yukiko Takashima, Pornpen Tantivitayakul, Thaniya Maudcheingka, Pattarawadee Leelataweewud, Kazuhiko Nakano, Michiyo Matsumoto-Nakano
      Objective In Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive pathogen of dental caries, several surface proteins are anchored by the activity of sortase enzyme. Although various reports have shown that constructed S. mutans mutants deficient of sortase as well as laboratory reference strains with a sortase gene mutation have low cariogenic potential, no known studies have investigated clinical isolates with sortase defects. Here, we examined the cariogenic properties of S. mutans clinical isolates with sortase defects as well as caries status in humans harboring such defective isolates. Design Sortase-defective clinical isolates were evaluated for biofilm formation, sucrose-dependent adhesion, stress-induced dextran-dependent aggregation, acid production, and acid tolerance. Additionally, caries indices of subjects possessing such defective isolates were determined. Results Our in vitro results indicated that biofilm with a lower quantity was formed by sortase-defective as compared to non-defective isolates. Moreover, impairments of sucrose-dependent adhesion and stress-induced dextran-dependent aggregation were found among the isolates with defects, whereas no alterations were seen in regard to acid production or tolerance. Furthermore, glucan-binding protein C, a surface protein anchored by sortase activity, was predominantly detected in culture supernatants of all sortase-defective S. mutans isolates. Although the sortase-defective isolates showed lower cariogenic potential because of a reduction in some cariogenic properties, deft/DMFT indices revealed that all subjects harboring those isolates had caries experience. Conclusions Our findings suggest the impairment of cariogenic properties in S. mutans clinical isolates with sortase defects, though the detection of these defective isolates seemed not to imply low caries risk in the subjects harboring them.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T02:46:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Expression of cancer cell-derived IgG and extra domain A-containing
           fibronectin in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma
    • Authors: Wan-Qi Lv; Jing Peng; Hai-Cheng Wang; De-ping Chen; Yue Yang; Yang Zhao; Xiao-yan Qiu; Jiu-Hui Jiang; Cui-Ying Li
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Wan-Qi Lv, Jing Peng, Hai-Cheng Wang, De-ping Chen, Yue Yang, Yang Zhao, Xiao-yan Qiu, Jiu-Hui Jiang, Cui-Ying Li
      Objective Cancer-IgG is a newly-discovered molecule, mainly derived from epithelial carcinoma cells and is significantly correlated with differentiation, metastasis, local invasion, and poor prognosis of many cancers. In our previous study we detected IgG expression in oral epithelial carcinoma, including salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC), using an IgG-specific commercial antibody. Here, we explored the correlation between cancer-IgG and clinicopathological features of SACC. Design A total of 68 human SACC tissue specimens and 2 siRNAs were used to analyze the correlation between cancer-IgG and extra domain A (EDA+)-containing fibronectin using the cancer-IgG-specific monoclonal antibody, RP215. Results We found an unexpected correlation between cancer-IgG and EDA+ fibronectin, both of which showed aberrant expression in SACC tissue samples. Both were highly expressed in SACC with nerve invasion. In our previous study, EDA+ fibronectin overexpression in SACC cells decreased N-cadherin expression. In the present study, we used SACC-83 cells, wherein EDA+ fibronectin is overexpressed and cancer-IgG is knocked down. EDA+ fibronectin expression was reduced with cancer-IgG knockdown, while cancer-IgG expression did not affect EDA+ fibronectin overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of non-B cell-derived IgG in SACC cells decreased cellular motility (P <0.05) as well as increased E-cadherin and alpha-smooth muscle actin levels. Conclusion The results suggest that cancer IgG potentially regulates EDA+ fibronectin expression, thereby suggesting possible new therapeutic approaches for SACC.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T02:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Effect of preparation method and storage period on the stability of saliva
    • Authors: Maribasappa Karched; Radhika G. Bhardwaj; Eunice M. Pauline; Swapna George; Sirkka Asikainen
      Pages: 21 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Maribasappa Karched, Radhika G. Bhardwaj, Eunice M. Pauline, Swapna George, Sirkka Asikainen
      Saliva is an attractive source for oral microbial detection and quantification since sampling is non-invasive and rapid. Objectives To determine whether different saliva preparation methods or preservation time periods affect DNA stability. Methods Saliva samples from 4 healthy adult volunteers were processed to obtain 3 different preparations: whole saliva, and after centrifugation pellet and supernatant. Purified DNA (MasterPure™) from each sample was divided into 4 aliquots, one for immediate analysis and 3 (stored at −80°C) for later analyses after 1 week and 2 and 6 months. DNA concentrations and qPCR based quantities of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Filifactor alocis and Streptococcus mutans were determined. Results DNA concentration did not decrease (P>0.05) during the 6-month period in any sample. Mean (SE) DNA concentrations (ng/μl) in whole saliva were 152.2 (51.2) and 147.8 (50) at day 0 and 6 months, respectively. Similarly, the values for pellet were 134.9 (42.5) and 133.6 (42.9), and for supernatant, 11 (1.9) and 8.9 (2.3), the difference being significant (P<0.001) between supernatant and whole saliva or pellet. The quantities of most bacterial species found at day 0 remained stable over the 6-month period in all saliva preparations. In supernatant, species quantities were lower (P<0.05) than in whole saliva or pellet. Conclusions DNA concentrations were comparable between whole saliva and pellet, suggesting that either of them can be used for DNA-based analyses. Our results also demonstrated that DNA extracted from saliva can be preserved at −80°C for at least 6 months without decrease in DNA concentration.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T02:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Measurement of root surface area of permanent teeth in a Chinese
    • Authors: Y. Gu; Q. Zhu; Y. Tang; Y. Zhang; X. Feng
      Pages: 26 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Y. Gu, Q. Zhu, Y. Tang, Y. Zhang, X. Feng
      Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the remaining area of periodontal attachment and the attachment levels for each type of permanent teeth in a Chinese population by using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scans. Design A total of 440 extracted permanent teeth (including each tooth type except for the third molars) were collected from a Chinese population and scanned using a micro-CT. The CT data were input into Mimics 15.01 to generate 3D tooth models. To simulate various attachment levels, the roots were virtually cut at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10mm from the cemonto-enamel junction (CEJ). The net and percent remaining root surface area (RSA) were measured and calculated, and the data corresponding to attachment level were fitted to a linear function. Results A Linear function can perfectly fit in relating the simulated attachment level to the net and percent remaining RSA (R 2 >0.99, and p <0.001 for each tooth type). For net remaining RSA, the slope of the linear function was steepest for maxillary first molars (b 1 =−39.32) and least steep for mandibular central incisor (b 1 =−13.08); whereas for the percentage of remaining RSA, the slopes (b 1 ) were relatively within a narrow range, from −7.40 (maxillary canine) to −9.64 (maxillary first molars). Conclusion Micro-CT offers simple and precise technique for quantitative analysis of the RSA. The total amount and vertical distribution of the RSA varied by tooth type. Linear formulas can perfectly describe the relation between the attachment level and the net and percent remaining RSA.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T02:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Impact of wear and diet on molar row geometry and topography in the house
    • Authors: Sabrina Renaud; Ronan Ledevin
      Pages: 31 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Sabrina Renaud, Ronan Ledevin
      Objectives Dental evolution affects the geometry of the tooth, but the adaptive relevance of these changes is related to tooth sharpness, complexity, and relief (topography). On a set of laboratory mice, we assessed how wear related to age and food consistency affected molar geometry and topography. Design Three groups of laboratory inbred mice (C57BL/6J strain) were considered: Four week old mice close to weaning, six month old mice fed on regular rodent pellets, and six month old mice fed on rodent pellets that were powdered and served as jelly. Their upper and lower molar rows were imaged in 3D. The geometry of the surfaces was quantified using a template describing the whole surface of the rows. Topographic indices were estimated on the same surfaces. Results The geometry of the molar rows was heavily affected by age-related wear. Food consistency affected mostly the upper molar row, which was more worn and less helical in soft food eaters. Tooth sharpness and relief decreased with age-related wear. Tooth relief was lower in soft food eaters, but only on the upper molar row. Tooth complexity was insensitive to wear. Conclusion The primary factor affecting tooth geometry and topography is age-related wear, as wear erodes the molar surfaces. Tooth complexity, however, appears to be insensitive to wear, making this index relevant for comparison of tooth morphology among wild mice of unknown age. Soft food eaters displayed more worn teeth, with less helical molar row occlusal surface, possibly because behavior and jaw morphology were disturbed due to this unusual food resource.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T02:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.028
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS during macrophage polarisation
           leads to diminished inflammatory cytokine production
    • Authors: Louise A. Belfield; Jon H. Bennett; Wondwossen Abate; Simon K. Jackson
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Louise A. Belfield, Jon H. Bennett, Wondwossen Abate, Simon K. Jackson
      Objective The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of concurrent LPS and cytokine priming, reflective of the in vivo milieu, on macrophage production of key periodontitis associated cytokines TNF, IL-1β and IL-6. Design THP-1 cells were pre-treated with combinations of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concurrently with polarising cytokines IFNγ and IL-4, or PMA as a non-polarised control. Production of key periodontitis associated cytokines in response to subsequent LPS challenge were measured by enzyme − linked immunosorbent assay. Results Compared with cells incubated with IFNγ or IL-4 alone in the “polarisation” phase, macrophages that were incubated with LPS during the first 24h displayed a down-regulation of TNF and IL-1β production upon secondary LPS treatment in the “activation” phase. In all three macrophage populations (M0, M1 and M2), pre-treatment with P. gingivalis LPS during the polarisation process led to a significant decrease in TNF production in response to subsequent activation by LPS (p=0.007, p=0.002 and p=0.004, respectively). Pre-treatment with E. coli LPS also led to a significant down-regulation in TNF production in all three macrophage populations (p<0.001). Furthermore, the presence of E. coli LPS during polarisation also led to the down-regulation of IL-1β in the M1 population (p<0.001), whereas there was no measurable effect on IL-1β production in M0 or M2 macrophages. There was no significant effect on IL-6 production. Conclusions Macrophages become refractory to further LPS challenge, whereby production of key periodontitis associated cytokines TNF and IL-1β is reduced after exposure to LPS during the polarisation phase, even in the presence of inflammatory polarising cytokines. This diminished cytokine response may lead to the reduced ability to clear infection and transition to chronic inflammation seen in periodontitis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T02:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.021
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in Cyclosporine A-induced rat
           gingival overgrowth
    • Authors: Fei Yang; Jing Lu; Youcheng Yu; Yiming Gong
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Fei Yang, Jing Lu, Youcheng Yu, Yiming Gong
      Background and objective Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proved to occur in drug-induced gingival overgrowth. However, the specific pathogenic mechanism remains uncertain. The aim of this study is to examine the expression of EMT markers in cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced gingival overgrowth in rat models. Material and methods Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group received CsA therapy subcutaneously in a daily dose of 10mg/kg, and the other group was used as a control. Six rats per group were sacrificed at 20, 40 and 60days, and the gingivae were obtained. The expression of TGF-β1, E-Cadherin, ZEB1, ZEB2, and Snail1 were examined by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, a group of microRNAs associated with EMT and fibrosis were also detected in gingival tissue by qRT-PCR. Results The mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1, ZEB1, and ZEB2 in gingivae were significantly upregulated after 40 and 60days of CsA administration. Conversely, the levels of E-cadherin were significantly downregulated in overgrowth sample at day 40 and 60. Intense immunohistochemmical staining for TGF-β1 were observed in the samples from CsA group at day 40 and 60. Concomitantly, the densities of E-cadherin were gradually decreased in the basal layers of epithelium with time. Three members of miR–200s (miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c) were significantly downregulated in CsA-treated rats at 40 and 60days, while miR-9, miR-23a and miR-155 were significantly upregulated when compared with those of the control group. Conclusions The process of EMT in CsA-induced rat gingival overgrowth is associated with increased expression of TGF-β1, ZEB1, and ZEB2, and decreased expression of E-cadherin.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T02:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.024
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Nocturnal sleep architecture is altered by sleep bruxism
    • Authors: Marcelo Palinkas; Marisa Semprini; João Espir Filho; Graziela de Luca Canto; Isabela Hallak Regalo; César Bataglion; Laíse Angélica Mendes Rodrigues; Selma Siéssere; Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo
      Pages: 56 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Marcelo Palinkas, Marisa Semprini, João Espir Filho, Graziela de Luca Canto, Isabela Hallak Regalo, César Bataglion, Laíse Angélica Mendes Rodrigues, Selma Siéssere, Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo
      Objective Sleep is a complex behaviour phenomenon essential for physical and mental health and for the body to restore itself. It can be affected by structural alterations caused by sleep bruxism. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of sleep bruxism on the sleep architecture parameters proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Design The sample comprised 90 individuals, between the ages of 18 and 45 years, divided into two groups: with sleep bruxism (n =45) and without sleep bruxism (n =45). The individuals were paired by age, gender and body mass index: a polysomnography was performed at night. Results Statistically significant differences were found between (P ≤0.05) individuals with sleep bruxism and individuals without sleep bruxism during total sleep time (P =0.00), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) total sleep time (P =0.03), NREM sleep time stage 3 (P =0.03), NREM sleep latency (P =0.05), sleep efficiency (P =0.05), and index of microarousals (P =0.04). Conclusions Sleep bruxism impairs the architecture of nocturnal sleep, interfering with total sleep time, NREM sleep latency, and sleep efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T02:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.025
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Is caffeic acid phenethyl ester more protective than doxycycline in
           experimental periodontitis?
    • Authors: Umut Yiğit; Fatma Yeşim Kırzıoğlu; Abdülhadi Cihangir Uğuz; Mustafa Nazıroğlu; Özlem Özmen
      Pages: 61 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Umut Yiğit, Fatma Yeşim Kırzıoğlu, Abdülhadi Cihangir Uğuz, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Özlem Özmen
      Background and objectives Host modulation therapies (anti-inflammatory drugs, bone-stimulating agents, anti-proteinase etc.) target the inhibition or stabilization of tissue breakdown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and/or low dose doxycycline (LDD) administrations on alveolar bone loss (ABL), serum cytokines and gingival apoptosis, as well as the levels of oxidants and anti-oxidants in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis. Material and methods The animals were randomly divided into five groups: Group C (periodontally healthy), Group PC (Periodontitis+CAPE), Group PD (Periodontitis+LDD), Group PCD (Periodontitis+CAPE+LDD), Group P (Periodontitis). Experimental periodontitis was induced for 14days. Levels of ABL, and the serum cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10 were assessed as were the levels of the oxidants and anti-oxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and levels of gingival apoptosis. Results The lowest ABL levels was evident in the PC group, among the experimental groups. There was also less inflammatory infiltration in the PC group than the PD group. IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were lower in the PC group and higher in the P group in comparison to the levels in the other experiment groups. TNF-α levels in the PD group were higher than levels in the PC and PCD groups. The PC and PCD groups did not differ from the C group in regard to MDA levels. The highest GSH-Px level was found in the PC group. Gingival apoptosis in the PC group was not only lower than the PD and PCD groups, but also lower than in the C group. Conclusion The present study suggests that CAPE has more anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects than LDD, with no additive benefits of a CAPE+LDD combination being evident in rats with periodontitis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T02:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.017
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Influence of masticatory function, dental caries and socioeconomic status
           on the body mass index of preschool children
    • Authors: Maria Eliza Soares; Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge; Bruna Mota de Alencar; Simone Gomes Oliveira; Luciano José Pereira; Joana Ramos-Jorge
      Pages: 69 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Maria Eliza Soares, Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge, Bruna Mota de Alencar, Simone Gomes Oliveira, Luciano José Pereira, Joana Ramos-Jorge
      Objective The objective of this study was to determine the influence of masticatory function, dental caries and socioeconomic status on the body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 285 children aged three to five years allocated to three groups based on the BMI: underweight, ideal weight and overweight/obesity. Socioeconomic status was determined based on the responses of parents/caregivers to a specific form. Cavitated lesions were diagnosed using the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Masticatory function was assessed based on masticatory performance (MP) and the swallowing threshold (ST), which were evaluated based on the results of a test food. Data analysis involved the employment of the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests as well as simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Results In the final multiple regression model, BMI was influenced by monthly household income (β=0.234; 95%CI: 1.014 to 1.647), number of cavitated teeth (β=−0.180; 95%CI: −0.293 to −0.054) and X50 of the ST (β=0.304; 95%CI: 0.213–0.498). Conclusion Children whose food test resulted in large particles and those from families with a higher monthly income had a higher BMI. Children with a greater number of teeth with cavitated dental caries had a lower BMI.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T02:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.032
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Streptococcus mutans membrane lipid composition: Virulence factors and
           structural parameters
    • Authors: M.A. Bojanich; R.O. Calderón
      Pages: 74 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): M.A. Bojanich, R.O. Calderón
      Objective The aim of the present work was to analyze whether the location of the dental biofilm was associated with shifts in the membrane fatty acid profile, and whether such shifts could affect certain virulence factors of strains of Streptococcus mutans. Design An experimental study was conducted to assess the behavior of S. mutans strains isolated from dental biofilm collected from sound and carious smooth and occlusal surfaces of the oral cavity of children. The lipid composition of the bacterial membrane, structural membrane parameters, acid survival, and ATPase activity were tested at pH 7 and 5. Results At pH 5, an increase in both the unsaturated and the long chain fatty acids as well as in proton ATPase hydrolytic activity was observed in strains isolated from carious smooth surface biofilm but not in carious occlusal surface strains. The observed changes correlated with the studied structural parameters, and were found to be associated with membrane organization. The changes correlated with a decreased in ΔC (sn-1 and sn-2 acyl chain inequivalence), indicative of increased acyl chain interaction. Conclusions The obtained results suggest that the acidic environment (pH 5) of smooth surface caries affects membrane organization, inducing a shift in membrane lipid profile, which would likely induce better protein/lipid hydrophobic matching, resulting in increased ATPase activity and higher acid survival.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:10:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.023
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Magnetic implants in the tongue for assistive technologies: Tests of
           migration; oromotor function; and tissue response in miniature pigs
    • Authors: Alan J. Sokoloff; Zhongtao Yang; Saman Sargolzaei; Karen Strait; Andrey Krasnopeyev; Kirk A. Easley; Sylvie Mimche; Maysam Ghovanloo
      Pages: 81 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Alan J. Sokoloff, Zhongtao Yang, Saman Sargolzaei, Karen Strait, Andrey Krasnopeyev, Kirk A. Easley, Sylvie Mimche, Maysam Ghovanloo
      Objective Uncertain biological consequences of titanium-magnet (Ti-mag) tongue implants constrain application of the Tongue Drive System (TDS), a brain-tongue-computer interface for individuals with severe physical impairment. Here we describe oromotor function and tongue tissue response following Ti-Mag implantation and explantation in the miniature pig, an animal model with a tongue similar in size to humans. Design A 1.8×6.2mm Ti-mag tracer was implanted into the anterior tongue in five Yucatan minipigs. X-rays were taken immediately and >six days after implantation to evaluate tracer migration. In three minipigs, the tracer was explanted >16days after implantation. Twenty-five days post-explantation, tongue tissue was harvested and processed for histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) markers of healing. In two minipigs tissue markers of healing were evaluated post-mortem following >12days implantation. Drink cycle rate (DCR) was characterized to determine the impact of procedures on oromotor function. Results Neither implantation (N=5) nor explantation (N=3) changed DCR. X-rays revealed minimal tracer migration (N=4, 0–4mm). By histology and IHC a robust capsule was present two weeks post-implantation with limited fibrosis. Explantation produced localized fibrosis and limited muscle remodeling. Conclusions These findings suggest the safety of Ti-mag anterior tongue implants for assistive technologies in humans.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:10:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.034
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Probiotics: A non-conventional therapy for oral lichen planus
    • Authors: Xiao Han; Jing Zhang; Yaqin Tan; Gang Zhou
      Pages: 90 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Xiao Han, Jing Zhang, Yaqin Tan, Gang Zhou
      Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disease. Although the etiology is still unclear, present studies suggest that the composition of the oral microbiota and psychological problems are implicated in the etiology of OLP. The pathogenesis of OLP includes mainly antigen-specific and non-specific mechanisms. Antigen-specific mechanisms involve T-cell activation following antigen presentation and apoptosis of basal keratinocytes triggered by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, while non-specific mechanisms consist of matrix metalloproteinase over-expression and mast cell degranulation in OLP lesions. Therapies for OLP are mainly used to control symptoms and a specific cure is not yet available. Probiotics are capable of modulating the immune response in a strain-specific manner. They are able to alleviate microbial infection and suppress T-cell activation, infiltration and proliferation, as well as suppress keratinocyte apoptosis and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling. Furthermore, probiotics can also modulate the production of inflammatory cytokines and microRNAs, inhibit MMP-9 expression and mast cell degranulation, and ameliorate psychological problems, all of which are involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. Therefore, we hypothesize that probiotics may be applicable to OLP as a safe, inexpensive and non-conventional therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:10:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.026
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Putative periodontal pathogens in the subgingival plaque of Sudanese
           subjects with aggressive periodontitis
    • Authors: N.T. Hashim; G.J. Linden; L. Winning; M.E. Ibrahim; B.G. Gismalla; F.T. Lundy; I.A. El Karim
      Pages: 97 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): N.T. Hashim, G.J. Linden, L. Winning, M.E. Ibrahim, B.G. Gismalla, F.T. Lundy, I.A. El Karim
      Background and objectives There has been limited study of the bacterial species associated with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) in high-risk populations in Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify the presence of four putative periodontal pathogens in the subgingival plaque of Sudanese subjects with AgP. A secondary aim was to investigate the effect of varying the detection threshold on the reported prevalence of the bacterial species investigated. Materials and methods Subgingival plaque samples were collected from AgP cases (n =73) and healthy controls (n =71). Bacterial DNA was extracted and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the detection and quantification of four putative periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia. Results At the lowest detection threshold (>101 cells), P. gingivalis (p <0.0001) was more prevalent in AgP cases than controls. T. forsythia and T. denticola had a high prevalence (>70%) in AgP cases at all detection levels. While T. forsythia was significantly more frequently identified in AgP than in controls at all detection thresholds, this was only the case for T. denticola at the intermediate threshold (>102 cells). A. actinomycetemcomitans was identified less frequently than the other bacterial species with no difference in its prevalence between AgP cases and controls. Conclusion The prevalence of the putative periodontal pathogens investigated varied considerably in Sudanese subjects with AgP and in periodontally healthy controls depending on the detection thresholds applied. T. forsythia was identified as having the strongest association with AgP.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:10:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.027
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Hydrogen peroxide induces cell proliferation and apoptosis in pulp of rats
           after dental bleaching in vivo
    • Authors: Francine Benetti; João Eduardo Gomes-Filho; Luciana Louzada Ferreira; Edilson Ervolino; André Luiz Fraga Briso; Gustavo Sivieri-Araújo; Eloi Dezan-Júnior; Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra
      Pages: 103 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Francine Benetti, João Eduardo Gomes-Filho, Luciana Louzada Ferreira, Edilson Ervolino, André Luiz Fraga Briso, Gustavo Sivieri-Araújo, Eloi Dezan-Júnior, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra
      Objective This study provides an in vivo evaluation of the inflammatory response, levels of cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the presence of necrosis after dental bleaching with two concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Design Wistar rats were divided into Control (placebo gel), BLUE (20% H2O2, 1×50min), and MAXX (35% H2O2, 3×15min) groups. At 2 and 30days, the rats were killed (n=10). The jaws were processed for histology analysis and PCNA and Caspase-3-cleaved immunohistochemistry, and data were submitted to the Mann-Whitney or ANOVA test (P <0.05). Results At 2days, the MAXX group showed necrosis and the BLUE group revealed moderate inflammation on the occlusal third of the crown (P< 0.05). At 30days, tertiary dentin had formed and there was an absence of inflammation. The level of cell proliferation was higher in the middle third of the BLUE group (P< 0.05), and cervical of MAXX at 2days (P< 0.05), decreasing at 30days. The apoptosis was present at 2days, particularly in the cervical third of the crown in the bleached groups (P <0.05), with a decrease only at 30days in the BLUE group (P <0.05). Conclusions The concentration of H2O2 influences effects on the pulp tissue, where a higher concentration of H2O2 can cause necrosis in the pulp and a prolonged effect within the apoptotic process; lower concentrations of H2O2 provide moderate inflammation, cell proliferation and apoptosis with a reduction of these processes over time.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:10:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Isolation and characterization of lymphoid enhancer factor-1-positive
           deciduous dental pulp stem-like cells after transfection with a piggyBac
           vector containing LEF1 promoter-driven selection markers
    • Authors: Tomoya Murakami; Issei Saitoh; Masahiro Sato; Emi Inada; Miki Soda; Masataka Oda; Hisanori Domon; Yoko Iwase; Tadashi Sawami; Kazunari Matsueda; Yutaka Terao; Hayato Ohshima; Hirofumi Noguchi; Haruaki Hayasaki
      Pages: 110 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Tomoya Murakami, Issei Saitoh, Masahiro Sato, Emi Inada, Miki Soda, Masataka Oda, Hisanori Domon, Yoko Iwase, Tadashi Sawami, Kazunari Matsueda, Yutaka Terao, Hayato Ohshima, Hirofumi Noguchi, Haruaki Hayasaki
      Objective Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (LEF1) is a 48-kD nuclear protein that is expressed in pre-B and T cells. LEF1 is also an important member of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway that plays important roles in the self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. We speculated that LEF1 might function in the stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). In this study, we attempted to isolate such LEF1-positive cells from human deciduous dental pulp cells (HDDPCs) by genetic engineering technology, using the human LEF1 promoter. Design A piggyBac transposon plasmid (pTA-LEN) was introduced into HDDPCs, using the Neon® transfection system. After G418 selection, the emerging colonies were assessed for EGFP-derived fluorescence by fluorescence microscopy. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed using RNA isolated from these colonies to examine stem cell-specific transcript expression. Osteoblastic or neuronal differentiation was induced by cultivating the LEF1-positive cells with differentiation-inducing medium. Results RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of several stem cell markers, including OCT3/4, SOX2, REX1, and NANOG, in LEF1-positive HDDPCs, which could be differentiated into osteoblasts and neuronal cells. Conclusions The isolated LEF1-positive HDDPCs exhibited the properties of stem cells, suggesting that LEF1 might serve as a marker for SHED.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:10:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.033
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Extracellular ATP is a key modulator of alveolar bone loss in
    • Authors: Itzhak Binderman; Nasir Gadban; Avinoam Yaffe
      Pages: 131 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Itzhak Binderman, Nasir Gadban, Avinoam Yaffe
      Periodontal diseases are initiated by pathogenic bacterial biofilm activity that induces a host inflammatory cells immune response, degradation of dento gingival fibrous tissue and its detachment from root cementum. It is well accepted, that osteoclastic alveolar bone loss is governed exclusively through secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that once degradation of collagen fibers by MMPs occurs, a drop of cellular strains cause immediate release of ATP from marginal gingival fibroblasts, cell deformation and influx of Ca+2. Increased extracellular ATP (eATP) by interacting with P2×7 purinoreceptors, present on fibroblasts and osteoblasts, induces generation of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL) that further activates osteoclastic alveolar bone resorption and bone loss. In addition, increased eATP levels may amplify inflammation by promoting leukocyte recruitment and NALP3-inflammasome activation via P2×7. Then, the inflammatory cells secrete cytokines, interleukin IL-1, TNF and RANKL that further trigger alveolar bone resorption. Moreover, eATP can be secreted from periodontal bacteria that may further contribute to inflammation and bone loss in periodontitis. It seems therefore, that eATP is a key modulator that initiates the pathway of alveolar bone resorption and bone loss in patients with periodontal disease. In conclusion, we propose that strain release in gingival fibroblasts aligned on collagen fibers, due to activity of MMP, activates release of ATP that triggers the pathway of alveolar bone resorption in periodontitis. We predict that by controlling the eATP interaction with its cellular purinoreceptors will reduce significantly bone loss in periodontitis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T03:44:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Hyperlipidemia is involved in apoptosis in rat submandibular glands
    • Authors: Koichiro Irie; Takaaki Tomofuji; Daisuke Ekuni; Tetsuji Azuma; Toshiki Yoneda; Yoshihiro Shimazaki; Manabu Morita
      Pages: 136 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Koichiro Irie, Takaaki Tomofuji, Daisuke Ekuni, Tetsuji Azuma, Toshiki Yoneda, Yoshihiro Shimazaki, Manabu Morita
      Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperlipidemia on histological changes and apoptosis in submandibular glands using apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient rats. Design Histopathological findings related to induced apoptosis in the submandibular glands were compared between apoE-deficient rats (n=6; male; age, 16 weeks) and the corresponding wild-type rats (n=6). Results ApoE-deficient rats showed significantly higher plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, very LDL and LDL, and lower plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein when compared to control rats (P< 0.05). Lipid deposition in the submandibular gland was observed in apoE-deficient rat group and in none of the control group. Significant increases in vacuolization and apoptosis in acinar cells were observed in apoE-deficient rats, as compared to control rats (P <0.05). The number of active caspase-3-positive cells was also higher in the apoE-deficient rat group when compared with the control group (P <0.01). Conclusions According to our results, hyperlipidemia induced apoptosis in apoE-deficient rat submandibular glands. Oxidized LDL generation in case of hyperlipidemia may trigger off a reaction of apoptotic acinar cells with vacuolization in the submandibular glands.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T03:44:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Maintenance of claudin-3 expression and the barrier functions of
           intercellular junctions in parotid acinar cells via the inhibition of Src
    • Authors: Megumi Yokoyama; Takanori Narita; Hajime Sakurai; Osamu Katsumata-Kato; Hiroshi Sugiya; Junko Fujita-Yoshigaki
      Pages: 141 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Megumi Yokoyama, Takanori Narita, Hajime Sakurai, Osamu Katsumata-Kato, Hiroshi Sugiya, Junko Fujita-Yoshigaki
      Objectives Salivary acinar and duct cells show different expression patterns of claudins, which may reflect their different functions. To study the role of claudins in saliva secretion, we examined alterations in the expression patterns of cell adhesion molecules in parotid glands of γ-irradiated rats and analyzed the influence of those changes on intercellular barrier function using primary cultures of parotid acinar cells. Design Rats were γ-irradiated with doses of 5, 15 or 20Gy, and expression levels of cell adhesion molecules were examined by immunoblotting analysis. Acinar cells were isolated from parotid glands and were cultured in the absence or presence of the Src kinase inhibitor PP1. Changes in protein and mRNA expression patterns were determined by immunoblotting and by RT-PCR analyses, respectively. Intercellular barrier function was examined by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance and the paracellular flux of FITC-dextran. Results In irradiated parotid glands, the expression of claudin-4 was enhanced at 15Gy or higher, levels that induce the hyposecretion of saliva, although that increase was transient. At 30days after irradiation, expression levels of cell adhesion molecules were decreased. In primary cultures, the expression of claudin-4 was also increased transiently but the expression of claudin-3 and E-cadherin was decreased. The barrier function of tight junctions was disrupted although the localization of occludin was maintained. The Src kinase inhibitor PP1 suppressed those changes in gene expression and retained the intercellular barrier function. Conclusions These results suggest that the inhibition of Src signaling maintains the barrier functions of intercellular junctions in salivary glands, which can be lost due to tissue injury.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T03:44:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Effect of follicular dendritic cell secreted protein on gene expression of
           human periodontal ligament cells
    • Authors: Lin Xiang; Na Xin; Ying Yuan; Xiaogang Hou; Junwei Chen; Na Wei; Ping Gong
      Pages: 151 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 81
      Author(s): Lin Xiang, Na Xin, Ying Yuan, Xiaogang Hou, Junwei Chen, Na Wei, Ping Gong
      Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the specific roles of follicular dendritic cell secreted protein (FDC-SP), a protein exists in saliva, in the inhibition of calcium precipitation during periodontal regeneration, as well as affect phenotype expression of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) during the differentiation process. Design To investigate this, we applied microarray technology to identify gene expression changes in hPDLCs transfected with FDC-SP and then clustered them according to their biological functions. Results One hundred seventy-one genes were found differentially expressed by at least two-fold between FDC-SP -transfected and empty vector-transfected cells. Besides, genes encoding cell-cycle proteins, blood-related and cell differentiation-related proteins tended to be up-regulated after FDC-SP transfection, whereas cytokine/growth factors, signal transduction and metabolism-related genes tended to be down-regulated in hPDLCs overexpression FDC-SP. Conclusions The present study investigated FDC-SP’s roles in hPDLCs’ phenotype expression, via comparing the gene expression profiles between FDC-SP -transfected hPDLCs and empty vector-transfected cells upon microarray analysis. hPDLCs overexpression FDC-SP appear to display different gene expression patterns. In all, these observations showed a potential of FDC-SP in the maintenance of PDL homeostasis and its ultimate contribution to periodontal would-healing processes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T03:44:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2017)
  • Operculina turpethum extract inhibits growth and proliferation by
           inhibiting NF-κB, COX-2 and cyclin D1 and induces apoptosis by up
           regulating P53 in oral cancer cells
    • Authors: Ritu Arora; Vijaya Bharti; Poonam Gaur; Sadhna Aggarwal; Manasi Mittal; Satya N. Das
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Ritu Arora, Vijaya Bharti, Poonam Gaur, Sadhna Aggarwal, Manasi Mittal, Satya N. Das
      Objectives Herbal drugs are popularly emerging as complementary and alternative medicines in cancer patients because of their cost effectiveness and minimal side-effects. The extract of Operculina turpethum (OT) is known to have antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and purgative properties. Since it is popularly known have antiinflammatory activity, we investigated its anti-tumor activity on four oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (OSCC) namely, (SCC-4, KB, SCC-9 and SCC-25). Design Antitumor activities of Operculina turpathum extract (OTE) was investigated by MTT and clonogenic assay, effect on cell cycle and apoptosis induction by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry and invasive potential of the tumor was determined by matrigel assay. The expression of various proteins involved in these mechanisms was analysed by western blotting. Results OTE specifically inhibited the growth and colony formation of OSCC cells in a dose-dependent manner via inhibiting NF-κB and its downstream target COX-2. It further arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase by inhibiting cyclin-D1 and induced early apoptosis by up-regulating P53 in OSCC cells. It also limits the invasion capacity of OSCC cells by up to 55–60%. Conclusions OTE shows antitumor activities in OSCC cells by inhibiting NF-κB, COX-2 and cyclin D1 and upregulation of p53 expression. It may be developed as a safe and promising alternative chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent for oral cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T02:14:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Mechanical mandible competence in rats with nutritional growth retardation
    • Authors: Christian Esteban Lezón; Patricia Mabel Pintos; Clarisa Bozzini; Alan Agüero Romero; Patricia Casavalle; Silvia María Friedman; Patricia Mónica Boyer
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Christian Esteban Lezón, Patricia Mabel Pintos, Clarisa Bozzini, Alan Agüero Romero, Patricia Casavalle, Silvia María Friedman, Patricia Mónica Boyer
      Objective In order to provide a better understanding of the sympathetic nervous system as a negative regulator of bone status, the aim of the study was to establish the biomechanical mandible response to different doses of a β-adrenergic antagonist such as propranolol (P) in a stress-induced food restriction model of growth retardation. Methods Rats were assigned to eight groups: Control (C), C+P3.5 (CP3.5), C+P7 (CP7), C+P14 (CP14), NGR, NGR+P3.5 (NGRP3.5), NGR+P7 (NGRP7) and NGR+P14 (NGRP14). C, CP3.5, CP7 and CP14 rats were freely fed with the standard diet. NGR, NGRP3.5, NGRP7 and NGRP14 rats received, for 4 weeks (W4), 80% of the amount of controls food consumed. Propranolol 3.5, 7 and 14mg/kg/day was injected ip 5days per week in CP3.5 and NGRP3.5, CP7 and NGRP7, CP14 and NGRP14, respectively. At W4, zoometry, mandible morphometry, static histomorphometric and biomechanical competence were performed. Results A dose of Propranolol 7mg/kg/day induced interradicular bone volume accretion reaching a mandible stiffness according to chronological age. Conclusion These findings evidenced that sympathetic nervous system activity is a negative regulator of mandible mechanical competence in the nutritional growth retardation model. Propranolol 7mg/kg/day, under the regimen usage, seems to be appropriate to blockade SNS activity on mandible mechanical performance in NGR rats, probably associated to an effect on bone mechanostat system ability to detect disuse mode as an error.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:20:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Efficacy of a mouthrinse based on hydroxyapatite to reduce initial
           bacterial colonisation in situ
    • Authors: A. Kensche; C. Holder; S. Basche; N. Tahan; C. Hannig; M. Hannig
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): A. Kensche, C. Holder, S. Basche, N. Tahan, C. Hannig, M. Hannig
      Objective The present in situ - investigation aimed to specify the impact of pure hydroxyapatite microclusters on initial bioadhesion and bacterial colonization at the tooth surface. Design Pellicle formation was carried out in situ on bovine enamel slabs (9 subjects). After 1min of pellicle formation rinses with 8ml of hydroxyapatite (HA) microclusters (5%) in bidestilled water or chlorhexidine 0.2% were performed. As negative control no rinse was adopted. In situ biofilm formation was promoted by the intraoral slab exposure for 8h overnight. Afterwards initial bacterial adhesion was quantified by DAPI staining and bacterial viability was determined in vivo/in vitro by live/dead-staining (BacLight). SEM analysis evaluated the efficacy of the mouthrinse to accumulate hydroxyapatite microclusters at the specimens’ surface and spit-out samples of the testsolution were investigated by TEM. Results Compared to the control (2.36×106 ±2.01×106 bacteria/cm2), significantly reduced amounts of adherent bacteria were detected on specimens rinsed with chlorhexidine 0.2% (8.73×104 ±1.37×105 bacteria/cm2) and likewise after rinses with the hydroxyapatite testsolution (2.08×105 ±2.85×105 bacteria/cm2, p <0.001). No demonstrable effect of HA-particles on Streptococcus mutans viability could be shown. SEM analysis confirmed the temporary adsorption of hydroxyapatite microclusters at the tooth surface. Adhesive interactions of HA-particles with oral bacteria were shown by TEM. Conclusion Hydroxyapatite microclusters reduced initial bacterial adhesion to enamel in situ considerably and could therefore sensibly supplement current approaches in dental prophylaxis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:20:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Effect of iRoot SP and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on the viability
           and polarization of macrophages
    • Authors: Xiaodan Zhu; Zhenglin Yuan; Ping Yan; Yuhong Li; Han Jiang; Shengfu Huang
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Xiaodan Zhu, Zhenglin Yuan, Ping Yan, Yuhong Li, Han Jiang, Shengfu Huang
      Objective This study was performed to investigate the effect of iRoot SP and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on the viability and polarization of macrophages. Methods The effect of iRoot SP and MTA on the viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after 1 and 2days of culture. The gene expression levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 12p40 (IL-12p40) were measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after stimulation of the RAW 264.7 macrophages with iRoot SP and MTA. The expression levels of CD11c and CD206 in RAW 264.7 macrophages were examined by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry after stimulation with iRoot SP and MTA. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test. Results Both iRoot SP and MTA were non-toxic to the RAW 264.7 macrophages. The use of iRoot SP and MTA increased the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12p40 on the first day of culture and could promote macrophage M1 and M2 polarization. Conclusions MTA and iRoot SP have good biocompatibility with macrophages, and they induced both M1 and M2 polarization of the RAW 264.7 macrophages.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:20:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Enhanced osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem
           cells on titanium substrates by inhibiting Notch3
    • Authors: Huiming Wang; Zhiwei Jiang; Jing Zhang; Zhijian Xie; Ying Wang; Guoli Yang
      Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Huiming Wang, Zhiwei Jiang, Jing Zhang, Zhijian Xie, Ying Wang, Guoli Yang
      Objective The role of the Notch pathway has already been identified as a crucial regulator of bone development. However, the Notch signaling pathway has gone largely unexplored during osseointegration. This study aims to investigate the role of Notch signaling on osteogenic differentiation of rat derived bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) treated Ti disks. Methods The involved target genes in Notch pathways were identified by in vitro microarray and bioinformatics analyses with or without osteogenic induction. Adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic related assay were subsequently conducted with target gene shRNA treatment. Results We found that 11 genes in the Notch signaling pathway were differentially expressed after osteogenic induction on SLA-treated Ti disks, which included up-regulated genes (Notch2, Dll1, Dll3, Ncstn, Ncor2, and Hes5) and down-regulated genes (Notch3, Lfng, Mfng, Jag2 and Maml2). With Notch3 shRNA treatment, the adhesion and proliferation of BMSCs on SLA-treated Ti disks were inhibited. Moreover, the expression levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), calcium deposition, BMP2 and Runx2 increased significantly compared with that observed in control groups, suggesting that the function of Notch3 was inhibitory in the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs on SLA-treated titanium. Conclusions Inhibition Notch3 can enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs on SLA-treated Ti disks, which potentially provides a gene target for improving osseointegration.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:20:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • De novo synthetic short antimicrobial peptides against cariogenic bacteria
    • Authors: Yufei Wang; Yingying Fan; Zhengli Zhou; Huanxin Tu; Qian Ren; Xiuqing Wang; Longjiang Ding; Xuedong Zhou; Linglin Zhang
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Yufei Wang, Yingying Fan, Zhengli Zhou, Huanxin Tu, Qian Ren, Xiuqing Wang, Longjiang Ding, Xuedong Zhou, Linglin Zhang
      Objective Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown the ability to inhibit planktonic bacteria and biofilms. The objectives of this study were to de novo design and synthesize a series of cationic, amphipathic α-helical AMPs that would be shorter, less cytotoxic, and more potent than existing AMPs against cariogenic bacteria. Design Three short AMPs (GH8, GLLWHLLH-NH2; GH12, GLLWHLLHHLLH-NH2; and GH16, GLLWHLLHHLLHLLHH-NH2) were designed, synthesized and characterized structurally. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against eight major cariogenic bacteria were tested to select the most promising peptide. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the bacterial membrane after treatment with selected peptides. The bactericidal kinetics, effects on biofilm and cytotoxity were further investigated. Results Of the three AMPs, GH12 had the most balanced structural parameters and a high content of α-helical structure. GH12 had a MIC of 4.0-8.0μg/mL and MBC of 8.0-32.0μg/mL. The corresponding values for the other two AMPs were 2- to 64- fold higher. In time-kill assays, GH12 killed all bacterial strains within 60min at 4- fold MBC. SEM observed lysis and pore formation of the cytomembrane after treatment with GH12. 8.0μg/mL GH12 inhibited Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that GH12 effectively reduced the biomass of 1-day-old S. mutans biofilm. Cytotoxicity assays indicated that GH12 showed little toxic effect on the viability of human gingival fibroblasts. Conclusion These results indicate that GH12 shows antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria and biofilms in vitro.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:20:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Correlation between numbers of cells in human dental pulp and age:
           Implications for age estimation
    • Authors: Mohammad Zakir Hossain; Sulinda Daud; Phrabhakaran Nambiar; Fathilah Abdul Razak; Norintan Ab-Murat; Roslan Saub; Marina M. Bakri
      Pages: 51 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Mohammad Zakir Hossain, Sulinda Daud, Phrabhakaran Nambiar, Fathilah Abdul Razak, Norintan Ab-Murat, Roslan Saub, Marina M. Bakri
      Objective The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between dental pulp cell count of odontoblasts, subodontoblasts and fibroblasts and age, within different age groups. Formulation of regression equations using the dental pulp cell count for predicting age was attempted. Design Eighty-one extracted teeth were grouped into two age groups (6–25 years, 26–80 years). The teeth were demineralized and histological sections were prepared for cell count. Regression equations were generated from regression analysis of cell count and tested for age estimation. Results The number of dental pulp cells were found to increase until around the third decade of life and following this, the odontoblasts and subodontoblasts cell numbers began to decline while the fibroblasts seemed to remain almost stationary. The Pearson correlation test revealed a significant positive correlation between the cell number for all type of cells and age in the 6–25 years group (r=+0.791 for odontoblasts, r=+0.600 for subodontoblasts and r=+0.680 for fibroblasts). In the 26–80 years age group, a significant negative correlation of the odontoblasts (r=−0.777) and subodontoblasts (r=−0.715) with age was observed but for fibroblasts, the correlation value was negligible (r=−0.165). Regression equations generated using odontoblasts and subodontoblasts cell number were applicable for age estimation. The standard error of estimates (SEEs) were around±5years for 6–25 years and±8years for 26–80 years age groups. The mean values of the estimated and chronological ages were not significantly different. Conclusions A significant correlation between the cell count of odontoblasts and subodontoblasts with age was demonstrated. Regression equations using odontoblasts and subodontoblasts cell number can be used to predict age with some limitations.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:20:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • RNA isolation from alveolar bone and gene expression analysis of RANK,
           RANKL and OPG: A new tool to monitor bone remodeling and healing in
           different bone substitutes used for prosthetic rehabilitation
    • Authors: Elena Canciani; Claudia Dellavia; Monica Gioia Marazzi; Davide Augusti; Daniela Carmagnola; Elena Vianello; Luigi Canullo; Emanuela Galliera
      Pages: 56 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Elena Canciani, Claudia Dellavia, Monica Gioia Marazzi, Davide Augusti, Daniela Carmagnola, Elena Vianello, Luigi Canullo, Emanuela Galliera
      Objective (i) To validate a simple and efficient method for extracting high quality RNA from small samples of bone tissue, (ii) to test its application on limited amounts of grafted oral bone and (iii) to analyze the gene expression of the OPG/RANK/RANKL system and IL-6 in “spontaneous healing” and grafted tissue. Design 26 patients in need of extraction of one lower molar tooth were divided in 3 groups. In group A (8 patients) the alveolar socket was left for spontaneous healing, in group B (8 patients) it was filled with a hydroxyapatite scaffold while in group C (10 patients) it was filled with hydroxyapatite granules. A small amount of bone was scraped from the alveolar site and sent for analysis. Four months later a new bone specimen was harvested during implant bed preparation. Results IL-6 increased over time in all groups and in particular to the grafted groups. RANK, RANKL and OPG increased over time in all groups, except for RANK in group B. The RANKL/OPG ratio showed a negative value in group A and even more in group B, while it was positive in group C. Conclusions The alveolar site grafted with a granular biomaterial behaved similar to the physiological healing group but displayed a slow remodeling process. RANK, RANKL, OPG and the RANKL/OPG ratio might be able to distinguish among different biomaterials and represent different healing patterns according to different clinical conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:20:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Effects of two wattages of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth
    • Authors: M. Milligan; Y. Arudchelvan; S.-G. Gong
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): M. Milligan, Y. Arudchelvan, S.-G. Gong
      Introduction Mixed outcomes have been found in animal and clinical studies with regard to the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as a modality to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). One major reason for the variable findings is the different methodologies and protocols for laser therapy use. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether orthodontically moved molars exposed to two different wattages at the same energy density of LLLT exhibited differences in the amount of tooth movement and molecular and histological changes in the adjacent periodontal areas. Methods An orthodontic force was applied to rat upper first molars exposed to 500mW (EX-500) and 1000mW (EX-1000) of laser application, with a control group (CT) with no laser application. Gene expression in the periodontal ligament (PDL) and histology of the palatal gingiva of the molars were analyzed. Results There was a statistically significant difference for OTM between EX-500 but not between EX-1000 and CT groups. RANKL and MMP-13 expression levels in the PDL of orthodontically moved molars, however, were increased significantly in laser-exposed groups compared to CT. Early signs of dysplasia were observed in over half of the animals in the EX-1000 group. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for molecular changes and the potential dysplastic effects of laser on the surrounding soft tissues. Further studies are needed to better identify an optimum laser protocol to maximize the desired effect.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T02:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • BiteStrip analysis of the effect of fluoxetine and paroxetine on sleep
    • Authors: M. Isa Kara; Elif Tarım Ertaş; Emrullah Ozen; Meral Atıcı; Selami Aksoy; Muharrem Serif Erdogan; Seyfi Kelebek
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): M. Isa Kara, Elif Tarım Ertaş, Emrullah Ozen, Meral Atıcı, Selami Aksoy, Muharrem Serif Erdogan, Seyfi Kelebek
      Objective The relationship between sleep bruxism (SB) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is still under debate because of the lack of well-designed objective studies. The current study investigates possible effects of SSRIs, fluoxetine, and paroxetine on SB in patients with anxiety and depression. Materials and methods Thirty users of SSRIs for treatment of depression or anxiety were enrolled in the study. After clinical and anamnestic examination, 15 fluoxetine and 15 paroxetine users were included. For an objective evaluation of SB, a single-use disposable home screening device, BiteStrip, was used prior to the first SSRI intake and was repeated on the 7th and 15th days. Patients’ self-reported data also were obtained for assessment of patient awareness. Results BiteStrip scores were significantly higher on the 7th and 15th days than the first measurement (p<0.01). There was an increase in 26 (86.6%) patients’ bruxism scores on the 7th day. There was also an increase in 27 (90%) patients’ bruxism scores on the 15th day. But according to patients’ self-reports, only 6 patients had an awareness that bruxism symptoms were initiated or exacerbated 15days after starting fluoxetine or paroxetine. Conclusion Fluoxetine and paroxetine, SSRIs used for the treatment of anxiety and depression, may initiate or aggravate SB. Clinicians should consider that SSRIs may be the cause of SB when SSRI users are referred to dental clinics for SB symptoms. As there is a shortage of researches on this subject, further studies are necessary to confirm the existence of SSRI-induced SB.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T02:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • The association of Enamelin, Lactoferrin, and Tumour necrosis factor alpha
           gene polymorphisms with high caries susceptibility in Chinese children
           under 4 years old
    • Authors: Mengchen Wang; Man Qin; Bin Xia
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Mengchen Wang, Man Qin, Bin Xia
      Objective The aim of this study was to assess the role of ENAM rs3796703, LTF rs1126478, and TNF-α rs1800629 in high caries susceptibility. Design The present case–control study included 1005 unrelated children under 4 years old: 505 with severe caries (dmft index ≥4) and 500 who were caries-free (dmft index=0 and without white-spot lesions). Questionnaires were obtained from parents and gardians about the children’s diet and oral behavioural habits. All the children received dental examinations and oral swabbing for human genomic DNA collection. ENAM rs3796703, LTF rs1126478, and TNF-α rs1800629 were genotyped by Sanger sequencing. Results The frequency of the ENAM rs3796703T allele (6.7% in the caries group and 4.2% in the caries-free group), CT genotype (12.7% in the caries group and 8.4% in the caries-free group), TNF-α rs1800629 A allele (4.8% in the caries group and 6.8% in the caries-free group), and AG genotype (8.7% in the caries group and 13.2% in the caries-free group) were significantly different between the caries and caries-free groups (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in the LTF rs1126478 allele frequency and genotype distribution between the two groups. The ENAM rs3796703 CT genotype increased caries susceptibility by 60.9% compared to the CC genotype (β=0.746, OR=1.609), and the TNF-α rs1800629 AG genotype reduced caries susceptibility by 47.4% compared to the GG genotype (β=−0.642, OR=0.526). In terms of habits covariates, prolongation of night feeding time by 1 month increased caries susceptibility by 3.3% (β=0.033, OR=1.033); additionally, sweets and acidic drinks consumption 1–2 times per day increased caries susceptibility by 218.2% (β=1.158, OR=3.182), and consumption 3 or more times pe/r day increased susceptibility by 883.5% (β=2.286, OR=9.835) compared to non-consumption. Topical fluoride application decreased caries susceptibility by 43.0% (β=−0.562, OR=0.570). Conclusions The ENAM and TNF-α genes are likely associated with caries experience in Chinese children. The ENAM rs3796703 CT genotype might be involved in caries susceptibility, while TNF-α rs1800629 AG genotype might be involved in caries protection.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T02:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Development of medial pterygoid muscle fibers in rabbits fed with a liquid
    • Authors: Kozue Kuroki; Takumi Morita; Hiroki Takasu; Keisuke Saito; Takuya Fujiwara; Katsunari Hiraba; Shigemi Goto
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Kozue Kuroki, Takumi Morita, Hiroki Takasu, Keisuke Saito, Takuya Fujiwara, Katsunari Hiraba, Shigemi Goto
      Objective This study aimed to investigate the influence of decreased functional load on the medial pterygoid muscle during mastication in rabbits fed with a liquid-diet. Materials and Methods Medial pterygoid muscles from 54 rabbits (solid- and liquid-diet groups, n =48; unweaned group, n =6) were histochemically examined at 4, 9, 12, 18, and 33 weeks after birth. Six fiber types (I, IC, IIC, IIA, IIAB, and IIB) were distinguished via mATPase staining. Results Significant increases in the diameters of all fiber types were seen up to 33 weeks of age in the solid-diet group; however, no significant increase was noted in fiber types I and IC, from 4 to 33 weeks of age, in the liquid-diet group. The proportion of slow fibers increased up to 12 weeks followed by an increase in the number of fast fibers in the solid-diet group, whereas in the liquid-diet group, the number of slow fiber declined after weaning. Conclusions Liquid-diet consumption caused muscle fiber atrophy and an increase in the number of fast fibers during early developmental stages after weaning. Furthermore, the growth pattern of the medial pterygoid muscle in the liquid-diet group was different from that in the solid-diet group.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T02:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Evaluation of the effect of tacrolimus on periodontitis induced in rats
    • Authors: Luiz Alexandre Moura Penteado; Gilmara Medeiros Lucena; Marcílio Otávio Brandão Peixoto; Thiago Correia Barbosa; Ana Carolina de Souza Leitão Arruda; Renata Cimões
      Pages: 89 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Luiz Alexandre Moura Penteado, Gilmara Medeiros Lucena, Marcílio Otávio Brandão Peixoto, Thiago Correia Barbosa, Ana Carolina de Souza Leitão Arruda, Renata Cimões
      Objective This study was to investigate the effect of tacrolimus (FK506) on periodontitis induced in rats. Design Periodontal disease was induced in 30 Wistar rats which were then randomly divided into two groups: treatment with a daily injection of 0.9% saline (1mL/day) and treatment with a daily injection of FK506. After periods of 10, 15 and 30days the animals were killed and separate radiographs of the right and left hemimandibles were obtained. One calibrated examiner measured the periodontal bone support (PBS) in the images, after the following treatments: S, saline without ligature; SL, saline with ligature; T, FK506 without ligature; TL, FK506 with ligature. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test (p <0.01). Results The radiographic results were similar at all evaluation time points. The S treatment had a higher PBS averaging at 10, 15 and 30days, which was statistically significant different compared with the SL treatment and TL treatment, but not significantly different from the T treatment. The SL and TL treatments showed no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions Tacrolimus used for up to 30days showed no protective or aggravating effects on alveolar bone loss.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T02:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces RAGE-mediated inflammation in the
           Ca9-22 gingival carcinoma epithelial cell line
    • Authors: Nolan T. Sanders; Derek J. Dutson; Justin W. Durrant; Joshua B. Lewis; Shalene H. Wilcox; Duane R. Winden; Juan A. Arroyo; Benjamin T. Bikman; Paul R. Reynolds
      Pages: 95 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Nolan T. Sanders, Derek J. Dutson, Justin W. Durrant, Joshua B. Lewis, Shalene H. Wilcox, Duane R. Winden, Juan A. Arroyo, Benjamin T. Bikman, Paul R. Reynolds
      Objective The oral environment is anatomically positioned as a significant gateway for exposure to environmental toxicants. Cigarette smoke exposure compromises oral health by orchestrating inflammation. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been implicated in smoke-induced inflammatory effects; however, its role in the oral cavity is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine RAGE expression by immortalized gingival carcinoma cells and the degree to which RAGE-mediated signaling influences inflammation. Design Gingival epithelia cells (Ca9-22) were exposed to 10% cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for six hours and screened for RAGE expression and inflammatory mediators. Results Quantitative PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased RAGE expression following exposure. Furthermore, exposure activated RAGE signaling intermediates including Ras and NF-κB. IL-6 and IL-1β were also elevated in cell culture medium from CSE-exposed cells when compared to controls. A family of anionic, partially lipophilic sulfated polysaccharide derivatives known as semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ethers (SAGEs) were used in an effort to block RAGE signaling. Co-treatment of CSE and SAGEs ameliorated inflammatory responses. Conclusions These results provide a new perspective on a mechanism of cigarette smoke induced oral inflammation. Further work may show RAGE signaling as a potential target in the treatment of diseases of the oral cavity exacerbated by tobacco smoke exposure.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T02:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Dexamethasone promotes regeneration of crushed inferior alveolar nerve by
           inhibiting NF-κB activation in adult rats
    • Authors: Wei Gao; Dongdong Tong; Qing Li; Ping Huang; Fenghe Zhang
      Pages: 101 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Wei Gao, Dongdong Tong, Qing Li, Ping Huang, Fenghe Zhang
      Purpose Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which is closely related to inflammation, has become a topic of interest for research. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dexamethasone (Dex), an inhibitor of NF-κB, on inferior alveolar nerve injury in adult rats. Materials and methods The crushed inferior alveolar model is established in Wistar rats and they are randomly divided into three groups according to treatment: pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), dexamethasone (Dex), and saline (physiological saline). After treatment, the rats are respectively sacrificed at 3, 7, and 14d, and inferior alveolar nerves are extracted for histochemical and western blot analysis. Result Compared with the PDTC and saline groups, nerve fibers in the Dex group are regularly arranged with few vacuoles, which is similar to normal inferior alveolar nerves. Immunofluorescent results show significantly decreased NF-κB expression in the Dex group. Western bolt shows higher expression of GAP-43 and lower expression of NF-κB. Conclusion Taken together, all results show that dexamethasone significantly improved the regeneration of crushed inferior alveolar nerves by inhibiting NF-κB activation in adult rats.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T02:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Overexpression and varied clinical significance of Th9 versus Th17 cells
           in distinct subtypes of oral lichen planus
    • Authors: Hui Wang; Jingping Bai; Zhenhua Luo; Jie Fu; Hongjian Wang; Zheng Sun
      Pages: 110 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Hui Wang, Jingping Bai, Zhenhua Luo, Jie Fu, Hongjian Wang, Zheng Sun
      Objective Oral lichen planus (OLP) presents with large numbers of T lymphocytes accumulating beneath the epithelium of the oral mucosa; however, its aetiology remains obscure. A potential role for an emerging novel T cell subset, Th9, in OLP has recently been suggested but remains to be clarified. The current aim was to investigate the expression and potential clinical significance of Th9 cells in distinct subtypes of OLP. Materials and methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 41 OLP patients and 18 healthy controls (HCs). Flow cytometric analysis was used to detect the CD4+ T helper subset Th9 (IL-9+IL-17−CD4+ Th cells) and Th17 (IL-9−IL-17+CD4+ Th cells) expression levels. Results Flow cytometry results showed significantly elevated levels of Th9 cells in reticular and erosive OLP compared to HCs. Th9 expression in erosive OLP was less than in reticular OLP, indicating that Th9 but not Th17 cells may play a predominant role in reticular disease. However, in erosive OLP patients, we found much higher levels of Th17 cells compared to reticular OLP patients and HCs, indicating that Th17 dominates in erosive OLP. Statistical analysis showed positive correlations of Th9 cells and Th17 cells in patients with reticular or erosive OLP but none in HCs. Conclusions Th9 and Th17 cells may take the predominant roles in reticular and erosive OLP respectively, and their numbers were positively correlated in reticular and erosive OLP patients. Elevated circulating Th9 cells may help maintain immune balance in OLP immunopathogenesis, which requires further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T02:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Hypermethylation of Death-Associated Protein Kinase (DAPK1) and its
           association with oral carcinogenesis - An experimental and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Chinchu Jayaprakash; Vinay Koshy Varghese; Ravishankara Bellampalli; Raghu Radhakrishnan; Satadru Ray; Shama Prasada Kabekkodu; Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
      Pages: 117 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Chinchu Jayaprakash, Vinay Koshy Varghese, Ravishankara Bellampalli, Raghu Radhakrishnan, Satadru Ray, Shama Prasada Kabekkodu, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
      Objectives The value of abnormal DNA methylation of DAPK1 promoter and its association with various cancers have been suggested in the literature. To establish the significance of DNA methylation of DAPK1 promoter in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we a) performed a case-control study, b) evaluated published data for its utility in the diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC and c) identified the association of DAPK1 gene expression with promoter DNA methylation status. Design Bisulfite gene sequencing of DAPK1 promoter region was performed on non-malignant and malignant oral samples. Further, using a systematic search, 330 publications were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar and 11 relevant articles were identified. Results Significant association of DAPK1 promoter methylation with OSCC (p<0.0001) was observed in the case-control study. The studies chosen for meta-analysis showed prognostic and predictive significance of DAPK1 gene promoter, despite defined inconsistencies in few studies. Overall, we obtained a statistically significant (p-value<0.001) association for both sensitivity and specificity of DAPK1 DNA promoter methylation in oral cancer cases, without publication bias. Conclusion DNA hypermethylation of DAPK1 gene promoter is a promising biomarker for OSCC prediction/prognostics and suggests further validation in large distinct cohorts to facilitate translation to clinics.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T02:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Effects of different radiation doses on the microhardness, superficial
           morphology, and mineral components of human enamel
    • Authors: Sandra Ribeiro de Barros da Cunha; Felipe Paiva Fonseca; Pedro Augusto Minorin Mendes Ramos; Cecília Maria Kalil Haddad; Eduardo Rodrigues Fregnani; Ana Cecília Corrêa Aranha
      Pages: 130 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Sandra Ribeiro de Barros da Cunha, Felipe Paiva Fonseca, Pedro Augusto Minorin Mendes Ramos, Cecília Maria Kalil Haddad, Eduardo Rodrigues Fregnani, Ana Cecília Corrêa Aranha
      Objective To evaluate the effects of three different radiotherapy doses (20, 40, and 70Gy) on the microhardness, superficial morphology, and mineral content (based on Ca and P values) of three different depths of human enamel (cervical, middle, and occlusal). Design Thirty-four third molars were cut, separated, and prepared. Microhardness samples (n=30) were embedded in acrylic resin and then polished, and depths were delimited. Microhardness tests were performed on cervical, middle, and occlusal enamel pre- and post-radiotherapy with a load of 50g for 30s. For the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis (n=4) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (n=12), samples were fixed in a 3% glutaraldehyde solution, washed in 0.1M cacodylate solution, and dehydrated in crescent concentrations of ethanol. Microhardness data were tested for significant differences using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test (p <0.05), while SEM and EDS were evaluated qualitatively. Results The results showed a decrease in microhardness values only in the cervical enamel, regardless of the radiation dose used; no morphological or mineral change was observed. Conclusion Radiotherapy can affect the microhardness values of only cervical enamel without compromising the morphological or mineral (Ca and P) content at any depth.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T02:40:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Response of mandibular condyles of juvenile and adult rats to abnormal
           occlusion and subsequent exemption
    • Authors: Guang Zeng; Bin Kuang; Wen-xing Xun; Gao-tong Ren; Ke-wen Wei
      Pages: 136 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Guang Zeng, Bin Kuang, Wen-xing Xun, Gao-tong Ren, Ke-wen Wei
      Objective The adaptation capacities of the mandibular condyle in response to mechanical stimuli might be different between juveniles and adults, but has not been compared. This study aimed to investigate whether abnormal molar occlusion and subsequent molar extraction could lead to different remodeling responses in the mandibular condyles of juvenile and adult rats. Methods Abnormal molar occlusion (AMO) was established in the 5- and 16-wk old rats by moving their maxillary left and mandibular right third molars distally. AMO was removed in the molar extraction group at 4 weeks but remained in the AMO group. All rats were sacrificed at 8 weeks. Micro-computed tomography, histomorphology, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were adopted to evaluate the remodeling of condylar subchondral bone. Results Condylar subchondral bone loss and increased osteoclastic activities were observed in both juvenile and adult AMO groups, while increased osteoblastic activities were only seen in the juvenile AMO group. Decreased bone mineral density, bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness, but increased trabecular separation, number and surface of osteoclasts and mRNA levels of TRAP, cathepsin-K, RANKL in the juvenile AMO group were all reversed after molar extraction (all P<0.05). However, these parameters showed no difference between adult AMO and extraction groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions Abnormal molar occlusion led to degenerative remodeling in the mandibular condyles of both juvenile and adult rats, while exemption of abnormal occlusion caused significant rescue of the degenerative changes only in the juvenile rats.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T02:40:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • The mucosal pellicle – An underestimated factor in oral physiology
    • Authors: Christian Hannig; Matthias Hannig; Anna Kensche; Guy Carpenter
      Pages: 144 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Christian Hannig, Matthias Hannig, Anna Kensche, Guy Carpenter
      Bioadhesion and bio-adsorption of proteins, glycoproteins and other biomolecules are ubiquitous phenomena in the oral cavity. While the protective role of the adsorbed salivary biomolecules on teeth (the acquired enamel pellicle) is well established, it has yet to be defined whether comparable processes occur on the desquamating oral soft tissues. The general term for these layers is pellicle, but due to the different characteristics of the coated surfaces the enamel pellicle and mucosal pellicle are their own entities. There is considerable information on the enamel pellicle, whereas only limited data are available on the mucosal pellicle. This can be attributed to the difficult standardized preparation of this biological structure. Based on the present knowledge the abundant and characteristic components of the mucosal pellicle include secreted soluble mucins (MUC5B, MUC7), membrane-associated epithelial mucins (MUC1), and to a lesser degree CA VI, sIgA, and cystatin. However, it seems to be of completely different ultrastructure as compared with the enamel pellicle. Since it is comprised of larger glycoproteins retaining water, it might be considered as a hydrogel, and it appears to have a lower tenacity than the enamel pellicle. Maturation and turnover are influenced by the delivery of salivary proteins, by the flow of saliva and the underlying desquamating oral epithelium. Its probable functions include lubrication and moisture retention. In general, the mucosal pellicle can be regarded as an underestimated key player in oral physiology.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T02:40:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Lysophosphatidic acid induces expression of genes in human oral
           keratinocytes involved in wound healing
    • Authors: Hong Huynh Thorlakson; Stian Andre Engen; Olav Schreurs; Karl Schenck; Inger Johanne Schytte Blix
      Pages: 153 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Hong Huynh Thorlakson, Stian Andre Engen, Olav Schreurs, Karl Schenck, Inger Johanne Schytte Blix
      Objective Epithelial cells participate in wound healing by covering wounds, but also as important mediators of wound healing processes. Topical application of the phospholipid growth factor lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) accelerates dermal wound healing and we hypothesized that LPA can play a role in human oral wound healing through its effects on human oral keratinocytes (HOK). Design HOK were isolated from gingival biopsies and exposed to LPA. The LPA receptor profile, signal transduction pathways, gene expression and secretion of selected cytokines were analyzed. Results HOK expressed the receptors LPA1, LPA5 and LPA6 and LPA activated the ERK1/2, JNK and p38 intracellular pathways, substantiated by secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. The early (2h) and intermediate (6h) gene expression profiles of HOK after LPA treatment showed a wide array of regulated genes. The majority of the strongest upregulated genes were related to chemotaxis and inflammation, and became downregulated after 6h. At 6h, genes coding for factors involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and re-epithelialization became highly expressed. IL-36γ, not earlier known to be regulated by LPA, was strongly transcribed and translated but not secreted. Conclusions After stimulation with LPA, HOK responded by regulating factors and genes that are essential in wound healing processes. As LPA is found in saliva and is released by activated cells after wounding, our results indicate that LPA has a favorable physiological role in oral wound healing. This may further point towards a beneficial role for application of LPA on oral surgical or chronic wounds.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T02:40:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Lack of pathogenic mutations in SOS1 gene in phenytoin-induced gingival
           overgrowth patients
    • Authors: Katia Margiotti; Giulia Pascolini; Federica Consoli; Valentina Guida; Carlo Di Bonaventura; Anna Teresa Giallonardo; Antonio Pizzuti; Alessandro De Luca
      Pages: 160 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Katia Margiotti, Giulia Pascolini, Federica Consoli, Valentina Guida, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Anna Teresa Giallonardo, Antonio Pizzuti, Alessandro De Luca
      Objective Gingival overgrowth is a side effect associated with some distinct classes of drugs, such as anticonvulsants, immunosuppressants, and calcium channel blockers. One of the main drugs associated with gingival overgrowth is the antiepileptic phenytoin, which affects gingival tissues by altering extracellular matrix metabolism. It has been shown that mutation of human SOS1 gene is responsible for a rare hereditary gingival fibromatosis type 1, a benign gingival overgrowth. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible contribution of SOS1 mutation to gingival overgrowth-related phenotype. Design We selected and screened for mutations a group of 24 epileptic patients who experienced significant gingival overgrowth following phenytoin therapy. Mutation scanning was carried out by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the entire coding region of the SOS1 gene. Novel identified variants were analyzed in-silico by using Alamut Visual mutation interpretation software, and comparison with normal control group was done. Results Mutation scanning of the entire coding sequence of SOS1 gene identified seven intronic variants and one new exonic substitution (c.138G>A). The seven common intronic variants were not considered to be of pathogenic importance. The exonic substitution c.138G>A was found to be absent in 100 ethnically matched normal control chromosomes, but was not expected to have functional significance based on prediction bioinformatics tools. Conclusions This study represents the first mutation analysis of the SOS1 gene in phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth epileptic patients. Present results suggest that obvious pathogenic mutations in the SOS1 gene do not represent a common mechanism underlying phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in epileptic patients; other mechanisms are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of this drug-induced phenotype.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T02:40:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Depressive behavior induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress increases
           dentin hypersensitivity in rats
    • Authors: Fabiane Martins Barbosa; Danilo Cabral; Fernanda Kabadayan; Eduardo Fernandes Bondan; Maria de Fátima Monteiro Martins; Thiago Berti Kirsten; Leoni Villano Bonamin; Nicolle Queiroz-Hazarbassanov; Maria Martha Bernardi; Cintia Helena Coury Saraceni
      Pages: 164 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Fabiane Martins Barbosa, Danilo Cabral, Fernanda Kabadayan, Eduardo Fernandes Bondan, Maria de Fátima Monteiro Martins, Thiago Berti Kirsten, Leoni Villano Bonamin, Nicolle Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Maria Martha Bernardi, Cintia Helena Coury Saraceni
      Objective The present study evaluated the nociceptive response induced by dentin hypersensitivity after dental erosion in rats that were exhibited to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced depressive-like behavior. Design Adult male rats were subjected to UCMS (depression [D] group) or not (no depression [ND] group) for 30days and received either acidic solution to induce dental erosion (E) or water (W), thus forming the WND, END, WD, and ED groups. After the end of treatment, depressive-like parameters (i.e., sucrose preference and immobility in the forced swim test) and dentin hypersensitivity were evaluated. Plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and corticosterone levels were measured, and astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was evaluated in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. Results Administration of the acidic solution potentiated dentin hypersensitivity and increased corticosterone levels in the ED group compared with the WD group. TNF-α levels only increased in the WD group. The ED group exhibited an increase in astrocytic GFAP expression in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex but decreases in the hippocampus. Conclusions These results suggest that UCMS exacerbated the nociceptive response associated with dentin hypersensitivity, concomitant with an increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Hypothalamic and prefrontal cortex astrogliosis in the ED group may be attributable to the increase in corticosterone associated to UCMS procedure. The reduction of astrocytic GFAP expression in the hippocampus in the ED group supports the association between dentin hypersensitivity and depression.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T02:40:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Exostosin 1 is expressed in human odontoblasts
    • Authors: Virve Pääkkönen; Stina Saraniemi; Françoise Bleicher; Zvi Nevo; Leo Tjäderhane
      Pages: 175 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Virve Pääkkönen, Stina Saraniemi, Françoise Bleicher, Zvi Nevo, Leo Tjäderhane
      Objective Dental pulp is soft connective tissue maintaining the vitality of the tooth, while odontoblasts form the dentin. Our earlier DNA microarray analysis revealed expression of putative tumour suppressor exostosin 1 (EXT-1) in odontoblasts. EXT-1 is essential for heparan sulphate synthesis, which may play a role in the dentin mineralization. Since the absence of the functional EXT-1 causes bone tumours, expression in odontoblasts is interesting. Our aim was to analyse further the EXT-1 expression in human tooth. Designs DNA microarray and PCR techniques were used to study the EXT-1 expression in mature native human odontoblasts and pulp tissue as well as in newly-differentiated cultured odontoblast-like cells. Immunohistochemistry was performed to study EXT-1 protein in mature human teeth, teeth with incomplete root and developing teeth. Results Markedly higher EXT-1 was observed in mature odontoblasts than in pulp at mRNA level with DNA microarray and PCR techniques. Immunohistochemistry of mature tooth revealed EXT-1 both in odontoblasts and the predentin but not in the dentin. EXT-1 was also observed in the odontoblasts of incomplete root, but the localization of the staining was different. In developing foetal tooth, staining was detected in ameloblasts and the basal lamina. Conclusions The detection of EXT-1 in both mature and newly-differentiated cells indicates a role in the odontoblast function, and EXT-1 staining in the predentin indicates a function in the dentin formation. Detection of EXT-1 in developing teeth indicates a role in tooth development.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T02:40:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Alternative sweeteners influence the biomass of oral biofilm
    • Authors: Fathilah Abdul Razak; Baizatul Amirah Baharuddin; Elisya Farha Mohd. Akbar; Amira Hanim Norizan; Nur Fazilah Ibrahim; Md. Yusoff Musa
      Pages: 180 - 184
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Fathilah Abdul Razak, Baizatul Amirah Baharuddin, Elisya Farha Mohd. Akbar, Amira Hanim Norizan, Nur Fazilah Ibrahim, Md. Yusoff Musa
      Objective Compact-structured oral biofilm accumulates acids that upon prolonged exposure to tooth surface, causes demineralisation of enamel. This study aimed to assess the effect of alternative sweeteners Equal Stevia®, Tropicana Slim®, Pal Sweet® and xylitol on the matrix-forming activity of plaque biofilm at both the early and established stages of formation. Methods Saliva-coated glass beads (sGB) were used as substratum for the adhesion of a mixed-bacterial suspension of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mitis. Biofilms formed on sGB at 3h and 24h represented the early and established-plaque models. The biofilms were exposed to three doses of the sweeteners (10%), introduced at three intervals to simulate the exposure of dental plaque to sugar during three consecutive food intakes. The treated sGB were (i) examined under the SEM and (ii) collected for turbidity reading. The absorbance indicated the amount of plaque mass produced. Analysis was performed comparative to sucrose as control. Results Higher rate of bacterial adherence was determined during the early compared to established phases of formation. Comparative to the sweeteners, sucrose showed a 40% increase in bacterial adherence and produced 70% more plaque-mass. Bacterial counts and SEM micrographs exhibited absence of matrix in all the sweetener-treated biofilms at the early phase of formation. At the established phase, presence of matrix was detected but at significantly lower degree compared to sucrose (p<0.05). Conclusion Alternatives sweeteners promoted the formation of oral biofilm with lighter mass and lower bacterial adherence. Hence, suggesting alternative sweeteners as potential antiplaque agents.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T02:40:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Influence of surface modified dental implant abutments on connective
           tissue attachment: A systematic review
    • Authors: Mónica Blázquez-Hinarejos; Raúl Ayuso-Montero; Enric Jané-Salas; José López-López
      Pages: 185 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Mónica Blázquez-Hinarejos, Raúl Ayuso-Montero, Enric Jané-Salas, José López-López
      Objective Determine whether surface modified prosthetic abutments for dental implants influence connective tissue attachment to the implant-abutment system. Design A systematic review was conducted using the MEDLINE-PubMed database, with two independent reviewers filtering the titles and abstracts. Two reviewers assessed all potentially relevant articles. An assessment was carried out on the level of evidence of the research according to the guidelines of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM). Results After an initial search, 109 potentially relevant articles were found. After reading the titles and abstracts, 99 articles were excluded because the surface treatment was limited to the implant and not to the abutment, or because different materials were analysed instead of surface treatments; 28 were also duplicate articles. An additional 6 research studies were included that were of interest and were found by reading the references of the included articles. The studies included are: 7 in vitro studies, 5 experimental studies in animals, 2 clinical trials in humans and 2 clinical cases. Conclusion Surface modification for prosthetic abutments on dental implants can achieve connective tissue attachment to the abutment; however, more studies should be conducted in humans to obtain more and better evidence of these results.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T02:46:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.020
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to understand crystallographic texture of
           enamel affected by Hunter syndrome
    • Authors: Malik Arshman Khan; Owen Addison; Alison James; Christian J. Hendriksz; Maisoon Al-Jawad
      Pages: 193 - 196
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Malik Arshman Khan, Owen Addison, Alison James, Christian J. Hendriksz, Maisoon Al-Jawad
      Objective To determine whether Hunter syndrome (MPS II) affects the crystallographic texture (preferred orientation) of enamel. Design Synchrotron X-ray diffraction, being a state of the art technique, has been used to determine the enamel crystallite orientation in enamel affected by Hunter syndrome (MPS II). The incisal, lingual and cervical regions of the MPS II affected tooth were observed and compared to healthy tooth. Results It was observed that there is a loss of organization of crystallites in deciduous incisal enamel affected by Hunter syndrome (MPS II) as compared to healthy deciduous enamel tissue. Generally it was observed that, in contrast to the healthy enamel, the enamel affected by MPS II possessed a lower crystallographic preferred orientation, with a more uniform spatial distribution; however, the enamel at the incisal tip was relatively unaffected. Conclusion Hunter syndrome affects the enamel texture in the lingual and cervical regions of the tooth.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T02:46:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
  • Promoter methylation of MGMT in oral carcinoma: A population-based study
           and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Chinchu Jayaprakash; Raghu Radhakrishnan; Satadru Ray; Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
      Pages: 197 - 208
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 80
      Author(s): Chinchu Jayaprakash, Raghu Radhakrishnan, Satadru Ray, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
      Introduction The relevance of DNA methylation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in relation to several cancers and other disorders has been extensively explored in several cancer types. Aims To ascertain the significance of DNA methylation of MGMT promoter in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we undertook a study to a) analyse the methylation patterns of MGMT gene promoter in afflicted and normal population of coastal Karnataka, b) determine the expression status of MGMT in oral cancer cell lines (CAL-27 and SCC-4) and its relationship to DNA methylation and c) performed a meta-analysis of the published data. Methods Bisulfite sequencing of MGMT promoter region was performed on non-malignant/malignant oral samples, and oral cancer cell lines, followed by gene expression studies. Further, using a systematic search, 1024 publications were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science and 23 relevant articles were reviewed. Results Significant association of MGMT promoter methylation with OSCC (p< 0.0001) was observed in the case-control study. The studies chosen for meta-analysis showed predictive significance of MGMT gene promoter. Overall, we obtained a statistically significant (p< 0.0001) association for both sensitivity and specificity of MGMT DNA promoter methylation in oral cancer cases without publication bias. Gene expression was significantly elevated in both oral cancer cell lines (p <0.03) after treatment with a demethylating agent (5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine). Conclusion DNA promoter hypermethylation and gene expression of MGMT may associate with recursive mutagenesis and is a promising biomarker for OSCC prediction. Studies suggest further validation in large distinct cohorts to facilitate translation to clinics.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T02:46:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2017)
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