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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3310 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (255 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1577 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (143 journals)

BIOLOGY (1577 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Archives of Oral Biology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.752
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0003-9969
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Effect of jaw functional status on neck muscle endurance
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 101Author(s): Hamayun Zafar, Ahmad H. Alghadir, Zaheen A. Iqbal ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of resting jaw and maximum voluntary clenching on neck flexor and extensor muscle endurance.DesignNeck flexor and extensor endurance was measured in a college health clinic in 85 male college students in two test positions: resting jaw (control) and maximum voluntary clenching.ResultsMean neck flexor muscle endurance values during resting jaw and maximum voluntary clenching were 70.06 SD 28.24, and 60.03 SD 16.5, seconds respectively. Mean neck extensor muscle endurance values during resting jaw and maximum voluntary clenching were 105.54 SD 29.9, and 98.32 SD 24.54, respectively. Both values were significantly lower while maximum voluntary clenching as compared to resting jaw position (p 
       
  • Sub-antimicrobial doses of doxycycline decreased bone loss related to
           ligature-induced periodontitis in hypertensive rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 101Author(s): Gustavo H.A. Vieira, Michel R. Messora, Janine M.T. Moura, Patricia G. Fernandes, Flávia A.C. Furlaneto, Daniela B. Palioto, Sérgio L.S. de Souza, Arthur B. Novaes, Rachel F. Gerlach, Cristina A. Silva, Mario Taba Background/ObjectiveThe beneficial effects of sub-antimicrobial dose doxycycline (SDD) associated with nonsurgical periodontal therapy are well documented. Recently, the effects of SDD on metalloproteinases have been investigated in the treatment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SDD on ligature-induced periodontitis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).MethodsFifty-four adult male rats were divided into three groups: SHR-C, SHR-L and SHR-L-DOX (C - Control; L – Ligature). In group SHR-L-DOX, animals were treated with daily 5 mg/kg SDD administration. In L groups, a ligature remained around mandibular first molars for the first 10 days. Each group was divided for euthanasia at 10 or 21 days. Microtomographic and histometric analyses were performed. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay and gene expression of 84 inflammatory mediators by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array.ResultsGroup SHR-L-DOX presented reduced systolic blood pressure when compared with group SHR-L at both 10 and 21 days (p 
       
  • Role of oral flora in chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in vivo
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 101Author(s): N. Gupta, S.Y. Quah, J.F. Yeo, J. Ferreira, K.S. Tan, C.H.L. Hong ObjectiveTo determine if commensal oral microflora impacts the severity of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (OM).DesignSpecific-pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free Swiss Webster mice in the experimental groups were dosed with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to induce OM. Mice in the control group received phosphate buffered saline. Comparative analyses of the epithelial thickness and cell proliferation/turnover rates, as well as the expression levels of metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory mediators in the oral mucosa between the control and experimental groups were determined by histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses.Results5-FU-treated SPF and germ-free mice showed characteristic features of OM with reduced oral epithelial thickness, presence of inflammatory cells in the connective tissues, and increased levels of expression of metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to the respective control groups. When 5-FU-treated SPF and germ-free mice were compared, 5-FU-treated germ-free mice exhibited less severe epithelial destruction with higher expression of the cell proliferation marker Ki67, coupled with lower expression levels of metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory cytokine in the oral mucosa.ConclusionThis study provides the first histopathological evidence that oral flora has a detrimental effect on chemotherapy-induced OM in vivo.
       
  • Ift88 limits bone formation in maxillary process through
           suppressing apoptosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 101Author(s): Momoko Watanabe, Maiko Kawasaki, Katsushige Kawasaki, Atsushi Kitamura, Takahiro Nagai, Yasumitsu Kodama, Fumiya Meguro, Akane Yamada, Paul T. Sharpe, Takeyasu Maeda, Ritsuo Takagi, Atsushi Ohazama ObjectiveThe development of the maxillary bone is under strict molecular control because of its complicated structure. Primary cilia play a critical role in craniofacial development, since defects in primary cilia are known to cause congenital craniofacial dysmorphologies as a wide spectrum of human diseases: the ciliopathies. The primary cilia also are known to regulate bone formation. However, the role of the primary cilia in maxillary bone development is not fully understood.DesignTo address this question, we generated mice with a mesenchymal conditional deletion ofIft88 using the Wnt1Cre mice (Ift88fl/fl;Wnt1Cre). The gene Ift88 encodes a protein that is required for the function and formation of primary cilia.ResultsIt has been shown thatIft88fl/fl;Wnt1Cre mice exhibit cleft palate. Here, we additionally observed excess bone formation in the Ift88 mutant maxillary process. We also found ectopic apoptosis in the Ift88 mutant maxillary process at an early stage of development. To investigate whether the ectopic apoptosis is related to the Ift88 mouse maxillary phenotypes, we generated Ift88fl/fl;Wnt1Cre;p53−/− mutants to reduce apoptosis. The Ift88fl/fl;Wnt1Cre;p53−/− mice showed no excess bone formation, suggesting that the cells evading apoptosis by the presence of Ift88 in wild-type mice limit bone formation in maxillary development. On the other hand, the palatal cleft was retained in the Ift88fl/fl;Wnt1Cre;p53−/− mice, indicating that the excess bone formation or abnormal apoptosis was independent of the cleft palate phenotype in Ift88 mutant mice.ConclusionsIft88 limits bone formation in the maxillary process by suppressing apoptosis.
       
  • Compensatory dentoalveolar supraeruption and occlusal plane cant after
           botulinum-induced hypotrophy of masticatory closing muscles in juvenile
           rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 101Author(s): Ji Wook Choi, Hak-Jin Kim, Joo Won Moon, Sang-Hoon Kang, Hye-Jin Tak, Sang-Hwy Lee ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the dentoalveolus and occlusal plane associated with the hypotrophy of unilateral masticatory muscles following botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment in the juvenile period of rats.DesignWe hypothesized that the loss of functional loading of masticatory muscles and occlusal force invites compensatory dentoalveolar supraeruption, accelerating occlusal cant and skeletal asymmetry. In order to confirm this hypothesis, six-week-old male rats (N = 5) were treated with BTX simultaneously at the unilateral masseter, temporalis, and medial pterygoid muscles, with a booster injection after six weeks for the experimental group. The control group (N = 6) had saline injections on both sides at the same sites and on the same schedule.ResultsAfter 12 weeks, masseter and medial pterygoid muscles on the BTX side showed hypotrophic change. The mandibular structure was asymmetrical, with decreased size and lateral tilting. The maxillary and mandibular molars were supraerupted from the Frankfort plane or mandibular inferior border with lateral tilt. They accompanied downward occlusal plane cant resulting from the supraerupted maxillary and mandibular molars on the BTX side. The dentoalveolar structural changes included diminished alveolar bone density, narrow periodontal ligament space, and disorganized distribution of periodontal collagen fiber.ConclusionsUnilateral hypotrophy of masticatory muscles affected the growth, symmetry, and structure of the skeletal jaws and dentoalveolus. Our hypothesis about the dentoalveolar compensation, that muscular hypotrophy was closely integrated with dentoalveolar supraeruption and an inclined occlusal plane, was confirmed.
       
  • Serum microRNAs and chronic periodontitis: A case-control study
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 101Author(s): Toshiki Yoneda, Takaaki Tomofuji, Daisuke Ekuni, Tetsuji Azuma, Takayuki Maruyama, Kohei Fujimori, Yoshio Sugiura, Manabu Morita ObjectiveAn association is present between periodontitis and rates of expression of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) in periodontal tissue. However, the association between periodontitis and miRNA levels in human serum is unknown. We performed a case-control study in patients with chronic periodontitis to investigate serum miRNA levels.DesignWe enrolled 30 healthy patients without periodontitis and 30 patients with chronic periodontitis. Participants underwent clinical examination, case selection, and a blood draw from the antecubital vein. Serum miRNA profiles were compared in samples from participants with and without chronic periodontitis using microarray and real-time PCR.ResultsMicroarray demonstrated seven miRNAs that were expressed 1.5 in the control group compared to the periodontitis group (p 
       
  • Physiological concentrations of denosumab enhance osteogenic
           differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells of the jaw bone
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 101Author(s): Alexander Mosch, Tobias Ettl, Andreas Mamilos, Stephan Schreml, Steffen Spörl, Gerrit Spanier, Christoph Klingelhöffer ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of denosumab and zoledronate on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of alveolar bone stem cells.DesignMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and dental follicle cells (DFCs) were grown under osteogenic differentiation with concentrations from 0.25 μM to 10 μM (zoledronate) and to 20 μM (denosumab). Vitality was assessed after 7 days by CCK-8 Kit. Osteogenic differentiation was measured by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and additionally by RT-qPCR of key enzymes COL1, RUNX2 and ALP.ResultsMSCs expressed receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), as requirement to interact with denosumab. DFCs did not express RANK. Denosumab significantly reduced proliferation and ALP activity of MSCs in high concentrations (10 μM and 20 μM). Growth of DFCs was not influenced at all by denosumab. Zoledronate reduced proliferation of DFCs in higher concentrations (5 μM and 10 μM) (p > 0.05). Physiological and medium concentrations of denosumab (0.25 μM, 1 μM 5μM) significantly enhanced ALP activity in MSCs and COL1, RUNX2 and ALP were upregulated. Zoledronate had no effect on ALP activity in DFCs.ConclusionOur evaluations suggest receptor and dose depending effects of denosumab in MSCs. High concentrations mediate toxic effects, whereas physiological and medium concentrations enhance osteogenic differentiation.
       
  • Galleria mellonella as an experimental model to study human oral
           pathogens
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 101Author(s): Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Felipe de Camargo Ribeiro, Hanna Flávia Santana dos Santos, Jéssica Diane dos Santos, Nicássia de Sousa Oliveira, Marignês Theotonio dos Santos Dutra, Simone Aparecida Biazzi de Lapena, Juliana Campos Junqueira The oral cavity is home to a microbial community of more than 800 species. This important microbiome is formed by commensal and opportunistic bacteria, fungi and viruses. Several distinct habitats within the mouth support heterogeneous microbial communities that constitute an important link between oral and general health. The use of animal models for in vivo studies in microbial pathogenicity is well established in the scientific community. Galleria mellonella as a model host has increased in use significantly in the last few years. This invertebrate model provides studies on a large scale, serving as screens for studies on vertebrate animals, such as mice and rats. In this review, different studies of microbial genera of dental importance (Enterococcus, Candida, Lactobacillus, Porphyromonas and Streptococcus) are discussed, highlighting the use of G. mellonella as a suitable model for studying pathogenesis, efficacy of antimicrobial compounds, and immune responses.
       
  • Combination of 5-Florouracil and polyphenol EGCG exerts suppressive
           effects on oral cancer cells exposed to radiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 101Author(s): Eduardo Pons-Fuster López, Francisco Gómez García, Pia López Jornet ObjectiveNatural compounds such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have previously shown chemotherapeutic properties with few side-effects. In our study, we evaluated the effects of combining EGCG with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiotherapy on oral squamous cell cancer. We evaluated whether the combination of lower doses of 5-FU with EGCG could be equally or more effective than the use of higher doses of 5-FU alone.MethodsCell viability, migration and cell cycles were assayed in oral cancer cell lines treated with 5-FU, 5-FU + EGCG and radiation (0, 2.5 and 5 Gy).ResultsThis study found that the combination of EGCG with 5-FU reduced cell viability and migration distance compared to control samples and the same dose of 5-FU alone. Addition of EGCG increased the number of cells in the G2/M phase, while 5-FU arrested the cell cycle in phase S. Moreover, cell exposure to 5 Gy radiation decreased the effects of combining with EGCG.ConclusionsIn summary, the combination of EGCG and 5-FU reduced both cell viability and migration as well as altered the cell cycle to a greater extent than 5-FU alone.
       
  • Bite force measurements for objective evaluations of orthodontic tooth
           movement-induced pain in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 101Author(s): Hu Long, Di Shan, Renhuan Huang, He Liu, Yang Zhou, Muyun Gao, Fan Jian, Yan Wang, Wenli Lai ObjectiveTo examine the reliability of bite force for evaluating orthodontic tooth movement-induced pain in rats.DesignOrthodontic tooth movement-induced pain was induced by mounting springs (40 g) between incisors and ipsilateral molars in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Five group sets of animals were used: for the first group set, 20 rats were randomly divided into a force group (n = 10) and a sham group (n = 10); for the second group set, 20 rats were divided into a 20-g group and a 80-g group; for the third group set, 20 rats were randomly divided into either a CFA group (complete freund’s adjuvant) (n = 10) receiving periodontal injections of CFA at baseline or a control group (n = 10) receiving periodontal injections of saline at baseline; for the forth group set, 24 rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: force + saline, control + saline, force + antiNGF and control + NGF (NGF: nerve growth factor). Rats in the fifth group set were used for immunostaining against CGRP. Bite force and bite frequency were measured at baseline (day 0) and following interventions (day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7 and day 14). Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used for statistical analysis and a p value less than 0.05 was considered statistical significance.ResultsOur results revealed that bite force was significantly smaller in the force group than in the sham group at all time points (p 
       
  • Effects of mechanical force application on the developing root apex in rat
           maxillary molars
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 101Author(s): Lu Zhao, Yoshiro Matsumoto, Takashi Ono, Sachiko Iseki ObjectivesWe aimed to investigate the effects of mechanical force application on the developing root apex in vivo.DesignMechanical force was applied on the maxillary first molars of Sprague–Dawley rats at postnatal day 21 for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days to induce tooth movement. We observed the developing root apex of the mesial root of first molar by using micro-focus X-ray computed tomography, histological staining, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to analyze apical cell proliferation and gene expression. Moreover, the force was released after 3 and 7 days of tooth movement, and root apical morphology at postnatal day 35 was subsequently observed.ResultsAfter 1 and 3 days of tooth movement, root apical morphology was altered by increasing immune-reactivity of laminin in the forming periodontal ligament. After 7 days of tooth movement, the root length decreased significantly with bending root apex, decreased cell proliferation and altered gene expression in developing root apex. At postnatal day 35, apical morphology showed no obvious abnormality when the force was released after 3 days of tooth movement, whereas root apical bending was not rescued when the force was released after 7 days.ConclusionsRelatively short-term force application had no obvious adverse effects on the developing root apex. However, relatively long-term force application altered root apex by affecting Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath morphology and apical cellular behavior.
       
  • Force-induced decline of TEA domain family member 1 contributes to
           osteoclastogenesis via regulation of Osteoprotegerin
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Qian Li, Gaofeng Han, Dawei Liu, Yanheng Zhou ObjectiveThis study aims to investigate the responsiveness of transcription factor TEA domain family member 1 (TEAD1) to mechanical force and its impact on osteoclastogenesis as well as expression of Osteoprotegerin (OPG), an inhibitor for osteoclastogenesis playing crucial roles in mechanical stress-induced bone remodeling and orthodontic tooth movement (OTM).MethodsWe first analyzed the correlation between several transcription factors and OPG expression in human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). Then dynamic expression changes of TEAD1 with force application were analyzed due to its high correlation with OPG. Loss-of-function experiments were performed to demonstrate the role of TEAD1 in regulation of RANKL/OPG, as well as osteoclastogenesis by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Combination of bioinformatics analyzes and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was utilized to investigate occupancy of TEAD1 on the enhancer elements of OPG and the dynamic change in response to force stimuli. Involvement of Hippo signaling in regulation of OPG was further demonstrated by pharmacologic inhibitors of several components.ResultsExpression of TEAD1 highly correlates with that of OPG and decreases in response to mechanical force in human PDLCs. Knockdown of TEAD1 downregulates expression of OPG and promotes osteoclast differentiation. Mechanical force induced decreased binding of TEAD1 on an enhancer element ˜22 kilobases upstream of OPG promoter. OPG was also affected by pharmaceutical disruption of Hippo signaling pathway.ConclusionsTEAD1 is a novel mechano-responsive gene and plays an important role in force-induced osteoclastogenesis, which is dependent, as least partially, on transcriptional regulation of OPG.
       
  • Heterogeneous localization of muscarinic cholinoceptor M1 in the salivary
           ducts of adult mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Atsara Rawangwong, Suthankamon Khrongyut, Surang Chomphoo, Kohtaro Konno, Miwako Yamasaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Hisatake Kondo, Wiphawi Hipkaeo We hypothesize variation in expression and localization, along the course of the glandular tubule, of muscarinic cholinergic receptor M1 which plays as a distinct contribution, though minor in comparison with M3 receptor, in saliva secretion. Localization of the M1 receptor was examined using immunohistochemistry in three major salivary glands. Although all glandular cells were more or less M1-immunoreactive, acinar cells were weakly immunoreactive, while ductal cells exhibited substantial M1-immunoreactivity. Many ductal cells exhibited clear polarity with higher immunoreactivity in their apical/supra-nuclear domain. However, some exhibited indistinct polarity because of additional higher immunoreactivity in their basal/infra-nuclear domain. A small group of cells with intense immunoreactivity was found, mostly located in the intercalated ducts or in portions of the striated ducts close to the intercalated ducts. In immuno-electron microscopy, the immunoreactive materials were mainly in the cytoplasm including various vesicles and vacuoles. Unexpectedly, distinct immunoreactivity on apical and basal plasma membranes was infrequent in most ductal cells. The heterogeneous localization of M1-immunoreactivity along the gland tubular system is discussed in view of possible modulatory roles of the M1 receptor in saliva secretion.
       
  • Efficacy of β-caryophyllene for periodontal disease related factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Hyun-Jun Yoo, Su-Kyung Jwa ObjectiveThis study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of β-caryophyllene against periodontopathogens as well as its inhibitory effects on the expression of inflammatory cytokines and production of volatile sulfur compounds by lipopolysaccharide and periodontopathogenic enzymes, respectively.DesignThe antimicrobial activity of β-caryophyllene againstPorphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola was investigated via a susceptibility assay using a microplate reader. THP-1 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide in the presence or the absence of β-caryophyllene, and the expression and production of inflammatory cytokines were then analyzed by a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After fluorescence-labelling lipopolysaccharide, the effect of β-caryophyllene on the binding of lipopolysaccharide to the cell wall was investigated via flow cytometry. The spent culture media of P. gingivalis was shaken with or without β-caryophyllene and gaseous volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) were measured by a gas chromatograph.Resultsβ-caryophyllene showed strong the antimicrobial activity against periodontopathogens. It also reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced expression and production of cytokines, thereby inhibiting the binding of lipopolysaccharide-binding to toll-like receptors by interfering with the complex of lipopolysaccharide and CD14 or lipopolysaccharide-binding protein. β-caryophyllene also inhibited the emission of gaseous VSCs produced byP. gingivalis.Conclusionsβ-caryophyllene may improve periodontal health via antimicrobial activity against periodontopathogens, reducing inflammation caused by lipopolysaccharide, and by neutralizing VSCs.
       
  • Notch pathway deactivation mediated by F-box/WD repeat domain-containing 7
           ameliorates hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in rat periodontal
           ligament stem cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Yimiao Feng, Xiaohui Fu, Xintian Lou ObjectiveTo investigate the protective role of F-box/WD repeat domain-containing 7 in rat periodontal ligament stem cells under oxidative stress.Materials and methodsThe apoptosis of rat periodontal ligament stem cells was induced by exposure to various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide for 24 h, after which cell viability and the cleaved caspase-3 and -9 levels were determined. The levels of proteins in the Notch signaling pathway were determined by western blotting.ResultsThe overexpression of F-box/WD repeat domain-containing 7 increased cell viability following hydrogen peroxide administration and suppressed the activation of caspases-3 and -9. The overexpression of F-box/WD repeat domain-containing 7 inhibited Notch signaling. Furthermore, the protective effect of F-box/WD repeat domain-containing 7 could be resumed by PF-03084014, a Notch-specific inhibitor.ConclusionsThese observations suggest a protective role of F-box/WD repeat domain-containing 7 against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in rat periodontal ligament stem cells. These findings will facilitate the in vitro culturing of periodontal ligament stem cell for clinical usage and promote stem cell-based therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration.
       
  • Marine bromophenols as an effective inhibitor of virulent proteins
           (peptidyl arginine deiminase, gingipain R and hemagglutinin A) in
           Porphyromas gingivalis
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Chikoo Cherian, J. Jannet Vennila, Leena Sharan ObjectivesPorphyromonas gingivalis, is one of the major oral pathogen that produce virulent proteins which mediate periodontal tissue inflammation and infection. Marine algae have recently gained popularity for its bioactive molecules and their oral applications. Marine bromophenols (MBs) is abundant in red algae which are reported to have wide medicinal properties. The current research primarily focuses to elucidate the bioactivity of MBs against the virulent proteins produced by P. gingivalis.Materials and methodsPotent MBs which effectively binds and inhibits the virulent proteins peptidyl arginine deiminase (PPAD), gingipain R (Rgp) and hemagglutinin A (HgA) was identified through molecular docking and molecular simulation approach. MBs were extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii (KAB), marine red algae found in India. The efficacy of this MB was studied against P. gingivalis by employing antibacterial activity assays, gingipain assay, hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) and mRNA expression analysis (q RT PCR).ResultsMBs with benzene, methyl and glycosyl substitutions demonstrated significant docking score, with good stability and pharmacokinetic properties. In addition to the antibacterial activities against P. gingivalis, KAB was also found to inhibit the gingipain and hemagglutination activities. Exposure of KAB to the virulent genes in P. gingivalis resulted in low mRNA levels of these genes, which suggested the down regulation functions induced by the MBs.ConclusionBiochemical investigations revealed that KAB is a potent natural metabolite that can inhibit and control the virulent proteins produced by P. gingivalis. This study recommends future research to direct towards applicability of MBs in commercial dental products.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Cross-kingdom interaction of Candida albicans and Actinomyces viscosus
           elevated cariogenic virulence
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Ling Deng, Wei Li, Yuanli He, Juan Wu, Biao Ren, Ling Zou ObjectiveHow the interactions between Candida albicans and Actinomyces viscosus contributed to the root caries was not clear. This study aimed to investigate their cross-kingdom interactions on the biomass and the cariogenic virulence in dual-species biofilms.DesignSuspensions of C. albicans and A. viscosus were formed the mono and polymicrobial biofilms in vitro. Crystal violet assay, viable plate count, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to analyze the biomass and biofilm structure. Glycolytic pH drop and the spectrophotometric method were used to evaluate the acid production and hydroxyapatite dissolution, respectively. The exopolysaccharide production was measured by the anthrone-sulfuric acid method, while the adhesion force was measured by atomic force microscopy.ResultsThe biomass and colony-forming units of mixed-species were significantly increased compared to that of the mono-species at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h. The structure of dual-species biofilm had more microcolonies and was much denser. The dual-species biofilms significantly decreased the pH value and damaged the hydroxyapatite compared with the mono-species biofilms at various time points, indicating the strong cariogenic virulence. Moreover, the dual-species biofilms significantly enhanced the exopolysaccharide production and adhesion force suggesting the increase of biofilm adhesion.ConclusionsCross-kingdom interactions of C. albicans and A. viscosus significantly elevated the biomass and cariogenic virulence of dual-species biofilm.
       
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum stimulates monocyte adhesion to and transmigration
           through endothelial cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Qianting Wang, Lei Zhao, Chunmei Xu, Jieyu Zhou, Yafei Wu ObjectiveFusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) is an important pathogen in periodontitis. Previous studies have demonstrated its ability to spread via haematogenesis and modulate host immune responses. However, little is known regarding its effect on endothelial cells (ECs) and leukocytes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of F. nucleatum on monocyte attachment and transmigration through ECs.DesignHuman umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human leukemic monocyte (THP-1) cells were infected with F. nucleatum and assessed for monocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration, and HUVEC proliferation/apoptosis. Real-time PCR, western blotting and ELISA were performed to assess the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules and chemokines in both cells.ResultsF. nucleatum challenge significantly induced THP-1 cell adhesion and transmigration and markedly impaired cell proliferation and apoptosis in HUVECs. A parallel increase in vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin expression in HUVECs and an upregulation of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in both HUVECs and THP-1 cells were observed. The expression of nuclear factor-kappa B was also enhanced in HUVECs and THP-1 cells upon F. nucleatum infection.ConclusionsF. nucleatum triggers an inflammatory response against infection in cells and promotes the recruitment and transmigration of monocytes through ECs.
       
  • Genetic diversity of Streptococcus mutans serotype c isolated from white
           spot and cavitated caries lesions from schoolchildren
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Ramiro Javier Rincón-Rodríguez, Monica Tatiana Parada-Sanchez, Claudia María Bedoya-Correa, David Arboleda-Toro ObjectiveTo determine the genetic diversity of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) serotype c isolated from white spot and cavitated caries lesions of schoolchildren.MethodsS. mutans isolates were obtained and identify by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) from 28 schoolchildren. A total of 92 S. mutans isolates, identified as serotype c by PCR, were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis after digestion of genomic DNA with SmaI enzyme. 62 isolates were obtained from white spot and cavitated caries lesions of schoolchildren that presented both lesions simultaneously and 30 isolates were from saliva and biofilm samples of schoolchildren without dental caries. Cluster analyses were performed using the Dice coefficient of the BioNumerics software version 6.0.ResultsIt was possible to determine the serotype in 190 isolates out of 255 isolates identified as S. mutans. Serotype c was the most frequent (n = 139), followed by serotype f (n = 31) and serotype e (n = 20). After analyzing the dendograms of the 92 serotype c isolates, this study identified three strains present in both types of lesions, two strains specific to the type of lesion: one strain from the white spot lesion and one strain from the cavitated caries lesion, and five strains specific to children with caries versus four strains for children without caries.ConclusionS. mutans serotype c genetic variability is similar in terms of the number of strains present according to the caries status and type of lesion.
       
  • Changes in the expression of the potassium channels TASK1, TASK3 and TRESK
           in a rat model of oral squamous cell carcinoma and their relation to
           malignancy
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Walther D. Zavala, Mabel R. Foscolo, Patricia E. Kunda, Juan C. Cavicchia, Cristian G. Acosta ObjectivesPotassium channels have been proposed to promote cancer cell proliferation and metastases. Thus, we investigated the expression pattern of three 2-pore domain potassium channels (K2Ps) TASK1, TASK3 and TRESK in advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the commonest oral malignancy.DesignWe used 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) to induce high grade OSCC in male adult rats. We then used immunohistochemistry and Western blotting to study the distribution and expression pattern of TASK1, TASK3 and TRESK in normal versus cancerous tissue. We also examined the expression of β-tubulin III (β-tub3), a marker associated with resistance to taxane-based chemotherapy and poor patient prognosis, and its correlation with the K2Ps. Finally, we studied the expression of TASK1, TASK3 and TRESK in human samples of SCC of oral origin.ResultsWe found that TASK3 was significantly up-regulated whereas TASK1 and TRESK were both significantly down-regulated in advanced, poorly differentiated OSCC. Both, rat and human SCC showed a significant increase in the expression of β-tub3. Interestingly, the expression of the latter correlated positively and significantly with TASK3 and TRESK but not TASK1 in rat OSCC. Our initial results showed a similar pattern of up and down regulation and correlation with β-tub3 for these three K2Ps in human SCC.ConclusionsThe changes in expression and the co-localization with a marker of resistance to taxanes like β-tub3 turn TASK1, TASK3 and TRESK into potentially new prognostic tools and possibly new therapeutic targets for OSCC.
       
  • Ontogenetic development of the oral apparatus and oropharyngeal cavity in
           bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus, Shaw 1802)
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi, Veronica Regina Lobato Oliveira-Bahia, Marta Verardino De Stefáni, João Martins Pizauro, Kifayat Ullah Khan, Beatrice Ingrid Macente, Cleber Fernando Menegasso Mansano ObjectiveThe present study aimed to describe the morphology of oral apparatus and oral cavity of bullfrog tadpoles during their development and metamorphosis.DesignThe oral apparatus and oropharyngeal cavity of tadpoles from hatching up to metamorphosis stage was dissected for further analysis. These structures were fixed in Karnovsky solution, afterwards in osmium tetroxide and metalized in palladium gold and electron-micrographed using the scanning electron microscope.ResultsThe development of oral apparatus started with the formation and keratinization of the jaw sheaths and labial teeth followed by the formation of marginal and sub-marginal papillae. Degeneration of oral apparatus and formation of mouth was observed during metamorphosis. From stage-42 (metamorphic climax) to stage-43, the jaw sheath and labial tooth rows were disappeared progressively while the size and number of labial papillae were decreased. At stage-44, mouth formation started with the development of anterior and posterior labium though the labial papillae were still present. At stage-45 and 46, mouth was already formed, being very similar to the adult and characterized by the progressive increase in size.ConclusionThe sequence of events that happen during the development of oral apparatus of Lithobates catesbeianus Shaw, 1802 tadpoles follows the same pattern as occur in other anuran species but metamorphic atrophy of the oral apparatus follows the sequence of morphogenesis.
       
  • Whole-exome sequencing identification of a novel splicing mutation of
           RUNX2 in a Chinese family with cleidocranial dysplasia
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Tingting Zhang, Jing Wu, Xiaoxue Zhao, Feifei Hou, Tengfei Ma, Huijuan Wang, Xu Zhang, Xiangyu Zhang ObjectivesCleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a congenital autosomal dominant skeletal disease characterized by multiple craniofacial and dental anomalies. Here, we investigated mutation of the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) gene, which is considered responsible for most instances of CCD in patients, in a Chinese family with CCD.MethodsGenomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of all participants, and mutation analysis was performed using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing. Biophysical predictions of the altered protein were analyzed using various bioinformatics tools, and direct sequencing via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for functional analysis of the mutation. To determine the function of the mutated protein, expression of RUNX2 and integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP) was investigated via quantitative PCR.ResultsWe identified a novel splicing mutation (c.581–9 T > G) in all affected members, with this RUNX2 mutation incorporating in a new splice site to replace the canonical splice site, thereby resulting in insertion of an 8-bp fragment within the terminal exon 5 splice-acceptor site and premature translation termination. qPCR results confirmed attenuated RUNX2 expression and IBSP overexpression in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients.ConclusionsThese results suggested that the newly identified splice-site mutation (c.581–9 T > G) in RUNX2 was responsible for CCD in this family through its alteration of RUNX2 activity and upregulated IBSP levels. These findings extend the mutational spectrum of the RUNX2 gene and might contribute to genetic diagnosis and counseling of families with CCD.
       
  • Effects of two fast-setting pulp-capping materials on cell viability and
           osteogenic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells: An in vitro
           study
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Yan Sun, Jun Liu, Tao Luo, Ya Shen, Ling Zou ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two fast-setting pulp-capping materials, Biodentine (BD) and iRoot Fast Set (FS) root repair material, on the attachment, viability, migration, and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs).MethodsA comparative study was conducted between BD and FS material disks. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were used to observe the attachment of hDPSCs on the disks. A live/dead assay was used to assess the cell viability. Transwell assay was performed to study cell migration. Cell differentiation was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for the analysis of osteogenic differentiation gene expression: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type I (COL1) and osteocalcin (OCN).ResultsSEM images indicated that hDPSCs showed a well-spreading morphology on both BD and FS disks. FS significantly increased the proliferation and migration of hDPSCs on day 7 (P<0.05). Neither BD nor FS promoted the expression of osteogenic genes during the observation period.ConclusionsBD and FS both were beneficial to hDPSC attachment, and they had similar effects on cell osteogenic differentiation, whereas FS performed better than BD on hDPSCs proliferation and migration.
       
  • Chitosan hydrogel containing amelogenin-derived peptide: Inhibition of
           cariogenic bacteria and promotion of remineralization of initial caries
           lesions
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Qian Ren, Longjiang Ding, Zhongcheng Li, Xiuqing Wang, Kun Wang, Sili Han, Wei Li, Xuedong Zhou, Linglin Zhang ObjectiveNowadays, caries prevention focuses on controlling pathogenic bacteria, inhibiting demineralization and promoting re-mineralization. The aim of this study is to design a more clinically powerful anti-caries treatment by combining amelogenin-derived peptide QP5 with antibacterial chitosan in a hydrogel (CS-QP5 hydrogel), and characterize its effects on inhibition of cariogenic bacteria and promotion of remineralization of initial caries lesions.DesignCS-QP5 interactions at different pH and chitosan concentrations were studied using UV–vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. Antibacterial activity was measured using broth microdilution and biofilm assays. Remineralizing activity was measured using tests of surface micro-hardness(SMH), polarized light microscopy(PLM) and transverse microradiography(TMR) in a pH cycling model that simulates intra-oral pH conditions.ResultsThe results of UV–vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism analyses suggest that the micro-environment of QP5 changes upon addition of chitosan and the interaction between QP5 and chitosan is reversible and dependent on pH. CS-QP5 hydrogel showed good antibacterial potency towards Streptococcus mutans with MIC/MBC of 5 mg/mL, reducing adhesion and biofilm formation up to 95.43% and nearly 100% respectively. According to the results of remineralizing studies, CS-QP5 hydrogel demonstrated 50.06% surface micro-hardness recovery, shallower lesion depth, significantly less mineral loss and more mineral content at different depth in the lesion body after pH cycling.ConclusionsThe hydrogel showed promise as a dual-action caries control agent in vitro, whether it could present good effects in vivo still needs to be determined, which requires further study. Nonetheless, the new design of bioactive hydrogel with antibacterial and remineralizing properties has the potential to substantially benefit oral health.
       
  • Adsorption and release kinetics of growth factors on barrier membranes for
           guided tissue/bone regeneration: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Jordi Caballé-Serrano, Yusra Abdeslam-Mohamed, Antonio Munar-Frau, Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Federico Hernández-Alfaro, Richard Miron ObjectivesGuided bone / tissue regeneration (GBR/GTR) procedures are necessary to improve conditions for implant placement. These techniques in turn can be enhanced by using growth factors (GFs) such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to accelerate regeneration. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the GF loading and release kinetics of barrier membranes.Study designA total of 138 articles were screened in PubMed databases, and 31 meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the present systematic review.ResultsAll the articles evaluated bio-resorbable membranes, especially collagen or polymer-based membranes. In most studies, the retention and release kinetics of osteogenic GFs such as BMP-2 and PDGF were widely investigated. Growth factors were incorporated to the membranes by soaking and incubating the membranes in GF solution, followed by lyophilization, or mixing in the polymers before evaporation. Adsorption onto the membranes depended upon the membrane materials and additional reagents such as heparin, cross-linkers and GF concentration. Interestingly, most studies showed two phases of GF release from the membranes: a first phase comprising a burst release (about 1 day), followed by a second phase characterized by slower release. Furthermore, all the studies demonstrated the controlled release of sufficient concentrations of GFs from the membranes for bioactivities.ConclusionsThe adsorption and release kinetics varied among the different materials, forms and GFs. The combination of membrane materials, GFs and manufacturing methods should be considered for optimizing GBR/GTR procedures.
       
  • Influence of low-level laser therapy on orthodontically-induced
           inflammatory root resorption. A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 100Author(s): Dimitrios Michelogiannakis, Deema Al-Shammery, Zohaib Akram, P. Emile Rossouw, Fawad Javed, Georgios E. Romanos ObjectiveThe aim was to assess the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on orthodontically-induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR).MethodsA systematic search was conducted in indexed databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The eligibility criteria were as follows: (a) original clinical and animal/experimental studies; (b) prospective studies; (c) intervention: effect of LLLT on OIIRR; (d) control group (OIIRR without LLLT); (e) statistical analysis; and (f) tomographic or histologic assessment of OIIRR. Quality assessment of the experimental and clinical studies was performed following the Animal Research Reporting In-vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) and Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines, respectively. The risk of bias of the included studies was also determined.ResultsNine (7 experimental and 2 clinical) of the initially identified 39 studies were included. One clinical and 2 experimental studies showed that LLLT during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) significantly reduces OIIRR. One experimental study reported that LLLT during OTM in sockets treated with alloplastic materials significantly reduces OIIRR. One experimental study found that LLLT after OTM significantly repairs OIIRR, whereas one clinical study did not report a significant reparative affect. Three experimental studies showed that LLLT increases OIIRR during OTM, corticotomized-OTM, and OTM into grafted defects, respectively. The minimum, median and highest ARRIVE scores (out of 20) of the included experimental studies were 15, 17 and 19, respectively. The mean CONSORT score of the included clinical studies was 23 (out of 25).ConclusionsIn conclusion, the influence of LLLT on OIIRR remains debatable.
       
  • Combination of estrogen deficiency and excessive mechanical stress
           aggravates temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis in vivo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Archives of Oral BiologyAuthor(s): Yuyun Wu, Chiho Kadota-Watanabe, Takuya Ogawa, Keiji Moriyama ObjectiveIt has been suggested that degenerative conditions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), such as osteoarthritis (OA) and progressive condylar resorption, are caused by multiple etiological factors, such as hormonal imbalance and excessive mechanical stress. However, it is unclear whether these factors interrelate in the degenerative process of the condyle. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of combined hormonal imbalance and excessive mechanical stress on the condyle using a mouse model.Materials and methods: Ovariectomy (OVX) was performed in 8-week-old female mice. Three weeks after OVX, a build-up resin was bonded to the right maxillary molars to create imbalanced occlusion (increased occlusal vertical dimension, iOVD). Mice were divided into four groups: control, OVX, iOVD, and OVX + iOVD.ResultsHistomorphometric analysis showed the lowest cartilage thickness and the highest TMJ-OA score in the OVX + iOVD group. Bone structural analysis showed significantly lower subchondral bone mass in all experimental groups. Additionally, the OVX + iOVD group showed up-regulated osteoclastic activity and increased apoptosis in the condyle. Gene expression analysis showed significantly elevated expression of pre-inflammatory cytokines in the OVX + iOVD group. These data showed that the OVX + iOVD group exhibited the most severe inflammatory TMJ-OA. Upregulation of ERα and activation of the ERK pathway was observed in the OVX + iOVD group.ConclusionsAdditive effects of estrogen deficiency and excessive mechanical stress on the condyle exacerbate TMJ-OA. Furthermore, estrogen deficiency and excessive mechanical stress combined may exacerbate TMJ-OA though activation of the ERK pathway.
       
  • A novel inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit gamma mutation
           identified in an incontinentia pigmenti patient with syndromic tooth
           agenesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Archives of Oral BiologyAuthor(s): Shichen Sun, Fang Li, Yang Liu, Hong Qu, Sing-Wai Wong, Li Zeng, Miao Yu, Hailan Feng, Haochen Liu, Dong Han ObjectiveTo explore the gene mutation in an incontinentia pigmenti (IP) patient with syndromic tooth agenesis.MethodsLong-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing were used to detectinhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit gamma (IKBKG) mutation in the IP patient. We used the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) reporter gene to assess activation of NF-κB, after transfecting an empty vector, wild-type, or mutant NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) plasmid into IKBKG-deficient HEK293 T cells, respectively. Furthermore, we performed immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting to describe the polyubiquitination of NEMO. Lastly, we detected the interactions between mutant NEMO and I kappa B kinase alpha (IKKα), I kappa B kinase beta (IKKβ), TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6), HOIL-1-interacting protein (HOIP), hemo-oxidized iron regulatory protein 2 ligase 1 (HOIL-1), and SHANK-associated RH domain interactor (SHARPIN).ResultsAde novo nonsense mutation in IKBKG (c.924C > G; p.Tyr308*) was observed. The Try308* mutation inhibited activation of the NF-κB pathway by reducing K63-linked polyubiquitination and linear polyubiquitination. The mutant NEMO was not able to interact with TRAF6, HOIL-1, or SHARPIN.ConclusionsWe identified a novel nonsenseIKBKG mutation (c.924C > G; p.Tyr308*) in an IP patient with syndromic tooth agenesis. This research enriches the mutation spectrum of the IKBKG gene.
       
  • Enamel pearls: Their occurrence in recent human populations and earliest
           manifestation in the modern human lineage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Archives of Oral BiologyAuthor(s): Frederick E. Grine, Sharon Holt, James S. Brink, Anton du Plessis ObjectiveTo document and describe the occurrence of an enamel pearl on the distal root surface of the maxillary M3 of the fossil hominin specimen from Florisbad, South Africa that is dated to ca. 259,000 years B.P., and is an early representative of Homo sapiens or as a member of the evolutionary line that was directly ancestral to modern humansDesignThe molar was examined macroscopically and by micro-computed tomography (μCT) to enable accurate measurement and visualization of the structure of the enamel pearl.ResultsThe single pearl has a diameter of 0.97 mm; it is a Type 2 “composite” pearl comprising an enamel cap and dentine core without pulp chamber involvement. The size of the Florisbad pearl falls within or just below the size ranges of this anomaly in modern human samples. Type 2 pearls are most commonly encountered in recent human populations, and the location of the pearl on the distal root surface of the Florisbad M3 is consistent with its most frequent location in recent humans. Pearls in recent human populations affect between 0.2-4.8% of individuals, and 1.7-6.8% of permanent molars. Pearls have been documented in several prehistoric human dentitions, and all examples are less than 4,000 years old.ConclusionsEnamel pearls have been associated with periodontal disease, but it is not possible to relate its presence to the advanced periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss in the Florisbad fossil. Florisbad presents the earliest evidence of this anomaly in the fossil record pertaining to modern humans.
       
  • Chondrocyte Apoptosis in Rat Mandibular Condyles Induced by Dental
           Occlusion Due to Mitochondrial Damage Caused by Nitric Oxide
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Archives of Oral BiologyAuthor(s): Mei-Qing Wang ObjectiveChondrocyte apoptosis is a pathological manifestation of osteoarthritis. The goal of this report was to explore the role of nitric oxide in chondrocyte apoptosis in osteoarthritic mandibular condylar cartilage.DesignThis study used our reported experimental unilateral anterior crossbite in vivo rat model and chondrocyte fluid flow shear stress in vitro model. In the in vivo model, apoptosis in the mandibular condylar cartilage was assessed by detection of the TUNEL-positive cells, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-9, and caspase-3. In the in vitro model, mitochondrial injury was evaluated, the nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase (SOD) production levels were measured, and the cytochrome C (Cyt C) expression level was detected. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) were analyzed in both in vivo and in vitro models. The effects of iNOS inhibitor on chondrocyte apoptosis were also investigated.ResultsThe data indicated that the unilateral anterior crossbite induced cartilage degeneration with enhanced cell apoptosis and stimulated the expression of caspase-3/-9 and iNOS. The fluid flow shear stress upregulated the expression of iNOS, SOD, and nitric oxide, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and promoted Cyt C to enter the cytoplasm. All of these changes were reversed by iNOS inhibitors.ConclusionThe abnormal occlusion stimulated mitochondrial damage and apoptosis of the chondrocytes in the mandibular condylar cartilage mediated by nitric oxide. Inhibiting nitric oxide production could be a therapeutic strategy.
       
  • Integrin-α5 promoted the progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and
           modulated PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Archives of Oral BiologyAuthor(s): Qing-Chun Fan, Hua Tian, Yan Wang, Xian-Bin Liu BackgroundIntegrin-α5 (ITGA5) gene has been reported to be critical for the progression of several cancers. However, the effects of ITGA5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unclear.MethodsWe firstly used bioinformatics methods to analyze the ITGA5 gene expression based on the public dataset. HO1-N-1 and SCC-9 cells with silenced ITGA5 were constructed using siRNA. Then, we determined the biological functions of ITGA5 in OSCC cells using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation assay, wound healing assay and transwell assays. The expression of PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, ERK and pERK were determined by western blot.ResultsOur results revealed that ITGA5 expression was up-regulated in OSCC. The biological experiments further confirmed that ITGA5 expression was higher in OSCC cell lines. Moreover, we found that knockdown of ITGA5 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of OSCC cells. The expression of phosphorylated-(p) PI3K, p-AKT and p-ERK obviously decreased after knockdown of ITGA5 in OSCC cells.ConclusionIn summary, ITGA5 could promote the progression of OSCC via activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and it can be regarded as a potential biomarker for OSCC treatment.
       
  • Subgingival Microbiome in Chinese Patients with Generalized Aggressive
           Periodontitis Compared to Healthy Controls
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Archives of Oral BiologyAuthor(s): Xiaoxi Cui, Jianru Liu, Wenmei Xiao, Yi Chu, Xiangying Ouyang ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to profile the subgingival microbiome of Chinese adults with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) using human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM), and to compare the results with matched periodontal healthy controls.Design15 subjects with GAgP and 15 age- and gender- matched periodontal healthy controls were included. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the deepest pockets of patients with GAgP and matched sites in controls and then analyzed by 16S rRNA-based microarrays. Student's paired t-test was used to compare clinical parameters and mean number of bacterial taxa detected between the two groups. Fisher's exact probability test and Wilcoxon Rank Sum were used to compare bacterial species between all samples. A multiple linear regression model was used for correlations among age, gender and bacterial with clinical parameters.ResultsFrom a total sum of 379 strains tested, 171 bacterial strains were detected from subgingival plaques of the GAgP patients, more than the 157 strains detected in control group. Mean number of subgingival bacterial taxa detected in GAgP group was 68 (SD = 21.06) while in control group was 45 (SD = 21.60). 47 bacterial taxa were detected more frequently in GAgP group while 12 taxa were more prevalent in control group. The significantly more prevalent and abundant taxa of bacteria in GAgP group included Filifactor alocis, Desulfobulbus sp., Fretibacterium sp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromon as endodontalis, Peptostreptococcaceae spp., Parvimonas micra, Eubacterium nodatum and Eubacterium saphenum. Meanwhile the more abundant taxa in control group were Streptococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.ConclusionsThere are more taxa of bacteria in subgingival plaques of Chinese patients with GAgP than in healthy controls. Filifactor alocis, Desulfobulbus sp., Fretibacterium sp., Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with GAgP. High-throughout microbiological results may help dentists have a better understanding of subgingival microbiome of GAgP.
       
  • FimH as a mucosal adjuvant enhances persistent antibody response and
           protective efficacy of the anti-caries vaccine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2019Source: Archives of Oral BiologyAuthor(s): Zhong-Fang Liu, Jun-Lan Chen, Wu-You Li, Ming-Wen Fan, Yu-Hong Li
       
  • Evaluation of bone regeneration in a critical size cortical bone defect in
           rat mandible using microCT and histological analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Archives of Oral BiologyAuthor(s): Cynthia G. Trejo-Iriarte, Janeth Serrano-Bello, Rocío Gutiérrez-Escalona, Crisóforo Mercado-Marques, Natalio García-Honduvilla, Julia Buján-Varela, Luis Alberto Medina GoalEvaluate bone regeneration in a critical size bone defect model in the jaw of healthy rats as a function of gender and defect location.DesignA series of microCT and histological studies were performed to evaluate the process of bone regeneration in rats with a mandibular critical size defect. Rats were placed in two groups according to gender and sorted in terms of bone defect location. Bone regeneration rate and hydroxyapatite concentration were assessed with microCT imaging at specific times after surgery. Histological analysis was also performed to evaluate bone regeneration.ResultsNo more that 85% of bone regeneration was observed after 60 days, with a low rate constant (K) indicating a slow restoration of the defect. Assessment of microCT images showed partial closure of the defect in all cases, which was confirmed by histological analysis. Hydroxyapatite concentration values revealed that regenerated bone was not fully calcified. No statistically significant differences in terms of gender or defect location were found.ConclusionThe defect model studied here, located in the jaw of healthy rats, shows potential as a preclinical critical size bone defect model to evaluate bone regeneration therapies in the fields of dentistry and maxillofacial surgery.
       
  • Corrigendum to “From periodontal mechanoreceptors to chewing motor
           control: A systematic review” [Arch. Oral Biol. 78 (2017) 109–121]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2018Source: Archives of Oral BiologyAuthor(s): Grazia Piancino Maria, Isola Gaetano, Cannavale Rosangela, Cutroneo Giuseppina, Vermiglio Giovanna, Bracco Pietro, Pio Anastasi Giuseppe
       
 
 
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