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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2987 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1422 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
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Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
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Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
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Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
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Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Archives of Oral Biology
  [SJR: 0.713]   [H-I: 64]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-9969
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • Secretoneurin and PE-11 immunoreactivity in the human dental pulp
    • Authors: René Steiner; Reiner Fischer-Colbrie; Athanasia Bletsa; Johannes Laimer; Josef Troger
      Pages: 13 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 86
      Author(s): René Steiner, Reiner Fischer-Colbrie, Athanasia Bletsa, Johannes Laimer, Josef Troger
      Objective To explore whether there are differences in the concentration of the secretogranin II-derived peptide secretoneurin and the chromogranin B-derived peptide PE-11 between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulps. Furthermore, colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed to confirm the sensory origin of the peptidergic nerves in the dental pulp. Design The concentrations of secretoneurin and PE-11 were determined by highly sensitive radioimmunoassays in extracts of dental pulps, the molecular form of secretoneurin immunoreactivities by RP-HPLC with subsequent radioimmunoassay and colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed by double immunofluorescence. Results Only secretoneurin but not PE-11 was detectable by radioimmunoassays whereas nerve fibers could be made visible for both secretoneurin and PE-11. Furthermore, there was a full colocalization of secretoneurin and PE-11 with calcitonin gene-related peptide in immunohistochemical experiments. There were no differences in the concentration of secretoneurin between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulp and moreover, the characterization of the secretoneurin immunoreactivities revealed that only authentic secretoneurin was detected with the secretoneurin antibody. Conclusions There is unequivocal evidence that secretoneurin and PE-11 are constituents of the sensory innervation of the human dental pulp and although not exclusively but are yet present in unmyelinated C-fibers which transmit predominantly nociceptive impulses. Secretoneurin might be involved in local effector functions as well, particularly in neurogenic inflammation, given that this is the case despite of unaltered levels in inflamed tissue.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T16:18:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • The chemokine receptor type 4 antagonist, AMD3100, interrupts experimental
           tooth movement in rats
    • Authors: Kasumi Hatano; Yuji Ishida; Hiroyuki Yamaguchi; Jun Hosomichi; Jun-ichi Suzuki; Risa Usumi-Fujita; Yasuhiro Shimizu; Naoki Shibutani; Sawa Kaneko; Takashi Ono
      Pages: 35 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 86
      Author(s): Kasumi Hatano, Yuji Ishida, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Jun Hosomichi, Jun-ichi Suzuki, Risa Usumi-Fujita, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Naoki Shibutani, Sawa Kaneko, Takashi Ono
      Objective The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis in osteoclast accumulation, and the influence of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) under mechanical force application to periodontal tissues, by administration of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. Design The upper right first molar (M1) of rats was moved mesially with a 10-g force titanium-nickel closed coil spring. Rats were treated with phosphate-buffered saline or AMD3100 (5mg/kg), which is a SDF-1 antagonist. After 0, 1, 3, and 7days, alveolar bones in all groups were examined at each time point by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. Results Tooth movement was decreased significantly in the AMD3100-treated group at 1, 3, and 7days after beginning OTM. The numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells in the periodontal ligament around the maxillary M1 were decreased significantly in the treated as compared to the control group on Days 1 and 3. Conclusion Administration of AMD3100 decreases OTM and osteoclast accumulation in rat molars under orthodontic force application. These findings suggest that the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis plays an important role in alveolar bone metabolism during OTM.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T16:18:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Cytokine profile changes in gingival crevicular fluid after placement
           different brackets types
    • Authors: Ana Zilda Nazar Bergamo; Paulo Nelson-Filho; Cássio do Nascimento; Renato Corrêa Viana Casarin; Márcio Zaffalon Casati; Marcela Cristina Damião Andrucioli; Érika Calvano Kuchler; Daniele Lucca Longo; Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva; Mírian Aiko Nakane Matsumoto
      Pages: 79 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Ana Zilda Nazar Bergamo, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Cássio do Nascimento, Renato Corrêa Viana Casarin, Márcio Zaffalon Casati, Marcela Cristina Damião Andrucioli, Érika Calvano Kuchler, Daniele Lucca Longo, Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva, Mírian Aiko Nakane Matsumoto
      Objective The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between bracket design and ratio of five proinflammatory cytokine, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and bacterial adhesion without tooth movement influence. Design The sample was comprised of 20 participants, aged 11 to 15 years old (mean age: 13.3 years±1.03). A conventional Gemini™ metallic bracket and two self-ligating brackets, In-Ovation®R and SmartClip™, were bonded to the maxillary incisors and canines. GCF was collected using a standard filter paper strip before and 60days after bonding. The cytokine levels (IL-12, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) were performed by the LUMINEX assay. The levels of the red and orange bacterial complexes were analyzed by the Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. The data of cytokine and bacterial complexes were carried out using the non-parametric tests at 5% of significance level. Results Increased cytokine levels were observed. However, only the SmartClip™ group showed a significantly increased level of TNF-α (p=0.046). The SmartClip™ brackets group presented higher levels of red complex bacteria. Conclusions The bracket design affected cytokine levels and bacterial adhesion since it was observed that the proinflammatory cytokines released in GCF to the SmartClip™ group showed an increase in the TNF-α levels associated with higher bacterial levels, which possibly represents greater inflammatory potential. Thereby, the bracket design should be considered in patients with risk of periodontal disease and root resorption.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T16:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Multiple complex somatosensory systems in mature rat molars defined by
           immunohistochemistry
    • Authors: Margaret R. Byers; Leanne M. Cornel
      Pages: 84 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Margaret R. Byers, Leanne M. Cornel
      Objective Intradental sensory receptors trigger painful sensations and unperceived mechanosensitivity, but the receptor bases for those functions are only partly defined. We present new evidence here concerning complex endings of myelinated axons in rat molars. Design We sectioned mature rat jaws in sagittal and transverse planes to analyze neural immunoreactivity (IR) for parvalbumin, peripherin, neurofilament protein, neurotrophin receptors, synaptophysin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), or mas-related g-protein-receptor-d (Mrgprd). Results We found two complex sensory systems in mature rat molar dentin that labeled with neurofilament protein-IR, plus either parvalbumin-IR or peripherin-IR. The parvalbumin-IR system made extensively branched, beaded endings focused into dentin throughout each pulp horn. The peripherin-IR system primarily made unbeaded, fork-shaped dentinal endings scattered throughout crown including cervical regions. Both of these systems differed from neuropeptide CGRP-IR. In molar pulp we found peripherin- and parvalbumin-IR layered endings, either near special horizontal plexus arrays or in small coiled endings near tangled plexus, each with specific foci for specific pulp horns. Parvalbumin-IR nerve fibers had Aβ axons (5–7μm diameter), while peripherin-IR axons were thinner Aδ size (2–5μm). Mechano-nociceptive Mrgprd-IR was only found in peripherin-IR axons. Conclusions Complex somatosensory receptors in rat molars include two types of dentinal endings that both differ from CGRP-IR endings, and at least two newly defined types of pulpal endings. The PV-IR neurons with their widely branched, synaptophysin-rich, intradentinal beaded endings are good candidates for endodontic non-nociceptive, low threshold, unperceived mechanoreceptors. The complex molar dentinal and pulpal sensory systems were not found in rat incisors.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T16:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria and cytotoxic and
           genotoxic potential of Anacardium occidentale L. and Anadenanthera
           macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan extracts
    • Authors: Josenildo Segundo Chaves de Araújo; Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho; Andressa Brito Lira; Andréia Vieira Pereira; Tatiane Kelly Barbosa de Azevêdo; Edja Maria de Melo de Brito Costa; Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira; Hilzeth Freire Luna Pessoa; Jozinete Vieira Pereira
      Pages: 113 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Josenildo Segundo Chaves de Araújo, Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho, Andressa Brito Lira, Andréia Vieira Pereira, Tatiane Kelly Barbosa de Azevêdo, Edja Maria de Melo de Brito Costa, Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira, Hilzeth Freire Luna Pessoa, Jozinete Vieira Pereira
      Objectives The present study aimed to assess the antibacterial activity against bacteria with cariogenic relevance, toxic and genotoxic potential of the plants Anacardium occidentale L. and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Bernam. Design Using a microdilution technique, the extracts were submitted to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing against Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 903), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557), Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 7073), Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 15300) and Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 27609). The toxicity of the extracts was then verified against eukaryotic cells. Additionally, a micronucleus assay was performed to investigate the potential mutagenic effects of the extracts on rat erythrocytes. The Student’s t-test, Bonferroni test, and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s tests were used for statistical analysis, at a significance level of 5%. Results While the A. occidentale extract was able to inhibit all of the tested strains, with S. mutans and S. mitis being the most susceptible to that extract́s action, the A. macrocarpa did not show antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, the hemolytic, oxidant and antioxidant activities were slightly observed for either extract, even at high concentrations (1000mg/mL). The micronucleus assay showed no significant changes in the cells exposed to the extracts. Conclusion The A. occidentale extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent with low eukaryotic cell toxicity or mutagenic activity. The A. macrocarpa extract, although absent of antibacterial activity might as well be a safe and effective phytotherapeutic alternative.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T16:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Development and evaluation of novel biodegradable chitosan based metformin
           intrapocket dental film for the management of periodontitis and alveolar
           bone loss in a rat model
    • Authors: Deepak Kumar Khajuria; Omprakash Nandikamba Patil; David Karasik; Rema Razdan
      Pages: 120 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Deepak Kumar Khajuria, Omprakash Nandikamba Patil, David Karasik, Rema Razdan
      Objective The aim of this study was to develop a chitosan-metformin based intrapocket dental film (CMIDF) for applications in the treatment of periodontitis and alveolar bone loss in an rat model of periodontitis. Design CMIDF inserts were fabricated by the solvent casting technique. The fabricated inserts were evaluated for physical characteristics such as folding endurance, surface pH, mucoadhesive strength, metformin content uniformity, and release. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates no crystallinity of metformin in presence of chitosan which confirmed successful entrapment of metformin into the CMIDF. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed stability of CMIDF and compatibility between metformin and chitosan. Periodontitis was induced by a combination of Porphyromonas gingivalis- lipopolysaccharide injections in combinations with ligatures around the mandibular first molar. We divided rats into 5 groups (8 rats/group): healthy, untreated periodontitis; periodontitis plus CMIDF-A (1.99±0.09mg metformin; total mass-4.01±0.05mg), periodontitis plus CMIDF-B (2.07±0.06mg metformin; total mass-7.56±0.09mg), and periodontitis plus chitosan film (7.61±0.08mg). After four weeks, mandibles were extracted to evaluate alveolar bone loss by micro-computerized tomography and histological techniques. Results Alveolar bone was intact in the healthy group. Local administration of CMIDF resulted in significant improvements in the alveolar bone properties when compared to the untreated periodontitis group. The study reported here demonstrates that novel CMIDF showed good antibacterial activity and effectively reduced alveolar bone destruction in a rat model of experimental periodontitis. Conclusions Novel CMIDF showed good antibacterial activity and improved alveolar bone properties in a rat model.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T16:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Evidence for programmed odontoblast process retraction after dentine
           exposure in the rat incisor
    • Authors: A. Mahdee; J. Eastham; J.M. Whitworth; J.I. Gillespie
      Pages: 130 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): A. Mahdee, J. Eastham, J.M. Whitworth, J.I. Gillespie
      Objective To re-examine the morphology and potential functions of odontoblasts in intact rat incisors and after cavity preparation into dentine. Design Intact incisors were fixed, decalcified, snap frozen and sectioned (10μm), before staining with rhodamine phalloidin or antibodies for cyto-skeletal proteins: vimentin and actin, ion transporter: NaK-ATPase, and dendritic cell marker: OX6. Samples with cavity were processed similarly and stained for actin and vimentin before comparing the lengths of odontoblast processes (OP) at baseline, 3h and 24h (n=5 for each group). Results Actin was expressed through the full length of OP, while vimentin immunoreactivity was not uniform, with 4 distinct regions. OP showed morphological complexity with fine branches emanating within different regions of dentine. Novel actin-positive tree-like OP were identified within predentine which reduced in intensity and length toward the incisal portion of the tooth. Specimens with cavities showed time-dependant pulpal retraction of OP. Conclusions Differences in structural antibody expression suggest functional variations in OP within different regions of dentine. The role of actin positive OP in predentine is not known, but could be related to dentine deposition, cellular stability or sensing mechanisms. Cavity preparation into dentine was followed by programmed retraction of OP which could be controlled either mechanically by the spatial limitation of the OP within dentinal tubules or structurally by the presence of vimentin, in addition to actin, in the mid-dentine.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T17:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor enhances restoration of salivary glands
           impaired by obese-insulin resistance
    • Authors: Jitjiroj Ittichaicharoen; Nattayaporn Apaijai; Pongpan Tanajak; Piangkwan Sa-nguanmoo; Nipon Chattipakorn; Siriporn Chattipakorn
      Pages: 148 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Jitjiroj Ittichaicharoen, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Pongpan Tanajak, Piangkwan Sa-nguanmoo, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn Chattipakorn
      Objective Chronic high-fat diet consumption causes not only obese- insulin resistance, but also leads to pathological changes in salivary glands, including increased mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) is an oral anti-diabetic drug, using for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Vildagliptin has been shown to exert beneficial effects on several organs in cases of obese-insulin resistant condition. However, the effect of vildagliptin on salivary glands impaired by obese-insulin resistance has not been investigated. The hypothesis in this study is that vildagliptin confers beneficial effects on the salivary gland impaired by obese-insulin resistance via decreasing mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Design Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Each group was fed with either a normal (ND; n=8) or a high fat diet (HFD; n=16) for 16 weeks. At week 13, the HFD-fed rats were subdivided into 2 subgroups to receive either a vehicle or vildagliptin (3mg/kg/day) for 28days via gavage feeding. ND-fed rats were treated with the vehicle. At the end of treatment, metabolic parameters were examined, and rats were killed. Submandibular glands were removed to appraise inflammatory markers, apoptosis and mitochondrial function. Results Vehicle-treated HFD-fed rats developed obese-insulin resistance with an increase in oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the salivary glands. Vildagliptin therapy reduced oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in salivary gland of HFD-fed rats. Conclusion Vildagliptin prevented salivary gland injury occurring due to obese-insulin resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T17:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.015
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Effect of chronic stress on capsaicin-induced dental nociception in a
           model of pulpitis in rats
    • Authors: Maryam Raoof; Ehsan Ashrafganjoui; Razieh Kooshki; Mehdi Abbasnejad; Jahangir Haghani; Sara Amanpour; Mohammad-Reza Zarei
      Pages: 154 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Maryam Raoof, Ehsan Ashrafganjoui, Razieh Kooshki, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Jahangir Haghani, Sara Amanpour, Mohammad-Reza Zarei
      Objective Chronic stress can alter nociceptive sensitivity. However, the effect of stress exposure on dental nociception has been less addressed. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of chronic exposures to some social and psychological stresses on pulpal nociceptive responses. Design The stress groups were constructed as follows: forced swimming (n=6), restraint (n=6), and mild (n=10) and severe (n=15) crowding stresses. Rats were subjected to stress for 1h per day for a week. At the end of the stress session, pulp irritation was induced by intradental application of capsaicin (100μg). There were another capsaicin or capsaicin plus stress training groups that received articaine 5min before the administration of capsaicin. Nociceptive responses were recorded for 40min. The time (ins) of continuous shaking of the lower jaw and excessive grooming and rubbing of the mouth near the procedure site was measured as nociceptive behaviors. Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc Tukey’s test. Results Significant nociceptive responses were evoked by the administration of capsaicin. Exposures to forced swimming (p<0.01), restraint (p<0.001), and both mild and severe crowding stresses (p<0.05) exaggerated capsaicin-induced nociceptive reaction. There was, however, no significant difference in nociceptive reaction time between the different stress groups. Articaine buccal infiltration attenuated nociceptive time in capsaicin and capsaicin plus stress training groups (p<0.001). Conclusions The current data support the association between chronic stress exposures and nociceptive behavior following intradental capsaicin administration.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T17:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • The effects of storage time and temperature on the stability of salivary
           phosphatases, transaminases and dehydrogenase
    • Authors: Damaris Raissa dos Santos; Rayne Oliveira Souza; Layani Bertaglia Dias; Tayná Buffulin Ribas; Luis Cezar Farias de Oliveira; Doris Hissako Sumida; Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles; Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato Nakamune; Antonio Hernandes Chaves-Neto
      Pages: 160 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Damaris Raissa dos Santos, Rayne Oliveira Souza, Layani Bertaglia Dias, Tayná Buffulin Ribas, Luis Cezar Farias de Oliveira, Doris Hissako Sumida, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles, Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, Antonio Hernandes Chaves-Neto
      Objectives To investigate the influence of temperature and storage time on salivary acid phosphatase (ACP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Design Unstimulated whole expectorated saliva was collected from healthy men and women subjects (n=26) between 8 and 10a.m. The saliva samples were centrifuged, and the supernatants were measured for ACP, TRAP, ALP, AST, ALT and LDH activities immediately (without freezing) [baseline values] and after time intervals of 3, 7, 14 and 28days (d) of storage at −20°C and −80°C using spectrophotometric methods The influence of storage time was analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Dunnett post-test, while the paired Student’s-t-test was used to compare the differences between the temperature (p <0.05). Results There was significant decline in the activities of all enzymes at −20°C with increasing storage time. This decrease was relevant from day 14 onward for the majority of the enzymes, with the exception of AST. After day 28, the more sensitive enzymes were ALP and LDH, which showed residual activity of 39% and 16%, respectively, compared with baseline values. There were considerable, but insignificant changes, in the activities of all enzymes after storage at −80°C for 28days. Conclusions Frozen samples should be kept at −80°C to preserve these activities, but there are restrictions for the enzymes ALP, ALT and LDH. Storage of samples at −20°C could introduce high error variance in measured activities.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T15:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Effectiveness of three age estimation methods based on dental and skeletal
           development in a sample of young Brazilians
    • Authors: Marcelo Afonso Machado; Eduardo Daruge Júnior; Mário Marques Fernandes; Igor Felipe Pereira Lima; Graziela Oro Cericato; Ademir Franco; Luiz Renato Paranhos
      Pages: 166 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Marcelo Afonso Machado, Eduardo Daruge Júnior, Mário Marques Fernandes, Igor Felipe Pereira Lima, Graziela Oro Cericato, Ademir Franco, Luiz Renato Paranhos
      Objective This study compared three methods designed for age estimation. Methods A sample of 468 radiographs (234 panoramic and 234 carpal radiographs) collected from patients ranging from 5 to 14 years old (mean age: 11.27years old±2.27years) was used. Three age estimation methods: were applied: one founded on dental development, one founded on hand and wrist development, and a method combining both measurements. For each method, the mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean percentage of absolute error (MPAE) were quantified. The methods: were compared based on their effectiveness for estimating age in relation to sex and age range. Results The data show that the method exclusively using the development of the hand and wrist had the highest error rates (ME: 1.28M, 1.85F; MAE: 1.64M, 1.96F; RMSE: 1.94M, 2.32F) for both males (M) and females (F). In males, the method combining dental and skeletal development obtained outcomes that were slightly better than the method founded on only dental development (MPAE: 6.99% and 7.47%, respectively). In females, the opposite result was observed (MPAE: 8.48% and 6.59%, respectively). The method founded exclusively on skeletal development significantly overestimated (p=0.001) the age (mean chronological and estimated ages: 11.27 and 12.88, respectively). Conclusion The methods involving dental development provided more accurate age estimates of chronological age. The method exclusively based on hand and wrist development resulted in outcomes that were highly discrepant from the chronological age.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T15:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • L-mimosine and hypoxia enhance angiopoietin-like 4 production involving
           hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha: Insights from monolayer and spheroid
           cultures of dental pulp-derived cells and tooth slice cultures
    • Authors: Klara Janjić; Umar Alhujazy; Andreas Moritz; Hermann Agis
      Pages: 172 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Klara Janjić, Umar Alhujazy, Andreas Moritz, Hermann Agis
      Objective Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) is an angiogenesis modulating signaling factor and as such involved in blood vessel formation but also in hard tissue resorption. Here we hypothesized that the hypoxia mimetic agent L-mimosine (L-MIM) and hypoxia stimulate the production of Angptl4 in the dental pulp. Material and methods Monolayer and spheroid cultures of primary human dental pulp-derived cells (DPC) were treated with L-MIM or hypoxia. Furthermore, tooth slice cultures were performed. The production of Angptl4 was assessed at mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcription qPCR and immunoassays, respectively. To assess the involvement of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α (HIF-1signaling, inhibitor studies with echinomycin and Western Blot analysis for HIF-1α were performed in DPC monolayer cultures.(HIF-1 Results L-MIM and hypoxia increased production of Angptl4 at mRNA and protein levels in monolayer cultures of DPC. The increase of Angptl4 was paralleled by an increase of HIF-1α and inhibited by echinomycin. Angptl4 protein levels were also elevated in spheroid cultures. In tooth slice cultures, the pulp tissue expressed and released Angptl4 under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and in the presence of L-MIM. There was a trend for an increase in Angptl4 mRNA levels and a trend for a decrease in the protein levels of the supernatants. Conclusions Our results suggest that the hypoxia mimetic agent L-MIM and hypoxia can increase Angptl4 production in DPC involving HIF-1α. However, the increase in the cell culture supernatants does not translate in an increased release in tooth slice organ cultures.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T15:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of the bisphosphonate effect on stem cells derived from jaw
           bone and long bone rabbit models: A pilot study
    • Authors: Jun-Beom Park; Seung-Hyun Cho; InSoo Kim; Won Lee; Seung-Hwan Kang; Heesung Kim
      Pages: 178 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Jun-Beom Park, Seung-Hyun Cho, InSoo Kim, Won Lee, Seung-Hwan Kang, Heesung Kim
      Background and objective Bisphosphonates have been widely used and the number of patients experiencing medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) has been increasing. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of zoledronate on stem cells derived from different tissues. Design Stem cells derived from four different tissues were compared using rabbit models (JPO: periosteum from the jaw bone (mandible), JBM: bone marrow from the jaw bone, LPO: periosteum from long bone (tibia), and LBM: bone marrow from long bone). Stem cells were grown in the presence of zoledronate at final concentrations ranging from 10−6 M to 10−10 M. Morphology was viewed under an inverted microscope, and the analysis of cell proliferation was performed using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) on days 1, 2, 4, and 7. Results The CCK-8 results for LBM showed that the increase of CCK-8 values was correlated with a longer incubation time. Compared to the untreated control, growth in the presence of zoledronate at 10−10 M and 10−8 M resulted in decreased CCK-8 values for LBM on day 7 (P< 0.05). The CCK-8 results for JBM, LPO, and JPO on days 1, 2, 4, and 7 showed that the presence of zoledronate did not produce statistically significant changes compared with the untreated control. Conclusion Zoledronate in the tested concentrations from JBM, LPO, and JPO did not produce noticeable alterations in the viability of mesenchymal stem cells. This in vitro experiment suggests that the occurrence of MRONJ solely in the oral cavity is not due to differences in the cellular proliferation of stem cells in the response to zoledronate.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T15:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.024
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Three-dimensional mammalian tooth development using diceCT
    • Authors: Qamariya Nasrullah; Marilyn B. Renfree; Alistair R. Evans
      Pages: 183 - 191
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Qamariya Nasrullah, Marilyn B. Renfree, Alistair R. Evans
      Objective This study aims to develop the Diffusible Iodine-based Contrast-Enhanced CT (diceCT) method for non-destructive imaging of both soft and mineralised tissues. We sought to document the 3D spatio-temporal pattern of mammalian tooth development including multiple tooth classes and generations, using the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) as a model species. Design We took microCT scans of developing fetuses and pouch young stained using Lugol’s Iodine (I2KI) contrast agent. Stained versus unstained specimen comparisons were then made to investigate whether staining had improved visualisation of structures. Scan slices were compared to histological sections to confirm the identity of tissues and structures. Tissue layers were digitally segmented to create 3D models. Results DiceCT dramatically enhanced visual contrast of soft tissues, allowing differentiation between epithelial and mesenchymal layers. Subvolume scans at higher magnification achieved single-cell layer resolution within relatively large intact heads. We observed in-situ initiating teeth, which progressed through major stages of tooth development including morphogenesis and mineralisation. In addition, we traced the development of other mineralized and unmineralised tissues, such as the cranial bones and the brain, eye and olfactory system. Conclusions DiceCT was time- and cost-effective in producing complex 3D models of the entire dentition of the tammar wallaby at each developmental stage with tissue-level resolution. The 3D view of soft and mineralised tooth structures allowed us to define tooth class and generation from a developmental perspective. Additionally, the development of other organs can also be documented using the same scans, demonstrating the efficiency and versatility of this technique.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T15:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Presence of dental signs of congenital syphilis in pre-modern specimens
    • Authors: Stella Ioannou; Renata J. Henneberg; Maciej Henneberg
      Pages: 192 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Stella Ioannou, Renata J. Henneberg, Maciej Henneberg
      Objective Tooth morphology can vary due to genetic factors, infectious diseases and other environmental stresses. Congenital syphilis is known to interrupt tooth formation i.e. odontogenesis and amelogenesis, producing specific dental characteristics. Variation of those characteristics can occur, resulting in dental signs “not typical” of the disease, however, they are described in the 19th century literature. Past treatments of congenital syphilis with mercury also interrupted dental processes resulting in significantly different dental signs. The aim of this study is to examine the dentition of the oldest (pre 15th century) cases attributed to congenital syphilis to determine whether their dental processes have been affected by either congenital syphilis itself, its treatments (mercury) or a combination of both (syphilitic-mercurial). Design Comparisons of dental signs of congenital syphilis and its mercuric treatments as described by Hutchinson, Moon and Fournier in the 1800s and in standardised methods as established by modern studies, are made with the dentition of specimens found in archaeological sites in Mexico, Italy, Turkey and Austria dating back to the Terminal Formative Period, Classical Antiquity, Byzantine times and Middle Ages. Results The dentitions of a child from Oaxaca, Mexico, St. Pölten, Austria, and two juveniles from Classical Antiquity site Metaponto, Italy, show signs attributed to syphilis only. One adolescent from Byzantine site Nicaea, Turkey, shows dental signs characterised as syphilitic-mercurial. Conclusions Dental abnormalities observed in Mediterranean individuals match a range of signs attributable to congenital syphilis and its treatments, more so than the New World case. Therefore, it is likely that these individuals suffered from congenital syphilis.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T15:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Histamine stimulates secretion of extracellular vesicles with nucleotidase
           activity in rat submandibular gland
    • Authors: Débora Alejandra González; Martín Matías Barbieri van Haaster; Emmanuel Quinteros Villarruel; Macarena Brandt; María Belén Benítez; Graciela Mabel Stranieri; Betina Orman
      Pages: 201 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Débora Alejandra González, Martín Matías Barbieri van Haaster, Emmanuel Quinteros Villarruel, Macarena Brandt, María Belén Benítez, Graciela Mabel Stranieri, Betina Orman
      Background Extracellular vesicles released by different cells have been isolated from diverse fluids including saliva. We previously reported that rat submandibular glands secrete nanovesicles that catalyze hydrolysis of ATP, ADP and AMP, which are actors of the purinergic signaling system along with adenosine. Extracellular nucleotides like ATP and adenosine are involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and apoptosis. Histamine, a widely distributed biogenic amine, is involved in inflammatory response. Objective To test if activation of histamine receptors in rat submandibular gland promotes changes in the release of vesicles with nucleotidase activity that could modulate purinergic signaling. Methods Rat submandibular glands were incubated in the absence or presence of histamine and JNJ7777120, an antagonist for H4 receptors. Extracellular vesicles were isolated from incubation media by differential centrifugation. Vesicular nucleotidase activity was measured following Pi release by 3mM MgATP, MgADP or MgAMP. Results Histamine increased the release of vesicles with nucleotidase activity in a concentration dependent manner. JNJ7777120 significantly reduced this effect. Vesicular nucleotidases obtained in the absence or presence of histamine promoted Pi production from ATP, ADP and AMP. Conclusion The results show a relationship between histamine and the regulation of purinergic signaling, which could be important in the modulation of inflammatory processes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T16:18:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Nitric oxide and arginase levels in peri-implant tissues after delayed
           loading
    • Authors: Ceren Gokmenoglu; Nurdan Ozmeric; Caglar Sungur; Raziye Sahin Bildik; Imge Erguder; Serenay Elgun
      Pages: 207 - 211
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Ceren Gokmenoglu, Nurdan Ozmeric, Caglar Sungur, Raziye Sahin Bildik, Imge Erguder, Serenay Elgun
      Objective Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline by NO synthase (NOS). Arginase can compete with NOS for the common substrate L-arginine, and thus inhibit NO production. NO levels and arginase ezyme might affect the bone remodeling cycle around implants. The aim of this studywas to investigate NO and arginase levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF), and saliva. Materials and methods Twenty patients with one or more implants (Straumann®; Institute Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland) restored with fixed crown prostheses were included in the study. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded from six sites of each tooth and implant at baseline and at months 1, 3, and 6 after loading. The saliva, GCF, and PISF were collected at baseline and at months 1, 3, and 6 after loading. NO level and arginase enzyme were evaluated in GCF, PISF, and saliva. Results Arginase and NO levels in saliva did not change significantly from baseline to months 1, 3, and 6. However, both PISF NO and arginase levels showed an increased pattern from baseline to month 6. NO levels were significantly higher at months 3 and 6, compared to baseline, while PISF arginase levels increased significantly from baseline to months 3 and 6. Conclusion NO and arginase enzyme measurements in saliva, GCF, and PISF may be beneficial in the determination of current peri-implant tissues. In particular, PISF might provide more information than saliva.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T16:18:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.019
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Selection in mixtures of food particles during oral processing in man
    • Authors: Hilbert W. van der Glas; Esther H.-J. Kim; Anis Z. Mustapa; Wijdan R. Elmanaseer
      Pages: 212 - 225
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Hilbert W. van der Glas, Esther H.-J. Kim, Anis Z. Mustapa, Wijdan R. Elmanaseer
      Objectives Two processes underlie food comminution during chewing: (1) selection, i.e. every particle has a chance of being placed between the teeth and being subjected to (2) breakage. Selection decreases with particle number by saturation of breakage sites, and it depends on competition between smaller and larger particles for breakage sites. Theoretical models were tested which describe competition between various sizes X. In the one-way model, small particles cannot compete with larger ones because of their smaller height. In the two-way model, small particles may compete when piled between antagonistic teeth. Design Five subjects participated in one-chew experiments on cubes made of Optosil®. The critical particle number (nc(X)) at which saturation starts, and the number of breakage sites (nb(X)) were determined by varying particle numbers (nX ) for single-sized cubes of 1.7-6.8mm. Using nc(X) and nb(X), the models predicted relationships between number of selected particles (ns(X)) and nX in one-chew experiments using simple mixtures with only two sizes. A fixed number (mean 6 or 26) of larger cubes (X =6.8 or 3.4mm) was mixed with various numbers (16–1024) of smaller cubes (X =4.8, 2.4 or 1.7mm), thus varying the factors X, nX , and possible particle piling (for X <4mm). Results The one-way model was largely followed with small numbers of smaller particles and the two-way model with large numbers. Conclusions The two-way model applies to chewing a food which yields a loose aggregation of different-sized particles following an initial phase, whereas other circumstances may be favourable for the one-way model. As conditions of a food bolus can be approached by embedding hard Optosil particles in a soft medium, the models will, apart from dentistry, be of interest for controlling flavour release in food engineering.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T16:18:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Tooth damage in captive orcas (Orcinus orca)
    • Authors: John Jett; Ingrid N. Visser; Jeffrey Ventre; Jordan Waltz; Carolina Loch
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): John Jett, Ingrid N. Visser, Jeffrey Ventre, Jordan Waltz, Carolina Loch
      Objectives Tooth damage as a result of oral stereotypies is evident in captive orca, yet little research on the topic exists. This study examines the associations between dental pathology, sex, facility, duration of captivity and other factors in captive orca. Design We evaluated mandibular and maxillary teeth from dental images of 29 captive orca owned by a US-based theme park. Each tooth was scored for coronal wear, wear at or below gum line and bore holes. Fractured and missing teeth were also noted. Summary statistics described the distribution and severity of pathologies; inferential statistics examined how pathologies differed between sexes, between wild-captured and captive-born orcas and between captive orca at four facilities. We also evaluated how dental pathology and duration of captivity were related. Results Approximately 24% of whales exhibited “major” to “extreme” mandibular coronal tooth wear, with coronal wear and wear at or below gum line highly correlated. More than 60% of mandibular teeth 2 and 3 exhibited fractures. Bore holes were observed primarily among anterior mandibular teeth, with more than 61% of teeth 2 and 3 bearing evidence of having been drilled. Four of five orca with the highest age-adjusted tooth pathology indices were captive-born. Conclusions Various dental pathologies were observed across all whales, with pathologies beginning at a young age. Oral stereotypies exhibited by captive orca contributed to the observed dental damage. By making dental and health records of captive whales publicly available, the theme park industry is uniquely positioned to provide further insight into dental pathology and resultant health consequences in captive orca.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T16:38:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.031
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Overexpression of constitutively active MAP3K7 in ameloblasts causes
           enamel defects of mouse teeth
    • Authors: Zhao Jinping; Chu Qing; Song Wenying; Yang Chunyan; Xiang Lili; Shi Yao; Wang Yumin; Xu Zhenzhen; Zhang Li; Gao Yuguang
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Zhao Jinping, Chu Qing, Song Wenying, Yang Chunyan, Xiang Lili, Shi Yao, Wang Yumin, Xu Zhenzhen, Zhang Li, Gao Yuguang
      Objective Compelling evidence suggests that mitogen-activated protein kinases (Mapks) play an important role in amelogenesis. However, the role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-activating kinase 1 (Tak1, Map3k7), which is a known upstream kinase of Mapks, during amelogenesis remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of Map3k7 in amelogenesis. Design We generated transgenic mice that produced constitutively active human MAP3K7 (caMAP3K7) under the control of amelogenin (Amelx) gene promoter. Radiography and micro-computed tomography (μCT) analysis was used to detect the radio-opacity and density of the teeth. The enamel microstructure was observed with a scanning electron microscope. Histological analysis was used to observe the adhesion between ameloblasts and residual organic matrix of the enamel. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the expression of enamel matrix protein. Results The enamel of mandibular molars in caMAP3K7-overexpressing mice displayed pigmentation and a highly irregular structure compared with the wild type littermates. Teeth of transgenic animals underwent rapid attrition due to the brittleness of the enamel layer. The microstructure of enamel, normally a highly ordered arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals, was completely disorganized. The gross histological appearances of ameloblasts and supporting cellular structures, as well as the expression of the enamel protein amelotin (Amtn) were altered by the overexpression of caMAP3K7. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that protein expression, processing and secretion occurred abnormally in transgenic mice overexpressing caMAP3K7. The overexpression of caMAP3K7 had a profound effect on enamel structure by disrupting the orderly growth of enamel prisms.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T16:38:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.020
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Proanthocyanidin-enriched extracts on the inhibition of wear and
           degradation of dentin demineralized organic matrix
    • Authors: Ana Paula Boteon; Melissa Thiemi Kato; Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf; Anuradha Prakki; Linda Wang; Daniela Rios; Heitor M. Honório
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Ana Paula Boteon, Melissa Thiemi Kato, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Anuradha Prakki, Linda Wang, Daniela Rios, Heitor Marques Honório
      Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cranberry and Grape seed-enriched extract gels in inhibiting wear and degradation of demineralized organic matrix (DOM). Design 225 dentin specimens obtained from bovine incisors were randomly allocated into 5 groups (n=45): 10% Grape seed extract gel (GSE), 10% Cranberry extract gel (CE), 0.012% Chlorhexidine gel (CX), 1.23% NaF gel (F), and no active compound gel (P, placebo). Before the treatments, samples were demineralized by immersion in 0.87M citric acid, pH 2.3 (36h). Then, the studied gels were applied once over dentin for 1min. Next, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva containing collagenase obtained from Clostridium histolyticum for 5days. The response variable for dentin wear was depth of dentin loss measured by profilometry and for collagen degradation was hydroxyproline determination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test and Pearson Correlation Test (p<0.05). Results Grape seed extract significantly reduced dentin wear compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Cranberry extract and Chlorhexidine did not differ statistically and were able to reduce wear when compared to NaF and placebo treatments. The hydroxyproline analysis showed that there was no significant difference among groups for all treatments (p<0.05). Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the amount of degraded DOM evaluated by profilometry and the determination of hydroxyproline. Conclusion Cranberry extract was able to reduce the dentin wear and collagen degradation, likely due to the proanthocyanidin content and its action. Therefore, Cranberry could be suggested as an interesting natural-based agent to prevent dentin erosion.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T14:44:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.027
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Influence of age on the electromyographic fatigue threshold of the
           masseter and temporal muscles of healthy individuals
    • Authors: Lígia Franco Oliveira; Marcelo Palinkas; Paulo Batista de Vasconcelos; Isabela Hallak Regalo; Flávia Argentato Cecilio; Erica Franco Oliveira; Marisa Semprini; Selma Siéssere; Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Lígia Franco Oliveira, Marcelo Palinkas, Paulo Batista de Vasconcelos, Isabela Hallak Regalo, Flávia Argentato Cecilio, Erica Franco Oliveira, Marisa Semprini, Selma Siéssere, Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo


      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Chronic high-protein diet induces oxidative stress and alters the salivary
           gland function in rats
    • Authors: Urszula Kołodziej; Mateusz Maciejczyk; Wiesława Niklińska; Danuta Waszkiel; Małgorzata Żendzian-Piotrowska; Piotr Żukowski; Anna Zalewska
      Pages: 6 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Urszula Kołodziej, Mateusz Maciejczyk, Wiesława Niklińska, Danuta Waszkiel, Małgorzata Żendzian-Piotrowska, Piotr Żukowski, Anna Zalewska
      Objective Chronic high protein intake leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, there is no data on the impact of high-protein diet on the antioxidant barrier, oxidative stress and secretory function in the salivary glands of healthy individuals. Design 16 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n =8): normal protein (C) and high-protein diet (HP) for 8 weeks. Salivary antioxidants: peroxidase (Px), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD 1), uric acid (UA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and the oxidative stress index (OSI), as well as protein carbonyls (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE protein adduct), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and protein content were determined in the salivary glands and plasma. Salivary unstimulated and stimulated flow rates were examined. Results Parotid Px, TAS, UA, TOS, OSI, PC were significantly higher, the total protein content was statistically lower in the HP group as compared to the control. Submandibular UA, TOS, OSI, 8-isoP, 4-HNE-protein adduct, 8-OHdG were statistically elevated, SOD 1 and Px were significantly lower in the HP group as compared to the control rats. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly depressed in the HP group as compared to the controls. Conclusions Higher antioxidant capacity in the parotid glands of HP rats vs. control rats seems to be a response to a higher ROS formation. In the submandibular glands severe oxidative modification of almost all cellular components was observed. Administration of HP resulted in the weakening of the salivary gland function.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of tooth root surface area using a three-dimensional scanning
           technique and cone beam computed tomographic reconstruction in vitro
    • Authors: Tong Wang; Xibo Pei; Feng Luo; Lingling Jia; Han Qin; Xinting Cheng; Yiyuan Xue; Jian Wang; Qianbing Wan
      Pages: 13 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Tong Wang, Xibo Pei, Feng Luo, Lingling Jia, Han Qin, Xinting Cheng, Yiyuan Xue, Jian Wang, Qianbing Wan
      Objective To study the feasibility of measuring root surface area (RSA) by 3D scanning technique and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction in vitro. Design Twenty extracted teeth (10 single-rooted teeth and 10 multi-rooted teeth) were collected in this study. The RSA of the extracted teeth was measured by the membrane technique, 3D scanning technique, and CBCT reconstruction. A standard part was also designed to check the accuracy of each method. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Results According to the results of one-way ANOVA, there was no significant difference among the values of RSA measured by the three techniques (p >0.05). The results of Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test further demonstrated that there was no significant difference among the values of RSA in both single- and multi-rooted teeth measured by the three techniques (p >0.05). Conclusions The membrane technique, the 3D scanning technique, and CBCT reconstruction are novel reliable techniques for measuring the RSA in both single- and multi-rooted teeth, which will provide wide clinical applications in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • A collagen membrane containing osteogenic protein-1 facilitates bone
           regeneration in a rat mandibular bone defect
    • Authors: Manami Ozaki; Tadahiro Takayama; Takanobu Yamamoto; Yasumasa Ozawa; Mayu Nagao; Natsuko Tanabe; Akira Nakajima; Naoto Suzuki; Masao Maeno; Seiichi Yamano; Shuichi Sato
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Manami Ozaki, Tadahiro Takayama, Takanobu Yamamoto, Yasumasa Ozawa, Mayu Nagao, Natsuko Tanabe, Akira Nakajima, Naoto Suzuki, Masao Maeno, Seiichi Yamano, Shuichi Sato
      Objectives Osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) has shown osteoinductive activities and is useful for clinical treatments, including bone regeneration. Regenerative procedures using a bioabsorbable collagen membrane (BCM) are well established in periodontal and implant dentistry. We evaluated the subsequent effects of the BCM in combination with OP-1 on bone regeneration in a rat mandibular circular critical-sized bone defect in vivo. Design We used 8 rats that received surgery in both sides of the mandible, and created the total 16 defects which were divided into 4 groups: Group 1; no treatment, as a control, Group 2; BCM alone, Group 3; BCM containing low dose 0.5μg of OP-1 (L-OP-1), and Group 4; BCM containing high dose 2.0μg of OP-1 (H-OP-1). Newly formed bone was evaluated by micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analyses at 8 weeks postoperatively. In quantitative and qualitative micro-CT analyses of the volume of new bone formation, bone density, and percentage of new bone area was evaluated. Results BCM with rhOP-1 significantly increased and accelerated bone volume, bone mineral density, and percentage of new bone area compared to control and BCM alone at 8 weeks after surgery; these enhancements in bone regeneration in the OP-1-treated groups were dose-dependent. Conclusions OP-1 delivered with a BCM may have effective osteoinductive potency and be a good combination for bone regeneration. The use of such a combination device for osteogenesis may result in safer and more predictable bone regenerative outcomes in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Effect of proanthocyanidin on ultrastructure and mineralization of dentine
           collagen
    • Authors: D.J. Epasinghe; M.F. Burrow; C.K.Y. Yiu
      Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): D.J. Epasinghe, M.F. Burrow, C.K.Y. Yiu
      Objective Proanthocyanidin (PA) is a natural collagen cross-linker that has been used in dentine matrix biomodification for reparative and preventive therapies. This study evaluated the ultrastructure of collagen after its interaction with PA. Furthermore, the mineralization of PA-biomodified collagen matrix was observed. Methods Ten freshly extracted sound human molars were sectioned into 0.5mm×1.7mm×7mm beams for ultrastructural evaluation of PA and dentine matrix under Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Specimens for TEM were completely demineralized and divided into three groups according to PA treatments: deionized water, 2% PA and 6.5% PA. The specimens were fixed, dehydrated, sectioned and examined using TEM. Specimens for FESEM were lightly conditioned with EDTA and similarly divided into the three groups for observation using FESEM. Type I collagen from calf skin was used to analyse the mineral interaction after treatment with 6.5% PA. Formvar- and carbon-coated 400-mesh Ni grids (EMS, Hatfiels, PA, USA) were placed over a 2mg/mL collagen solution prepared from calf skin-derived Type I collagen to achieve self-assembly of collagen fibrils. Grids were treated with 6.5% PA and divided into two groups. One group was floated over a remineralization solution containing 20mM HEPES, 2.25mM CaCl2-2H2O, 1.35mM KH2PO4, 3.08mM NaN3 and 130mM KCl and the other group was over a CPP-ACP solution (Tooth mousse 1:100 dilution with deionized water). The floating samples were kept in a 37°C and 100% humidity chamber. Grids were taken out at selected time durations (24h, 48h and 72h for mineralization solution/24h for CPP-ACP) and observed under TEM without staining. Selected area electron diffractions (SAEDs) were performed at 110kV. Results Following treatment of demineralized dentine collagen matrix with PA, the size and number of interfibrillar spaces were reduced. The collagen fibrils aggregated together with a reduction in porosity. A characteristic banding pattern of collagen fibrils was observed under TEM. Treatment of PA-biomodified collagen fibrils with remineralization solution increased mineral aggregation along its long axis, when compared to the control group. Furthermore, treatment of PA-biomodified collagen fibrils with CPP-ACP solution enhanced mineral uptake and deposition as well as initiated apatite formation within 24h. Conclusion Proanthocyanidin alters the ultrastructure of demineralized dentine collagen matrix. The PA-biomodified collagen matrix promotes remineralization.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Effects of connective tissue growth factor on human periodontal ligament
           fibroblasts
    • Authors: Xuejing Duan; Mei Ji; Fengying Deng; Zhe Sun; Zhiyong Lin
      Pages: 37 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Xuejing Duan, Mei Ji, Fengying Deng, Zhe Sun, Zhiyong Lin
      Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts(HPLFs). Design HPLFs were cultured and identified. Then, different concentrations of CTGF (1, 5, 10, 50, 100ng/ml) were added to the HPLF culture. Next, CCK-8 assays, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays, hydroxyproline determination, alizarin red staining methods, Transwell chambers and real-time PCR methods were applied to observe the effects of CTGF on the proliferation, ALP activity, synthesis of collagen, formation of mineralized nodules and migration. We also studied expression of ALP, fiber link protein (FN), integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP), osteocalcin (OC), and integrin beta 1 (ITGB1) mRNA by HPLFs. Statistical significance was assumed if P <0.05 or P <0.01. Results The addition of CTGF (1, 5, 10ng/ml) remarkably promoted the proliferation and collagen synthesis of HPLFs compared with controls. CTGF (1, 5, 10, 50ng/ml) improved ALP activity of HPLFs, and at all concentrations, CTGF (1, 5, 10, 50, 100ng/ml) improved the expression of ALP, FN, IBSP and ITGB1 mRNA. In addition, CTGF (1, 5, 10, 50, 100ng/ml) promoted the migration of HPLFs, which was dose-dependent, with maximal promotion in the 10ng/ml group (P <0.05 or P <0.01). Conclusions Thus, in a certain range of concentrations, CTGF can promote the biological effects, including proliferation, migration and collagen synthesis of HPLFs, to promote the differentiation of HPLFs in the process of osteogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • The absence of an association between Interleukin 1β gene polymorphisms
           and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS)
    • Authors: Zuzanna Ślebioda; Anna Kowalska; Marta Rozmiarek; Ewa Krawiecka; Elżbieta Szponar; Barbara Dorocka-Bobkowska
      Pages: 45 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Zuzanna Ślebioda, Anna Kowalska, Marta Rozmiarek, Ewa Krawiecka, Elżbieta Szponar, Barbara Dorocka-Bobkowska
      Objectives Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a chronic, ulcerative disease with a probable polygenic mode of inheritance and complex etiology with a strong immunological background. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL-1β gene: IL-1β−511 T>C (rs16944) and IL-1β+3954C>T (rs1143634) and RAS susceptibility in a moderately large group of patients. Design One hundred and four patients with minor, major and herpetiform RAS and 75 healthy volunteers were genotyped at IL-1β−511 T>C (rs16944) and IL-1β+3954C>T (rs1143634) using the PCR-RFLP approach. The results were statistically analysed with chi-square test and test of difference between two rates of structure, with p<0.05 assumed to be a statistically significance level (Statistica 10, StatSoft®, Kraków, Poland). Results There were no statistically significant differences in the genotype distribution for the IL-1β C[+3954]T polymorphism between the RAS and control groups. The frequency of IL-1β*T[-511]/*T[–511] homozygotes among the patients was significantly higher when compared to our study control (p<0.0347). The results after stratification into carriers and non-carriers of C and T alleles did not clearly indicate which SNP may be considered a risk factor for RAS. Conclusions The genetic association between the studied SNPs of the IL-1β gene and RAS remains controversial and requires further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T13:25:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Dental erosion in archaeological human remains: A critical review of
           literature and proposal of a differential diagnosis protocol
    • Authors: Isabelle Coupal; Arkadiusz Sołtysiak
      Pages: 50 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Isabelle Coupal, Arkadiusz Sołtysiak
      Objective Although studies of dental wear on archaeological human remains have largely focused on mechanical wear (attrition and abrasion) in the past, chemical wear (erosion) is being increasingly identified as a separate form of wear. This paper aims to review the current state of research and to develop a protocol that may be universally used by biorchaeologists to specifically identify dental erosion. Design and results A critical review of literature has been done in order to highlight the issues related to diagnosis of dental erosion in archaeological human remains. The bodies of work based on the analysis of both modern and archaeological dentitions raise their separate problems. In addition to a need to re-evaluate symptoms of dental erosion, notably dentin ‘cupping’, it is apparent that no specific protocol is adapted from medical to archaeological sciences.
      Authors rather rely on tooth wear indices and photographs of modern clinical cases for diagnosis. Furthermore, the diagenetic chemical alternation has rarely been considered as a bias. Conclusions Here we suggest a three-step protocol: the primary method is the microscopic identification of dental erosion by SEM, followed by the exclusion of taphonomic aetiology on surrounding bone and soil pH analysis. Archaeologists should also explore possible causative agents of wear using archaeological and historic knowledge about the population being analyzed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T13:25:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • In vitro and in vivo anti-microbial activity evaluation of inactivated
           cells of Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713 against Streptococcus mutans
    • Authors: Ana I. Sañudo; Roberto Luque; Mª Paz Díaz-Ropero; Juristo Fonollá; Óscar Bañuelos
      Pages: 58 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Ana I. Sañudo, Roberto Luque, Mª Paz Díaz-Ropero, Juristo Fonollá, Óscar Bañuelos
      Objective Defining the etiology of dental caries is a complex problem. The microbiological approach has included Streptococcus mutans as one of the bacterial species involved in this disease. This research investigates the inhibitory effects of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713 against S. mutans using in vitro and in vivo assays. Design On the one hand, the effect of non-viable L. salivarius CECT 5713 on the in vitro adhesion of S. mutans to hydroxyapatite discs was evaluated. On the other hand, levels of Streptococcus mutans, amount of salivary flow and salivary pH before and after taking the rinse with the non-viable L. salivarius CECT 5713 in healthy volunteers were assessed (self-controlled open-label pilot study). Results The levels of S. mutans seemed to decrease in the in vitro and in vivo assays (p<0.05). The in vitro effect of non-viable L. salivarius was maintained until 36 months of storage. In addition, the reduction of S. mutans salivary concentration in the volunteers was statistically significant from the third day until two weeks of treatment. Conclusions Heat-inactivated L. salivarius CECT 5713 prevents S. mutans adhesion to hydroxyapatite and could be used as a strategy to reduce the salivary concentration of this oral pathogen.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T13:25:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Facial skeleton asymmetry and its relationship to mastication in the Early
           Medieval period (Great Moravian Empire, Mikulčice, 9th–10th century)
    • Authors: Alexandra Ibrová; Ján Dupej; Petra Stránská; Petr Velemínský; Lumír Poláček; Jana Velemínská
      Pages: 64 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Alexandra Ibrová, Ján Dupej, Petra Stránská, Petr Velemínský, Lumír Poláček, Jana Velemínská
      Objectives The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship of mastication and directional asymmetry (DA) of upper facial skeleton in Early Medieval sample from the Mikulčice settlement (Czech Republic). Design The settlement is divided into two burial areas of presumably different socioeconomic status: the castle and the sub-castle. The material consisted of 193 individuals (125 castle, 68 sub-castle). The relationship of facial skeleton DA and mastication was analysed by examining tooth wear and mandibular shape by means of 3D geometric morphometrics. Tooth wear of premolars and molars was evaluated using appropriate scoring systems. 3D coordinates of 35 mandibular landmarks were scanned using MicroScribe G2X digitizing system. Results The results did not reveal any significant differences in tooth wear DA or mandible DA values between burial areas or sexes. Mandibular shape, however, differed significantly between burial areas and sexes. Directional changes of mandibular landmarks supported a right chewing side preference in the sample. Significant relationship between upper facial skeleton DA and mandible DA was recorded. Conclusions Differences in subsistence between burial areas and sexes did not translate into differences in mandible DA and dental wear. However, mandibular shape analysis revealed prominence of areas affected by masticatory muscles in individuals from the castle. Higher consumption of tough material, such as meat, has been proposed as possible explanation. The right side was found to be preferential for chewing. The relationship between upper facial skeleton DA and mandible DA was concluded to be the result of the compensatory and adaptive function of mandible.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T13:25:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Simplified conditions for storing and cryopreservation of dental pulp stem
           cells
    • Authors: Nam Cong-Nhat Huynh; Son Hoang Le; Vu Nguyen Doan; Lan Thi Quynh Ngo; Ha Le Bao Tran
      Pages: 74 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Nam Cong-Nhat Huynh, Son Hoang Le, Vu Nguyen Doan, Lan Thi Quynh Ngo, Ha Le Bao Tran
      Objectives This study aimed to simplify the collection, isolation and cryopreservation procedure of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to ease the establishment of dental stem cell banking. Design Extracted third molars were collected and stored either in growth medium or in gentamicin-saline (480μg/ml) for 6, 9 or 12h. DPSCs were isolated and subjected to cryopreservation by a controlled-rate or rapid freezing method in 5 or 10% DMSO. Flow cytometry and growth pattern of DPSCs before and after cryopreservation were conducted. Results Rate of contamination by which the extracted teeth were stored in control and gentamicin-saline were 9.1% (N=33) and 2.3% (N=43), respectively. Successful cell isolation rate of teeth preserved in gentamicin-saline at 6h (92.9%) was comparable to those of growth media group (90.3%). At 9 and 12h, the rates dropped significantly to 75% and 54%, respectively. Cryopreservation by controlled-rate freezing either in 5 or 10% DMSO resulted in a significantly higher percentage of viable cells than by rapid freezing. Cells conserved by controlled-rate freezing in 5% DMSO showed a pattern of growth similar to control unfrozen cells; 10% DMSO significantly deteriorated the growth pattern of the cells. After thawing, DPSCs conserved by controlled-rate freezing still expressed stemness characteristics, although hematopoietic stem cell markers were slightly increased. Conclusion Gentamicin-saline was effective in preserving human teeth for DPSC isolation. Controlled-rate freezing in 5% DMSO gave the highest rate of cell viability. This study simplifies the storage conditions and proposes a simple method for cryopreservation of DPSCs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T13:25:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols among Lactobacillus
           isolates collected in connection with radiation therapy
    • Authors: Annica Almståhl; Helena Rudbäck; Amina Basic; Anette Carlén; Torgny Alstad
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Annica Almståhl, Helena Rudbäck, Amina Basic, Anette Carlén, Torgny Alstad
      Objective To investigate the acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols of oral Lactobacillus collected in connection with radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck region. Design Lactobacillus were collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque in 24 patients before, during, and after RT. The acid-producing capacity of Lactobacillus isolates (n=211) was analyzed using a colorimetric fermentation test in microtiter plates. Solutions containing 2% sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose) or sugar-alcohols (sorbitol and xylitol) were used. After 24h of incubation, bacterial acid-producing capacity was determined as strong (pH<5), weak (pH  ≥5–≤ 6) or low/absent (pH>6). Data regarding intake frequency of sugar-rich products and products with sugar-alcohols was collected. Results The highest acid-producing capacity using the sugars was seen for isolates collected during RT. Sorbitol was fermented to a higher extent during and post RT, especially among isolates from plaque. Lactobacillus fermenting xylitol showed the highest acid-producing capacity during RT (p<0.05). No statistically significant correlations between stimulated whole salivary secretion rate and acid-producing capacity, or between the intake frequency of sugar-rich products or sugar-alcohol containing products and Lactobacillus acid-producing capacity, were found. Conclusion The results suggest that Lactobacillus isolates, collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque, have a higher acid-producing capacity using sugars and sugar-alcohols during RT than one year post RT.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T14:44:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antibacterial activity of poly(vinyl
           
    • Authors: Gisselle M. Chávez-Andrade; Mário Tanomaru-Filho; Elisandra M. Rodrigues; Ana Lívia Gomes-Cornélio; Gisele Faria; Maria Inês B. Bernardi; Juliane M. Guerreiro-Tanomaru
      Pages: 89 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Gisselle M. Chávez-Andrade, Mário Tanomaru-Filho, Elisandra M. Rodrigues, Ana Lívia Gomes-Cornélio, Gisele Faria, Maria Inês B. Bernardi, Juliane M. Guerreiro-Tanomaru
      Objective To evaluate the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antibacterial activity of poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-PVA) and farnesol (FAR). Design The cytotoxicity (% of cell viability) was evaluated by MTT assay and the genotoxicity (% of DNA in the tail) was evaluated by Comet assay. Root canal disinfection with different irrigating protocols was evaluated ex vivo in human teeth contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis for 21days. Three microbiological samples were collected: initial (after contamination); post-irrigation (after irrigation); and final (after 7days). After each sample, the number of log 10 CFU mL−1 was determined. Statistical analyses was performed using two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc tests for MTT assay, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests for Cometa and antibacterial assays (α = 0.05). Results The MTT assay showed that AgNPs and FAR were less cytotoxic that sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and showed a lower% of DNA in the tail, in comparison with H2O2 (positive control − C+). In the post-irrigation microbiological sample, all the irrigating protocols were more effective than C+ (without irrigation). NaOCl/saline, NaOCl/saline/AgNPs-PVA and NaOCl/saline/FAR led to complete bacterial elimination (p > 0.05). In comparison with the initial sample, both the post-irrigation and the final samples showed microbial reduction (p < 0.05). Conclusions AgNPs-PVA and FAR showed low cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and exhibit potential for use as a final endodontic irrigation protocols.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T14:44:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.028
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Apoptosis induced by caffeic acid phenethyl ester in human oral cancer
           cell lines: Involvement of Puma and Bax activation
    • Authors: Hyun-Ju Yu; Ji-Ae Shin; In-Hyoung Yang; Dong-Hoon Won; Chi Hyun Ahn; Hye-Jeong Kwon; Jeong-Sang Lee; Nam-Pyo Cho; Eun-Cheol Kim; Hye-Jung Yoon; Jae Il Lee; Seong-Doo Hong; Sung-Dae Cho
      Pages: 94 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Hyun-Ju Yu, Ji-Ae Shin, In-Hyoung Yang, Dong-Hoon Won, Chi Hyun Ahn, Hye-Jeong Kwon, Jeong-Sang Lee, Nam-Pyo Cho, Eun-Cheol Kim, Hye-Jung Yoon, Jae Il Lee, Seong-Doo Hong, Sung-Dae Cho
      Objective Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural honeybee product exhibits a spectrum of biological activities including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor actions. The purpose of this research was to investigate the anticancer potential of CAPE and its molecular mechanism in human oral cancer cell lines (YD15, HSC-4 and HN22 cells). Design To determine the apoptotic activity of CAPE and identify its molecular targets, trypan blue exclusion assay, soft agar assay, Western blot analysis, DAPI staining, and live/dead assay were performed. Results CAPE significantly suppressed transformation of neoplastic cells induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) without inhibiting growth. CAPE treatment inhibited cell growth, increased the cleavages of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and augmented the number of fragmented nuclei in human oral cancer cell lines. CAPE activated Bax protein causing it to undergo a conformational change, translocate to the mitochondrial outer membrane, and oligomere. CAPE also significantly increased Puma expression and interestingly Puma and Bax were co-localized. Conclusion Overall, these results suggest that CAPE is a potent apoptosis-inducing agent in human oral cancer cell lines. Its action is accompanied by up-regulation of Bax and Puma proteins.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T14:44:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.024
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • A novel PAX9 mutation causing oligodontia
    • Authors: Eiman Mohammed Daw; Christian Saliba; Godfrey Grech; Simon Camilleri
      Pages: 100 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Eiman Mohammed Daw, Christian Saliba, Godfrey Grech, Simon Camilleri
      Introduction An extended family presenting with several members affected by developmentally missing teeth was investigated by analysis of the MSX1 and PAX9 genes. Materials and methods Saliva samples were collected and DNA extracted. Primers were designed to span the exons and intron-exon junctions of the MSX1 and PAX9 genes. These primers were optimised using gradient Polymerase Chain Reaction. The amplified fragments were sent for Sanger sequencing Results a novel heterozygote missense mutation in exon 3 of PAX9 (c.296G > C, p.A99P), was found in two severely affected members of the family as well as a potentially pathogenic heterozygote variant (c.119C > G, p.A40G) in exon 1 of the MSX1 gene. Conclusion The PAX9 A99P mutation is in the DNA binding domain and is predicted to be pathogenic.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T14:44:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Anti-inflammatory effect of an adhesive resin containing
           indomethacin-loaded nanocapsules
    • Authors: Bruna Genari; Maria Beatriz Cardoso Ferreira; Liciane Fernandes Medeiros; Joice Soares de Freitas; Stefania Giotti Cioato; Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres; Adriana Raffin Pohlmann; Silvia Stanisçuaski Guterres; Vicente Castelo Branco Leitune; Fabrício Mezzomo Collares; Susana Maria Werner Samuel
      Pages: 106 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Bruna Genari, Maria Beatriz Cardoso Ferreira, Liciane Fernandes Medeiros, Joice Soares de Freitas, Stefania Giotti Cioato, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Adriana Raffin Pohlmann, Silvia Stanisçuaski Guterres, Vicente Castelo Branco Leitune, Fabrício Mezzomo Collares, Susana Maria Werner Samuel
      Objective To analyze the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of an adhesive resin containing indomethacin-loaded nanocapsules in rat model. Design Adhesive resin disks with or without indomethacin-loaded nanocapsules were subcutaneously implanted into right hind paw of rats. A week after surgical procedure, 2% formalin solution was intradermally injected into plantar surface of paw. Nociceptive and inflammatory responses were evaluated by formalin test. Paw edema by pletismometer and mechanical hyperalgesia by von Frey test were performed on day 2, day 4, day 6, day 8, day 10 and day 12 after surgery. IL-6, IL-10, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels were determined by ELISA-sandwich test. Results Group containing indomethacin-loaded nanocapsules (NC) presented lower edema in the right hind paw at 24h after formalin injection than those of the control group (CT) (P< 0.01). NC group showed decrease in the nociceptive response in phase I (neurogenic pain) compared to CT group (NC − 66.86±22.83s X CT − 130.17±35.83s, P< 0.001). NC group presented supporting higher intensity of stimulus on days 8 and 12 (24h and 72h after formalin injection) (P <0.01 and P <0.02 respectively). The IL-6 serum level was also significantly higher in the NC group than CT group (p<0.001). Conclusions These results indicate that an adhesive resin containing indomethacin-loaded nanocapsules has anti-inflammatory and nociceptive activities in a chemical model of acute inflammation. The present investigation confirms an adhesive resin with drug-loaded nanocapsules may be useful for improving therapeutic effect for adhesives to be used in deep cavities.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T14:44:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of interleukin-10 producing CD19+ B cells in human gingival
           tissue
    • Authors: Jiayin Dai; Liangjia Bi; Jiang Lin; Feng Qi
      Pages: 112 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Jiayin Dai, Liangjia Bi, Jiang Lin, Feng Qi
      Objective This study aimed to evaluate IL-10 producing CD19+ B cells and to examine the correlation between these cells and the expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, RANKL, and IL-10 cytokines in the gingival tissues of individuals with and without chronic periodontitis. Design Data were obtained from 20 patients with chronic periodontitis and 10 healthy controls. The gingival samples were analyzed by immunofluorescence, while real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to determine cytokine levels. Results The number of IL-10 producing CD19+ B cells and the expression levels of IL-10 were significantly higher in the inflamed gingival tissues than in the healthy tissues. A positive correlation between the expression levels of IL-10 and the number of IL-10 producing CD19+ B cells were observed. IL-1β, TNF-α, and RANKL expression levels were significantly elevated in diseased gingivae compared to healthy tissues, and there was a positive correlation between the expression levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and the number of IL-10 producing CD19+ B cells. Conclusion While IL-10 producing CD19+ B cells are present in the gingival tissues of patients with periodontal disease and of those with a healthy periodontium, the diseased gingival tissues had a much greater number of these cells than the healthy. The mRNA and protein levels of IL-10, IL-1β, and RANKL, as well as mRNA levels of TNF-α, were positively correlated with the number of IL-10 producing CD19+ B cells, which highlights the importance of these factors in the development and progression of periodontitis.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T14:44:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Mechanical and hypoxia stress can cause chondrocytes apoptosis through
           over-activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress
    • Authors: Ziwei Huang; Min Zhou; Qian Wang; Mengjiao Zhu; Sheng Chen; Huang Li
      Pages: 125 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Ziwei Huang, Min Zhou, Qian Wang, Mengjiao Zhu, Sheng Chen, Huang Li
      Objective To examine the role of mechanical force and hypoxia on chondrocytes apoptosis and osteoarthritis (OA)-liked pathological change on mandibular cartilage through over-activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Methods We used two in vitro models to examine the effect of mechanical force and hypoxia on chondrocytes apoptosis separately. The mandibular condylar chondrocytes were obtained from three-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats. Flexcell 5000T apparatus was used to produce mechanical forces (12%, 0.5Hz, 24h vs 20%, 0.5Hz, 24h) on chondrocytes. For hypoxia experiment, the concentration of O2 was down regulated to 5% or 1%. Cell apoptosis rates were quantified by annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double staining and FACS analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were performed to evaluate the activation of ERS and cellular hypoxia. Then we used a mechanical stress loading rat model to verify the involvement of ERS in OA-liked mandibular cartilage pathological change. Histological changes in mandibular condylar cartilage were assessed via hematoxylin & eosin (HE) staining. Immunohistochemistry of GRP78, GRP94, HIF-1α, and HIF-2α were performed to evaluate activation of the ERS and existence of hypoxia. Apoptotic cells were detected by the TUNEL method. Results Tunicamycin, 20% mechanical forces and hypoxia (1% O2) all significantly increased chondrocytes apoptosis rates and expression of ERS markers (GRP78, GRP94 and Caspase 12). However, 12% mechanical forces can only increase the apoptotic sensitivity of chondrocytes. Mechanical stress resulted in OA-liked pathological change on rat mandibular condylar cartilage which included thinning cartilage and bone erosion. The number of apoptotic cells increased. ERS and hypoxia markers expressions were also enhanced. Salubrinal, an ERS inhibitor, can reverse these effects in vitro and in vivo through the down-regulation of ERS markers and hypoxia markers. Conclusion We confirmed that mechanical stress and local hypoxia both contributed to the chondrocytes apoptosis. Mechanical stress can cause OA-like pathological change in rat mandibular condylar cartilage via ERS activation and hypoxia existed in the meantime. Both mechanical forces and hypoxia can induce ERS and cause chondrocytes apoptosis only if the stimulate was in higher level. Salubrinal can protect chondrocytes from apoptosis, and relieve OA-liked pathological change on mandibular condylar cartilage under mechanical stress stimulation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T16:38:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • The effect of restorative materials on cytokines in gingival crevicular
           fluid
    • Authors: Neslihan Celik; Seda Askın; Mehmet Ali Gul; Nilgun Seven
      Pages: 139 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Neslihan Celik, Seda Askın, Mehmet Ali Gul, Nilgun Seven
      Objective Composition of the restorative materials may cause inflammatory responses by monocyte activation and changes in the levels of cytokine released from different cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are important cytokine for evaluating of the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the different restorative materials used in class V cavities effect on gingival crevicular fluid inflammatory cytokine levels. Design 60 individuals having Class V carious cavities participated in the study. Cavities were restored with FiltekZ250, DyractXP, Fuji IX, Cavex avalloy restorative materials. Changes in clinical and biochemical parameters were evaluated before restorations, seven and 21days after restorations. Contralateral tooth intact enamel surface was determined as control side. Periotron8000 device was used for detection of GCF volume. Cytokine level of GCF was evaluated by Human ELISA kits. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. The correlations between clinical parameters and biochemical parameters were examined by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Results After restorative treatments PI and GI scores were decreased compared with baseline evaluations. There was a significant difference in GCF levels between experimental and control sites in all groups. GCF IL-6 levels in all groups except Filtek Z250, GCF IL-8 levels in all groups except Fuji IX, GCF TNF-α level in only Fuji IX showed significant differences between experimental and control sites. Conclusions The obtained data supported that all of the tested materials caused changes in GCF cytokine levels.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T16:38:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.026
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Association of tongue brushing with the number of fungiform taste buds and
           taste perception: A preliminary study using confocal laser scanning
           microscopy in combination with a filter-paper disc method
    • Authors: Junichi Kobayashi; Takehisa Saito; Tetsufumi Ito; Hitoshi Yoshimura; Shinpei Matsuda; Hisato Yoshida; Ryousuke Fujita; Kazuo Sano
      Pages: 145 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84
      Author(s): Junichi Kobayashi, Takehisa Saito, Tetsufumi Ito, Hitoshi Yoshimura, Shinpei Matsuda, Hisato Yoshida, Ryousuke Fujita, Kazuo Sano
      Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association of tongue brushing with the number of fungiform taste buds and taste perception using a confocal laser scanning microscopy in combination with a filter-paper disc method (FPDM). Methods Twenty-four subjects with or without a habit of tongue brushing (11 males and 13 females, 20–46 years old) participated in this study. Nine of the 24 subjects had no habit of tongue brushing (Group 1, n=9). Fifteen subjects had a habit of tongue brushing, and the brushing regions of the tongue were as follows: central region (Group 2, n=7), or entire region (Group 3, n=8) of the tongue dorsum. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, the average number of taste buds per fungiform papilla (FP) was counted. Taste perception was evaluated using an FPDM. These observations were performed in the midlateral region of the tongue since the distribution of fungiform papillae is large in the midlateral region compared to that in the central region. Results The subjects in Group 3 showed a significantly decreased number of fungiform taste buds compared to Group 1 and Group 2. Group 3 also showed significantly higher FPDM scores than the other two groups. Conclusions Excessive tongue brushing of the entire tongue dorsum, including the midlateral region, may have an association with the decreased number of FP and taste buds and decreased taste sensation. To avoid these conditions, instituting proper tongue brushing methods, such as limiting it to the central region of the tongue and using a light touch, is suggested and is important for the subjects who are eager to participate in tongue brushing.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T16:38:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.09.025
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Regionally variant collagen alignment correlates with viscoelastic
           properties of the disc of the human temporomandibular joint
    • Authors: Shawn Gutman; Daniel Kim Solaiman Tarafder Sergio Velez Julia Jeong
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 86
      Author(s): Shawn Gutman, Daniel Kim, Solaiman Tarafder, Sergio Velez, Julia Jeong, Chang H. Lee
      Objective To determine the regionally variant quality of collagen alignment in human TMJ discs and its statistical correlation with viscoelastic properties. Design For quantitative analysis of the quality of collagen alignment, horizontal sections of human TMJ discs with Pricrosirius Red staining were imaged under circularly polarized microscopy. Mean angle and angular deviation of collagen fibers in each region were analyzed using a well-established automated image-processing for angular gradient. Instantaneous and relaxation moduli of each disc region were measured under stress-relaxation test both in tensile and compression. Then Spearman correlation analysis was performed between the angular deviation and the moduli. To understand the effect of glycosaminoglycans on the correlation, TMJ disc samples were treated by chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC). Results Our imaging processing analysis showed the region-variant direction of collagen alignment, consistently with previous findings. Interestingly, the quality of collagen alignment, not only the directions, was significantly different in between the regions. The angular deviation of fiber alignment in the anterior and intermediate regions were significantly smaller than the posterior region. Medial and lateral regions showed significantly bigger angular deviation than all the other regions. The regionally variant angular deviation values showed statistically significant correlation with the tensile instantaneous modulus and the relaxation modulus, partially dependent on C-ABC treatment. Conclusion Our findings suggest the region-variant degree of collagen fiber alignment is likely attributed to the heterogeneous viscoelastic properties of TMJ disc that may have significant implications in development of regenerative therapy for TMJ disc.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T16:18:10Z
       
  • Risk factors for tooth loss in middle and older age after up to 10 years:
           An observational cohort study
    • Authors: Alexander Jochen Hassel; Volkan Safaltin; Sabine Grill; Johannes Schröder; Hans-Werner Wahl; Anna-Luisa Klotz; Edriss Habibi; Peter Rammelsberg; Andreas Zenthöfer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology
      Author(s): Alexander Jochen Hassel, Volkan Safaltin, Sabine Grill, Johannes Schröder, Hans-Werner Wahl, Anna-Luisa Klotz, Edriss Habibi, Peter Rammelsberg, Andreas Zenthöfer
      Objective The objective of this research was to identify risk factors for tooth loss in two older birth cohorts, quinquagenarians and septuagenarians, after up to 10 years of clinical observation. Design One hundred and twenty-three participants were recruited from the Interdisciplinary Study of Adult Development (ILSE) and examined at baseline and up to 10 years after. Thirty-nine and 84 participants belonged to the older (OC; born in 1930/32) cohort and younger (YC; born in 1950/52) cohort, respectively. Each participant underwent a dental examination comprising evaluation of the dental status (number of teeth, prosthetic restorations), Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), DMF-S, periodontal probing depths (PD) and tooth mobility (TM). Incidence of tooth loss over the study period was calculated for both cohorts as well as for the grouped dental target variables. A logistic regression model for tooth loss (0=tooth present/1=tooth lost) was compiled with possible binary confounders. Results During the study period, 1.2 (1.9) and 2.6 (2.6) teeth were lost in YC and OC, respectively, reflecting correspondent loss rates of 5% and 14% (p<0.001). However, primarily TM >1 merged into substantial tooth loss (60%). The regression analysis confirmed the bivariate findings. Middle- and older-aged people, quinquagenarians and septuagenarians, show relevant tooth loss. Older age and worse oral health issues were identified as risk factors for tooth loss (p<0.007). Conclusions The predominant predictor of tooth loss seems to be tooth mobility. With the rising challenges due to aging in several societies, knowing the risks might help clinicians when weighing treatment strategies and should encourage refining preventive measures for older patients.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T15:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.11.001
       
  • Aims &amp; Scope/Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 84


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T17:23:15Z
       
  • Role of PDGF-BB in proliferation, differentiation and maintaining stem
           cell properties of PDL cells in vitro
    • Authors: Zornitsa Mihaylova; Rozaliya Tsikandelova Pavel Sanimirov Natalia Gateva Vanyo Mitev
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Zornitsa Mihaylova, Rozaliya Tsikandelova, Pavel Sanimirov, Natalia Gateva, Vanyo Mitev, Nikolay Ishkitiev
      Objective Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is one of the most abundant growth factors in platelet derived products and has been shown to stimulate regeneration after tissue injury. There is a population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in human periodontal ligament (PDL) which can contribute to tissue regeneration under appropriate conditions. Design PDL cells were isolated and characterized using stem cell and differentiation markers via immunofluorescence and flow cytometry and then cultured in vitro and treated with different concentrations of PDGF-BB. The effect of PDGF-BB on cell proliferation, stem cell and differentiation markers expression, soluble collagen production, lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium nodules formation was assessed. Results PDGF-BB stimulated the proliferation of cells with the maximum effect at 50ng/mL. The growth factor increased the expression of stem cell markers and SPARC; Col1a2 expression was decreased, whereas the expression of Col3a1 remain unchanged. Soluble collagen production, ALP activity and calcium nodules formation were also significantly decreased by PDGF-BB; LOX activity was significantly increased. Conclusions PDGF-BB is a powerful promoter of cell proliferation and increases the expression of stem cell markers; inhibites collagen production and mineraliration but accelerates the maturation of collagen chains through increased LOX activity and SPARC expression.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T16:38:28Z
       
  • A dual energy micro-CT methodology for visualization and quantification of
           biofilm formation and dentin demineralization
    • Authors: Paula Maciel; Pires Thais Pires dos Santos Andrea Matheus Melo
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Paula Maciel Pires, Thais Pires dos Santos, Andrea Fonseca-Gonçalves, Matheus Melo Pithon, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, Aline de Almeida Neves
      Objective The aim of this study was to induce artificial caries in human sound dentin by means of a microcosm model using human saliva as source of bacteria and to apply a novel dual-energy micro-CT technique to quantify biofilm formation and evaluate its demineralization potential. Design Eight sound third molars had the occlusal enamel removed by cutting with a diamond disk and five cylindrical cavities (±2mm diameter; ±1.5mm depth) were prepared over the dentin surface in each specimen (n=40 cavities). After sterilization, each specimen received the bacterial salivary inoculum obtained from individuals without any systemic diseases presenting dentin caries lesions and were incubated in BHI added of with 5% sucrose for 96h to allow biofilm formation. After that, two consecutive micro-CT scans were acquired from each specimen (40kv and 70kv). Reconstruction of the images was performed using standardized parameters. After alignment, registration, filtering and image calculations, a final stack of images containing the biofilm volume was obtained from each prepared cavity. Dentin demineralization degree was quantified by comparison with sound dentin areas. All data were analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk test and Spearman correlation using α=5%. Results Dual-energy micro-CT technique disclosed biofilm formation in all cavities. Biofilm volume inside each cavity varied from 0.30 to 1.57mm3. A positive correlation between cavity volume and volume of formed biofilm was obtained (0.77, p<0.01). The mineral decrease obtained in dentin was high (±90%) for all cavities and all demineralized areas showed mineral density values lower than a defined threshold for dentin caries (1.2g/cm3). Conclusion Dual-energy micro-CT technique was successful in the quantification of a microcosm human bacterial biofilm formation and to quantify its demineralization potential in vitro.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T16:38:28Z
       
  • EZH2 regulates dental pulp inflammation by direct effect on inflammatory
           factors
    • Authors: Tianqian Hui; Peng Yuan Zhao Jing Yang Ling Chenglin Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 85
      Author(s): Tianqian Hui, Peng A., Yuan Zhao, Jing Yang, Ling Ye, Chenglin Wang
      Objective Pulpitis is a multi-factorial disease that could be caused by complex interactions between genetics, epigenetics and environmental factors. We aimed to evaluate the role of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) in the inflammatory response of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and dental pulp tissues. Methods The expressions of inflammatory cytokines in HDPCs treated by EZH2 complex or EZH2 siRNA with or without rhTNF-α were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). The levels of secreted inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, CCL2 and CXCL12 in culture supernatants were measured by Luminex assay. In rat pulpitis model, the effects of EZH2 on dental pulp tissues were verified by histology. We invested the mechanisms of the effect of EZH2 on the inflammatory factors by ChIP assay. Results EZH2 down-regulation inhibited the expression of inflammatory factors, including IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, CCL2 and CXCL12 in HDPCs. EZH2 complex promoted the expression and secretion of these inflammatory factors in HDPCs, while EZH2 silencing could attenuate the promotion of inflammatory factors that were induced by rhTNF-α. In pulpitis models of rats, EZH2 down-regulation inhibited the inflammatory process of dental pulp while EZH2 complex showed no significant facilitation of pulpal inflammation. In addition, EZH2 could bind on the promoters of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2, but not IL-15 and CXCL12, to affect the transcription of these proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusions In HDPCs, EZH2 could induce inflammation, while EZH2 down-regulation could attenuate the inflammatory responses. EZH2 plays an important role in this inflammatory process of dental pulp.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T16:38:28Z
       
 
 
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