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BIOLOGY (1423 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 286)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Archives of Microbiology
  [SJR: 0.702]   [H-I: 85]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-072X - ISSN (Online) 0302-8933
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • New advances in exopolysaccharides production of Streptococcus
    • Authors: Yanhua Cui; Xu Jiang; Mengyuan Hao; Xiaojun Qu; Tong Hu
      Pages: 799 - 809
      Abstract: Streptococcus thermophilus is the most important thermophilic dairy starter, and is widely used in the dairy industry. Streptococcus thermophilus exopolysaccharides received wide attention over recent decades, because they can improve the properties of the dairy product and confer beneficial health effects. The understanding of the regulatory and biosynthetic mechanisms of EPS will improve the EPS biosynthesis, increase the productivity of EPSs, and develop EPSs with desirable properties. The structure of EPSs is the focus of this study. Revealing the structure–function relationship can lead to increase the knowledge base and from there to increased research of EPS. The EPS yield is a key limiting factor in the research and utilization of EPS. In the present review, biosynthetic pathways and genetics of S. thermophilus EPSs were described and reviewed. At the same time, functional properties and applications of EPS, and strategies for enhancement of EPS production are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1366-1
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Current pathogenic Escherichia coli foodborne outbreak cases and therapy
    • Authors: Shih-Chun Yang; Chih-Hung Lin; Ibrahim A. Aljuffali; Jia-You Fang
      Pages: 811 - 825
      Abstract: Food contamination by pathogenic microorganisms has been a serious public health problem and a cause of huge economic losses worldwide. Foodborne pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination, such as that with E. coli O157 and O104, is very common, even in developed countries. Bacterial contamination may occur during any of the steps in the farm-to-table continuum from environmental, animal, or human sources and cause foodborne illness. To understand the causes of the foodborne outbreaks by E. coli and food-contamination prevention measures, we collected and investigated the past 10 years’ worldwide reports of foodborne E. coli contamination cases. In the first half of this review article, we introduce the infection and symptoms of five major foodborne diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes: enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (STEC/EHEC), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). In the second half of this review article, we introduce the foodborne outbreak cases caused by E. coli in natural foods and food products. Finally, we discuss current developments that can be applied to control and prevent bacterial food contamination.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1393-y
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Metabolic determinants in Listeria monocytogenes anaerobic listeriolysin O
    • Authors: Nathan Wallace; Eric Newton; Elizabeth Abrams; Ashley Zani; Yvonne Sun
      Pages: 827 - 837
      Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes is a human pathogen and a facultative anaerobe. To better understand how anaerobic growth affects L. monocytogenes pathogenesis, we first showed that anaerobic growth led to decreased growth and changes in surface morphology. Moreover, compared to aerobically grown bacteria, anaerobically grown L. monocytogenes established higher level of invasion but decreased intracellular growth and actin polymerization in cultured cells. The production of listeriolysin O (LLO) was significantly lower in anaerobic cultures—a phenotype observed in wild type and isogenic mutants lacking transcriptional regulators SigB or CodY or harboring a constitutively active PrfA. To explore potential regulatory mechanisms, we established that the addition of central carbon metabolism intermediates, such as acetate, citrate, fumarate, pyruvate, lactate, and succinate, led to an increase in LLO activity in the anaerobic culture supernatant. These results highlight the regulatory role of central carbon metabolism in L. monocytogenes pathogenesis under anaerobic conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1355-4
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Changes in bacterial diversity associated with bioremediation of used
           lubricating oil in tropical soils
    • Authors: Naruemon Meeboon; Mary-Cathrine Leewis; Sireewan Kaewsuwan; Suppasil Maneerat; Mary Beth Leigh
      Pages: 839 - 851
      Abstract: Used lubricating oil (ULO) is a widespread contaminant, particularly throughout tropical regions, and may be a candidate for bioremediation. However, little is known about the biodegradation potential or basic microbial ecology of ULO-contaminated soils. This study aims to determine the effects of used ULO on bacterial community structure and diversity. Using a combination of culture-based (agar plate counts) and molecular techniques (16S rRNA gene sequencing and DGGE), we investigated changes in soil bacterial communities from three different ULO-contaminated soils collected from motorcycle mechanical workshops (soil A, B, and C). We further explored the relationship between bacterial community structure, physiochemical soil parameters, and ULO composition in three ULO-contaminated soils. Results indicated that the three investigated soils had different community structures, which may be a result of the different ULO characteristics and physiochemical soil parameters of each site. Soil C had the highest ULO concentration and also the greatest diversity and richness of bacteria, which may be a result of higher nutrient retention, organic matter and cation exchange capacity, as well as freshness of oil compared to the other soils. In soils A and B, Proteobacteria (esp. Gammaproteobacteria) dominated the bacterial community, and in soil C, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes dominated. The genus Enterobacter, a member of the class Gammaproteobacteria, is known to include ULO-degraders, and this genus was the only one found in all three soils, suggesting that it could play a key role in the in situ degradation of ULO-contaminated tropical Thai soils. This study provides insights into our understanding of soil microbial richness, diversity, composition, and structure in tropical ULO-contaminated soils, and may be useful for the development of strategies to improve bioremediation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1356-3
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Boosting the growth of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei ssp.
           paracasei F19
    • Authors: Desideria Brignone; Pia Radmann; Jürgen Behr; Rudi F. Vogel
      Pages: 853 - 862
      Abstract: Single so-called booster substances were added to the fermentation medium of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus (L.) paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 to enhance its growth. A wide screening was carried out in microtiter plates and a statistical analysis of the growth parameters was performed. CFU counts were used to correlate the increase in OD590nm with the increase in viable cell number. Sodium ascorbate, sodium pyruvate, manganese sulfate and cysteine had a remarkable boosting effect on the growth of L. paracasei F19. Three of the boosters increased the growth rate of the strain and led to a higher cell density and biomass yield in laboratory conditions. Cysteine significantly shortened the lag phase, therefore reducing the fermentation times. The boosters were tested on four additional Lactobacillus species and their growth boosting activity was retained. To investigate whether the growth boosters could improve the tolerance of L. paracasei F19 to the adverse condition in the GI tract, additional tests were performed. Sodium ascorbate and sodium pyruvate exerted a certain antioxidant effect, as they improved the tolerance of L. paracasei F19 to H2O2. Sodium ascorbate enhanced the growth of the strain in low pH.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1352-7
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Development and nitrate reductase activity of sugarcane inoculated with
           five diazotrophic strains
    • Authors: Silvana Gomes dos Santos; Flaviane da Silva Ribeiro; Camila Sousa da Fonseca; Willian Pereira; Leandro Azevedo Santos; Veronica Massena Reis
      Pages: 863 - 873
      Abstract: Diazotrophs are able to stimulate plant growth. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of inoculation of five diazotrophic strains on growth promotion and nitrate reductase (NR, EC activity in sugarcane. An experiment was carried out from three stages of cultivation: sprouting, tubes, and in hydroponics. On the first two stages, seven treatments were adopted: uninoculated control; mixed inoculation with five strains; and individual inoculation with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (Gd), Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans (Hr), Herbaspirillum seropedicae (Hs), Nitrospirillum amazonense (Na), and Paraburkholderia tropica (Pt). The four treatments showing the best performance were transferred to the hydroponic system for analysis of NR activity. Hs, Pt, and the mixture of all strains led to the highest seedling biomass in tubes, followed by Hr. In hydroponics, the mixture and the strain Hr had the highest growth-promoting effect. NR activity was influenced by inoculation only under low N supply conditions, with positive effect of Hr, Pt, and the mixture.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1357-2
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for the spatial and temporal
           expression of actIII in Streptomyces coelicolor
    • Authors: Fernando Santos-Beneit; Jeff Errington
      Pages: 875 - 880
      Abstract: Polyketides constitute a large group of structurally diverse natural products with useful biological activities. Insights into their biosynthetic mechanisms are crucial for developing new structures. One of the most studied model polyketide is the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin, produced by Streptomyces coelicolor. This aromatic polyketide is synthesized by minimal type II polyketide synthases and tailoring enzymes. The ActIII actinorhodin ketoreductase is a key tailoring enzyme in actinorhodin biosynthesis. Previous papers have reported contradictory findings for localization of the protein in the cytoplasmic fraction or associated with the cell wall. We have now used green fluorescent protein as a reporter to analyse the spatial and temporal expression of actIII (SCO5086) in S. coelicolor under actinorhodin producing and non-producing conditions. We provide evidence in support of ActIII being a cytosolic protein, with limited if any association with the membrane or cell wall.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1358-1
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Effect of Anaerobiasis or Hypoxia on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Inhibition of
           Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilm
    • Authors: Rajesh Anand; Karl V. Clemons; David A. Stevens
      Pages: 881 - 890
      Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) are the major bacterial and fungal pathogens in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This is likely related to their ability to form biofilms. Both microbes have been associated with CF disease progression. The interplay between these two pathogens has been studied under aerobic conditions, though accumulating data indicates that much of the CF airway is hypoxic or anaerobic. We studied the microbial interaction in these latter environments. Pa is an aggressor against Af forming biofilm or as established Af biofilm, whether Pa is cultivated in aerobic, hypoxic, or anaerobic conditions, or tested in aerobic or hypoxic conditions. Pa cells are generally more effective than planktonic or biofilm culture filtrates. Pa growth is less in anaerobic conditions, and filtrates less effective after anaerobic or hypoxic growth, or against hypoxic Af. These, and other comparisons shown, indicate that Pa would be less effective in such environments, as would be the case in a CF mucus plug. These observations would explain why Pa becomes established in CF airways before Af, and why Af may persist during disease progression.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1362-5
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • IS CR 2 is associated with the dissemination of multiple resistance genes
           among Vibrio spp. and Pseudoalteromonas spp. isolated from farmed fish
    • Authors: Yixiang Xu; Chao Wang; Gang Zhang; Jingjing Tian; Ying Liu; Xihui Shen; Jie Feng
      Pages: 891 - 896
      Abstract: 58 multiresistant strains representing diverse genera were isolated from farmed fish in an aquaculture facility. Resistant rates of strains harboring ISCR2, an insertion sequence type element, were higher than those in which this element was absent. Full genome sequencing of a Vibrio isolate containing ISCR2 confirmed that it is associated with multiple resistance genes, many of which are of clinical relevance. We describe the structural variation within ISCR2, and its distribution throughout multiple diverse aquatic genera, including Vibrio, Shewenalla, Pseudoalteromonas and Psychrobacter, suggesting the potential role of ISCR2 in disseminating antibiotic resistance. We also observe, and experimentally verify, a novel macrolide resistance gene that is also associated with ISCR2.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1365-2
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Quorum quenching properties of Actinobacteria isolated from Malaysian
           tropical soils
    • Authors: Kavimalar Devaraj; Geok Yuan Annie Tan; Kok-Gan Chan
      Pages: 897 - 906
      Abstract: In this study, a total of 147 soil actinobacterial strains were screened for their ability to inhibit response of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 to short chain N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) which is a quorum sensing molecule. Of these, three actinobacterial strains showed positive for violacein inhibition. We further tested these strains for the inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes, namely, swarming and pyocyanin production. The three strains were found to inhibit at least one of the quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes of PAO1. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these strains belong to the genera Micromonospora, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces. This is the first report presenting quorum quenching activity by a species of the genus Micromonospora. Our data suggest that Actinobacteria may be a rich source of active compounds that can act against bacterial quorum sensing system.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1371-4
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Insights into metabolism and sodium chloride adaptability of carbaryl
           degrading halotolerant Pseudomonas sp. strain C7
    • Authors: Vikas D. Trivedi; Anahita Bharadwaj; Madhushri S. Varunjikar; Arminder K. Singha; Priya Upadhyay; Kamini Gautam; Prashant S. Phale
      Pages: 907 - 916
      Abstract: Pseudomonas sp. strain C7 isolated from sediment of Thane creek near Mumbai, India, showed the ability to grow on glucose and carbaryl in the presence of 7.5 and 3.5% of NaCl, respectively. It also showed good growth in the absence of NaCl indicating the strain to be halotolerant. Increasing salt concentration impacted the growth on carbaryl; however, the specific activity of various enzymes involved in the metabolism remained unaffected. Among various enzymes, 1-naphthol 2-hydroxylase was found to be sensitive to chloride as compared to carbaryl hydrolase and gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. The intracellular concentration of Cl− ions remained constant (6–8 mM) for cells grown on carbaryl either in the presence or absence of NaCl. Thus the ability to adapt to the increasing concentration of NaCl is probably by employing chloride efflux pump and/or increase in the concentration of osmolytes as mechanism for halotolerance. The halotolerant nature of the strain will be beneficial to remediate carbaryl from saline agriculture fields, ecosystems and wastewaters.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1363-4
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Functional characterization and transcriptional analysis of icd2 gene
           encoding an isocitrate dehydrogenase of Xanthomonas campestri s pv.
    • Authors: Ying-Chuan Chiang; Chao-Tsai Liao; Shin-Chiao Du; Yi-Min Hsiao
      Pages: 917 - 929
      Abstract: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate. In the genome of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the phytopathogen that causes black rot in cruciferous plants, two putative IDH genes, icd1 and icd2, have been annotated. Their physiological roles in X. campestris pv. campestris are unclear. In this study, the icd2 gene from X. campestris pv. campestris was characterized in detail. We demonstrated genetically that icd2 gene encodes a functional IDH, and is involved in virulence as well as bacterial attachment. Furthermore, the icd2 transcription initiation site was mapped at nucleotide G, 127 nucleotide upstream of the icd2 translation start codon. In addition, promoter analysis revealed that icd2 expression exhibits a distinct expression profile under different culture conditions, is subjected to catabolite repression, and is affected by acetate. This is the first time that the function and transcription of icd2 have been characterized in the crucifer pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1370-5
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • CalR is required for the expression of T6SS2 and the adhesion of Vibrio
           parahaemolyticus to HeLa cells
    • Authors: Lingyu Zhang; George Osei-Adjei; Ying Zhang; He Gao; Wenhui Yang; Dongsheng Zhou; Xinxiang Huang; Huiying Yang; Yiquan Zhang
      Pages: 931 - 938
      Abstract: Vibrio parahaemolyticus expresses one major virulence determinant T6SS2, which is constituted into three putative operons, i.e., VPA1027-1024, VPA1043-1028, and VPA1044-1046. CalR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, was originally identified as a repressor of the swarming motility and T3SS1 gene expression. As shown in this study, CalR binds to the promoter-proximal region of each of the three operons to activate their transcription, and moreover, CalR activates the adhesion of V. parahaemolyticus to HeLa cells. In addition, competitive EMSAs demonstrated that CalR acts as an antagonist of H–NS in V. parahaemolyticus. Collectively, these studies confirmed a new physiological role for CalR in V. parahaemolyticus.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1361-6
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Molecular analysis and biochemical characteristics of degenerated strains
           of Cordyceps militaris
    • Authors: Shu-Jing Sun; Chang-Huan Deng; Liao-Yuan Zhang; Kai-Hui Hu
      Pages: 939 - 944
      Abstract: Cordyceps militaris has commercially been cultivated, but its degenerated subcultures have gradually resulted in the reduced production. In this study, the biological characteristics and DNA change of degenerated strains of C. militaris were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the degenerated strains exhibited the lower growth rate, and the deficiency in fruit body formation and pigment production. The degradation of strains was not attributable to DNA changes identified by RAPD and SRAP. Compared to normal strains, the biochemical indexes of degradation strains and normal strains showed that the carotenoid content of degradation strains was significantly lower, the activities of cellulase and amylase of degradation strains were slight lower, and the EPS content was lower, but the IPS was higher. All these results suggested that the degradation of C. militaris may be caused by the inhibition or in harmony of metabolite synthesis involved in the metabolic regulation, which should be further verified.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1359-0
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • l -Threonine and its analogue added to autoclaved solid medium suppress
           trichothecene production by Fusarium graminearum
    • Authors: Kazuyuki Maeda; Yuichi Nakajima; Yoshikazu Tanahashi; Yoshiyuki Kitou; Akihiro Miwa; Kyoko Kanamaru; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Takumi Nishiuchi; Makoto Kimura
      Pages: 945 - 952
      Abstract: Fusarium graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins under certain nutritional conditions. When l-Thr and its analogue l-allo-threonine were added to brown rice flour solid medium before inoculation, trichothecene production after 4 days of incubation was suppressed. A time-course analysis of gene expression demonstrated that l-Thr suppressed transcription of Tri6, a trichothecene master regulator gene, and a terpene cyclase Tri5 gene. Regulation of trichothecene biosynthesis by altering major primary metabolic processes may open up the possibility to develop safe chemicals for the reduction of mycotoxin contamination might be developed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1364-3
      Issue No: Vol. 199, No. 6 (2017)
  • Variability of composition and effects of essential oils from Rhanterium
           adpressum Coss. & Durieu against mycotoxinogenic Fusarium strains
    • Authors: Fatiha Elhouiti; Djilali Tahri; Djalila Takhi; Mohamed Ouinten; Christian Barreau; Marie-Noëlle Verdal-Bonnin; Isabelle Bombarda; Mohamed Yousfi
      Abstract: The antifungal potency of the essential oils of Rhanterium adpressum was evaluated against four mycotoxigenic strains of the genus Fusarium. The essential oils were obtained, separately, by hydro-distillation of the aerial parts of R. adpressum (leaves and flowers). The parts were collected during the period of bloom (3 months) for 3 years. The GC–MS analysis revealed thirty-six compounds for the essential oils, divided into four classes of chemical compounds, with variable percentages according to the month of extraction. The monoterpene hydrocarbons form the main class in these oils. On the other hand, the highest percentages of the oxygenated compounds are observed in the samples collected during the month of May. The direct contact method was used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oils. The activity can be attributed to their relatively high composition of oxygenated monoterpenes. Flowers extract showed strong inhibitory activity, with very interesting concentrations of IC50 and MIC for both tests on solid and liquid medium. The effect of these oils on the production of type B trichothecenes (TCTBs) was evaluated, showing a significant inhibitory effect on TCTBs production, for both extracts (leaves and flowers). The rates of inhibition were 66–97 and 76–100% of FX, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, respectively. The inhibition of fungal biomass and the production of TCTBs depended on the used concentration of the essential oils. These results suggest that the essential oils from R. adpressum are able to control the growth of the tested strains and their subsequent production of TCTB mycotoxins.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1404-z
  • Pseudomonas aestus sp. nov., a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated
           from mangrove sediments
    • Authors: Rafael L. F. Vasconcellos; Suikinai Nobre Santos; Tiago Domingues Zucchi; Fábio Sérgio Paulino Silva; Danilo Tosta Souza; Itamar Soares Melo
      Abstract: Strain CMAA 1215T, a Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, catalase positive, polarly flagellated, motile, rod-shaped (0.5–0.8 × 1.3–1.9 µm) bacterium, was isolated from mangrove sediments, Cananéia Island, Brazil. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CMAA 1215T forms a distinct phyletic line within the Pseudomonas putida subclade, being closely related to P. plecoglossicida ATCC 700383T, P. monteilii NBRC 103158T, and P. taiwanensis BCRC 17751T of sequence similarity of 98.86, 98.73, and 98.71%, respectively. Genomic comparisons of the strain CMAA 1215T with its closest phylogenetic type strains using average nucleotide index (ANI) and DNA:DNA relatedness approaches revealed 84.3–85.3% and 56.0–63.0%, respectively. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) performed concatenating 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB gene sequences from the novel species was related with Pseudomonas putida subcluster and formed a new phylogenetic lineage. The phenotypic, physiological, biochemical, and genetic characteristics support the assignment of CMAA 1215T to the genus Pseudomonas, representing a novel species. The name Pseudomonas aestus sp.nov. is proposed, with CMAA 1215T (=NRRL B-653100T = CBMAI 1962T) as the type strain.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1410-1
  • Conservation of Erwinia amylovora pathogenicity-relevant genes among
           Erwinia genomes
    • Authors: Luigimaria Borruso; Marco Salomone-Stagni; Ivan Polsinelli; Armin Otto Schmitt; Stefano Benini
      Abstract: The Erwinia genus comprises species that are plant pathogens, non-pathogen, epiphytes, and opportunistic human pathogens. Within the genus, Erwinia amylovora ranks among the top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria. It causes the fire blight disease and is a global threat to commercial apple and pear production. We analyzed the presence/absence of the E. amylovora genes reported to be important for pathogenicity towards Rosaceae within various Erwinia strains genomes. This simple bottom-up approach, allowed us to correlate the analyzed genes to pathogenicity, host specificity, and make useful considerations to drive targeted studies.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1409-7
  • Quorum sensing molecules production by nosocomial and soil isolates
           Acinetobacter baumannii
    • Authors: Demet Erdönmez; Abbas Yousefi Rad; Nilüfer Aksöz
      Abstract: Acinetobacter species remain alive in hospitals on various surfaces, both dry and moist, forming an important source of hospital infections. These bacteria are naturally resistant to many antibiotic classes. Although the role of the quorum sensing system in regulating the virulence factors of Acinetobacter species has not been fully elucidated, it has been reported that they play a role in bacterial biofilm formation. The biofilm formation helps them to survive under unfavorable growth conditions and antimicrobial treatments. It is based on the accumulation of bacterial communication signal molecules in the area. In this study, we compared the bacterial signal molecules of 50 nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii strain and 20 A. baumannii strain isolated from soil. The signal molecules were detected by the biosensor bacteria (Chromobacterium violaceum 026, Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL1) and their separation was determined by thin-layer chromatography. As a result, it has been found that soil-borne isolates can produce 3-oxo-C8-AHL and C8-AHL, whereas nosocomial-derived isolates can produce long-chain signals such as C10-AHL, C12-AHL, C14-AHL and C16-AHL. According to these results, it is possible to understand that these signal molecules are found in the infection caused by A. baumannii. The inhibition of this signaling molecules in a communication could use to prevent multiple antibiotic resistance of these bacteria.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1408-8
  • Engineered Cry1Ac-Cry9Aa hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin
           with improved insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera
    • Authors: Jigar V. Shah; Rakeshkumar Yadav; Sanjay S. Ingle
      Abstract: Recombinant Bt construct was prepared by exchange of pore forming domain I with cry1Ac to cry9Aa gene by overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) technique. Construction of cry1Ac-cry9Aa was accomplished by six base pair homology at 3′ ends of PCR products of domain I of cry1Ac and domain II and III of cry9Aa. The recombinant toxin was also modified by deletion of N-terminal alpha helix-1 of recombinant toxin. Both Cry toxins were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) plysS and purified by His-tag purification. Upon insect bioassay analysis against devastating crop pest Helicoverpa armigera, toxicity of recombinant toxin was found around fivefold higher than native Cry1Ac while alpha helix-1 deleted N-terminal modified toxin did not resulted in significant increase in toxicity. The recombinant Cry toxins such as Cry1Ac-Cry9Aa and Cry1Ac-Cry9AaMod may be used for insect pest control.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00203-017-1407-9
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