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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3310 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1577 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Aquatic Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.456
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 23  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0166-445X - ISSN (Online) 1879-1514
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Elevated ammonium delays the impairment of the coral-dinoflagellate
           symbiosis during labile carbon pollution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Vanessa N. Bednarz, Renaud Grover, Christine Ferrier-Pagès Labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a major pollutant in coastal marine environments affected by anthropogenic impacts, and may significantly contribute to coral bleaching and subsequent mortality on coastal reefs. DOC can cause bleaching indirectly through the rapid proliferation of copiotrophic and pathogenic bacteria. Here we demonstrate that labile DOC compounds can also impair the coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis by directly affecting coral physiology on both the host and algal symbiont level. In a controlled aquarium experiment, we monitored over several weeks key physiological parameters of the tropical coral Stylophora pistillata exposed to ambient and elevated labile DOC levels (0.1 and 1.0 mM) in combination with low and high nitrogen (i.e. ammonium) conditions (0.2 and 4.0 μM). At the symbiont level, DOC exposure under low ammonium availability decreased the photosynthetic efficiency accompanied by ∼75% Chl a and ∼50% symbiont cell reduction. The photosynthetic functioning of the symbionts recovered once the DOC enrichment ceased indicating a reversible shift between autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism. At the host level, the assimilation of exogenous DOC sustained the tissue carbon reserves, but induced a depletion of the nitrogen reserves, indicated by ∼35% decreased protein levels. This suggests an imbalanced exogenous carbon to nitrogen supply with nitrogen potentially limiting host metabolism on the long-term. We also demonstrate that increased ammonium availability delayed DOC-induced bleaching likely by keeping symbionts in a photosynthetically competent state, which is crucial for symbiosis maintenance and coral survival. Overall, the present study provides further insights into how coastal pollution can de-stabilize the coral-algal symbiosis and cause coral bleaching. Therefore, reducing coastal pollution and sustaining ecological integrity are critical to strengthen the resilience of coral reefs facing climate change.
       
  • MicroRNA-124 regulates lactate transportation in the muscle of largemouth
           bass (Micropterus salmoides) under hypoxia by targeting MCT1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): L.L. Zhao, H. Wu, J.L. Sun, L. Liao, C. Cui, Q. Liu, J. Luo, X.H. Tang, W. Luo, J.D. Ma, X. Ye, S.J. Li, S. Yang Carbohydrate metabolism switches from aerobic to anaerobic (glycolysis) to supply energy in response to acute hypoxic stress. Acute hypoxic stress with dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 1.2 ± 0.1 mg/L for 24 h and 12 h re-oxygenation was used to investigate the response of the anaerobic glycolytic pathway in Micropterus salmoides muscle. The results showed that the glucose concentration was significantly lower in muscle, while the lactic acid and pyruvic acid concentrations tended to increase during hypoxic stress. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen, and ATP content fluctuated significantly. The activities of gluconeogenesis-related enzymes were slightly elevated, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The activities of the glycolytic enzymes increased after the induction of hypoxia, such as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Curiously, phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was significantly down-regulated within 4 h during hypoxia, although these effects were transient, and most indices returned to control levels after 12 h of re-oxygenation. Upregulated hif-1α, ampkα, hk, glut1, and ldh mRNA expression suggested that carbohydrate metabolism was reprogrammed under hypoxia. Lactate transport was regulated by miR-124-5p according to quantitative polymerase chain reaction and dual luciferase reporter assays. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of hypoxia in Micropterus salmoides muscle.Graphical Graphical abstract for this articleCarbohydrate metabolic in muscle of largemouth bass was reprogrammed under hypoxia, and miRNA-124 could regulate lactate transportation by targeting mct1.
       
  • Myriophyllum alterniflorum biochemical changes during in vitro Cu/Cd metal
           stress: Focusing on cell detoxifying enzymes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Decou Raphaël, Delmail David, Labrousse PascalABSTRACTGiven the toxicity of trace metals, their concentration, speciation and bioavailability serve to induce various plant detoxification processes, which themselves are specific to several parameters like plant species, tissue type and developmental stage. In this study, Myriophyllum alterniflorum (or alternate watermilfoil) enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) from in vitro cultures was measured over 27 days in response to copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) stress. These enzymes are unique to reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging (mainly hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and superoxide anion O2•−) and moreover showed specific or unspecific activity profiles, depending on the metal concentrations used. Our results suggest a higher-priority protection of chloroplasts during the initial days of exposure to both metals. At the same time, the increased catalase activity could indicate an H2O2 diffusion in peroxisome in order to protect other organelles from ROS accumulation. However, as opposed to the Cd effects, high Cu concentrations appear to induce a “limited oxidative threshold” for some antioxidant enzymes, which could suggest an ion absorption competition between Cu2+ and Fe2+. In spite of an overall analysis conducted of the scavenging processes occurring in plant cells, biochemical analyses still yielded relevant indications regarding the watermilfoil strategies used for ROS management.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • EFFECTS+OF+THREE+ZINC-CONTAINING+SUNSCREENS+ON+DEVELOPMENT+OF PURPLE SEA+URCHIN+( STRONGYLOCENTROTUS+PURPURATUS) EMBRYOS&rft.title=Aquatic+Toxicology&rft.issn=0166-445X&rft.date=&rft.volume=">EFFECTS OF THREE ZINC-CONTAINING SUNSCREENS ON DEVELOPMENT OF PURPLE SEA
           URCHIN ( STRONGYLOCENTROTUS PURPURATUS) EMBRYOS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Brittany Cunningham, Cristina Torres-Duarte, Gary Cherr, Nikki Adams The growing popularity of physical sunscreens will lead to an increased release of ingredients from zinc oxide (ZnO) sunscreens into marine environments. Though zinc (Zn) is a necessary micronutrient in the ocean, greater than natural Zn concentrations may be released into marine environments by use of sunscreens. The extent of the consequences of this addition of Zn to the ocean are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of materials released by ZnO- sunscreens on the development of California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Embryos incubated in various concentrations of Zn (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/L), the sources of which included zinc-containing compounds: ZnO and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4); and ZnO sunscreens: All Good, Badger, and Raw Elements brands. Based on EC50 values, ZnO-containing sunscreens were slightly, but not significantly, more toxic than ZnO and ZnSO4, suggesting that sunscreens may release additional unknown materials that are detrimental to sea urchin embryo development. All concentrations of Zn-exposure resulted in significant malformations (skeletal abnormality, stage arrest, axis determination disruption), which were identified using light and fluorescence confocal microscopy. The concentration of Zn2+ internalized by the developing embryos correlated positively with the concentration of Zn in seawater. Additionally, exposure to both ZnO sunscreens and ZnO and ZnSO4 at 1 mg/L Zn, significantly increased calcein-AM (CAM) accumulation, indicating decreased multidrug resistant (MDR) transporter activity. This is one of the first studies documenting ZnO-containing sunscreens release high concentrations of Zn that are internalized by and have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms.
       
  • Oxidative stress, histopathological alterations and anti-oxidant capacity
           in different tissues of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to
           a newly developed sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate granular algaecide
           formulated with hydrogen peroxide
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Amit Kumar Sinha, Nicholas Romano, Jyotsna Shrivastava, Jesus Monico, West M. Bishop Various strategies exist to control noxious cyanobacterial populations, although the application of a newly developed granular compound (sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate ‘SCP’, trade name ‘PAK® 27’ algaecide) containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the active ingredient, has been recently proven as an effective and ecofriendly treatment. However, in aquaculture settings the application of SCP to treat cynobacterial blooms may affect non-targeted biota, such as fish due to H2O2 being known to elicit toxic oxidative stress in fish. Consequently, a better understanding of the side effects as a function of dosing concentrations would help to improve treatment efficacy and fish welfare. Thus, the aim of the current study is to assess the potential risks of SCP to largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a high priced fish in the U.S. To this end, fish were exposed to two recommended doses of SCP corresponding to either 2.5 or 4.0 mg/L H2O2 for 6 days, with a control group in parallel. After 6 days, the effect of SCP exposure on oxidative stress, histopathological changes and anti-oxidant potential in the brain, liver, gills and muscle were investigated. Results show that exposure to 4.0 mg/L H2O2 -SCP incited oxidative damage, evidenced by an over-accumulation of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain and liver, which were accompanied by an increment in xanthine oxidase activity. Unlike 4.0 mg/L H2O2, these oxidative stress biomarkers in the brain and liver tissue of 2.5 mg/L H2O2-SCP exposed fish were restrained within control levels and concomitant with an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activity. In contrast, many of these anti-oxidants sentinels in the 4.0 mg/L H2O2 exposed fish were either unaffected or significantly inhibited, which resulted in over-accumulation of H2O2 and MDA. In addition, a series of histopathological alterations were observed, and the most severe brain injuries and liver inflammation were recorded in 4.0 mg/L H2O2-SCP exposed fish. In addition, based on oxidative parameters, both doses of SCP resulted in a relatively mild oxidative stress in gills but no effect in muscle, probably explaining the modest anti-oxidative responses in the former and almost complete lack of anti-oxidative responses in the latter. Overall, our findings suggests that application of SCP at 4.0 mg/L H2O2 for controlling cyanobacterial blooms in aquaculture settings can possess potential risk to the farmed fish.
       
  • Single and combined effects of insecticides on multi-level biomarkers in
           the non-target amphipod Gammarus fossarum exposed to environmentally
           realistic levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Jérémie D. Lebrun, Kelly De Jesus, Lénaïck Rouillac, Marie Ravelli, Angéline Guenne, Julien Tournebize Aquatic media are ultimate recipients of various contaminants including pesticides pervasively applied in agrosystems. Characterizing the ecotoxicity of pesticides and their mixtures to aquatic wildlife at field-realistic levels is thus crucial for environmental risk assessment. This study aims at assessing the effects of two current-use insecticides, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos, on Gammarus fossarum using multi-level biomarkers. In microcosms, gammarids were exposed for 72 h to insecticides tested individually or in mixture at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/L of each chemical. Multi-metric responses were assessed at the individual level (behavioural traits: locomotion, respiration and amplexus formation) and the cellular level (enzymes involved in growth, moulting, digestion and cell stress). The results showed insecticide-elicited behavioural and biochemical responses from the lowest concentration of 0.01 µg/L. Overall, single exposures stimulated behavioural traits and inhibited enzymatic activities, highlighting subtle impacts at different organizational levels but these were not dose related. For binary mixtures, antagonistic effects (i.e. less-than-additive) on biomarkers were mainly observed when compared with single exposures. Multi-variable analyses indicated the complementarity of behavioural and biochemical biomarkers in identifying sublethal biological alterations and dose-dependent multiple action sites of insecticides. Besides, the mortality observed only for the mixture at 1 µg/L demonstrated a high lethal potential of insecticides in a simple binary combination. To conclude, this study demonstrates disturbances in individual performances and cellular impairments occurring at environmentally realistic exposure levels in a non-target wild species. Since the sublethal effects, such as those identified with this multi-biomarker approach, could lead to long-term alterations in population dynamics of agricultural areas, they constitute promising early endpoints for risk assessment of insecticides.
       
  • The Ca2+ signaling, Glu, and GABA responds to Cd stress in
           duckweed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Lin Yang, Jie Yao, Jinge Sun, Leqian Shi, Yikai Chen, Jinsheng Sun Cadmium (Cd) affects plants and animal health seriously. Ca2+ signals in plant cells are important for adaptive responses to environmental stresses. Here we showed that 50 μM Cd shock stimulated the Ca2+ signal via modifying the instantaneous Ca2+ flux from influx of 17 pmol·cm-2·s-1 to the efflux of 240 pmol·cm-2·s-1 at 100 μm from rhizoid tip. And the Ca2+ signal transferred to the vein and mesophyll cell. The Ca addition decreased the accumulation of Cd. The gene expression of glutamate receptor–like (GLR) proteins, which is activated by Glu and triggers Ca2+ flux, was increased significantly by 24 h Cd stress. Glu content was increased under Cd stress and exogenous Glu triggered the Ca2+ signal in duckweed, while Ca2+ addition caused no influence to Glu content. GABA, which is synthesized from Glu and acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been decreased with 24 h Cd treatment. GABA addition increased the abscission rate and Glu addition decreased the abscission rate during Cd stress, suggesting that the Glu/GABA ratio is important for responding to Cd. This research shows the sight of the Glu, Ca2+, GABA signaling networks during Cd stress.
       
  • Tributyltin disrupts fin development in Fundulus heteroclitus from both
           PCB-sensitive and resistant populations: Investigations of potential
           interactions between AHR and PPARγ
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): K.A. Crawford, B.W. Clark, W.J. Heiger-Bernays, S.I. Karchner, M.E. Hahn, D.E. Nacci, J.J. Schlezinger Tributyltin (TBT) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants that are highly toxic to fish and co-occur in New Bedford Harbor (NBH), an estuarine Superfund site located in Massachusetts, USA. Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) that reside in NBH (and other highly contaminated sites along the east coast of the United States) have developed resistance to activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway and the toxicity of dioxin-like chemicals, such as 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB126. In many biological systems, TBT disregulates adipose and bone development via the PPARγ-RXR pathway; AHR activation also disrupts adipose and bone homeostasis, potentially through molecular crosstalk between AHR and PPARγ. However, little is known about how co-exposure and the interaction of these pathways modulate the toxicological effects of these contaminants. Here, we tested the hypotheses that TBT would induce teratogenesis in killifish via activation of PPARγ and that PCB126 co-exposure would suppress PPARγ pathway activation in PCB-sensitive killifish from a reference site (Scorton Creek, SC, PCB-sensitive) but not in PCB-tolerant NBH killifish. Killifish embryos from both populations exposed to TBT (50 and 100 nM) displayed caudal fin deformities. TBT did not change the expression of pparg or its target genes related to adipogenesis (fabp11a and fabp1b) in either population. However, expression of osx/sp7, an osteoblast marker gene, and col2a1b, a chondroblast marker gene, was significantly suppressed by TBT only in SC killifish. An RXR-specific agonist, but not a PPARγ-specific agonist, induced caudal fin deformities like those observed in TBT-treated embryos. PCB126 did not induce caudal fin deformities and did not exacerbate TBT-induced fin deformities. Further, PCB126 increased expression of pparg in SC embryos and not NBH embryos, but did not change the expression of fabp1b. Taken together, these results suggest that in killifish embryos the PPARγ pathway is regulated in part by AHR, but is minimally active at least in this early life stage. In killifish, RXR activation, rather than PPARγ activation, appears to be the mechanism by which TBT induces caudal fin teratogenicity, which is not modulated by AHR responsiveness.
       
  • Effect of imidacloprid on the behavior, antioxidant system,
           multixenobiotic resistance, and histopathology of Asian freshwater clams
           (Corbicula fluminea)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Yuan Shan, Xiangsheng Hong, Jinmiao Zha, Jianhui Qin In the current study, to investigate the effect of imidacloprid on benthic bivalves, adult Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) were exposed to 0, 20, 200, and 2000 μg/L imidacloprid for 30 d. Imidacloprid significantly inhibited the siphoning and burrowing behaviour (p 
       
  • Dynamics of interaction and effects of microplastics on planarian tissue
           regeneration and cellular homeostasis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Gaetana Gambino, Alessandra Falleni, Marco Nigro, Alessandra Salvetti, Antonella Cecchettini, Chiara Ippolito, Patrizia Guidi, Leonardo RossiABSTRACTIncreasing microplastics pollution of marine and terrestrial water is a concerning issue for ecosystems and human health. Nevertheless, the interaction of microplastics with freshwater biota is still a poorly explored field. In order to achieve information concerning the uptake, distribution and effect of microplastics in planarians, Dugesia japonica specimens have been fed with mixtures of food and differently shaped and sized plastic particles. Feeding activity and food intake were non-altered by the presence of high concentrations of different types of plastic particles. However, the persistence of microplastic within the planarian body was a function of size/shape, being small spheres (
       
  • A metabolomic approach to investigate effects of ocean acidification on a
           polar microalga Chlorella sp.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Yong-Hao Tan, Phaik-Eem Lim, John Beardall, Sze-Wan Poong, Siew-Moi Phang Ocean acidification, due to increased levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, is known to affect the physiology and growth of marine phytoplankton, especially in polar regions. However, the effect of acidification or carbonation on cellular metabolism in polar marine phytoplankton still remains an open question. There is some evidence that small chlorophytes may benefit more than other taxa of phytoplankton. To understand further how green polar picoplankton could acclimate to high oceanic CO2, studies were conducted on an Antarctic Chlorella sp. Chlorella sp. maintained its growth rate (∼0.180 d-1), photosynthetic quantum yield (Fv/Fm = ∼0.69) and chlorophyll a (0.145 fg cell-1) and carotenoid (0.06 fg cell-1) contents under high CO2, while maximum rates of electron transport decreased and non-photochemical quenching increased under elevated CO2. GCMS-based metabolomic analysis reveal that this polar Chlorella strain modulated the levels of metabolites associated with energy, amino acid, fatty acid and carbohydrate production, which could favour its survival in an increasingly acidified ocean.
       
  • Metabolic responses of the green microalga Dunaliella salina to silver
           nanoparticles-induced oxidative stress in the presence of salicylic acid
           treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Elham Bahador, Alireza Einali, Omid Azizian-Shermeh, Mohammad Hossein Sangtarash In the present study, the biochemical responses and antioxidant enzymes activity of the Dunaliella salina, a green microalga, to the interaction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and salicylic acid (SA) were investigated. Algal suspensions in the phase of logarithmic growth were subjected to the concentrations of 0, 5, 15, and 25 pM AgNPs with or without 1 mM SA. AgNPs level of 25 pM declined cell division but highly accumulated levels of chlorophyll, β-carotene, proteins, free amino acid, carbohydrates, and hydrogen peroxide, which was associated with enhanced the activity of proteolysis, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes. SA-treated cells at 25 pM AgNPs improved cell growth but declined the activities of antioxidant enzymes and proteolytic along with a lower accumulation of metabolites except β-carotene relative to untreated controls. These results suggest that AgNPs treatment induce oxidative stress in D. salina cells, which tolerated by alga through the metabolic modifications and accumulating β-carotene, while SA induces AgNPs tolerance by the mechanisms that direct carbon flux to growth and β-carotene biosynthesis rather than the antioxidant enzymes or osmoprotectant metabolites.
       
  • EFFECTS OF WATER-ACCOMMODATED FRACTION OF DIESEL FUEL ON SEAHORSE
           (Hippocampus reidi) BIOMARKERS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Frederico Augusto Cariello Delunardo, Helen Sadauskas-Henrique, Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val, Adalberto Luis Val, Adriana Regina Chippari-Gomes The present work aimed to investigate the effects of acute (12, 24, 48 and 96 h) and subchronic (168 and 336 h) exposure of seahorse, Hippocampus reidi to water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel fuel on biotransformation parameters, antioxidant defenses and DNA integrity. In addition, a recovery experiment was performed, where the organisms remained in absence of the contaminant for 336 h, after WAF exposure for 168 h (totaling 504 h). At the end of each experimental protocol, the concentration of pyrene-, benzo(a)pyrene- and naphthalene-type metabolites in bile, hepatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in hepatocytes, were analyzed, in addition to the DNA damage and the micronucleus (MN) test in the peripheral blood. It was observed that both acute and subchronic WAF exposure affected the investigated parameters in different ways. In general, the exposed groups presented higher mean values for the investigated parameters if compared with their respective controls. After the recovery experiment, the mean values of PAH metabolites, LPO, DNA damage and MN frequency were significantly lower than those of animals exposed for 168 h, indicating that the recovery period was appropriately long for the evaluated biomarkers return to the control levels. The results indicated that the selected H. reidi biomarkers proved to be adequate and complementary tools in determining the first impacts of acute and subchronic exposure caused by WAF of diesel fuel in fish, as well as their recovery in clean water.
       
  • Acidified water impairs the lateral line system of zebrafish embryos
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Li-Yih Lin, Giun-Yi Hung, Ya-Hsin Yeh, Sheng-Wen Chen, Jiun-Lin Horng Acidification of freshwater ecosystems is recognized as a global environmental problem. However, the influence of acidic water on the early stages of freshwater fish is still unclear. This study focused on the sublethal effects of acidic water on the lateral line system of zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to water at different pH values (pH 4, 5, 7, 9, and 10) for 96 (0∼96 h post-fertilization (hpf)) and 48 h (48∼96 hpf). The survival rate, body length, and heart rate significantly decreased in pH 4-exposed embryos during the 96-h incubation. The number of lateral-line neuromasts and the size of otic vesicles/otoliths also decreased in pH 4-exposed embryos subjected to 96- and 48-h incubations. The number of neuromasts decreased in pH 5-exposed embryos during the 96-h incubation. Alkaline water (pH 9 and 10) did not influence embryonic development but suppressed the hatching process. The mechanotransducer channel-mediated Ca2+ influx was measured to reveal the function of lateral line hair cells. The Ca2+ influx of hair cells decreased in pH 5-exposed embryos subjected to the 48-h incubation, and both the number and Ca2+ influx of hair cells had decreased in pH 5-exposed embryos after 96 h of incubation. In addition, the number and function of hair cells were suppressed in H+-ATPase- or GCM2-knockdown embryos, which partially lost the ability to secrete acid into the ambient water. In conclusion, this study suggests that lateral line hair cells are sensitive to an acidic environment, and freshwater acidification could be a threat to the early stages of fishes.
       
  • Molecular characterisation of cytochrome P450 enzymes in waterflea
           (Daphnia pulex) and their expression regulation by polystyrene
           nanoplastics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Donglei Wu, Zhiquan Liu, Mingqi Cai, Yang Jiao, Yiming Li, Qiang Chen, Yunlong Zhao Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are one of the largest protein families, and they metabolise a wide range of lipophilic organic endogenous and exogenous compounds. Many cytochrome P450 genes have been cloned and characterised, and they are frequently used as biomarkers in environmental toxicology studies because of their sensitivity and inducibility. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of DpCYP370B and DpCYP4 were cloned from Daphnia pulex for the first time. The sequence of DpCYP370B consisted of an ORF of 1515 bp that encoded a 504 amino acid polypeptide, while the sequence of DpCYP4 comprised an ORF of 1527 bp that encoded a 508 amino acid polypeptide. Homologous alignments revealed the presence of a conserved cysteine haeme-iron ligand signature, FxxGxxxCxG, located in the C-terminal portion. Both the proteins contained a sequence for a transmembrane region that was deduced to be located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Subsequently, the expression levels of DpCYP370B and DpCYP4, as well as those of CYP4AN1, CYP4C33, and CYP4C34, were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to five polystyrene nanoplastic concentrations: 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L for 21 days. Except for DpCYP4, the highest mRNA expression was observed at 0.5 mg/L nanoplastics; next, the expression of three of the enzymes (DpCYP370B, CYP4AN1, CYP4C34,) decreased to that of the control level at 1 and 2 mg/L doses of nanoplastics. The expression of DpCYP4 did not significantly change compared with that of the control group. These results indicated that CYP genes might play an important role in protecting D. pulex against nanoplastic pollutants.
       
  • Two antidepressants fluoxetine and sertraline cause growth retardation and
           oxidative stress in the marine rotifer Brachionus koreanus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Eunjin Byeon, Jun Chul Park, Atsushi Hagiwara, Jeonghoon Han, Jae-Seong Lee sTo understand effects of two widely used antidepressant on the antioxidant defense mechanism in the marine rotifer Brachionus koreanus, we assessed acute toxicity and measured population growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, glutathione (GSH) levels, and antioxidant enzymatic activities (GST, GR, and SOD) in response to fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) and sertraline hydrochloride (SER). The no observed effect concentration-24 h of fluoxetine and sertraline were 1000 μg/L and 450 μg/L, respectively, whereas the median lethal concentration (LC50)-24 h of fluoxetine and sertraline were 1560 μg/L and 507 μg/L, respectively. Both fluoxetine and sertraline caused significant reduction in the population growth rate indicating that both antidepressants have a potential adverse effect on life cycle parameters of B. koreanus. The intracellular ROS level and GSH level were significantly modulated (P 
       
  • Nitroaromatic compounds damage the DNA of zebrafish embryos (Danio
           rerio
    )
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Daniel Koske, Nadine I. Goldenstein, Ulrike Kammann Lethal and sublethal effects of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its degradation products 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) to zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were investigated in a 120 hours exposure scenario. Lethal concentrations (LC50) were 4.5 mg/l for TNT, 13.4 mg/l for 2-ADNT and 14.4 mg/l for 4-ADNT. Embryos exposed to 2-ADNT or 4-ADNT revealed a high proportion of chorda deformations among the surviving individuals. Genotoxicity of the nitroaromatic compounds in zebrafish embryos was investigated by comet assay isolating cells from whole embryos after 48 hours in vivo exposure. Significant genotoxicity was induced by all three compounds tested, in comparison to the corresponding controls at 0.1 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l as lowest tested concentrations. The genotoxicity caused by TNT was about three to four times higher than that of 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the genotoxicity of TNT in fish embryos by in vivo exposure. The results are discussed in the context of dumped munition in the marine environment.
       
  • Cumulative effects of cadmium and natural stressors (temperature and
           parasite infection) on molecular and biochemical responses of juvenile
           rainbow trout
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Michel A. Defo, Andrée D. Gendron, Jessica Head, Martin Pilote, Patrice Turcotte, David J. Marcogliese, Magali Houde The simultaneous presence of natural and anthropogenic stressors in aquatic ecosystems can challenge the identification of factors causing decline in fish populations. These stressors include chemical mixtures and natural abiotic and biotic factors such as water temperature and parasitism. Effects of cumulative stressors may vary from antagonism to synergism at the organismal or population levels and may not be predicted from exposure to individual stressors. This study aimed to evaluate the combined effects of chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) and elevated water temperature (23 °C) or parasite infection in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a multi-level biological approach, including RNA-sequencing. Fish were exposed to diet-borne Cd (6 μg Cd/g wet feed), individually and in combination with thermal (23 °C) or parasitic stressors, for 28 days. The parasite challenge consisted of a single exposure to glochidia (larvae) of the freshwater mussel (Strophitus undulatus), which encysts in fish gills, fins and skin. Results indicated lower fish length, weight, and relative growth rate in fish exposed to a higher water temperature (23 °C). Body condition and hepatosomatic index of trout were, however, higher in the 23 °C temperature treatment compared to the control fish kept at 15 °C. Exposure to thermal stress or parasitism did not influence tissue Cd bioaccumulation. More than 700 genes were differentially transcribed in fish exposed to the individual thermal stress treatment. However, neither Cd exposure nor parasite infection affected the number of differentially transcribed genes, compared to controls. The highest number of differentially transcribed genes (969 genes) was observed in trout exposed to combined Cd and high temperature stressors; these genes were mainly related to stress response, protein folding, calcium metabolism, bone growth, energy metabolism, immune system, and functions overlapped with responses found in fish solely exposed to higher water temperature. Only 40 genes were differentially transcribed when fish were exposed to Cd and glochidia and were related to the immune system, apoptosis process, energy metabolism and malignant tumor. These results suggest that dietary Cd may exacerbate the temperature stress and to a lesser extent, parasitic infection stress on trout transcriptomic responses. Changes in the concentrations of liver ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase, heat shock protein 70 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances coupled to changes in the activities of cellular glutathione S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were also observed at the cellular level. This study may help understand effects of freshwater fish exposure to cumulative stressors in a changing environment.
       
  • Effects of sublethal Cd, Zn, and mixture exposures on antioxidant defense
           and oxidative stress parameters in early life stages of the purple sea
           urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Roberta Daniele Klein, Lygia S. Nogueira, Fabíola Xochilt Valdez Domingos, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Adalto Bianchini, Chris M. Wood Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated during the first 72 h of embryonic development of purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus continuously exposed to control conditions, to cadmium alone (Cd, 30 µg/L), to zinc alone (Zn, 9 µg/L) or to a Cd (28 µg/L) plus Zn (9 µg/L) mixture. These sublethal concentrations represent ∼ 10% of the acute EC50. Bioaccumulation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), total glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analyzed at 24 h (blastula), 48 h (gastrula), and 72 h (pluteus) stages of development. Zinc (an essential metal) was well-regulated, whereas Cd (non-essential) bioaccumulated and whole-body [Cd] increased from blastula to pluteus stage in sea urchin larvae. In controls, ACAP progressively declined from 24 h to 72 h, while LPO reciprocally increased, but other parameters did not change. Cd alone was more potent than Zn alone as a pro-oxidant, with the major effects being decreases in SOD activity and parallel increases in LPO throughout development; GST activity also increased at 24 h. Zn alone caused only biphasic disturbances of ACAP. In all cases, the simultaneous presence of the other metal prevented the effects, and there was no instance where the oxidative stress response in the presence of the Cd/Zn mixture was greater than in the presence of either Cd or Zn alone. Therefore the sublethal effects of joint exposures were always less than additive or even protective, in agreement with classical toxicity data. Furthermore, our results indicate that SOD and Zn can play important roles in protecting sea urchin embryos against Cd-induced lipid peroxidation.
       
  • In vitro exposure of vitellogenic rainbow trout ovarian follicles to
           endocrine disrupting chemicals can alter basal estradiol-17β production
           and responsiveness to a gonadotropin challenge
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Christopher Monson, Graham Young, Irvin Schultz Endogenous estrogens play major roles in many aspects of female reproductive development in fish. In order to develop a relatively high-throughput assay to determine the potential impact on reproductive development, vitellogenic rainbow trout ovarian follicles were exposed to a suite of contaminants in vitro and then assessed for the ability to produce estradiol-17β (E2) after a 500 ng/ml salmon gonadotropin (sGTH) challenge. There was a positive correlation between ovarian follicle size and E2 production, but an inverse correlation between size and responsiveness to sGTH. Significant impacts on E2 levels were observed following treatment with different endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), prochloraz, or trenbolone. EE2 was remarkably potent and significantly reduced ovarian follicle responsiveness to sGTH at concentrations as low as 0.1 nM. Of the other contaminants tested, only tamoxifen impacted E2 levels, and only at concentrations near the limits of solubility. Flutamide, fluoxetine, 4-hydroxy tamoxifen, hydroxyflutamide, and norfluoxetine had little or no impact. Quantitative PCR analyses of steroidogenesis-related genes were carried out on EE2 treated ovarian follicles, but significant transcriptional responses to EE2 were not observed. Overall, this study suggests that xenoestrogens and anti-estrogens are more likely to interfere with ovarian E2 synthesis than other classes of EDCs. This also provides a template for further testing of the effects of EDCs on ovarian function.
       
  • Early-life exposure to 17β-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol impacts the growth
           hormone/insulin-like growth-factor system and estrogen receptors in
           Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Fritzie T. Celino-Brady, Cody K. Petro-Sakuma, Jason P. Breves, Darren T. Lerner, Andre P. Seale It is widely recognized that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) released into the environment through anthropogenic activities can have short-term impacts on physiological and behavioral processes and/or sustained or delayed long-term developmental effects on aquatic organisms. While numerous studies have characterized the effects of EDCs on temperate fishes, less is known on the effects of EDCs on the growth and reproductive physiology of tropical species. To determine the long-term effects of early-life exposure to common estrogenic chemicals, we exposed Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) yolk-sac fry to 17β-estradiol (E2) and nonylphenol (NP) and subsequently characterized the expression of genes involved in growth and reproduction in adults. Fry were exposed to waterborne E2 (0.1 and 1.0 µg/L) and NP (10 and 100 µg/L) for 21 days. After the exposure period, juveniles were reared for an additional 112 days until males were sampled. Gonadosomatic index was elevated in fish exposed to E2 (0.1 µg/L) while hepatosomatic index was decreased by exposure to NP (100 µg/L). Exposure to E2 (0.1 µg/L) induced hepatic growth hormone receptor (ghr) mRNA expression. The high concentration of E2 (1.0 µg/L), and both concentrations of NP, increased hepatic insulin-like growth-factor 1 (igf1) expression; E2 and NP did not affect hepatic igf2 and pituitary growth hormone (gh) levels. Both E2 (1.0 µg/L) and NP (10 µg/L) induced hepatic igf binding protein 1b (igfbp1b) levels while only NP (100 µg/L) induced hepatic igfbp2b levels. By contrast, hepatic igfbp6b was reduced in fish exposed to E2 (1.0 µg/L). There were no effects of E2 or NP on hepatic igfbp4 and igfbp5a expression. Although the expression of three vitellogenin transcripts was not affected, E2 and NP stimulated hepatic estrogen receptor (erα and erβ) mRNA expression. We conclude that tilapia exposed to E2 and NP as yolk-sac fry exhibit subsequent changes in the endocrine systems that control growth and reproduction during later life stages.
       
  • Antioxidant responses to seawater acidification in an invasive fouling
           mussel are alleviated by transgenerational acclimation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Liqiang Zhao, Lei Liu, Baozhan Liu, Jian Liang, Yanan Lu, Feng Yang Ocean acidification and marine biofouling, which may interact in the future, pose two major threats to global coastal ecosystems. Yet, the fate of highly invasive fouling species in a rapidly acidifying ocean remains poorly understood, due to lack of information on multigenerational consequences at different levels of biological organization. Here, we investigated antioxidant responses of the mussel, Musculista senhousia, a swiftly spreading invasive fouling species in global coastal waters, following transgenerational exposure to elevated pCO2. In the face of seawater acidification, M. senhousia without a prior history of transgenerational exposure to elevated pCO2 showed resistance to lipid peroxidation, but significantly increased activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), indicated oxidative stress responses. However, enhanced transgenerational immunity occurred, as exemplified by observations that mussels originating from parents exposed to elevated pCO2 exhibited significantly lower activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in comparison to those spawn from parents exposed to ambient pCO2. Rapid transgenerational acclimation of M. senhousia in terms of reduced oxidative stress responses can likely be linked to the enhanced capacity of maintaining acid-base homeostasis previously demonstrated. These findings provide the first evidence of transgenerational plasticity at the biochemical level in highly invasive fouling bivalve species, and represent a step forward in understanding how they respond and acclimate in an acidifying ocean.
       
  • Sub-Lethal Effects of a Neonicotinoid, Clothianidin, on Wild Early Life
           Stage Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Vicki Lee Marlatt, Tsz Yin Ginny Leung, Sarah Calbick, Chris Metcalfe, Christopher Kennedy One of the categories of environmental contaminants possibly contributing to declining sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada is pesticides. In this 4-month study, the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of a waterborne neonicotinoid, clothianidin (0.15, 1.5, 15 and 150 μg/L), on embryonic, alevin and early swim-up fry sockeye salmon derived from four unique genetic crosses of the Pitt River, BC stock were investigated. There were no significant effects of clothianidin on survival, hatching, growth or deformities, although genetic variation significantly affected these endpoints. Clothianidin caused a significant 4.7-fold increase in whole body 17β-estradiol levels in swim-up fry after exposure to 0.15 µg/L, but no effects were observed on testosterone levels. In addition, hepatic expression of the gene encoding glucocorticoid receptor 2 was also impacted at the highest concentration of clothianidin tested, and was found to be ∼4-fold lower compared to the sockeye reared in control water. These results indicate additional examination of clothianidin and its effects on salmonid gonad development and the reproductive and stress endocrine axes in general, is warranted.
       
  • Delayed effects of pyrene exposure during overwintering on the Arctic
           copepod Calanus hyperboreus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Kirstine Toxværd, Khuong V. Dinh, Ole Henriksen, Morten Hjorth, Torkel Gissel Nielsen Calanus hyperboreus is the largest copepod and a key species in the Arctic food web. During the spring bloom, C. hyperboreus builds up large lipid reserves, which enable it to survive and produce eggs during overwintering. The ecological effects of oil exposure on overwintering C. hyperboreus are unknown. The present study empirically tested if exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene from crude oil affects the survival, egg production, and hatching success of overwintering C. hyperboreus. We also tested the delayed effects on faecal pellet production and lipid recovery in clean seawater. Direct exposure did not reduce survival and egg production, but reduced hatching success 3-18 times by the end of the exposure period. Remarkably, we documented strong delayed effects of pyrene on faecal pellet production and the recovery of lipid reserves. The current study reveals a high vulnerability of this key species of Arctic zooplankton to oil exposure during winter. Together with our previous study on C. glacialis, we complete the picture of the impact of oil on the largest and most lipid-rich copepod C. hyperboreus, which potentially can have huge ecological consequences for the fragile Arctic marine food web.
       
  • Physiological effects of 5α-dihydrotestosterone in male mummichog
           (Fundulus heteroclitus) are dose and time dependent
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Robert J. Rutherford, Andrea L. Lister, Deborah L. MacLatchy Numerous anthropogenic sources, such as pulp mill and sewage treatment effluents, contain androgenic endocrine disrupting compounds that alter the reproductive status of aquatic organisms. The current study injected adult male mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) with 0 (control), 1 pg/g, 1 ng/g or 1 μg/g body weight of the model androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) with the intent to induce a period of plasma sex hormone depression, a previously-observed effect of DHT in fish. A suite of gonadal steroidogenic genes were assessed during sex hormone depression and recovery. Fish were sampled 6, 12, 16, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h post-injection, and sections of testis tissue were either snap frozen immediately or incubated for 24 h at 18 °C to determine in vitro gonadal hormone production and then frozen. Plasma testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) were depressed beginning 24 h post-injection. At 36 h post-injection plasma T remained depressed while plasma 11KT had recovered. In snap frozen tissue there was a correlation between plasma sex hormone depression and downregulation of key steroidogenic genes including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star), cytochrome P450 17a1 (cyp17a1), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βhsd), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βhsd) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βhsd). Similar to previous studies, 3βhsd was the first and most responsive gene during DHT exposure. Gene responses from in vitro tissue were more variable and included the upregulation of 3βhsd, 11βhsd and star during the period of hormone depression. The differential expression of steroidogenic genes from the in vitro testes compared to the snap frozen tissues may be due to the lack of regulators from the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis present in whole-animal systems. Due to these findings it is recommended to use snap frozen tissue, not post-incubation tissue from in vitro analysis, for gonadal steroidogenic gene expression to more accurately reflect in vivo responses.
       
  • Advances on assessing nanotoxicity in marine fish - the pros and cons of
           combining an ex vivo approach and histopathological analysis in gills
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): C.L. Mieiro, M. Martins, M. da Silva, J.P. Coelho, C.B. Lopes, A. Alves da Silva, J. Alves, E. Pereira, M. Pardal, M.H. Costa, M. Pacheco The need to overcome logistic and ethical limitations of in vivo nanotoxicity evaluation in marine organisms is essential, mostly when dealing with fish. It is well established that medium/solvent conditions affect dispersion and agglomeration of nanoparticles (NPs), which represents a constraint towards a solid and realistic toxicity appraisal. In this way the pros and cons of an ex vivo approach, using a simplified exposure medium (seawater) and addressing gills histopathology, were explored. The nanotoxic potential of environmentally realistic concentrations of titanium dioxide NPs (TiO2 NPs) was also assessed, disclosing the morpho-functional effects on the gills and the possible uptake/elimination processes. Excised gills of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) were directly exposed in artificial seawater to 20 and 200 μg.L-1 TiO2 NPs, for 2 h and 4 h. Semi-quantitative and quantitative histological analyses were applied. The normal morphology of the gill’s epithelia was only slightly altered in the control, reflecting protective mechanisms against the artificiality of the experimental conditions, which, together with the absence of differences in the global histopathological index ( Ih), corroborated that the gill’s morpho-functional features were not compromised, thereby validating the proposed ex vivo approach. TiO2 NPs induced moderate severity and dissemination of histopathological lesions. After 2 h, a series of compensatory mechanisms occurred in NP treatments, implying an efficient response of the innate defense system (increasing number of goblet cells) and effective osmoregulatory ability (chloride cells proliferation). After 4 h, gills revealed signs of recovery (normalization of the number of chloride and goblet cells; similar Ih), highlighting the tissue viability and effective elimination and/or neutralization of NPs. The uptake of the TiO2 NPs seemed to be favored by the higher particle sizes. Overall, the proposed approach emerged as a high-throughput, reliable, accurate and ethically commendable methodology for nanotoxicity assessment in marine fish.
       
  • Examining the role of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in larval
           shellfish production in seawater contaminated with heavy metals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Daniel R McDougall, Andrew Chan, Duncan J McGillivray, Martin D de Jonge, Gordon M Miskelly, Andrew G Jeffs Heavy metal pollution is a concern in many coastal locations where it is frequently deleterious to the survival of young shellfish. Consequently, a great number of commercial shellfish hatcheries around the world rely on the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to seawater to ensure successful larval production. Despite the importance of this practice to global shellfish production the mode of action of EDTA in larval production remains undetermined. It is assumed EDTA chelates heavy metals in seawater preventing interference in larval development. Larval mussels (Perna canaliculus) raised in seawater with 3 µM EDTA had a 15 fold higher yield than those without EDTA. The concentration and spatial arrangement of heavy metals in larvae as determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM) was consistent with reduced bioavailability of several metals, especially copper and zinc. This is the first study to confirm the effectiveness of EDTA for managing metal pollution commonly encountered in coastal shellfish hatcheries.
       
  • Assessment of hematological, hepato-renal, antioxidant, and hormonal
           responses of Clarias gariepinus exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of
           oxyfluorfen
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Ghada I. Abd El-Rahman, Shaimaa A.A. Ahmed, Alshimaa A. Khalil, Yasmina M. Abd-Elhakim Little is known about the effects of oxyfluorfen, a diphenyl ether herbicide, exposure on the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) health. Consequently, the existing investigation was designed to highlight the impacts of oxyfluorfen exposure on C. gariepinus hematological indices, liver and kidney functions, reproductive hormones, and oxidative status. Furthermore, a consequent 10-day depuration period was adopted to evaluate the recovery of the disturbed indicators to normal values. In the first experiment, the 96-h lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of oxyfluorfen for C. gariepinus was determined using probit analysis. Next, in a second experiment, 180 healthy fish (average initial body weight: 164.23⿿±⿿0.24) were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups exposed to 0, 1/10, 1/8, or 1/5 96-h LC50 of oxyfluorfen. The hematological profile, hepatic enzymes, kidney damage byproducts, reproductive hormones, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation indicators together with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) content were assessed. A histopathological examination of the hepatic, renal, brain and testicular tissues was accomplished. Moreover, the expression of the oxidative stress-related gene was carried out. The results showed that 96-h LC50 of oxyfluorfen for C. gariepinus was 11.698⿿mg/L. Exposure to sublethal levels of oxyfluorfen induced macrocytic hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, monocytopenia, and eosinopenia. Also, a concentration-dependent increase in alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, urea, creatinine, catalase, and malondialdehyde was detected following oxyfluorfen exposure together with upregulation of catalase gene. But, significant concentration-dependent reductions in AChE, glutathione transferase, reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio, estradiol, and testosterone activities were recorded. These biochemical alterations were accompanied by pathological perturbations in hepatic, renal, brain, and testicular tissues. Following 10 days of recovery, only the hematological impairments were abolished. Conclusively, the herbicides oxyfluorfen could induce multiple negative impacts on C. gariepinus with oxidative stress as a probable underlying mechanism. Additionally, a recovery period of 10 days was not enough to restore these impairments.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Denitrification responses to increasing cadmium exposure in Baltic Sea
           sediments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Elias Broman, Nisha H. Motwani, Stefano Bonaglia, Tommy Landberg, Francisco J.A. Nascimento, Sara Sjöling Benthic ecosystems have come under intense pressure, due to eutrophication-driven oxygen decline and industrial metal contamination. One of the most toxic metals is Cadmium (Cd), which is lethal to many aquatic organisms already at low concentrations. Denitrification by facultative anaerobic microorganisms is an essential process to transform, but also to remove, excess nitrate in eutrophied systems. Cd has been shown to decrease denitrification and sequester free sulfide, which is available when oxygen is scarce and generally inhibits complete denitrification (i.e. N2O to N2). In polluted sediments, an interaction between oxygen and Cd may influence denitrification and this relationship has not been studied. For example, in the Baltic Sea some sediments are double exposed to both Cd and hypoxia. In this study, we examined how the double exposure of Cd and fluctuations in oxygen affects denitrification in Baltic Sea sediment. Results show that oxygen largely regulated N2O and N2 production after 21 days of exposure to Cd (ranging from 0-500 µg/L, 5 different treatments, measured by the isotope pairing technique (IPT). In the high Cd treatment (500 µg/L) the variation in N2 production increased compared to the other treatments. Increases in N2 production are suggested to be an effect of 1) enhanced nitrification that increases NO3- availability thus stimulating denitrification, and 2) Cd successfully sequestrating sulfide (yielding CdS), which allows for full denitrification to N2. The in situ field sediment contained initially high Cd concentrations in the pore water (∼10 µg/L) and microbial communities might already have been adapted to metal stress, making the effect of low Cd levels negligible. Here we show that high levels of cadmium pollution might increase N2 production and influence nitrogen cycling in marine sediments.
       
  • Sublethal exposure to copper supresses the ability to acclimate to hypoxia
           in a model fish species
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Jennifer A. Fitzgerald, Mauricio G. Urbina, Nicholas J. Rogers, Nic R. Bury, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Rod W. Wilson, Eduarda M. Santos Hypoxia is one of the major threats to biodiversity in aquatic systems. The association of hypoxia with nutrient-rich effluent input into aquatic systems results in scenarios where hypoxic waters could be contaminated with a wide range of chemicals, including metals. Despite this, little is known about the ability of fish to respond to hypoxia when exposures occur in the presence of environmental toxicants. We address this knowledge gap by investigating the effects of exposures to different levels of oxygen in the presence or absence of copper using the three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) model. Fish were exposed to different air saturations (AS; 100 %, 75 % and 50 %) in combination with copper (20 μg/L) over a 4 day period. The critical oxygen level (Pcrit), an indicator of acute hypoxia tolerance, was 54.64 ± 2.51 % AS under control conditions, and 36.21 ± 2.14 % when fish were chronically exposed to hypoxia (50 % AS) for 4 days, revealing the ability of fish to acclimate to low oxygen conditions. Importantly, the additional exposure to copper (20 µg/L) prevented this improvement in Pcrit, impairing hypoxia acclimation. In addition, an increase in ventilation rate was observed for combined copper and hypoxia exposure, compared to the single stressors or the controls. Interestingly, in the groups exposed to copper, a large increase in variation in the measured Pcrit was observed between individuals, both under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. This variation, if observed in wild populations, may lead to selection for a tolerant phenotype and alterations in the gene pool of the populations, with consequences for their sustainability. Our findings provide strong evidence that copper reduces the capacity of fish to respond to hypoxia by preventing acclimation and will inform predictions of the consequences of global increases of hypoxia in water systems affected by other pollutants worldwide.
       
  • Developmental toxicity and angiogenic defects of etoxazole exposed
           zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Hahyun Park, Jin-Young Lee, Sunwoo Park, Gwonhwa Song, Whasun Lim Etoxazole, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, is widely used to control insects and mites by causing developmental defects. Despite the many advantages of pesticides, the inhibitory effects of most pesticides including etoxazole are based on biochemical reaction and their widespread application is considered as a major risk to human health and the environment because of bioaccumulation and non-target toxic effects. Though used in agricultural area, the pesticide residues run off through rivers or ocean, where diverse aquatic organisms live. Since there are no studies evaluating the risks of etoxazole exposure in embryogenesis of aquatic organisms, we investigated the adverse effects of etoxazole on development and angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos, which are considered to be an effective model for detecting ecotoxicological effects of widely used compounds, especially affecting aquatic organisms. Etoxazole induced yolk sac and heart edema, as well as loss of viability, abnormal heart rate, and developmental deficiency. Through a mechanistic approach, we also showed that etoxazole caused reactive oxygen species accumulation, inhibited the expression of cell cycle activating genes, and induced apoptosis. In addition, we investigated effects of etoxazole on cardiovascular development by demonstrating the loss of vascular structure in response to etoxazole exposure in fli1:eGFP transgenic zebrafish model. Collectively, this first assessment demonstrating the effects of etoxazole on embryogenesis and cardiovascular development provides clear evidence for the toxicity of etoxazole and contributes important data towards formulating safety guidelines on the potential hazards of etoxazole for aquatic environment.
       
  • Effect of metals of treated electroplating industrial effluents on
           antioxidant defense system in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Vayampully Ajitha, C.P. Sreevidya, Jeong Ha Kim, I.S. Bright Singh, A. Mohandas, Jae-Seong Lee, Jayesh Puthumana The microalga Chlorella vulgaris is one of the prominent and most widely distributed green microalgae found in aquatic environments, often used in toxicity tests due to its sensitivity to various pollutants. To examine the toxicity of metals found in the effluent discharges from an electroplating industry, physicochemical parameters in the microalga C. vulgaris were measured. pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, color, and the concentrations of metals such as chromium (1.97 mg/L), mercury (104.2 mg/L), and zinc (167.25 mg/L) were found exceeding the permissible limits. Several endpoints such as total protein content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, photosynthetic pigment contents, and antioxidant enzymatic activities, including those of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were measured in C. vulgaris in response to treated electroplating industrial effluent (TEPIE). In addition, concentration-dependent morphological changes were also observed in response to TEPIE. Under both acute and chronic TEPIE exposure, increase in the ROS level was observed indicating increased production of ROS in C. vulgaris cells. The total protein and chlorophyll contents were found to be gradually decreasing in an effluent concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, lower concentrations of effluent stimulated the antioxidant enzyme systems. A concentration-dependent increase was observed in both SOD and CAT enzymatic activities. The results indicated toxic impairments by the effluent on the function of C. vulgaris in response to both acute and chronic exposure, indicating an urgent need of proper treatment processes/modification of the existing one of TEPIE, with continuous monitoring of the discharge of the pollutants into the aquatic ecosystems using biological assays.
       
  • Current methods to monitor microalgae-nanoparticle interaction and
           associated effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Maureen Déniel, Nicolas Errien, Philippe Daniel, Aurore Caruso, Fabienne Lagarde Widespread use of nanoparticles for different applications has diffused their presence in the environment, particularly in water. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate their effects on aquatic organisms. Microalgae are at the base of aquatic trophic chains. These organisms which can be benthic or pelagic, meaning that they can enter into interaction with all kinds of particulate materials whatever their density, and constitute an interesting model study. The purpose of this review was to gather more than sixty studies on microalgae exposure to the different nanoparticles that may be present in the aquatic environment. After a brief description of each type of nanoparticle (metals, silica and plastic) commonly used in ecotoxicological studies, techniques to monitor their properties are presented. Then, different effects on microalgae resulting from interaction with nanoparticles are described as well as the parameters and techniques for monitoring them. The impacts described in the literature are primarily shading, ions release, oxidative stress, adsorption, absorption and disruption of microalgae barriers. Several parameters are proposed to monitor effects such as growth, photosynthesis, membrane integrity, biochemical composition variations and gene expression changes. Finally, in the literature, while different impacts of nanoparticles on microalgae have been described, there is no consensus on evidence of nanomaterial toxicity with regard to microalgae. A parallel comparison of different nanoparticle types appears essential in order to prioritize which factors exert the most influence on toxicity in microalgae cultures: size, nature, surface chemistry, concentration or interaction time.
       
 
 
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