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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2999 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1425 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Aquatic Ecology
  [SJR: 0.646]   [H-I: 44]   [30 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5125 - ISSN (Online) 1386-2588
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Life history traits determine the differential vulnerability of native and
           
    • Authors: Andrew T. Davidson; Nathan J. Dorn
      Pages: 331 - 341
      Abstract: Abstract The vulnerability of gastropods to their predators varies with life history traits such as morphology, body size, behavior, and growth rates as well as predator size. A recent study suggested that the invasive apple snail, Pomacea maculata, was considerably more vulnerable to crayfish predators than the native Florida apple snail, P. paludosa. The difference was hypothesized to be caused by the relatively small hatchling size of P. maculata. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of feeding assays designed to quantify maximum feeding rates and selective foraging of crayfish on apple snails. The rate at which crayfish killed individual P. maculata (i.e., kill rates) decreased with snail size, and kill rates on both species increased with crayfish size. Kill rates on juvenile P. maculata were higher than kill rates on size-matched hatchling P. paludosa, and crayfish fed selectively on P. maculata when offered mixed groups of size-matched snails. Further analyses revealed that hatchling P. paludosa possess shells 1.8× heavier than size-matched P. maculata suggesting differences in vulnerability to crayfish were consistent with interspecific differences in shell defenses. Differences in hatchling size and defensive traits in combination make crayfish kill rates on hatchling P. maculata approximately 15.4× faster than on hatchling P. paludosa, but the relative contribution of hatchling size to differences in apple snail vulnerability was >3× greater than the contribution of defensive traits.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9620-9
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Comparative analyses of physiological assays and chlorophyll a variable
           fluorescence parameters: investigating the importance of phosphorus
           availability in oligotrophic and eutrophic freshwater systems
    • Authors: Kim J. Rattan
      Pages: 359 - 375
      Abstract: Abstract Diverse measurements of nutrient status indicators were used to test the severity of physiological phosphorus (P) limitation of phytoplankton among lake systems ranging from oligotrophic to eutrophic, based on P and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations. Metabolic assays and particulate nutrient ratios were used to estimate nutrient status at sites located in Lake Erie, Lake Ontario and Lake Huron. Variable fluorescence ratios (F v/F m), relative electron transport rates and their response to irradiance were measured by the pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorometer. Under summer stratified conditions, P deficiency was strongest in the oligotrophic sites and nitrogen (N) status indicators and Chl a variable parameters revealed no severe N deficiency. Nutrient amendment assays showed positive associations with P additions and Chl a fluorescence parameters at P-deficient sites. In the most oligotrophic sites, N additions revealed a modest increase only detected by the Chl a fluorescence parameters. Phytoplankton communities were also associated with nutrient status, where chrysophytes and cryptophytes were important in P-deficient sites and cyanobacteria, phyrrophyta, and diatoms were prevalent in nutrient-rich sites. The results confirmed that Chl a fluorescence parameters can reveal P deficiency and indicate its severity among the range of trophic status in aquatic systems.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9622-7
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Spatial variability in prey phenology determines predator movement
           patterns and prey survival
    • Authors: Kae Takahashi; Takuya Sato
      Pages: 377 - 388
      Abstract: Abstract Species have phenological variation among local habitats that are located at relatively small spatial scales. However, less studies have tested how this spatial variability in phenology can mediate intra-/inter-specific interactions. When predators track phenological variation of prey among local habitats, survival of prey within a local habitat strongly influenced by phenological synchrony with their conspecifics in adjacent habitats. Theory predicts that phenological synchrony among local habitats increases prey survival in local habitat within spatially structured environments because the predators have to make a habitat choice for foraging. Consequently, total survival of prey at regional scale should be higher. By using a spatially explicit field experiment, we tested above hypothesis using a prey–predator interaction between tadpole (Rhacophorus arboreus) and newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster). We established enclosures (≈regional scale) consisting of two tanks (≈local habitat scale) with different degree of prey phenological synchrony. We found that phenological synchrony of prey between tanks within each enclosure decreased the mean residence time of the predator in each tank, which resulted in higher survival of prey at a local habitat scale, supporting the theoretical prediction. Furthermore, individual-level variation in predator residence time explained the between-tank variation in prey survival in enclosures with phenological synchrony, implying that movement patterns of the predator can mediate variation in local population dynamics of their prey. However, total survival at each enclosure was not higher under phenological synchrony. These results suggest the importance of relative timing of prey phenology, not absolute timing, among local habitats in determining prey–predator interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9623-6
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Ecological niche differentiation between native and non-native shrimps in
           the northern Baltic Sea
    • Authors: Ivan Kuprijanov; Kristjan Herkül; Jonne Kotta
      Pages: 389 - 404
      Abstract: Abstract Invasions of non-native species are modifying global biodiversity but the ecological mechanisms underlying invasion processes are still not well understood. A degree of niche separation of non-native and sympatric native species can possibly explain the success of novel species in their new environment. In this study, we quantified experimentally and in situ the environmental niche space of caridean shrimps (native Crangon crangon and Palaemon adspersus, non-native Palaemon elegans) inhabiting the northern Baltic Sea. Field studies showed that the non-native P. elegans had wider geographical range compared to native species although the level of habitat specialization was similar in both Palaemon species. There were clear differences in shrimp habitat occupancy with P. elegans inhabiting lower salinity areas and more eutrophicated habitats compared to the native species. Consequently, the non-native shrimp has occupied large areas of the northern Baltic Sea that were previously devoid of the native shrimps. Experiments demonstrated that the non-native shrimp had higher affinity to vegetated substrates compared to native species. The study suggests that the abilities of the non-native shrimp to thrive in more stressful habitats (lower salinity, higher eutrophication), that are sub-optimal for native shrimps, plausibly explain the invasion success of P. elegans.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9624-5
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Trade-offs between growth and defence in two phylogenetically close
           invasive species
    • Authors: Gabrielle Thiébaut; Anatole Boiché; Damien Lemoine; Marie-Hélène Barrat-Segretain
      Pages: 405 - 415
      Abstract: Abstract The success of an invasive plant species could be explained by trade-off between growth and defence. The aim of this paper was to explore the responses of two non-native aquatic macrophytes Elodea canadensis and Elodea nuttallii to herbivores in their introduced range. We assessed the palatability of the two phylogenetically close aquatic plant species in field and their responses to gammarid consumption in spring, summer and autumn in a microcosm experiment. We measured the variation of functional traits for each season. The traits selected were those judged most closely related to the allocation of resources to growth or to resistance against herbivores. We clearly established that the strategies of the two species were different and that their consumption rate differed in summer. In summer, E. canadensis allocated more of its resources to structural defence (leaf toughness). The increase in leaf thickness reduced the palatability of E. canadensis, whereas E. nuttallii stimulated its growth. Moreover, a decrease in dry matter content in E. nuttallii was found during the growing season in field. In autumn, both plant species accumulated nitrogen and phosphorus in their tissues. We also demonstrated that neither species induced efficient chemical defences against the herbivores. The different strategies of these two Elodea species could be explained by their different resident times in the introduced area and by an adaptation of the naturalised E. canadensis to herbivores.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9625-4
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Mayfly emergence along an oligotrophic Dinaric karst hydrosystem: spatial
           and temporal patterns, and species–environment relationship
    • Authors: Marina Vilenica; Marija Ivković; Michel Sartori; Zlatko Mihaljević
      Pages: 417 - 433
      Abstract: Abstract Mayfly emergence was studied in the Plitvice Lakes National Park (Croatia) monthly over a 2-year period in four habitats (springs, streams, mountainous rivers, tufa barriers) using monthly collections of emergence traps. A total of 12 mayfly taxa were recorded. Almost half of the collected specimens belonged to the genus Baetis Leach, 1815, which was recorded at every site, but we were unable to distinguish between two included species (B. rhodani and B. cf. nubecularis). Other abundant species were Centroptilum luteolum (Müller, 1776), Alainites muticus (Linnaeus, 1758), Habrophlebia lauta Eaton 1884, Paraleptophlebia submarginata (Stephens, 1835), Serratella ignita (Poda, 1761), Ephemera danica Müller, 1764 and Rhithrogena braaschi Jacob, 1974. The mayfly assemblages at all sites were dominated by species typical of the rhithral zone, but there was a shift in species composition along a longitudinal gradient (from 720 to 390 m a.s.l.) from dominance of eucrenal–epirhithral to metarhithral–hyporhithral elements and finally to appearance of metapotamal and littoral elements. Two environmental factors, maximum water temperature and mean pH, had the highest influence on the mayfly assemblages. Emergence mainly occurred between March and November and was related to the elevated water temperature. Emergence patterns of some species were in accordance with their typical Central European emergence patterns (e.g. S. ignita, H. lauta) while some others showed certain discrepancies (e.g. longer emergence period in Rh. braaschi and P. submarginata, one generation emergence in A. muticus and variable emergence patterns between the sites and between the two studied years in C. luteolum). The current study provides a significant contribution to the knowledge of mayfly ecology in karst freshwater habitats which forms a basis for further investigation and monitoring of mayflies in this area.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9626-3
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Patterns of resource use and isotopic niche overlap among three species of
           sharks occurring within a protected subtropical estuary
    • Authors: Austin J. Gallagher; David S. Shiffman; Evan E. Byrnes; C. M. Hammerschlag-Peyer; N. Hammerschlag
      Pages: 435 - 448
      Abstract: Abstract Predation is one of the most fundamental and unifying concepts in ecology, and we are beginning to obtain a more complete understanding of how predators drive community structure and ecosystem function through their impacts on prey. We know considerably less about how predators affect each other through intraguild interactions, which is surprising considering predators often occur simultaneously and may compete for resources while avoiding being killed themselves. In the present study, we examined aspects of inter- and intra-specific resource use among three species of large-bodied predatory sharks (blacktip, bull, lemon) co-occurring within a subtropical, protected bay in the southeastern USA. Specifically, we inferred relative trophic position, isotopic niche overlap, and patterns of resource use of sharks using stable isotope analysis of carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 from blood and fin cartilage samples. We also combined these approaches with estimates of abundance and occurrence from empirical shark surveys to consider whether these species may exhibit resource partitioning in space and time. We found that all three species overlapped in space, and there was some isotopic niche overlap between the species. We also found evidence of temporal isotopic niche stability, suggesting that co-occurring shark species may compete for available prey resources, but individuals of those species may have similar patterns of resource use over time. We discuss our findings as they relate to the ecologies of the species in question and how sound conservation and management of ecosystems can allow for predator diversity, sympatry, and stable use of resources at the top of the food chain.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9627-2
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The effect of constant darkness and short light periods on the survival
           and physiological fitness of two phytoplankton species and their growth
           potential after re-illumination
    • Authors: Bettina Walter; Janna Peters; Justus E. E. van Beusekom
      Abstract: Abstract We tested the survival potential and fitness of two different algae strains (the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the cryptophyceae Rhodomonas sp.) under different growth conditions (complete darkness and short light intervals, simulating conditions in a deep mixed water column) at different temperatures, plus the effect of these conditions on the physiological fitness and growth after re-illumination was examined. Both species survived the experimental conditions without significant cell loss or physiological damage. Two different survival strategies were observed: (1) the diatom T. weissflogii immediately reduced its metabolic rate and stopped cell division. The effect on chlorophyll a (chl-a) content and photosynthetic capacity was negligible. At 10 °C, T. weissflogii used the short light windows to metabolize carbohydrates and growth. (2) The cryptophyte Rhodomonas sp. initially continued to grow after transfer into all trials. However, the cell number decreased after day 6. Carbohydrate and chl-a content went on to decrease dramatically (70 and 50%, respectively). After 3 days of re-illumination, T. weissflogii grew faster than of Rhodomonas sp.. The diatom seemed to benefit from better start conditions and would out-compete the cryptophyte during a spring bloom. Our results highlight that these algae groups have different strategies in dealing with darkness, which potentially endow diatoms with a competitive advantage in deep mixed waters and in the season of early spring.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9638-z
       
  • Phosphorus scarcity and desiccation stress increase the occurrence of
           dominant taxa in wetland benthic primary producer communities
    • Authors: L. Marazzi; E. E. Gaiser; F. A. C. Tobias
      Abstract: Abstract A few dominant species of plants often disproportionately contribute to primary production; however, dominance has an underappreciated influence on ecosystem processes and functioning. Cascading impacts of dominant species have been documented in ecosystems undergoing eutrophication, but competitive exclusion may also influence dominance structures when limiting nutrients become scarce (i.e., in lakes experiencing oligotrophication) or with exposure to stressors to which few species are adapted (i.e., desiccation stress in wetlands). To predict impacts of widespread changes in nutrients and hydrology on dominance structures in aquatic ecosystems, we need quantitative assessments of dominance of important primary producers, including algae and cyanobacteria, which can regulate other structural and functional properties of ecosystems. We used a highly spatiotemporally resolved (7 years, 165 sites) dataset from the abundant microbial mats of the Florida Everglades to assess how and why the degree of dominance and the identity of dominant taxa vary across nutrient and desiccation gradients. Using algal counts and the dimensions of algal units (cells, coenobia, colonies, and filaments), we measured dominance as relative biovolume. As hypothesized, the relative biovolume of dominant taxa increased and the number of taxa comprising 95% of the biovolume decreased with lower concentrations of limiting nutrient in the mats (phosphorus; P) and higher desiccation stress. Algal taxa that regulate the structural integrity of mats, such as the filamentous, calcium carbonate precipitating cyanobacterium Scytonema sp., strongly influenced these patterns through their tolerance of P scarcity and desiccation. Our indicators and approach can be used to test whether dominance of microscopic primary producers, and other organisms, increases with nutrient scarcity and desiccation stress in other aquatic ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9637-0
       
  • Effects of a natural flood disturbance on species richness and beta
           diversity of stream benthic diatom communities
    • Authors: Fabiana Schneck; Katharina Lange; Adriano S. Melo; Colin R. Townsend; Christoph D. Matthaei
      Abstract: Abstract Natural hydrological disturbances in streams may reduce biomass and species richness and change community composition within streams. Disturbances can also affect beta diversity among streams if their effects are species specific or vary across sites. We investigated the effect of a natural flood on species richness, community composition and among-streams beta diversity of benthic diatoms (total community and three functional groups: low profile, high profile and motile) of seven streams in New Zealand. Sampling occurred shortly before, 10 days after and 40 days after the flood. Species richness of the total diatom community did not change after the flood. The high-profile group was the only one whose species richness declined after the flood, whereas species richness of the low-profile group increased. Community composition changed after the flood, mostly as a result of species replacement rather than richness differences over time. Finally, among-streams beta diversity did not change after the flood, suggesting that variation in species composition of benthic diatoms among streams may be maintained in the face of flood disturbances.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9636-1
       
  • Exclusion size and material have minimal effects on stream benthic algae
           and macroinvertebrate colonization within submerged cages
    • Authors: Natalie E. Knorp; Justin N. Murdock
      Abstract: Abstract Despite their widespread use in grazer–biofilm studies, stream exclusion cages have inherent physical properties that may alter benthic organism colonization and growth. We used laboratory studies and a field experiment to determine how exclusion cage design (size and material) alters light availability, water velocity, and benthic organism colonization. We measured light reduction by various plastic cage materials and flow boundary layer thickness across a range of exclusion cage sizes in the laboratory. We also deployed multiple exclusion cage designs based on commonly available materials into a second-order stream to assess algae and macroinvertebrate colonization differences among exclusion cages. All plastics reduced some light (190–700 nm wavelengths) and blocked more ultraviolet light than photosynthetically active radiation. Exclusion cage size did not influence flow boundary layer thickness, but larger exclusions tended to have higher velocity at the substrata surface. Despite light and water velocity differences, algal biomass, macroinvertebrate density, and community composition were similar between exclusion cage types. However, algal assemblages outside exclusion cages differed in composition and had higher biomass compared to inside exclusion cages. In terms of algal and macroinvertebrate colonization, plastic exclusion cage size and material appear to be flexible within the sizes tested, but differences can still exist between exclusion cage communities and those within the stream. Overall, artifacts of screened exclusion cages do not appear to introduce large bias in results of grazer–biofilm studies, but efforts to design exclusion cages that better mimic the natural system should continue.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9635-2
       
  • Seasonal and spatial functional shifts in phytoplankton communities of
           five tropical reservoirs
    • Authors: Lucineide Maria Santana; Guntram Weithoff; Carla Ferragut
      Abstract: Abstract Trait-based approaches have become increasingly important and valuable in understanding phytoplankton community assembly and composition. These approaches allow for comparisons between water bodies with different species composition. We hypothesize that similar changes in environmental conditions lead to similar responses with regard to functional traits of phytoplankton communities, regardless of trophic state or species composition. We studied the phytoplankton (species composition, community trait mean and diversity) of five reservoirs in Brazil along a trophic gradient from ultra-oligotrophic to meso-eutrophic. Samples at two seasons (summer/rainy and winter/dry) with a horizontal and vertical resolution were taken. Using multivariate analysis, the five reservoirs separated, despite some overlap, according to their environmental variables (mainly total phosphorus, conductivity, pH, chlorophyll a). However, between the seasonal periods, the reservoirs shifted in a similar direction in the multi-dimensional space. The seasonal response of the overall phytoplankton community trait mean differed between the ultra-oligotrophic and the other reservoirs, with three reservoirs exhibiting a very similar community trait mean despite considerable differences in species composition. Within-season differences between different water layers were low. The functional diversity was also unrelated to the trophic state of the reservoirs. Thus, seasonal environmental changes had strong influence on the functional characteristics of the phytoplankton community in reservoirs with distinct trophic condition and species composition. These results demonstrate that an ataxonomic trait-based approach is a relevant tool for comparative studies in phytoplankton ecology.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9634-3
       
  • Spatiotemporal variance of environmental conditions in Australian artesian
           springs affects the distribution and abundance of six endemic snail
           species
    • Authors: Renee A. Rossini; Rod J. Fensham; Gimme H. Walter
      Abstract: Abstract Artesian springs in arid Australia house endemic species with very small geographic distributions (most <50 km2). These species have limited dispersal capabilities, but little is known about environmental variance within and across these springs and how it, too, may limit their distribution and abundance. At the Pelican Creek springs complex, the full diversity of endemic gastropod fauna is found only in springs with deep pools, an area thought to provide greater environmental stability. This implies that the distributions of most snail species at this site may be restricted by their narrow environmental requirements and limits. This study monitored spatiotemporal environmental variance in a subset of the Pelican Creek springs (within Edgbaston Reserve) across one year to assess whether pool areas differ from tail areas, and how patterns of abundance of six snail species from three different families correspond to this variance. Springs fluctuated considerably in size, depth, water chemistry and temperature at daily and seasonal scales. Patterns of environmental variance differed across areas; pools were spatiotemporally stable, and tails were ephemeral and environmentally variable. The snail species occupied these areas in different ways. Species restricted to deep springs generally had significantly higher abundance in pool areas, and most had narrow environmental limits. In contrast, species found in a greater number of springs, including those with no pool, occupied pool and tail areas and generally had broader environmental limits. Environmental variance within and across springs affects the distribution of snails in a species-specific fashion. This has important implications for how we study springs and reveals that whilst the vast majority of species are restricted to areas of environmental stability, some can persist in the most environmentally variable areas.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9633-4
       
  • Enhanced ambient UVB light affects growth, body condition and the
           investment in innate and adaptive immunity in three-spined sticklebacks (
           Gasterosteus aculeatus )
    • Authors: Simon Vitt; Anna K. Rahn; Lisa Drolshagen; Theo C. M. Bakker; Jörn P. Scharsack; Ingolf P. Rick
      Abstract: Abstract With ongoing environmental change, ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) reaching the Earth’s surface has increased over recent decades with consequences for terrestrial and also aquatic ecosystems. Despite evidence for direct physiological and immunological responses of aquatic animals following enhanced UVB exposure, studies investigating indirect impacts of ambient UVB radiation are scarce and mainly used only single doses and/or artificially high amounts of UVB. In the present study, the influence of chronic exposure to elevated UVB levels on growth, body condition and immune function was investigated in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Fish were kept outdoors for 68 ± 2 days under two different spectral conditions; one group was exposed to natural solar radiation (UVB-normal), while the other group received additional UVB light for four hours daily (UVB-enhanced). Enhanced UVB radiation was within the range of UVB levels measured at the study site. Fish length and weight were determined at the beginning and end of the experiment to compare growth and body condition between the two treatment groups. At the end of the experiment, the splenosomatic index and the granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio were determined as immune parameters. Fish from the UVB-enhanced group showed a reduced growth and body condition as well as a lower splenosomatic index compared to the UVB-normal group. Furthermore, UVB-treated fish had a higher granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio representing a relatively higher activation of innate compared to adaptive immunity. Consequently, increased but ecologically relevant levels of ambient UVB negatively affect growth and body condition and have a considerable impact on immunity in three-spined sticklebacks.
      PubDate: 2017-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9632-5
       
  • Do flocks of great cormorants and goosanders avoid spatial overlap in
           foraging habitat during the non-breeding season'
    • Authors: Łukasz Kajtoch; Peter Lešo; Marcin Matysek; Mirosław Kata; Stanisław Gacek; Czesław Zontek; Andrzej Bisztyga; Robert Gwiazda
      Abstract: Abstract Species distribution, ecology, and behaviour are shaped, amongst other things, by interspecific, antagonistic interactions, and this phenomenon is particularly noticeable among predators. We studied the spatial co-distribution of two top piscivorous bird species foraging on inland waters outside breeding season. We considered the hypothesis that goosanders, Mergus merganser, and great cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo, avoid foraging in close proximity to each other. Data collected on five river-reservoir systems in the Western Carpathians (Poland and Slovakia) during two periods (2014–2015 and 2015–2016) showed that goosander numbers reduced significantly and their foraging areas changed when large flocks of cormorants arrived and began foraging. We also found that inter-flock distances were greatest between flocks of goosanders and cormorants, suggesting that the former species avoided the waters occupied by the latter. Distribution of flocks of both species was additionally determined by the location of foraging place in river-reservoir system, weather, and presence of other piscivorous birds (e.g. grebes) and raptors (e.g. eagles). Together with the results of research in adjacent Bohemia, this study suggests that competition between cormorants and goosanders may arise when bodies of water suitable for piscivorous foraging are scattered and limited in number, as in the mountainous areas of Central Europe.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9630-7
       
  • Setae thickening in Daphnia magna alleviates the food stress caused by the
           filamentous cyanobacteria
    • Authors: Lukasz Wejnerowski; Slawek Cerbin; Marcin Krzysztof Dziuba
      Abstract: Abstract It is assumed that daphnids adjust the filter screen morphology in order to minimize the interference with cyanobacterial filaments. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of filamentous cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile Lemmermann, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Woloszynska Seenaya et Subba Raju) on the thickness and length of setae of the third pair of thoracic limbs of Daphnia magna. The second objective was to assess whether the setae modifications could improve the performance of daphnids in the presence of cyanobacteria. Three clones of Daphnia magna Straus were cultured with: green algae; green algae with filaments of Cylindrospermopsis; and green algae with filaments of Aphanizomenon. The size and age of animals in the first reproduction cycle as well as the number of offspring were recorded. Setae thickness and length were measured in the central part of each endopodite. Additionally, we analyzed how the changes in setae morphology affect the fitness of experimental animals using the intrinsic rate of population increase calculated with the Euler–Lotka equation. The results showed that the thickness and length of setae increased in the presence of filamentous cyanobacteria. Moreover, cyanobacteria-induced setae thickening was positively correlated to the fitness of daphnids, which may indicate setae thickening as a phenotypic adaptation to cope with food stress caused by filamentous cyanobacteria.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9631-6
       
  • Freshwater anostracan, Branchinella kugenumaensis , as a potential
           controlling consumer species on toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa
           
    • Authors: Dongwoo Yang; Sangkyu Park
      Abstract: Abstract To evaluate the potential of Branchinella kugenumaensis for cyanobacterial bloom control relative to Daphnia, we conducted several feeding experiments on microcystin-free and microcystin-containing unicellular strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and colonial forms of Microcystis using B. kugenumaensis and Daphnia magna in a laboratory. Branchinella kugenumaensis showed higher filtration rates than those of D. magna in all treatments. In particular, the microcystin-containing unicellular strain supported the highest filtration rates of B. kugenumaensis among treatments. Daphnia magna reduced colonies less than 75 μm in length, whereas B. kugenumaensis could graze colonies less than 100 μm. The middle-sized group of B. kugenumaensis had a higher filtration rate than the small and large sized groups in a continuous feeding experiment for 4 days. In survival experiments, survivorships were not different between the two species, whereas ages at the beginning of the experiments affected their survival time. Our results showed that B. kugenumaensis grazed on toxic and colonial cyanobacteria at relatively high rates, indicating that locally abundant grazers like Branchinella may offer a better potential for bloom control than Daphnia.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9628-1
       
  • The effects of phosphorus and temperature on the competitive success of an
           invasive cyanobacterium
    • Authors: Caitlin N. Ryan; Mridul K. Thomas; Elena Litchman
      Abstract: Abstract Rising lake temperatures and changing nutrient inputs are believed to favour the spread of a toxic invasive cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenayya and Subba Raju, in temperate lakes. However, most evidence for these hypotheses is observational or based on physiological measurements in monocultures. We lack clear experimental evidence relating temperature and nutrients to the competitive success of C. raciborskii. To address this, we performed a 2 × 2 factorial laboratory experiment to study the dynamics of mixed phytoplankton communities subjected to different levels of temperature and phosphorus over 51 days. We allowed C. raciborskii to compete with ten different species from major taxonomic groups (diatoms, green algae, cryptophytes, and cyanobacteria) typical of temperate lakes, under low and high summer temperatures (25 and 30 °C) at two levels of phosphorus supply (1 and 25 µmol L−1). Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii dominated the communities and strongly decreased diversity under low-phosphorus conditions, consistent with the hypothesis that it is a good phosphorus competitor. In contrast, it remained extremely rare in high-phosphorus conditions, where fast-growing green algae dominated. Surprisingly, temperature played a negligible role in influencing community composition, suggesting that changes in summer temperature may not be important in determining C. raciborskii’s spread.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9629-0
       
  • Temporal and spatial variations of aquatic environmental characteristics
           and sediment bacterial community in five regions of Lake Taihu
    • Authors: Yu Wan; Yang Bai; Jia He; Yaping Zhang; Rongfu Li; Xiaohong Ruan
      Abstract: Abstract Sediment bacterial community and their relation with environmental factors were investigated in the five different trophic status lake regions sediment, Meiliang Bay, Wuli Lake, Gonghu Bay, Western Lake Taihu and Xukou Bay in a large, shallow, eutrophic freshwater lake (Lake Taihu, China). Water and surface sediment samples were collected at 35 sampling sites in January 2014 (winter) and July 2015 (summer). The physicochemical characterization showed that there were obvious changes in the trophic status and eutrophic index of five lake regions, which was mainly due to the difference of organic matter source. Based on the analysis of aquatic environmental characteristics, the organic nitrogen or nitrate nitrogen was the main storing form in the overlying water of five lake regions. In addition, nitrate nitrogen in pore water was lower than in overlying water, while ammonia nitrogen in pore water was higher than in overlying water. According to the DGGE profiles, temporal and spatial variations of bacterial community were apparent. Bacterial diversity was higher in summer than in winter and increased with the decrease in the lake region trophic status. The dendrogram of the bacterial community similarities revealed that samples were almost all grouped into two defined clusters (summer and winter), which indicated that season rather than region was the dominant factor. Canonical correspondence analysis demonstrated that ammonia nitrogen and nitrate–nitrite nitrogen in the sediment and pore water, organic matter and temperature significantly influenced the sediment bacterial community in the five lake regions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9621-8
       
  • Acclimation of Salix triandroides cuttings to incomplete submergence is
           reduced by low light
    • Authors: Xiaohui Ding; Jianfeng Zou; Youzhi Li; Xin Yao; Dongsheng Zou; Canming Zhang; Nan Yang; Yandong Niu; Hualin Bian; Jiajun Deng; Zixuan Ge
      Abstract: Abstract A simulated flooding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of seasonal flooding on the plant Salix triandroides from the Dongting Lake wetlands in China. The morphology, photosynthetic activity, and anatomy of cuttings in three water conditions (−40 cm, water level 40 cm below soil surface; 0 cm, water level 0 cm at the soil surface; and 40 cm, water level 40 cm above soil surface) and two lights conditions (full sunlight and 10% sunlight) were measured. Plants had a higher survival ratio and biomass accumulation in full sunlight than in 10% sunlight when the water level was −40 and 0 cm, but there was no difference between these parameters in cuttings grown under the two light conditions in the 40 cm water treatment. In full sunlight, a lower survival ratio and reduced biomass were observed with increasing water level. The same trend was also seen for survival ratio in 10% sunlight. However, there was no difference in biomass among the three water levels in 10% sunlight, except for leaf weight. Branch height, leaf number, adventitious root length, and adventitious root number were different in the three water levels and two light conditions. In water levels of −40 and 0 cm, plants had lower chlorophyll contents in full sunlight than in 10% sunlight. In full sunlight, there was no difference in chlorophyll content between the water levels, while in 10% sunlight, lower chlorophyll content was observed in −40 cm than in 0 cm water. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate decreased, but water-use efficiency increased in reduced light at all three water levels. Additionally, plants had higher porosity in 40 cm water than in −40 and 0 cm conditions. Based on the reduced plant growth in the 10% sunlight condition and decreased survival in the 40 cm water level, we conclude that low light significantly decreased plant acclimation to incomplete submergence and that high water levels induced dormancy in the cuttings. Therefore, the height of cuttings used for forestation or reforestation is an important consideration for mitigating the negative effects of seasonal flooding on the survival and growth of S. triandroides in Dongting Lake wetlands.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9619-2
       
 
 
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