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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3086 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1462 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Aquatic Ecology
  [SJR: 0.646]   [H-I: 44]   [32 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5125 - ISSN (Online) 1386-2588
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • The importance of herbivory by protists in lakes of a tropical floodplain
           system
    • Authors: Bianca Ramos Meira; Fernando Miranda Lansac-Toha; Bianca Trevizan Segovia; Paulo Roberto Bressan Buosi; Fábio Amodêo Lansac-Tôha; Luiz Felipe Machado Velho
      Abstract: Inland aquatic ecosystems play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, processing a great fraction of the organic matter coming from terrestrial ecosystems, and the microbial food web is crucial in this process. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the food resource of planktonic protozoa comes mainly from small primary producers or heterotrophic bacteria in tropical shallows lakes, assuming the hypothesis that, in general, picocyanobacteria would be the main food resource for protists. We also expected that the autotrophic fraction would be mainly related to protists at the surface of the environments, while the heterotrophic fraction would be more important at the lower strata of the water column. We performed size-fractionation experiments to evaluate the effects of predation of protists on heterotrophic bacteria and picocyanobacteria. We also sampled planktonic organisms at the subsurface and bottom of 20 lakes in a Neotropical floodplain. We found an herbivory preference of heterotrophic flagellates, while ciliates seem to exert a stronger impact on heterotrophic bacteria. We also found no relationship between heterotrophic bacteria and protists in the field data, whereas positive relationships between picocyanobacteria and protists were observed in environments where there was sunlight. Thus, both heterotrophic bacteria and picocyanobacteria were important components in the food webs of tropical shallow lakes. Moreover, the trophic cascade caused by zooplankton predation suggests that protists are efficient in transferring the energy from the base of microbial food webs to higher trophic levels.
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-9654-7
       
  • Niche differentiation among invasive Ponto-Caspian Chelicorophium species
           (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Corophiidae) by food particle size
    • Authors: Péter Borza; Thomas Huber; Patrick Leitner; Nadine Remund; Wolfram Graf
      Abstract: After Chelicorophium curvispinum, two other Ponto-Caspian tube-dwelling, filter-feeding amphipod species (Chelicorophium robustum and Chelicorophium sowinskyi) have colonized several catchments in Central and Western Europe in recent decades. To reveal the mechanism of niche differentiation among them, we measured the mesh sizes of their filtering apparatus and analyzed multi-habitat sampling data from the River Danube using RDA-based variance partitioning between environmental and spatial explanatory variables. Morphometric data showed a clear differentiation among the species by filter mesh size (C. curvispinum > C. robustum > C. sowinskyi). Field data also indicated the relevance of suspended matter; however, the mere quantity of suspended solids included in the analysis could not explain the abundance patterns effectively. Current velocity, substrate types, and total nitrogen content also had a non-negligible effect; however, their role in the niche differentiation of the species is not evident. In summary, differences in their filter mesh sizes indicate a niche differentiation by food particle size among the invasive Chelicorophium species, allowing their stable coexistence given sufficient size variability in their food source. Consequently, the two recent invaders increase the effectiveness of resource utilization, resulting in a more intensive benthic–pelagic coupling in the colonized ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-9653-8
       
  • Herbivore functional traits and macroinvertebrate food webs have different
           responses to leaf chemical compounds of two macrophyte species in a
           tropical lake’s littoral zone
    • Authors: Hugo Henrique L. Saulino; Ross M. Thompson; Susana Trivinho-Strxino
      Abstract: This research addressed the question of whether invertebrate food web structure varied between a native and an invasive macrophyte leaf species in the littoral zone of a tropical reservoir. We compared macroinvertebrate herbivore functional trait diversity composition with food web structure on the two macrophyte leaves, the invasive white ginger lily (Hedichium coronarium—Zingiberaceae) and the native pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata—Pontederiaceae). We predicted that the herbivore macroinvertebrate trait indices would decrease with macrophyte leaf species due to a lower resource quality with the flow-on effects in the food web structure. We calculated the number of functionally singular species (sing.sp) and herbivore functional trait richness (FRic) indices. For the macroinvertebrate food webs, we calculated the total number of trophic links (L), link density (L/S), connectance (C) and predator–prey ratios using a predator–prey matrix. We analysed the relationship between chemical traits of the macrophyte species’ leaves herbivore traits and food web indices using multivariate regression and Pearson’s correlation. Hedichium coronarium leaves had higher biomass and higher nitrogen content than the native P. cordata, which had higher phosphorus and carbohydrate content. Pontederia cordata leaves were associated with specialist macroinvertebrate species which primarily feed on biofilms (e.g. Ulmeritrus and Scirtidae) and plant leaves (e.g. Beardius). Food webs on P. cordata had lower numbers of trophic links (L), links per species (L/S) and predator–prey ratios. Connectance, which represents food web complexity, was similar between macroinvertebrate assemblages on the two leaf types. Our study suggests that chemical compounds of macrophyte leaves quality may have potential flow-on effects on food web structure.
      PubDate: 2018-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-9652-9
       
  • Nitrification in intertidal sponge Cinachyrella cavernosa
    • Authors: N. S. Subina; B. R. Thorat; Maria-Judith Gonsalves
      Abstract: The nitrification process in different sections of the sponges remains unresolved, despite several studies on the nitrogen cycling pathways in the tissues of temperate and Arctic sponges. In this study, the abundance, diversity and activity of the associated nitrifying organisms in intracellular, intercellular, extracellular and cortex of a tropical intertidal sponge, Cinachyrella cavernosa, were investigated using most probable number, next-generation sequencing and incubation method, respectively. The nitrification rate and the abundance of nitrifying bacteria showed significant difference among different sections. The nitrification rate in C. cavernosa was 2–12× higher than the reported values in other sponge species from temperate and Arctic regions. Nitrification rate in sponge cortex was 2× higher than in intercellular and extracellular sections. Ammonium and nitrite oxidisers ranged from 103 to 104 CFU g−1 in the sponge with a high number of ammonium and nitrite oxidisers in the cortex. Nitrifiers belonging to Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, Nitrospina, Nitrobacter and Nitrosopumilus were present in different sections of the sponge, with nitrifying archaea dominating the intracellular section and nitrifying bacteria dominating other sections. This study reports for the first time the nitrification inside the sponge cells. The study also suggests that the intertidal sponge, C. cavernosa, harbours metabolically active nitrifiers in different sections of the sponge body with different rates of nitrification. Thus, nitrifiers play an important role in ammonia detoxification within the sponge and also contribute to the nitrogen budget of the coastal ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-9651-x
       
  • Environmental filtering and spatial effects on metacommunity organisation
           differ among littoral macroinvertebrate groups deconstructed by biological
           traits
    • Authors: Kimmo T. Tolonen; Yongjiu Cai; Annika Vilmi; Satu Maaria Karjalainen; Tapio Sutela; Jani Heino
      Abstract: We examined spatial and environmental effects on the deconstructed assemblages of littoral macroinvertebrates within a large lake. We deconstructed assemblages by three biological trait groups: body size, dispersal mode and oviposition behaviour. We expected that spatial effects on assemblage structuring decrease and environmental effects increase with increasing body size. We also expected stronger environmental filtering and weaker spatial effect on the assemblages of flying species compared with assemblages of non-flying species. Stronger effect of environmental filtering was expected on the assemblages with species attaching eggs compared with assemblages of species with free eggs. We used redundancy analysis with variation partitioning to examine spatial and environmental effects on the deconstructed assemblages. As expected, the importance of environmental filtering increased and that of spatial effects decreased with increasing body size. Opposite to our expectations, assemblages of non-flying species were more affected by environmental conditions compared to assemblages of flying species. Concurring with our expectations, the importance of environmental filtering was higher in structuring assemblages of species attaching eggs than in structuring those with freely laid eggs. The amount of unexplained variation was higher for assemblages with small-sized to medium-sized species, flying species and species with free eggs than those with large-sized species, non-flying species and species with attached eggs. Our observations of decreasing spatial and increasing environmental effects with increasing body size of assemblages deviated from the results of previous studies. These results suggest differing metacommunity dynamics between within-lake and among-lake levels and between studies covering contrasting taxonomic groups and body size ranges.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-9649-4
       
  • The use of historical environmental monitoring data to test predictions on
           cross-scale ecological responses to alterations in river flows
    • Authors: Matthew J. Colloff; Ian C. Overton; Brent L. Henderson; Jane Roberts; Julian R. W. Reid; Roderick L. Oliver; Anthony D. Arthur; Tanya M. Doody; Neil C. Sims; Qifeng Ye; Susan M. Cuddy
      Abstract: Determination of ecological responses to river flows is fundamental to understanding how flow-dependent ecosystems have been altered by regulation, water diversions and climate change, and how to effect river restoration. Knowledge of ecohydrological relationships can support water management and policy, but this is not always the case. Management rules have tended to be developed ahead of scientific knowledge. The lag between practice and knowledge could be addressed by using historical monitoring data on ecological responses to changes in flows to determine significant empirical ecohydrological relationships, as an adjunct to investigating responses prospectively. This possibility was explored in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia. We assessed 359 data sets collected during monitoring programs across the basin. Of these, only 32 (9%) were considered useful, based on a match between the scale at which sampling was done and ecological responses are likely to occur, and used to test flow–ecology predictions for phytoplankton, macroinvertebrates, fishes, waterbirds, floodplain trees, basin-scale vegetation and estuarine biota. We found relationships between flow and ecological responses were likely to be more strongly supported for large, long-lived, widespread biota (waterbirds, basin-scale vegetation, native fishes), than for more narrowly distributed (e.g. estuarine fishes) or smaller, short-lived organisms (e.g. phytoplankton, macroinvertebrates). This pattern is attributed to a mismatch between the design of monitoring programs and the response time frames of individual biota and processes, and to the use of local river discharge as a primary predictor variable when, for many biotic groups, other predictors need to be considered.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-9650-y
       
  • Predaceous insects may limit algal grazers in high-nutrient environments:
           implications for wastewater remediation in open bioreactors
    • Authors: Alexandra E. Thom; Meenakshi Bhattacharjee; Evan Siemann
      Abstract: Algal biofuel has potential as a source of renewable fuel and a tool for wastewater remediation. Open algal bioreactors fertilized with wastewater can have net energy gain but are vulnerable to colonization by algal grazers. However, colonizing predaceous insects may limit grazer impacts on algae. Here, we investigate the effects of grazers, predators, and invading algae species on algal production and community structure in high-nutrient environments. First, we grew diverse algal assemblages in treated municipal wastewater in a greenhouse with Daphnia grazers and different insect predators that were added experimentally. When Daphnia were present without predators, they eliminated suspended algae. But, dragonfly larvae [Odonata: Libellulidae] and backswimmers [Hemiptera: Notonectidae], but not larval diving beetles [Coloeoptera: Dytiscidae], suppressed Daphnia allowing suspended algae to persist. Second, we grew Chlorella algae in field tanks that were open or protected from natural invertebrate colonization and half the tanks received wild-collected plankton in a factorial design. Mosquito larvae [Culex sp.] readily colonized open tanks and reduced algal mass and dissolved phosphorus concentrations. Colonist addition to open tanks shifted algal functional and taxonomic composition but did not impact suspended algal production. Our study indicates that large numbers of grazer individuals can rapidly colonize open bioreactors. Experimentally added and naturally colonizing grazers altered algal community structure and reduced algal standing crops but may also aid in nutrient removal from wastewater-fed bioreactors. Effective operation of open algal bioreactors must consider cultivated algae species’ vulnerability to competition and local grazers as well as the ability of potential predators to both naturally disperse into bioreactors and to control grazers.
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-018-9648-5
       
  • Spatiotemporal variance of environmental conditions in Australian artesian
           springs affects the distribution and abundance of six endemic snail
           species
    • Authors: Renee A. Rossini; Rod J. Fensham; Gimme H. Walter
      Pages: 511 - 529
      Abstract: Artesian springs in arid Australia house endemic species with very small geographic distributions (most <50 km2). These species have limited dispersal capabilities, but little is known about environmental variance within and across these springs and how it, too, may limit their distribution and abundance. At the Pelican Creek springs complex, the full diversity of endemic gastropod fauna is found only in springs with deep pools, an area thought to provide greater environmental stability. This implies that the distributions of most snail species at this site may be restricted by their narrow environmental requirements and limits. This study monitored spatiotemporal environmental variance in a subset of the Pelican Creek springs (within Edgbaston Reserve) across one year to assess whether pool areas differ from tail areas, and how patterns of abundance of six snail species from three different families correspond to this variance. Springs fluctuated considerably in size, depth, water chemistry and temperature at daily and seasonal scales. Patterns of environmental variance differed across areas; pools were spatiotemporally stable, and tails were ephemeral and environmentally variable. The snail species occupied these areas in different ways. Species restricted to deep springs generally had significantly higher abundance in pool areas, and most had narrow environmental limits. In contrast, species found in a greater number of springs, including those with no pool, occupied pool and tail areas and generally had broader environmental limits. Environmental variance within and across springs affects the distribution of snails in a species-specific fashion. This has important implications for how we study springs and reveals that whilst the vast majority of species are restricted to areas of environmental stability, some can persist in the most environmentally variable areas.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9633-4
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Seasonal and spatial functional shifts in phytoplankton communities of
           five tropical reservoirs
    • Authors: Lucineide Maria Santana; Guntram Weithoff; Carla Ferragut
      Pages: 531 - 543
      Abstract: Trait-based approaches have become increasingly important and valuable in understanding phytoplankton community assembly and composition. These approaches allow for comparisons between water bodies with different species composition. We hypothesize that similar changes in environmental conditions lead to similar responses with regard to functional traits of phytoplankton communities, regardless of trophic state or species composition. We studied the phytoplankton (species composition, community trait mean and diversity) of five reservoirs in Brazil along a trophic gradient from ultra-oligotrophic to meso-eutrophic. Samples at two seasons (summer/rainy and winter/dry) with a horizontal and vertical resolution were taken. Using multivariate analysis, the five reservoirs separated, despite some overlap, according to their environmental variables (mainly total phosphorus, conductivity, pH, chlorophyll a). However, between the seasonal periods, the reservoirs shifted in a similar direction in the multi-dimensional space. The seasonal response of the overall phytoplankton community trait mean differed between the ultra-oligotrophic and the other reservoirs, with three reservoirs exhibiting a very similar community trait mean despite considerable differences in species composition. Within-season differences between different water layers were low. The functional diversity was also unrelated to the trophic state of the reservoirs. Thus, seasonal environmental changes had strong influence on the functional characteristics of the phytoplankton community in reservoirs with distinct trophic condition and species composition. These results demonstrate that an ataxonomic trait-based approach is a relevant tool for comparative studies in phytoplankton ecology.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9634-3
      Issue No: Vol. 51, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Ecological uniqueness of macroinvertebrate communities in high-latitude
           streams is a consequence of deterministic environmental filtering
           processes
    • Authors: Katri E. Tolonen; Kirsti Leinonen; Jaakko Erkinaro; Jani Heino
      Abstract: Variation in biological communities is a consequence of stochastic and deterministic factors. Examining the relative importance of these factors helps to understand variation in the whole biodiversity in a region. We examined the roles of stochastic and deterministic factors in structuring macroinvertebrate communities in high-latitude streams across two seasons. We predicted that if communities are the result of deterministic environmental filtering processes, the communities should show strong association with environmental variables, as taxa would be selected according to stream environmental conditions. However, if communities are driven by stochastic factors, they should show strong association with spatial variables, as the distribution of taxa in communities would be driven by spatially related dispersal factors. We studied these predictions by calculating the degree of uniqueness of the streams in terms of their taxonomic and functional community compositions and by modelling the resulting index values using spatial and environmental variables. Our results supported the first prediction where the communities are more influenced by the environmental filtering processes, although indications of the effect of spatial processes in structuring the communities were present especially in autumn. High-latitude stream communities also seem to be sensitive to environmental changes, as even small changes in environment were enough to affect the ecological uniqueness of the streams. These findings highlight the vulnerability of northern streams in the face of the climate change. To maintain biodiversity in high-latitude catchments, it would be important to protect varying habitat conditions, which are the main forces affecting the ecological uniqueness of the streams.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9642-3
       
  • Seed bank of seasonally flooded grassland: experimental simulation of
           flood and post-flood
    • Authors: Francielli Bao; Tracy Elsey-Quirk; Marco Antonio de Assis; Arnildo Pott
      Abstract: Wetland seed banks comprise the propagules of plant species that have species-specific germination requirements for germination in either flooded or dry conditions. At the community level, wetland structure and succession during and after a seasonal flooding event depends upon the early life-history requirements of species, including germination under flooded and dry conditions. We examined the effects of simulated flood and post-flood scenarios on seedling emergence from a seed bank of seasonally flooded grassland in the Pantanal, Brazil. Field samplings were conducted in both wet and dry seasons, both of which were subject to flood and post-flood conditions. A total of 70 species emerged from the seed bank, dominated by Poaceae and Cyperaceae. Sixteen species were exclusive to the wet and one exclusive to the dry season. The richness of perennial species was higher under flood conditions, while the richness of annuals was greater post-flood. In general, the aquatic and amphibious species exhibited a significant germination response to flooding. Terrestrial species only germinated in post-flood conditions, with higher richness in the dry season. Four species had high seedling abundance in both treatments. The capacity of regeneration by seeds is high in these grasslands and can be increased by seasonal flooding and drawdown. In these seasonally flooded grasslands, we observed three main germination strategies: under flooded conditions, aquatic and amphibious species; post-flood conditions, an explosion of annual amphibious and terrestrial species; and in moist soil, perennial terrestrial species. The differential responses to flooding versus post-flood conditions help to maintain the structure and species richness in the community over time.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9647-y
       
  • Land-use effects on structural and functional composition of benthic and
           leaf-associated macroinvertebrates in four Andean streams
    • Authors: Carlos Iñiguez-Armijos; Henrietta Hampel; Lutz Breuer
      Abstract: The replacement of native forests by pastures takes place widely in the Andes. The effects of such land-use change on aquatic assemblages are poorly understood. We conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of forest conversion to pastures on the taxonomic, structural, and functional composition of macroinvertebrates (benthic and leaf-associated) in montane and upper montane streams (ecosystem type) of the south Ecuadorian Andes. Taxonomic composition of benthic and leaf-associated macroinvertebrates was different between ecosystem type and land use. Also, major differences in the structural and functional composition of benthic and leaf-associated macroinvertebrates were mainly promoted by land use in both ecosystem types. Forested streams showed higher diversity than pasture streams, sustaining more shredder, scraper, and predatory invertebrates. We also observed differences in the macroinvertebrate communities between benthic and leaf-bag samples. Leaf bags had lower diversity and more collector invertebrates than benthic samples. This study highlights the large effect of riparian forest conversion to pasture land on macroinvertebrate communities, and the importance of using appropriate sampling techniques to characterize aquatic assemblages. We also recommend the maintenance and restoration of riparian vegetation to mitigate the effects of deforestation on stream communities and ecosystem processes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9646-z
       
  • Root morphological and structural comparisons of introduced and native
           aquatic plant species in multiple substrates
    • Authors: Xiaolong Huang; Nan Shen; Xin Guan; Xuan Xu; Fanjiao Kong; Chunhua Liu; Dan Yu
      Abstract: Invasions of introduced plants are considered among the greatest threats to biodiversity worldwide. Aquatic habitats suffer invasion more frequently and extensively than do terrestrial habitats. Although the role of roots in plant anchoring and support is important, previous studies have focused much attention on the morphological traits of above-ground parts, with relatively less attention given to the root structures of aquatic plants. In this study, we aimed to compare differences in root morphological and structural traits between introduced and native plants in response to different substrates. We hypothesized that introduced aquatic plants have an advantage over native plants with regard to root trait values and plasticity. A total of six aquatic plants were used: Two invasive and one exotic noninvasive species were paired with their native counterparts according to life form (amphibious emergent, submerged and floating-leaved) and cultivated in substrates of clay, a clay/sand mixture (v:v = 1:1) or sand. Root morphological traits, topological indices and root relative distance plasticity indices were quantified. The results indicated that different substrates have various effects on the root traits of these six aquatic plants; the introduced plants generally exhibited higher plasticity than did their native counterparts of the same life form.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9645-0
       
  • Effects of a combined use of macronutrients nitrate, ammonium, and
           phosphate on cadmium absorption by Egeria densa Planch. and its
           phytoremediation applicability
    • Authors: Inácio A. Pestana; Annaliza C. Meneguelli-Souza; Maria Angélica C. Gomes; Marcelo G. Almeida; Marina S. Suzuki; Angela P. Vitória; Cristina M. M. Souza
      Abstract: Phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers represent a source of cadmium (Cd) which may be leached into aquatic systems. Macrophytes accumulate contaminants, and Egeria densa has been shown to grow in aquatic environments polluted with trace elements. In this study, Cd accumulation by E. densa exposed to two Cd treatments (3 and 5 mg L−1) was evaluated under increasing nutrient levels (NP as N–NO3 −, N–NH4 +, and P–PO4 3−, in concentrations 5-, 10- and 100-fold higher (NP5, NP10 and NP100) than in the sampling site) to simulate different levels of eutrophication. Bioaccumulation factors and Cd recovery were calculated and effects on plants were evaluated based on chloroplastidic pigment concentrations (chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoids). We conclude that Cd accumulation by Egeria densa is positively influenced by increasing availability of N and P at the level of around NP10 and probably at a broader concentration range not defined in this study. A further increase in N and P, however, does not generate a significant increase in Cd accumulation. Chloroplastidic pigment concentrations were not linearly correlated with Cd accumulation and the NP10 experiment produced less damage to macrophyte when compared to NP5 and NP100 experiments. Under controlled conditions, it was possible to satisfactorily model Cd bioaccumulation over time, in order to provide essential data for E. densa use in phytoremediation processes. The Cd residence in the macrophyte tissue is increased in eutrophic environments, which puts at risk the whole food chain of the aquatic ecosystem, mainly the primary consumers.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9644-1
       
  • Impacts of varying durations of passive oxygen exposure on freshwater
           denitrifier community structure and function
    • Authors: Jonathon B. Van Gray; Laura G. Leff
      Abstract: Fertilizer use has dramatically increased the availability of nitrate (NO3 −) in aquatic systems. Microbe-mediated denitrification is one of the predominant means of NO3 − removal from freshwaters, yet oxygenation (O2)-induced disruptions—e.g., extreme precipitation events—can occur, resulting in a disproportional increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) production and efflux as facultative anaerobic bacterial populations use of O2 as a terminal electron acceptor increases. We examined the effects of 12- and 24-h passive O2 exposure on previously anaerobic bacterial communities focusing on denitrification enzyme activity (DEA), N2O production, and bacterial community 16S rRNA and nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ) profiles after 12, 24, and 48 h of anaerobic recovery. Treatments experiencing 24-h O2 exposure had significantly higher DEA 12 h into anaerobic recovery than treatments undergoing 12-h O2 exposure. Initial N2O emissions were significantly lower in the 24-h O2 exposure treatments although by 24 h a dramatic spike (tenfold relative to the 12-h O2 exposure treatments) in N2O concentrations was observed. However, within 6 h (30-h anaerobic recovery) these differences were gone. Community nosZ profiles experiencing 24-h O2 exposure exhibited reduced diversity after 24-h recovery, which corresponded with an increase in N2O emissions. However, after 48 h of anaerobic recovery, nosZ diversity had recovered. These observations highlight the effects of short-term aerobic disruption on denitrification, as well as the effects on the denitrifier community profile. Together, these data suggest that recovery to ambient N cycling is exacerbated by disturbance length due to increased lag time and subsequent loss of denitrifier community diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9643-2
       
  • Fishing-induced changes in predation pressure by perch ( Perca fluviatilis
           ) regulate littoral benthic macroinvertebrate biomass, density, and
           community structure
    • Authors: Leena Nurminen; Noora Hellén; Mikko Olin; Joni Tiainen; Mika Vinni; Mira Grönroos; Satu Estlander; Jukka Horppila; Martti Rask; Hannu Lehtonen
      Abstract: We aimed to study whether the varying changes in predation pressure by perch (Perca fluviatilis) reflect the biomass, density, and community structure of the benthic macroinvertebrates. Prey preference is size-dependent, and overall predation pressure is density dependent, and thus the size structure of the P. fluviatilis population should affect the structure of the macroinvertebrate community, and the population density of P. fluviatilis should reflect the overall density of benthic macroinvertebrates. We sampled the littoral benthic community in a boreal lake that had been divided into two parts that were subjected to two different fishing procedures during 2007–2012 period and analyzed the macroinvertebrate diet of fish. The benthic macroinvertebrate community reflected the predation pressure. Total macroinvertebrate biomass increased during the study period in the lake division with a non-size-selective fishing procedure (NSF), i.e., all invertivorous perch size-classes targeted, but decreased in the section with negatively size-selective fishing procedure (SSF), i.e., large invertivorous individuals ≥ 16 cm were not targeted. This difference was a result of the increase in large-sized species, such as Odonata, for the NSF procedure and decrease in the SSF procedure. In contrast to total biomass, total macroinvertebrate density did not show a response to predator size structure but rather total macroinvertebrate density decreased with increasing fish density. The study demonstrates the effect of predation pressure of P. fluviatilis on benthic communities, thus highlighting the keystone predator role of the species in boreal lakes and gives more insight on the multiple effects of fish predation on littoral benthic communities.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9641-4
       
  • Effect of interspecific competition on the growth and nutrient uptake of
           three macrophytes in nutrient-rich water
    • Authors: Champika Ellawala Kankanamge; Hasini Kodithuwakku
      Abstract: Nutrient uptake by plants in nutrient-rich water in competitive conditions was investigated with two mixed culture combinations of Limnocharis flava/Pistia stratiotes and Limnocharis flava/Ipomoea aquatica by using various initial planting densities. Further, the biomass production and other growth-related parameters were measured to understand the dominant competitive behavior. The effects of interspecific competition on influencing nutrient uptake were substantial. In both experiments, the superior competitor produced a higher biomass regardless of the initial density, which was the dominant factor in determining the total nutrient uptake from water. Both aboveground competition and belowground competition appeared to be important in influencing competitive outcomes. Optimal removal of nutrients was produced by a treatment ratio of 5.31: 5.31 Limnocharis flava/Ipomoea aquatica plants/m2, which gave the highest observed nutrient removal, of which approximately 52% of TN removal and 90% of TP removal were due to plant uptake.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9640-5
       
  • The effect of constant darkness and short light periods on the survival
           and physiological fitness of two phytoplankton species and their growth
           potential after re-illumination
    • Authors: Bettina Walter; Janna Peters; Justus E. E. van Beusekom
      Abstract: We tested the survival potential and fitness of two different algae strains (the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the cryptophyceae Rhodomonas sp.) under different growth conditions (complete darkness and short light intervals, simulating conditions in a deep mixed water column) at different temperatures, plus the effect of these conditions on the physiological fitness and growth after re-illumination was examined. Both species survived the experimental conditions without significant cell loss or physiological damage. Two different survival strategies were observed: (1) the diatom T. weissflogii immediately reduced its metabolic rate and stopped cell division. The effect on chlorophyll a (chl-a) content and photosynthetic capacity was negligible. At 10 °C, T. weissflogii used the short light windows to metabolize carbohydrates and growth. (2) The cryptophyte Rhodomonas sp. initially continued to grow after transfer into all trials. However, the cell number decreased after day 6. Carbohydrate and chl-a content went on to decrease dramatically (70 and 50%, respectively). After 3 days of re-illumination, T. weissflogii grew faster than of Rhodomonas sp.. The diatom seemed to benefit from better start conditions and would out-compete the cryptophyte during a spring bloom. Our results highlight that these algae groups have different strategies in dealing with darkness, which potentially endow diatoms with a competitive advantage in deep mixed waters and in the season of early spring.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9638-z
       
  • Effects of a natural flood disturbance on species richness and beta
           diversity of stream benthic diatom communities
    • Authors: Fabiana Schneck; Katharina Lange; Adriano S. Melo; Colin R. Townsend; Christoph D. Matthaei
      Abstract: Natural hydrological disturbances in streams may reduce biomass and species richness and change community composition within streams. Disturbances can also affect beta diversity among streams if their effects are species specific or vary across sites. We investigated the effect of a natural flood on species richness, community composition and among-streams beta diversity of benthic diatoms (total community and three functional groups: low profile, high profile and motile) of seven streams in New Zealand. Sampling occurred shortly before, 10 days after and 40 days after the flood. Species richness of the total diatom community did not change after the flood. The high-profile group was the only one whose species richness declined after the flood, whereas species richness of the low-profile group increased. Community composition changed after the flood, mostly as a result of species replacement rather than richness differences over time. Finally, among-streams beta diversity did not change after the flood, suggesting that variation in species composition of benthic diatoms among streams may be maintained in the face of flood disturbances.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9636-1
       
  • Exclusion size and material have minimal effects on stream benthic algae
           and macroinvertebrate colonization within submerged cages
    • Authors: Natalie E. Knorp; Justin N. Murdock
      Abstract: Despite their widespread use in grazer–biofilm studies, stream exclusion cages have inherent physical properties that may alter benthic organism colonization and growth. We used laboratory studies and a field experiment to determine how exclusion cage design (size and material) alters light availability, water velocity, and benthic organism colonization. We measured light reduction by various plastic cage materials and flow boundary layer thickness across a range of exclusion cage sizes in the laboratory. We also deployed multiple exclusion cage designs based on commonly available materials into a second-order stream to assess algae and macroinvertebrate colonization differences among exclusion cages. All plastics reduced some light (190–700 nm wavelengths) and blocked more ultraviolet light than photosynthetically active radiation. Exclusion cage size did not influence flow boundary layer thickness, but larger exclusions tended to have higher velocity at the substrata surface. Despite light and water velocity differences, algal biomass, macroinvertebrate density, and community composition were similar between exclusion cage types. However, algal assemblages outside exclusion cages differed in composition and had higher biomass compared to inside exclusion cages. In terms of algal and macroinvertebrate colonization, plastic exclusion cage size and material appear to be flexible within the sizes tested, but differences can still exist between exclusion cage communities and those within the stream. Overall, artifacts of screened exclusion cages do not appear to introduce large bias in results of grazer–biofilm studies, but efforts to design exclusion cages that better mimic the natural system should continue.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9635-2
       
 
 
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