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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3308 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (255 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (129 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1576 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (49 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (259 journals)
    - BOTANY (245 journals)
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    - ORNITHOLOGY (28 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (143 journals)

BIOLOGY (1576 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Aquaculture International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.591
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-143X - ISSN (Online) 0967-6120
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • The role of live fish trade in the translocation of parasites: the case of
           Cystidicola farionis in farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )
    • Abstract: Cystidicola farionis is a nematode of the swim bladder that parasitizes Salmonidae and Osmeridae families, with a range of diffusion in Europe, Asia, and North America. During a fish health monitoring performed in July 2017 in a trout farm located in northwest Italy, a prevalence of 70% for C. farionis was recorded in rainbow trout from a unique tank. In order to clarify the first occurrence of this parasite in northwest Italy, a total of 180 specimens were analysed in different seasons to obtain prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance of infestation. Moreover, amphipods were also sampled during each fish sampling campaign. Only fish sampled in August 2017 were positive for C. farionis, since fish were then sold and replaced with a new batch. All isolated nematodes were identified by morphological criteria as subadults (L4), but not sexually matured. All examined amphipods (genus Gammarus) resulted negative for the presence of the parasite. The most probable explanation of this report was due to the movement of a single fish batch from northeast Italy, previously described as an endemic area for this parasite. The absence of the parasite in the amphipods and consequently in other fish batches from other tanks are due to the lifetime cycle of the parasite that had no time to infect new hosts.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Autogenous bacterins cross-protection as a trial for Streptococcosis
           control in Oreochromis niloticus
    • Abstract: The present work investigated experimentally a rapid, effective and inexpensive control to streptococcosis, and the role of Streptococcus iniae as a major cause for mass mortalities of cultured Oreochromis niloticus in Kafrelsheikh, Egypt, in the summer of 2017; mass mortality was associated with poor water quality, and cultured naturally infected O. niloticus showed corneal opacity, congestion, and deep haemorrhagic ulceration in the dorsal region. S. iniae was identified as a causative agent by traditional and PCR techniques. The highest incidence of S. iniae was in the liver. Choosing vaccination as a control was experimentally investigated; the superiority of Streptococcus agalactiae FKC bacterin was related to the antibody titre, which was higher than S. iniae bacterin. The relative level of protection values were 79% and 23% in fish challenged with S. agalactiae and vaccinated with FKC of either S. agalactiae or S. iniae, respectively. These values were 56% and 74% in fish challenged with S. iniae and vaccinated with FKC of either S. agalactiae or S.i niae, respectively. In conclusions, autogenous bacterins of S. agalactiae or S.iniae induced cross-protection against S. agalactiae and S. iniae, in O. niloticus. The protection was superior to a S. agalactiae FKC vaccine, which could be a useful means for the prevention and control of streptococcosis.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Predicting uptake of aquaculture technologies among smallholder fish
           farmers in Kenya
    • Abstract: In Africa, many governments and development agencies have promoted aquaculture as a panacea for household food security, rural development, and poverty reduction. However, aquaculture production in the continent remains low despite significant investments in research and technology development. While numerous initiatives have been directed at technological innovation and transfer, their present scale of uptake is very slow and therefore inadequate to achieve transformational change envisaged in the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. In this paper, we aim to (1) critically analyze the factors that influence fish farmer’s perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward technology adoption; and (2) to determine the impacts of technology adoption on farmer’s livelihoods. Primary data were collected using a self-administered digitized questionnaire to 331 randomly selected farmers in Kenya. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze data. Results revealed that variables including secondary education, diversified on-farm activities, farm size, production levels, attendance of extension training, ease of understanding, and ease of handling technologies were positive and significant predictors of aquaculture technology adoption. However, 30% of fish farmers were categorized as high adopters of novel aquaculture technologies, implying that there are gaps in technical skills hindering adoption of innovative technologies and best management practices. To facilitate learning and uptake of technologies and good practices by farmers, a range of aquaculture-related extension and communication materials, including posters, hard copy information leaflets and brochures of recipes in appropriate languages, short video presentations, and radio features, should be commissioned to support the smallholder farmers.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • β-Carotene-enriched Artemia as a natural carotenoid improved skin
           pigmentation and enhanced the mucus immune responses of platyfish
           Xiphophorus maculatus
    • Abstract: The present study investigated the effects of enriched Artemia franciscana with β-carotene of Dunaliella salina on color, skin carotenoid, and mucosal immune responses of platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. To this end, one hundred and eighty platyfish with an initial weight of 0.9 ± 0.03 g were randomly assigned into four groups in triple and were daily fed on three times. The first and second groups were fed with commercial food (control) and unenriched A. franciscana (Un-EA), respectively. In addition, the third and fourth groups were fed with enriched A. franciscana with castor oil (oil-EA) and enriched A. franciscana with β-carotene (β-carotene EA) for 8 weeks, respectively. Based on results, the highest amount of carotenoids (112.4 ± 22.79 μg g−1) was significantly observed in the group fed with β-carotene EA while the lowest amount (24.31 ± 2.36 μg g−1) was found in the group fed Un-EA. As regards lysozyme, total immunoglobulin, and alkaline phosphatase activity of the mucus, the highest amounts were detected in fish with β-carotene EA as 84.5 ± 19.09 mg dL−1, 6.4 ± 0.41 mg dL−1, and 477 ± 39.59 U L−1, respectively. Based on skin colorization results, the group fed with β-carotene EA had no significant difference regarding the transparency, yellow color, and opacity, while a* index significantly increased in this group in comparison with the control group. However, the Hue index significantly decreased in the β-carotene EA group compared with the control group. In conclusion, A. franciscana enriched with β-carotene of D. salina enhanced the mucosal immune responses and improved the skin carotenoids as well as a* index in platyfish X. maculatus.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Study of the requirements of dietary cholesterol at two different growth
           stages of Pacific white shrimps, Litopenaeus vannamei
    • Abstract: Two 8-week feeding experiments were conducted to investigate the cholesterol requirements of Litopenaeus vannamei at two different growth stages—with initial body weights of 0.61 ± 0.00 g (juvenile) and 4.25 ± 0.00 g (subadult). Six diets containing cholesterol (C) 0.03% (FM-fish meal), 0.09% (0.05% C), 0.14% (0.1% C), 0.27% (0.2% C), 0.47% (0.4% C), and 0.90% (0.8% C) were prepared with red fish meal, dehulled soybean meal and peanut meal as the protein source, and fish oil as the fat source. Two levels of phytosterol (P) substitutes—0.05% (0.05% P) and 0.8% (0.8% P)—for dietary cholesterol were evaluated. Results showed dietary cholesterol levels had significant effects on the weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of juveniles (P < 0.05). Crude fat in the 0.05% C and 0.1% C groups of subadults was significantly higher than that in the FM group (P < 0.05). The contents of CHOL, HDL, LDL, and liver CHOL were significantly associated with the content of cholesterol (P < 0.05). The dietary cholesterol proportion significantly affected serum AST and ALT (P < 0.05). Phytosterol supplementation presented growth-promoting effects for juvenile L. vannamei. A broken-line equation for weight growth showed the optimum dietary cholesterol requirement was 0.16% for L. vannamei juveniles (0.61 ± 0.00 g), and no extra dietary cholesterol supplementation was needed for L. vannamei subadults (4.25 ± 0.00 g).
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Microencapsulation of anthocyanins from roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa )
           and its application on a pigment supplied diet to fantail goldfish (
           Carassius auratus )
    • Abstract: Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained an important position in the food industry because of its high anthocyanins content, related to the persistent red calyx of its flowers as the major component. Moreover, it has been used as a food colorant and active ingredient to develop food with some health benefits. The effect of addition of microencapsulated anthocyanins from Hibiscus sabdariffa in a fish feed was evaluated using Carassius auratus as a study model. Anthocyanins were microencapsulated with maltodextrins (10 DE) and microcapsules structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Microcapsules were added to fish diet (D) at 150, 300, and 450 mg anthocyanin/kg of diet. Fantail goldfish were feeding for 8 weeks and the feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), growth rate (GR), specific growth rate (SGR), survival, and weight gain (WG) were evaluated. Skin chromatophores from the head, dorsal, and caudal fin of each treatment were observed by light microscopy. Microencapsulation efficiency was 90 ± 0.2%. The microcapsules showed a spherical shape, the mean size was 4.0 μm, and the powder showed a pink-red color. Feed intake and survival were similar to all diets (p > 0.05). D150 and D300 showed a significant variation in GR, SGR, and WG (p < 0.05) compared with other diets. Fish fed with D450 showed the highest increase in color compared with control diet; however, fish size is lower than D300. Size and color are important parameters in the marketing of Carassius, and these results suggest that microencapsulation can be used as anthocyanins carrier during fish diet manufacture being an alternative to provide natural pigments that enhance growth and pigmentation of fantail goldfish.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Saprolegnia parasitica impairs branchial phosphoryl transfer network in
           naturally infected grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): prejudice on
           bioenergetic homeostasis
    • Abstract: Precise coupling of spatially separated intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) producing and ATP-consuming exerts a key role in bioenergetic balance, and the phosphoryl transfer network, catalyzed by creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK), is fundamental in energetic homeostasis of tissues with high-energy requirements, as the branchial tissue. This whole system is very sensitive, and our hypothesis is that it can be altered in cases of infectious diseases in fish, such as that caused by the oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica. The effects of S. parasitica infection on gills remain poorly understood and limited only to histopathological studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether natural infection by S. parasitica impairs the enzymes of the phosphoryl transfer network in gills of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), as well as the pathways involved in this inhibition. In this study, we used sick carp and compared to healthy carp, fish of similar age and receiving the same feed, but allocated in different tanks. Branchial CK (cytosolic and mitochondrial) activity and ATP levels decreased in infected fish compared to uninfected on day 7 post-infection (PI), while no significant difference was observed between groups regarding branchial AK and PK activities. Branchial sodium-potassium ion pump (Na+, K+-ATPase) activity decreased in infected carp compared to uninfected on day 7 PI, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were higher. Gill histopathology revealed massive necrosis, loss of branchial epithelium, and detachment of the epithelium interlayer with structural loss of secondary lamellae. Based on these data, the impairment of CK activity elicited by S. parasitica caused an impairment in branchial energetic homeostasis, reducing the ATP availability in the gills and provoking an impairment on Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Moreover, the inhibition on CK activity appears to be mediated by ROS overproduction and lipid peroxidation, which contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to branchial tissue.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Characterization of the immunological factors in turbot ( Scophthalmus
           maximus ) seminal plasma and their correlation with sperm quality
    • Abstract: In this study, the concentration/activity of the immune components in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) seminal plasma at four time points with the intervals of 2 weeks has been summarized. The results showed that the concentrations of transferrin (TF), transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs), complement 3 (C3), IgM and interferon-1β (IL-1β) varied as experiment went on; it was the same with the activities of protease, lactate dehydrogenase and lysozyme. The correlation analysis showed that C3 and IgM were most positively related to motility and straight-line velocity (VSL)/curvilinear velocity (VCL), whereas protease was most negatively correlated with motility and VSL/VCL. This study highlighted the importance in the necessity and possibility in improving the sperm quality during the actual production.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • How changes in water quality under the influence of land-based trout farms
           shape chemism of the recipient streams—case study from Serbia
    • Abstract: A total of eight trout farms with different production capacities located in highland regions of Serbia were selected for testing of their influence on water parameters of the recipient streams at 46 sites seven times in the course of a year. All of the trout farms can be divided into two groups with respect to the relationship of the values of the parameters recorded at their outlets and downstream sites and those recorded at the control sites. The study showed that trout farms most often cause a statistically significant increase in the contribution of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM %), in the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, and PO43− and in the values of total phosphorous (Pt) and water temperature (tw). On the other hand, they cause a statistically significant decrease in the values of dissolved oxygen. In our study, the parameter defined as the ratio of the annual production of a trout farm to the minimal water discharge (Pr/Qmin) showed a high degree of correlation with the majority of analysed parameters, proven to be a good predictive model for testing the farm’s influence on the recipient stream.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Efficiency of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ), sweet wormwood ( Artemisia annua
           ) and amaranth ( Amaranthus dubius ) in removing nutrients from a
           smallscale recirculating aquaponic system
    • Abstract: In aquaponic systems, plants absorb dissolved nutrients from aquaculture wastewater for their growth. The removal of nutrients allows reuse of water and minimises wastewater discharge to the surrounding environment. This study evaluated the relative nutrient removal efficiencies of three plant species and the performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in a small-scale aquaponic system. Three aquaponic systems were assigned as treatments PU (pumpkin), SW (sweet wormwood) and AM (amaranth). Physical-chemical water quality parameters were measured in the fish tanks as well as hydroponic inlets and outlets. Fish sampling was done every 2 weeks for 60 days. Results showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower nutrient concentrations in the hydroponic outlets than the inlets. There was no significant difference in nutrient removal efficiency of the plants (p > 0.05) for all the tested nutrients except for phosphorus. Phosphorus removal was substantially high in PU (75.5 ± 16.8%) than SW (47.36 ± 14.5%) and AM (40.72 ± 13.2%). In addition, the SW system had better (p < 0.05) relative growth rate (0.06 ± 0.00) than that of PU (0.05 ± 0.00) and AM (0.05 ± 0.00). Nitrogen and phosphorus content in plant tissues was significantly high (p < 0.05) in SW and PU plants respectively. Water quality parameters had a significant influence on the growth of fish (p < 0.05). The growth of fish was not different (p > 0.05) in the three treatments. The findings indicate that the tested plants can reduce nutrients in aquaculture discharge water.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Impact of commercial probiotics on growth parameters of European catfish (
           Silurus glanis ) and water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems
    • Abstract: This study aimed to establish the impact of commercial probiotics on European catfish growth parameters and water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems. For the study, the European catfish were placed in two tanks with 45 fish in each tank. Average body weight and length at the beginning of the study were 133.0 g and 27.0 cm, respectively. Rearing conditions and feeding regime were identical, and the only difference was that 1 ml of commercial probiotics was poured into the water of one experimental tank every other day. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Weight and length were measured every 2 weeks. After each measurement, European catfish growth parameters, feed conversion ratios, and feed efficiency were established. After the end of the study, it was established that there were significant differences between specific growth speed, daily growth index, feed conversion ratio, and feed efficiency (P < 0.05) for the fish reared in two experimental groups. Statistically significant differences in the water parameters were established among ammonia, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen concentrations (P < 0.05). Differences in temperature, nitrates, and pH were statistically insignificant. The results of this study showed that commercial probiotics can be used in the European catfish culture to enhance water quality, feed efficiency, and growth performance.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Impact of different rearing systems on survival, growth and quality of mud
           crab ( Scylla paramamosain ) megalopae reared from early zoeae
    • Abstract: This study aimed to compare the effects of four different rearing systems—namely clear water, green water, recirculating water and biofloc water systems—on survival, growth and quality of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) megalopae reared from early zoeae. Twelve 60-L plastic buckets filled with 50 L of disinfected seawater were stocked with 20 larvae of zoea 1 (Z1) L−1. The larvae were fed both probiotic-enriched L-strain rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) and probiotic-enriched Artemia (Artemia franciscana) in all systems. After 20 days of culture, the green water system resulted in the highest survival to megalopae than all the other systems. The survival of megalopae reared under the biofloc water system was similar to that of the clear water system, but both systems exhibited higher survival than the recirculating water system. However, larval growth performance was not affected by the various rearing systems. The quality of megalopae produced under these systems was determined by ammonia and simulated transport stress tests. The ammonia stress test did not show a significant difference in the quality of megalopae, but the simulated transport stress test demonstrated a significant effect of rearing system on the quality of mud crab megalopae. The resistance to the air exposure until the end of the 48 h of transport was observed in the green water system. Overall, the results of the present study revealed that the green water system is the most suitable for rearing Scylla paramamosain larvae from Z1 to megalopa stage.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) adaptation to a warmer climate: the
           performance of an improved strain under farm conditions
    • Abstract: The change registered in water temperature over recent years has represented a considerable challenge for the culture of salmonid fishes in terms of thermal stress. However, previous trials with Australian, Japanese, and Argentinean rainbow trout lines suggested that improvements in thermal performance might be possible. The aim of this work was to explore performance, i.e., the survival, malformations, food intake, growth, feed conversion efficiency, condition factor, thermal tolerance, and preferred temperature of a number of F1 families (wild thermal resistant male × farmed female) in order to formulate proposals for future work. The performances evaluated showed significant differences between F1 and control families, but no major heterogeneity within F1 families. The incidence of complex malformations, lower in F1 families than in controls, could indicate an advantage due to lower homozygosity. Thermal tolerance varied within F1 families but preferred temperature did not. Survival data suggested that chronic exposure to 20.5 °C had a lethal effect on control families. However, F1 families acclimated to 20.5 °C over a long period of time (ca. 109 days) preferred a mean temperature of 20.2 ± 0.2 °C, a final temperature preference substantially higher than those observed for other populations and strains of the species. Although growth differences between control and F1 families should be considered with caution, since no family was selected by growth in this work, it appears that simple selection by growth could be all that is necessary before beginning the process of introducing these families into farmed lines.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Spirulina platensis in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) feed: effects
           on growth, fillet composition, and tissue antioxidant mechanisms
    • Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) on growth, fillet composition, and intestinal, skin, and gill mucosal antioxidants of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (initial weight 17.18 ± 0.59 g). One-hundred and thirty-five fish were randomly distributed among nine cement tanks (1.8 m × 022 m × 0.35 m) with 15 fish per tank. Three isonitrogenous (37.8% crude protein) feeds containing either 0, 2.5, or 5% SP were prepared, randomly assigned to triplicate tanks of fish, and given at 2% body weight per day for 7 weeks. At the end of the trial, fish in each tank were assessed for growth (final weight, thermal growth coefficient), condition factor, fillet composition, mucosal antioxidant activity, and gene expression analysis related to the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase 1, and glutathione S-transferase. Neither growth nor fillet composition was influenced by inclusion of SP in feed. Total antioxidant activity in three mucosal tissues including the intestine, skin, and gill was significantly increased by 2.5% SP whereas administration of 5% SP only increased total antioxidant activity in the intestine. Feeding fish with 2.5% and 5% SP could upregulate the expression of catalase in the intestinal tissue whereas 5% SP enhanced the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 in this tissue. Glutathione S-transferase gene expression was also increased in the intestinal and skin tissues of fish administrated with 2.5% SP while in the fish that received 5% SP-supplemented diet, an upregulation of this gene was only noted in the intestinal tissue. It was concluded that 2.5% SP had a potential to enhance some antioxidant parameters mostly in the intestine, followed by the skin and gill.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Multienzymatic capacity of cultivable intestinal bacteria from captive
           Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) shrimp reared in green water
    • Abstract: Equilibrium between the gastrointestinal bacterial population and the environment is a critical factor for the health of captive aquatic animals. The bacterial enzymes are fundamental for proper nutrition and pathogen resistance in shrimp. Therefore, enzymatic profiles reveal essential characteristics for the selection of probiotic strains that can improve animal development. In this work, we analysed shrimp from a green water system where infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) was present. We isolated transient and intestine resident bacterial populations, characterising eight functional groups through different culture media. To identify each isolated bacteria, we used sequences from regions V6–V8 of the 16S rRNA. To determine viral load of shrimp samples, we used real-time PCR. The number of colony forming units (CFU) was similar between IMNV-infected and IMNV-uninfected shrimps. The growth of transient bacteria was higher than the growth of resident. In general, lipolytic bacteria presented higher frequency and genus diversity than the other functional groups. All groups showed higher frequency among transitory bacteria, except the amylolytic functional group, which was more frequent among the resident. We found two major orders of cultivable bacteria, Vibrionales and Bacillales. The genus Vibrio was predominant among the Vibrionales, while Staphylococcus and Bacillus were the most frequent among the Bacillales. Recorded Vibrionales and Bacillales included pathogenic and beneficial species of high importance for aquaculture. The results presented here will serve as a basis for improving the nutritional and health conditions of Litopenaeus vannamei in green water farming systems.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Yeast cell walls stimulate viability, respiratory burst, and phagocytosis
           in channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ) head-kidney macrophages
    • Abstract: Yeast cell wall (YCW) preparations are important nutritional additives in the aquaculture industry. Head-kidney macrophages play important roles in innate immune functions in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying their stimulation are not yet characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of YCW on immunological functions of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) head-kidney macrophages. Our results showed that YCW preparations not only improved the proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages but also induced the secretion of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). At a concentration of 500.0 μg/mL, YCW preparations stimulated macrophage proliferation and phagocytosis to 1.98 and 1.8 times, respectively, when compared with the negative group. Equally, YCW preparations raised the production of NO by inducing iNOS and ROS in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, these preparations enhanced TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels to multiple digits from 1.2 to 3.0 times, respectively. In conclusion, the stimulatory effects of YCW on the phagocytic activity of the fish macrophages were associated with respiratory bursts coupled with nitric oxide production.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • High mortalities caused by Aeromonas veronii :identification,
           pathogenicity, and histopathologicalstudies in Oreochromis niloticus
    • Abstract: The current study planned to identify suspected causes of mass mortalities in Oreochromis niloticus at private fish farms in Port Said Governorate, Egypt, during the 2017 summer season. One hundred twenty diseased moribund O. niloticus fish were randomly collected from different locations. The examined fish showed lethargy, dark skin, bilateral exophthalmia with corneal opacity, and varying degrees of ulcers. Internal examination revealed generalized inflammation, congestion, hemorrhaging, and enlargement of most internal organs. Identification was accomplished through analytical profile index (API) 20E and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and confirmed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. An antibiogram was constructed based on results from a disc diffusion test. Experimental infection was also performed and showed 80% mortality. Virulence genes were also assayed. Histopathological examination of experimentally challenged fish revealed prominent pathological lesions (mainly necrosis), degenerative changes, and cellular vacuolation. In conclusion, Aeromonas veronii can be considered one of the main causes of summer mass mortalities in O. niloticus in the study area.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Dietary β-1,3/1,6-glucans improve the effect of a multivalent vaccine in
           Atlantic salmon infected with Moritella viscosa or infectious salmon
           anemia virus
    • Abstract: The immunomodulatory properties of β-glucans are well documented for several animal species. However, little is known on their use as enhancers of non-specific and specific responses against Moritella viscosa and infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus, which are two major pathogens affecting the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry. The present study assessed the effects of dietary β-1,3/1,6-glucans (MacroGard®) and vaccination on the survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) post-smolts challenged with M. viscosa or ISA virus. Dietary supplementation decreased mortality in both unvaccinated (55.4%; RPSend 19.9) and vaccinated (9.3%; RPSend 86.6) M. viscosa-challenged fish compared to the non-supplemented groups (69.1% and 28.3% mortality in unvaccinated and vaccinated fish, respectively; RPSend 59 for vaccinate non-supplemented fish). Similarly, mortality of ISA virus-challenged fish decreased from 87.5% in vaccinated fish without supplementation (RPSend 9.2) to 70.9% in the supplemented and vaccinated group (RPSend 26.4). In summary, these findings show that dietary β-glucans increase Atlantic salmon resistance and improve the protective effect of vaccines against the tested pathogens.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Molecular identification of water molds (oomycetes) associated with chum
           salmon eggs from hatcheries in Japan and possible sources of their
           infection
    • Abstract: Oomycete infection of various freshwater animals, including salmonid eggs, causes significant economic damage to aquaculture worldwide. In this study, we detected oomycetes in infected chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta eggs at two hatcheries in northern Japan, in the source water used for egg incubation, and in the air at the hatcheries to clarify the source(s) of oomycete transmission using a DNA molecular marker. Seven oomycete taxa, belonging to Saprolegniaceae and Pythiaceae, were detected from the infected eggs. From the source water used for egg incubation and the air at the hatcheries, nine oomycete taxa, including those found on infected eggs, were detected, suggesting that both water and air are potential sources of oomycete transmission. There is no report of airborne transmission of these oomycetes detected in this study so far. Regarding protection and sterilization against oomycete infection in aquaculture hatcheries, not only water used at hatcheries but also the air in hatcheries may need to be considered hereafter.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Colonization of enzymatic bacterial flora in biofloc grown shrimp Penaeus
           vannamei and evaluation of their beneficial effect
    • Abstract: Experiments were conducted to explore the colonization of beneficial bacteria in shrimp Penaeus vannamei grown in different sources of biofloc and clear water. Beneficial effect in terms of extracellular enzyme production and antibiofilm activity of the isolated strains was determined. Heterotrophic bacterial population were isolated by using different agar plates and resulted in isolation of 94 isolates in total. Extracellular enzyme production such as amylase, protease, lipase, cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase were screened. Antibiofilm activity of culture supernatants of enzymatic strains against pathogenic Vibrio was also determined. Out of 94 strains screened, 36 strains were found to produce amylase enzyme, 20 strains protease, 27 strains lipase, 6 strains cellulase, and 8 strains xylanase. Totally, 21 isolates selected for further identification and different species of Cobetia, Exiguobacterium, Bacillus, Marinilactibacillus, Staphyllococcus, and Novosphingobium genera from biofloc treatments were identified. In control group animals, strains of Bacillus and Exiguobacterium were isolated and identified. The genus Exiguobacterium was found common in all the different treatments and control. The result showed that shrimp grown on biofloc system allows colonizing more beneficial bacteria in gut than control. Few promising strains under Bacillus genus were found to produce all the extracellular enzymes along with antibiofilm activity.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
 
 
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