Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3416 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (264 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (141 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1630 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (49 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (265 journals)
    - BOTANY (249 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (31 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (75 journals)
    - GENETICS (171 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (283 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (12 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (28 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (72 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (146 journals)

BIOLOGY (1630 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biosystems     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 386)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Aquaculture International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.591
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 26  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-143X - ISSN (Online) 0967-6120
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • A method to analyze the relationship between locomotor activity and
           feeding behaviour in larvae of Betta splendens
    • Abstract: Abstract The transition from live to artificial feed is a critical step for fish larvae with potential for cultivation. Determining the moment to initiate the introduction of artificial feed based on larvae swimming behaviour can reduce mortality levels resulting from this dietary transition. Kinovea® is a cost-free software used as a tool to study sports kinematics; its use can help to establish locomotor parameters to determine the best time to introduce artificial feed in Siamese fighting fish larvae diets, reducing the negative effects of weaning. The objective in this study was to evaluate the locomotor behaviour of Siamese fighting fish larvae under different feeding regimes using Kinovea® as a tool to study fish locomotor behaviour. A total of 234 larvae of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) were used; they were divided into three dietary strategies (treatments): live feed, artificial feed and co-feeding. Each treatment had four replicates. The experimental units were video recorded for 1 min after feed was offered. It was observed that the weaning strategy resulted in higher zootechnical performance (p < 0.05). Larvae fed exclusively with live feed had higher swimming speed, and larvae fed with artificial feed displayed low velocity (p < 0.05). The results indicate that the use of artemia nauplii and high swimming speed are correlated. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude that the weaning strategy proposed in this study is efficient and that Kinovea® can be used as a software to access locomotor behaviour for fish larvae.
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
  • The exploitation of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in aquaculture:
           present study, limitations and future directions. : a review
    • Abstract: Abstract The incidence of infections by pathogenic microorganisms, coupled with the experimental manifestation of infections, refers to a regular phenomenon in aquaculture species. A number of environmental changes generally give rise to traumatic scenarios, and activating the transient provocative reactions in the gut normally constitutes a factor to the anatomical and efficient intestinal diseases. These infections have frequently given birth to the momentous economic chaos in aquaculture sector. Putting efforts into resolving this issue, the inclusion of antibiotics in the diets of aquaculture species has been introduced either as growth promoters or the stimulation of the immune system against diseases. Nevertheless, both the fears and discussions of consumers and scientists over the antibiotic-resistant microbes and drug remains in meat have resulted into contentious views concerning the uses of antibiotics. This has resulted into forbidding the use of human antibiotics as growth promotants in the diet of animal since the year 2006 by the European Union; also, subsequent to that, in the year 2013, the United States also initiated a plan for the removal of human antibiotics in the diet as growth promotants. Making use of the prebiotics, synbiotics and probiotics as an alternative has proven as improving not just the growth but also the immunity and maintenance of intestine health of cultured species. They are administered in the feeds of culture species for the purpose of stimulating the good health, safeguarding the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and reducing the inflammation. In the current investigation, we throw discussion on the present uses, together with the limitations and future directions, the immunomodulatory exploit of probiotics, synbiotics and prebiotics, which triggering directly or enhancing the non-specific immune structure of aquaculture species.
      PubDate: 2020-02-10
  • An experimental study to evaluate the efficacy of air entrainment holes on
           the throat of a venturi aeration system
    • Abstract: Abstract Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a vital nutrient for the health of water bodies such as streams, rivers, and ponds, as it is used in respiration and other biological activity of aquatic animals. Natural replenishment of oxygen through photosynthesis in aquatic bodies is insufficient to meet the high requirements for an intensive aquaculture system, which compels farmers to use aeration systems to supplement the natural process of DO accumulation. When the demand for oxygen (KgO2/h) is lower, venturi aerators may be more effective than other aerators. The venturi device is an aeration system which is highly efficient in providing an adequate supply of DO, and is flexible in nature and easy to operate. To evaluate the efficacy of air entrainment holes on the throat of a venturi, aeration experiments were conducted for different throat lengths (Lt) of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm, varying the number of air holes according to throat length while maintaining a constant air hole diameter of 2 mm. Aeration efficiency was found to increase with an increasing number of air holes. The highest oxygen transfer coefficients for throat lengths of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm were 0.497 h−1, 0.756 h−1, 1.045 h−1, 0.627 h−1 and 1.072 h−1, respectively, with the maximum number of air holes (NH). The maximum standard aeration efficiency was found to be 1.25 × 10−2 kgO2/kWh for a throat length of 100 mm with the maximum number of air holes (NH17). Hence, the physical properties of throat length, number of air holes, and distribution of air holes on the throat section were proven to be key factors controlling the performance of the venturi aeration system.
      PubDate: 2020-02-03
  • Strategies for aquaculture and conservation of Neotropical catfishes based
           on the production of triploid Pimelodus maculatus
    • Abstract: Abstract Triploidization is a technique to produce sterile fish on a large scale. In the spotted catfish Pimelodus maculatus, sterile fish serve as a host of germ cell transplantation for subsequent reconstitution of endangered catfish species. This study aimed to establish an efficient protocol for triploidization in P. maculatus using temperature shock. In this study, we tested the efficacy of heat shock treatments (37 °C, 38 °C, and 39 °C) applied at 2 min post-fertilization (mpf) for the duration of 2 min. Intact embryos served as diploid control. Ploidy status was confirmed by flow cytometry, characterization of erythrocytes nuclei, and karyotyping. Developmental stages were verified at cleavage, blastula, gastrula, somite, and hatching stages, as well as the percentages of normal and abnormal larvae. No significant difference was observed between the temperature treatments for percentage of unfertilized oocytes (P = 0.1834), 2-cell stage (P = 0.2348), blastula (P = 0.2972), hatching (P = 0.0668), and abnormal larvae (P = 0.6177). Heat shock decreased the survival at the blastula stage (P = 0.0178), somite (P = 0.0469), and the percentage of abnormal larvae (P = 0.0261). All treatments presented high percentages of triploid individuals, and the highest values were observed for heat shock at 38 °C (96.7 %). Based on the results described above, an efficient protocol for triploidization in P. maculatus was established using heat shock (38 °C) at 2 mpf for 2 min.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Effects of stocking density and immersion time on the performance of
           oysters in intertidal off-bottom culture
    • Abstract: Abstract Intertidal culture in meshed bags on trestles is worldwide the most established culture method for oysters. Culturists can affect oyster performance by adjusting stocking density and immersion time, and it can be expected that these factors are not independent. The combined effect of stocking density and immersion time on survival, growth and condition of oysters was investigated on a culture site, where oysters are usually stocked at 8 kg bag−1. Half-grown oysters were stocked in three biomass densities: 4, 8 and 12 kg bag−1, nested within three immersion times (87%, 76% and 73% of tidal cycle). Chlorophyll-a concentration peaked in summer (~ 3–10 μg l−1) and was low in autumn (~ 1 μg l−1), and high chlorophyll-a levels coincided with oyster spawning period. Survival was not affected by density or immersion time. Shell growth per oyster and biomass production per bag were density dependent—higher at 4 than at 12 kg bag−1—but neither were different from 8 kg bag−1. Growth rates were negativity related with immersion over the spawning period but showed a (non-significant) positive trend over other periods. At harvest, condition per oyster decreased with stocking density and increased with immersion. There was no interaction between density and immersion. Treatments had a more pronounced effect on meat content than on biomass production. Hence, oysters might be kept at higher stocking densities to increase biomass production during most of the growth cycle but restocked in lower densities, with longer immersion times prior to harvest to maximize meat content at harvest.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Effects of commercial superzist probiotic on growth performance and
           hematological and immune indices in fingerlings Acipenser baerii
    • Abstract: Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of using superzist probiotic (a mixture of Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus subtilis, and Bifidobacterium bifidum) on growth performance and hematological and some immunological indices in fingerling Acipenser baerii. In total, 240 Acipenser baerii fingerlings with mean weight 10.5 ± 0.14 g−1 were stocked in 12 tanks, 20 per each tank and each treatment in triplicate. Diets were prepared by spraying slowly the mixture of 50 ml saline serum with 100, 200, and 300 mg probiotic powder per 1-kg diet to make the concentrations 1 × 106, 2 × 106, and 3 × 106 CFU g−1 of probiotic bacteria in diet. Results showed that there was a significant increase in the final weight, weight gain (WG), percentage weight gain, condition factor (CF), and specific growth rate (SGR) in fish fed PB300 treatment compared with the control at the 8th week (p < 0.05); also, the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) belonged to fish fed PB300 that showed a significant difference compared with fish fed control diet (p < 0.05). Except for neutrophil, lymphocyte, and hematocrit (p < 0.05), values of all hematological parameters of fish fed different concentrations of probiotic diet did not differ from the values of fish fed the control diet (p > 0.05), but there was a significant increase in lysozyme and IgM fish fed probiotic (PB300) and compliment (ACH50) (PB200 and PB300) compared with control treatment during 56 days. Therefore, results indicated that 300 mg kg−1 probiotic (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) can be used as a proper probiotic in sturgeon aquaculture to enhance fish health and growth performance.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Diagnosis and potential treatments for acute hepatopancreatic necrosis
           disease (AHPND): a review
    • Abstract: Abstract Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) or formerly known as early mortality syndrome (EMS) is an emerging disease that has caused significant economic losses to the aquaculture industry. The primary causative agent of AHPND is Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium that has gained plasmids encoding the fatal binary toxins Pir A/Pir B that cause rapid death of the infected shrimp. In this review, the current research studies and information about AHPND in shrimps have been presented. Molecular diagnostic tools and potential treatments regarding AHPND were also included. This review also includes relevant findings which may serve as guidelines that can help for further investigation and studies on AHPND or other shrimp diseases.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Distribution of multi-virulence factors among Aeromonas spp. isolated from
           diseased Xiphophorus hellerii
    • Abstract: Abstract Changes in water quality and environmental factors have been reported to play key roles on the health and disease susceptibility of the ornamental fish Xiphophorus hellerii (sword tail). This can further be decided by the natural distribution of pathogens with enhanced virulence properties in the aquatic system. As Aeromonas spp. are the major fish pathogens, a detailed analysis on its association with the disease of X.hellerii was conducted in the study. Here, bacterial isolation has been carried out from the surface, gill and intestine of diseased fish, and also from water samples. The twelve bacterial isolates obtained were identified biochemically and also by 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Aeromonas spp.. Among the various virulence properties screened by in vitro and PCR-based methods, most of the Aeromonas spp. were found to be positive for multiple virulence properties. Further disease challenge using the highly virulent Aeromonas veronii XhG1.2 in X. hellerii showed remarkable histopathological changes of the gill, liver, and intestine in the treated fish. This confirmed the hyper -pathogenic potential of XhG1.2 as the disease occurred within a short period of 24 h. The identification of broad range of virulence factors among the fish pathogenic bacterial isolates of aquatic environment indicates the need for periodic screening to predict the threat to aquatic life especially fish.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Effect of common mallow ( Malva sylvestris ) dietary supplementation on
           growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, haemotological and immune
           responses of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was designed to assess the effect of common mallow (Malva sylvestris) extract diet in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) health parameters such as growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, hematological profile, and immunological responses. In addition, we evaluated the possibility of controlling A. hydrophila infection in common carp during the common mallow extract diet (CM). Diets of common carp were supplemented with three different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1 g kg−1) of common mallow extract. They were fed with common mallow diet for 45 days. At the end of feeding, 0.1 g kg−1 CM diet group showed higher final weight and SGR (p ˂ 0.05), whereas the 0.5 g kg−1 CM diet group showed significantly (p ˂ 0.05) lower FCR rate. The digestive enzyme activity experiment was showed that amylase and lipase activity significantly increased (p ˂ 0.05) in 0.5 g kg−1 CM diet. No hematological parameters changed in all experimental groups. Only 0.1 g kg−1 showed significantly decreased level of red blood cell. In immunological response experiment, serum lysozyme activity, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased in different doses of common mallow diet during the 45 days. Result of challenge test with A. hydrophila showed that survival rate in 0.5 and 1 g kg−1 CM diet was significantly lower compared to control. The results elucidated that the CM diet could support nonspecific immune system and growth promoter in common carp. Hence, common mallow can be used in semi-intensive and intensive common carp culture.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Modulation of nutrient utilization, growth, and immunity of Nile tilapia,
           Oreochromis niloticus : the role of probiotics
    • Abstract: Abstract The production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, over the last few years has increased due to the adoption of intensive farming technologies. However, the continuous increase in O. niloticus production must be based on sustainable practices. Probiotic use in O. niloticus culture is considered a good alternative in improving growth, feed utilization, immune status, and survival against pathogens which are common problems currently faced in intensive culture systems. Nutrient utilization of fish is one of the criteria that determines the production, profitability, and productivity of the aquaculture industry. However, research on probiotics in aquaculture, especially in O. niloticus culture, is much geared towards immunity and disease resistance while areas of equal importance such as nutrient utilization which translates into good health and growth as well as hepatic indexes which detect tissue damage caused by toxicants are less explored. The present review elucidates the effects of probiotics on nutrient utilization (proteins, lipids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals), growth, immune status, and disease resistance of tilapia. Furthermore, this review tries to point out gaps in existing literature that warrant further investigations and development.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Induced cell proliferation in pearl oyster
    • Abstract: Abstract In shellfish, the mantle epithelium takes charge of the formation of shell or pearl, which is a vital cell in the biomineralization process. However, research on the methods of culture of mantle epithelium has progressed quite slowly, and cell lines have not yet been established in pearl oyster. The present research investigated the growth characteristics of mantle epithelium from Hyriopsis cumingii, and the mantle was processed through free-cell implantation and ethylnitrosourea (ENU) or ultraviolet (UV) light inducement. The results indicated that the cell viability (OD260 ratio of RNA to DNA, i.e., RNA/DNA) of mantle epithelium was maintained at high levels for in vitro culture compared to cell culture (60–108 h) (P < 0.05). After mantle epithelium implantation, proliferation and viability were significantly promoted in the implanted cells when they were selected from previous culture cell at 24 and 108 h (P < 0.05). During the process of ENU or UV inducement, cell viability, proliferation, and cell survival rates were significantly affected (P < 0.05). The cell vitality and proliferation characteristics were significantly decreased with the prolonging of culture time by 0.03% ENU inducement (P < 0.05), and they were significantly promoted at 192 and 240 h compared with other groups by 60 mJ/cm2 UV inducement (P < 0.05). The DNA damage products of ENU and UV were significantly increased under ENU or UV inducement, respectively (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the mantle epithelium of H. cumingii started the repairing process after the damage caused using ENU or UV treatments. The present research provided some basic information for further research of mantle epithelium proliferation and cell line establishment in pearl oyster in vitro.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Production of Daphnia similis Claus, 1876 using wastewater from tilapia
           cultivation in a biofloc system
    • Abstract: Abstract This research evaluated the growth of Daphnia similis in wastewater from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in a biofloc system (carbohydrate:nitrogen of 12:1). During 30 days, physical-chemical and growth variables were measured in the following treatments: DCWC—D. similis growth in clear water with the addition of C. vulgaris (autotrophic culture); DB—D. similis growth in biofloc wastewater from Nile tilapia farmed without the addition of C. vulgaris (mixotrophic culture); and DBC—D. similis growth in biofloc wastewater from Nile tilapia farmed with the addition of C. vulgaris (mixotrophic culture). The biofloc wastewater (DB and DBC) underwent significant changes in water quality (P < 0.05) that influenced the growth of D. similis, which reached two population cycles. Statistical differences (P < 0.05) between the treatments were found for specific growth rate, doubling time, maximum average density (MAD), and yield, in which DBC achieved a yield of 136 ± 31 ind L−1 day−1 and a MAD 8-fold higher than in DCWC in the first cycle and did not differ (P > 0.05) from DB in relation to MAD in the second cycle. Thus, wastewater from Nile tilapia cultivation in a biofloc system as a culture medium for raising D. similis, with the addition of C. vulgaris, proved to be a promising option for producing live food for aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Simulation of Yesso scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis , growth with a
           dynamic energy budget (DEB) model in the mariculture area of Zhangzidao
    • Abstract: Abstract Scallop farming is the main economic activity in the northern parts of China, with a production that has increased quickly since the 1980s. In the present study, a bioenergetics growth model to the Yesso scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis, in the mariculture area of Zhangzidao Island was applied, based on dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory which describes energy flux variation through different compartments of the scallop body. Estimates of most DEB parameters were based on available physiological data or published information, and the two parameters, i.e., detritus contribution to food (αDet) and half-saturation constant for food (XK) were calibrated using datasets in this study. The model relied on two forcing variables: water temperature and food density expressed by different food quantifiers. The sets of data used to validate the model came from a growth experiment performed on P. yessoensis for bottom-sowing culture. The DEB model developed here for P. yessoensis was allowed to simulate growth and reproduction of the scallop in the growing area of the Zhangzidao Island.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Molecular detection of betanodavirus in orange-spotted grouper (
           Epinephelus coioides ) broodstock maintained in recirculating aquaculture
           systems and sea cages
    • Abstract: Abstract Wild collected orange-spotted grouper were domesticated in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) and sea cages for fish breeding. While breeding, viral nervous necrosis (VNN) infection was observed in both the systems after 18 months of domestication. Out of 50 domesticated broodfish used in the study, 11 (22%) fishes were found positive for VNN examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) study also confirmed the presence of VNN in the suspected fish, and detectable amount of virus copy number was observed in the brain, optic nerve, caudal fin, muscle, and gills. Analysis of the isolated viral gene sequence from the fish was closely related to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype and suggests that the isolates are probably endemic to Indian coast. The study also indicated that the sub-adults of orange-spotted grouper infected in the wild and remained as carrier during domestication and subsequently disease outbreak has occurred when water temperature was increased in culture environment. This is the first report on VNN in orange-spotted grouper broodstock from India. The results of the study illustrated that large population of the wild marine fishes are sub-clinically infected with betanodavirus and therefore, early detection of the disease should be adopted as best management practices in breeding for sustainable aquaculture development of the species.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Impact of icing with potato, sweet potato, sugar beet, and red beet peel
           extract on the sensory, chemical, and microbiological changes of rainbow
           trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) fillets stored at (3 ± 1 °C)
    • Abstract: Abstract The potential use of vegetable peels (potato, sweet potato, sugar beet, and red beet) as source of antioxidants was investigated. The sensory, chemical, and microbiological effects of icing with these peel extracts on rainbow trout fillets were monitored during 25 days of storage. Sensory results showed that the shelf life of the control group and fish fillets iced with red beet and sweet potato peel extracts were 21 days, while fish fillets iced with potato and sugar beet peel extracts had longer shelf life (25 days). Treatment of fish with potato and red beet peel extracts resulted in lower TVB-N, PV, and FFA values. The result of the study showed that icing with potato and red beet extracts increased the shelf life of rainbow trout and provided good quality parameters. Waste products as vegetable peels can be used in the food sector as new sources of antioxidants.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Transcription of defense related genes in Pacific white shrimp,
           Litopenaeus vannamei , kept in biofloc and in clear seawater and
           challenged with the white spot syndrome virus
    • Abstract: Abstract Shrimp farming in biofloc technology system (BFT) has been considered a sustainable alternative to conventional production, reducing environmental impacts due to zero water exchange. Besides increasing productivity, as microorganisms represent additional feed for shrimp, BTF may prevent diseases. White spot disease is the most devastating viral disease of farmed shrimp, causing large socio-economic impacts. Our aim was to compare survival rates and transcription profiles of target genes in different tissues of juvenile specimens of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared either in BFT or in clear seawater (CSW), after challenging with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Shrimp survival rate was higher among animals kept in CSW, which also presented a lower viral load after 48 h post-infection (p.i.). We could also address possible individual patterns in the sole survivor at 72 h p.i. in biofloc, probably a less vulnerable shrimp to WSSV. There was no significant difference regarding the transcription profile of target genes between systems before WSSV infection; gene transcription was apparently modulated by WSSV infection. Changes in gene profile were more frequently observed in the hepatopancreas. Out of the eleven selected target genes, those coding for Calreticulin, β-tubulin, and Prophenoloxidase showed the most significant upregulation, followed by QM, SOD, and Ubiquitin. Although BFT is considered more biosecure, shrimp kept in this system are not immune to disease, especially against highly virulent pathogens, such as WSSV.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Effect of dietary Moringa oleifera leaf on the immune response and control
           of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus
           ) fry
    • Abstract: Abstract Natural plant dietary supplementation in aquafeed could be used as an effective way for increasing the immunocompetency and disease resistance of fish. The current study aimed to investigate the potential effects of dietary Moringa oleifera leaf powder supplementation on the immune response, antioxidant status, and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Oreochromis niloticus. A total of 180 fish (of 2.6 ± 0.5 g average weight) were randomly divided into three groups and fed on basal diet (= controls), and 1.5 and 5% (w/w) M. oleifera leaf powder incorporated into diets for 60 days. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged with A. hydrophila and continued on the same feeding regime during the next 2 weeks. Oral administration of O. niloticus fry with M. oleifera leaf powder led to significantly enhanced immune responses, i.e., respiratory burst, phagocytic and lysozyme activities, IgM level, and antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathion peroxidase levels in the liver, kidneys, and spleen. Conversely, the malondialdehyde level decreased significantly in the liver and kidneys. There was a significant increase in white blood cell count and non-significant change in red blood cell count and hemoglobin levels. Following challenge with A. hydrophila, all the fish in the experimental groups survived compared to only 20% of the controls; the relative percent survival was 100%. However, there was not any significant effect on growth as a result of feeding with the experimental diets. These results suggested that M. oleifera leaf powder-supplemented diets could enhance the immune response of O. niloticus fry and prevent disease caused by A. hydrophila.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Ascorbic acid enhanced the growth performance, oxidative status, and
           resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge of juvenile grass carp (
           Ctenopharyngodon idella )
    • Abstract: Abstract This study was conducted to examine the dietary ascorbic acid requirement and effects on growth performance, oxidative status, and disease resistance in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Triplicate groups of 30 fish weighting 3.39 ± 0.03 g were fed with diets containing graded levels of ascorbic acid (18.9, 71.8, 118.7, 169.9, 321.1, and 618.5 mg kg−1) in a recirculating rearing system for 8 weeks. No significant differences in growth performance among all groups were observed (P > 0.05). Diet with 321.1 mg kg−1 ascorbic acid significantly increased the feed intake (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the expression of liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ and uncoupling protein 2 were significantly declined (P < 0.05). Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila (2.4 × 105 CFU cells mL−1 per fish) and fish fed with ascorbic acid shown a better liver oxidation status (e.g., superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) than the control diet (P < 0.05). The optimum dietary ascorbic acid concentration was about 155 mg kg−1 basing on the oxidation status in liver. Nevertheless, the broken-line model indicated that the optimal level for juvenile grass carp is about 310 mg kg−1.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Molecular identification reveals hybrids of Mytilus coruscus × Mytilus
           galloprovincialis in mussel hatcheries of China
    • Abstract: Abstract Juvenile mussel trade monitoring is becoming more and more important for mussel farms of China, which is essential for the sustainable development of mussel culture. The identification of mussel hybrids by morphological analysis is unreliable, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species juveniles. Mytilus coruscus are the representative local mussel species for their higher market price, which is 2–5 times of M. galloprovincialis. Therefore, in the present study, we established a methodology that allows the accurate identification of M. coruscus × M. galloprovincialis hybrid and pure juveniles using both nuclear and mitochondrial primers and analysed the mussel juveniles purchased from four different seed producers in China. Nuclear primers Myti-2 used in this study were modified from the degenerated oligonucleotide primers Myti-F/R to improve the efficiency of amplification; primers YB-16S-4 derived from female type mitochondrial DNA were found to be distinct between the two species with one single peak in high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, which was proven to be effective in maternity determination of their hybrid progenies. For samples commercialised as M. coruscus seeds of the two farms, 88.5% juveniles were identified pure M. coruscus and 11.5% were hybrids of M. coruscus♀ × M. galloprovincialis♂in Farm A; 5.6% juvenile were pure M. galloprovincialis and 94.4% were hybrids of M. galloprovincialis♀ × M. coruscus♂in Farm D. Samples from Farm B and C were proven to be pure M. coruscus. The validated new identification method will be a useful tool for the surveillance of the production and trade of the two commercially important mussel species and their hybrid seeds, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of mussel farming. Hybrids detected in Farm A and D also highlighted the importance of juvenile mussel trade monitoring in the market to avoid the commercial fraud.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
  • Is a taurine supplement necessary in fishmeal-based feeds for juvenile
           European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax )'
    • Abstract: Abstract The effect of taurine supplementation of fishmeal-based feeds for juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was investigated. Fish (initial weight ca. 5 g) were reared for 90 days in 12 concrete tanks (1 m3), with 50 fish in each tank. Four feeds (44% crude protein (CP) and 17% lipids (L)) containing 0 (control (CTRL)), 0.4 (T4), 0.7 (T7) and 1.0 (T10) % taurine were prepared and were fed to apparent visual satiation to triplicate groups of fish. The effects on fish growth, feed utilization, proximate chemical composition, haematology, immune biomarkers and muscle morphometry were examined. An increase in the dietary taurine incorporation resulted in progressive increases in the growth metrics, with the highest values being observed for fish receiving the T10 feed (weight gain 22 vs 18 g/fish in CTRL; protein productive value 31 vs 28% in CTRL). Taurine addition at all levels significantly increased the fish protein percentage, but the percentage lipid was reduced significantly in T4 fish only (7.8% compared with 9.4% in CTRL fish). Taurine supplementation resulted in elevated blood lymphocyte and monocyte counts and increased serum phagocytic and lysozyme activities. Taurine addition at 1% (T10 feed), the suggested level to boost growth, altered the dorsal muscle cellularity and myofibril ultrastructure, suggesting enhanced muscle function and firmness in comparison with that of the fish given the CTRL feed.
      PubDate: 2020-02-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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