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BIOLOGY (1316 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Vestibular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Life : The Excitement of Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Life Sciences, Society and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Limnological Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipids in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
mAbs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Macromolecular Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Madroño     Full-text available via subscription  
Malacologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Malacologica Bohemoslovaca     Open Access  
Mammal Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mammal Study     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mammalian Genome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mammalian Species     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Marine Biodiversity Records     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Materials Science and Engineering: C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materials Technology: Advanced Performance Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mathematical Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Matrix Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Médecine Nucléaire     Full-text available via subscription  
mBio     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mechanisms of Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
médecine/sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover Natural Hazards
   [181 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2208 journals]   [SJR: 0.591]   [H-I: 40]
  • Dynamic sensitivity analysis of long-running landslide models through
           basis set expansion and meta-modelling
    • Abstract: Abstract Predicting the temporal evolution of landslides is typically supported by numerical modelling. Dynamic sensitivity analysis aims at assessing the influence of the landslide properties on the time-dependent predictions (e.g. time series of landslide displacements). Yet, two major difficulties arise: (1) Global sensitivity analysis require running the landslide model a high number of times (>1,000), which may become impracticable when the landslide model has a high computation time cost (>several hours); (2) Landslide model outputs are not scalar, but function of time, that is, they are n-dimensional vectors with n usually ranging from 100 to 1,000. In this article, I explore the use of a basis set expansion, such as principal component analysis, to reduce the output dimensionality to a few components, each of them being interpreted as a dominant mode of variation in the overall structure of the temporal evolution. The computationally intensive calculation of the Sobol’ indices for each of these components are then achieved through meta-modelling, that is, by replacing the landslide model by a “costless-to-evaluate” approximation (e.g. a projection pursuit regression model). The methodology combining “basis set expansion—meta-model—Sobol’ indices” is then applied to the Swiss La Frasse landslide to investigate the dynamic sensitivity analysis of the surface horizontal displacements to the slip surface properties during the pore pressure changes. I show how to extract information on the sensitivity of each main modes of temporal behaviour using a limited number (a few tens) of long-running simulations.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge
           (southern Calabria, Italy) with considerations on the role of causal
    • Abstract: Abstract The “Costa Viola” mountain ridge (southern Calabria), in the sector between Bagnara Calabra and Scilla, is particularly exposed to geo-hydrological risk conditions. The study area has repeatedly been affected by slope instability events in the last decades, mainly related to debris slides, rock falls and debris flows. These types of slope movements are among the most destructive and dangerous for people and infrastructures, and are characterized by abrupt onset and extremely rapid movements. Susceptibility evaluations to shallow landslides have been performed by only focusing on source activation. A logistic regression approach has been applied to estimating the presence/absence of sources in terms of probability, on the basis of linear statistical relationships with a set of territorial variables. An inventory map of 181 sources, obtained from interpretation of air photographs taken in 1954–1955, has been used as training set, and another map of 81 sources, extracted from 1990 to 1991 photographs, has been adopted for validation purposes. An initial set of 12 territorial variables (i.e. lithology, land use, soil sand percentage, elevation, slope angle, aspect, across-slope and down-slope curvatures, topographic wetness index, distance to road, distance to fault and index of daily rainfall) has been considered. The adopted regression procedure consists of the following steps: (1) parameterization of the independent variables, (2) sampling, (3) calibration, (4) application and (5) evaluation of the forecasting capability. The “best set” of variables could be identified by iteratively excluding one variable at a time, and comparing the ROC results. Through a sensitivity analysis, the role of the considered factors in predisposing shallow slope failures in the study area has been evaluated. The results obtained for the Costa Viola mountain ridge can be considered acceptable, as 98.1 % of the cells are correctly classified. According to the susceptibility map, the village of Scilla and its surroundings fall in the highest susceptibility class.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • PROMETHEE II and fuzzy AHP: an enhanced GIS-based landslide susceptibility
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper describes the application of a well-known multi-criteria decision-making technique, called preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE II), in combination with fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP), as a weighting technique to explore landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM). To this end, eight landslide-related geodata layers of the Minoo Dasht located in the Gorgan province of Iran, involving slope, aspect, distance to river, drainage density, distance to fault, mean annual rainfall, distance to road and lithology have been integrated using the PROMETHEE II enhanced by FAHP technique. Afterward, the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for the proposed LSM were drawn using an inventory of landslides containing 83 recent and historic landslide points, and the area under curve = 0.752 value was calculated accordingly. Additionally, to further verify the practicality of such susceptibility map, it was also evaluated against the landslide inventory using simple overlay. The outcome was that about 11 % of the occurred landslide points fall into the very high susceptibility class of the LSM, but approximately 52 % of them indeed fall into the high and very high susceptibility zones together. Also, it resulted that no recorded landslide occurred in the zone of very low susceptibility. According to the results of the ROC curves analysis and simple overlay evaluation, the produced map has exhibited good performance.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Simulations of landslide hazard scenarios by a geophysical safety factor
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil response to rainfall is a complex phenomenon that requires modeling of many sources of heterogeneity, whose variations can be relevant on various timescales and whose precise description requires a large amount of data inputs. Due to the great complexity of the problem, many simplifying assumptions are usually made in modeling landslides triggered by rainfall. As regards rainfall-induced shallow landslides, conventional approaches base slope stability analyses on the infinite slope model combined with hydrological models, which provide the time evolution of groundwater pressure head and volumetric water content. On the other hand, the response of geophysical quantities to water changes depends also on the variations in mechanical and hydrological properties. For this reason, we attempt a different approach to the problem of slope stability assessment by shifting the focus on the analysis of variations in geophysical properties. In this paper, starting from experimental resistivity data acquired in a test area, we perform a series of numerical simulations to study how changes in soil resistivity spatial distributions may affect the size of unstable areas. We use a simple cellular automaton whose states are defined by the values of a local and time-dependent geophysical factor of safety, which depends on soil electrical resistivity and slope inclination. We studied the probability of occurrence of rainfall-induced shallow landslide events by driving the system to instability through a decrease in electrical resistivity values. Numerical simulations are performed by varying number and intensity of the applied perturbations. Hazard scenarios obtained by in situ distributions of resistivity values are compared with those coming from initial random distributed resistivity values. Our results suggest possible critical rates of resistivity changes for triggering instability in the investigated area and point out the crucial role of resistivity variations in prediction of larger events.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Infiltration effects on a two-dimensional molecular dynamics model of
    • Abstract: Abstract We propose a two-dimensional computational model for deep landslides triggered by rainfall, based on interacting particles or grains. The model describes a vertical section of a fictitious granular material along a slope, in order to study the behavior of a wide-thickness landslide. The triggering of the landslide is caused by the exceeding of two conditions: a threshold speed and a condition on the static friction of the particles, the latter based on the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion (Coulomb in Mem Acad R Div Sav 7:343–387, 1776; Mohr in Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Technischen Mechanik. Ernst, Berlin, 1914). The interparticle interactions are represented as a potential that, in the absence of suitable experimental data and due to the arbitrariness of the grain dimension, is modeled similarly to the Lennard-Jones’ one (Lennard-Jones in Proc R Soc Lond A 106(738):463–477, 1924), i.e., with an attractive and a repulsive part. For the updating of the particle positions, we use a molecular dynamics method, which is quite suitable for this type of systems (Herrmann and Luding in Continuum Mech Thermodyn 10:189–231, 1998). An infiltration scheme is introduced for modeling the increasing pore pressure due to the rainfall. Finally, we also introduce the viscosity in the dynamical equations of motion. The statistical characterization and dynamical behavior of the results of simulations are quite satisfactory relative to real landslides: We obtain a power law distribution of landslide triggering times, and the velocity patterns are typical of real cases, including the acceleration progression. Therefore, we can claim that this type of modeling can represent a new method to simulate landslides triggered by rainfall.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Advanced methods in landslide modelling
    • PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Spatial pattern of landslides in Swiss Rhone Valley
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study analyses the spatial pattern of quaternary gravitational slope deformations (GSD) and historical/present-day instabilities (HPI) inventoried in the Swiss Rhone Valley. The main objective is to test if these events are clustered (spatial attraction) or randomly distributed (spatial independency). Moreover, analogies with the cluster behaviour of earthquakes inventoried in the same area were examined. The Ripley’s K-function was applied to measure and test for randomness. This indicator allows describing the spatial pattern of a point process at increasing distance values. To account for the non-constant intensity of the geological phenomena, a modification of the K-function for inhomogeneous point processes was adopted. The specific goal is to explore the spatial attraction (i.e. cluster behaviour) among landslide events and between gravitational slope deformations and earthquakes. To discover if the two classes of instabilities (GSD and HPI) are spatially independently distributed, the cross K-function was computed. The results show that all the geological events under study are spatially clustered at a well-defined distance range. GSD and HPI show a similar pattern distribution with clusters in the range 0.75–9 km. The cross K-function reveals an attraction between the two classes of instabilities in the range 0–4 km confirming that HPI are more prone to occur within large-scale slope deformations. The K-function computed for GSD and earthquakes indicates that both present a cluster tendency in the range 0–10 km, suggesting that earthquakes could represent a potential predisposing factor which could influence the GSD distribution.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Analysis of rockfall risk on mountainside roads: evaluation of the effect
           of protection devices
    • Abstract: Abstract Many kilometres of roads are close to rock slopes that are prone to rockfalls. The fulfilment of safety requirements in such situations is a multidimensional design process involving public and private technicians in the assessment and management of the problem. In this paper, a rockfall risk management approach has been applied to the road infrastructure network of the Regione Autonoma Valle D’Aosta, in order to calculate the level of risk and of its reduction using rockfall protection devices. In order to better understand the methodology, a comparative analysis of road accidents in Aosta Valley has been discussed. The road risk assessment was developed taking into account the absence of rockfall protection devices, and when they are present, different levels of efficacy have been considered.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Analysis of non-stationary climate-related extreme events considering
           climate change scenarios: an application for multi-hazard assessment in
           the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper we have put forward a Bayesian framework for the analysis and testing of possible non-stationarities in extreme events. We use the extreme value theory to model temperature and precipitation data in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania. Temporal trends are modeled writing the location parameter of the generalized extreme value distribution in terms of deterministic functions of explanatory covariates. The analyses are performed using synthetic time series derived from a Regional Climate Model. The simulations, performed in an area around the Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania, take into account two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our main interest is to analyze extremes with high spatial and temporal resolution and to pursue this requirement we have adopted an individual grid box analysis approach. The approach presented in this paper is composed of the following key elements: (1) an advanced Bayesian method for the estimation of model parameters, (2) a rigorous procedure for model selection, and (3) uncertainty assessment and propagation. The results of our analyses are intended to be used for quantitative hazard and risk assessment and are presented in terms of hazard curves and probabilistic hazard maps. In the case study we found that for both the temperature and precipitation data, a linear trend in the location parameter was the only model performing better than the stationary one in the areas where evidence against the stationary model exists.
      PubDate: 2014-07-27
  • Insights from Hazus loss estimations in Israel for Dead Sea Transform
    • Abstract: Abstract History shows that countries along the Dead Sea Transform, including Israel, have suffered considerable destruction from strong earthquakes, and thus, a modern approach for damage and loss estimations is essential in mitigating damage from future earthquakes. Yet to date, only preliminary damage scenarios have been developed. The present study uses the Hazus MH 2.1 (2012) software to simulate damage and loss estimation for seven earthquakes that may affect Israel. For the first time, over 2,200 different building construction schemes, including a comprehensive nationwide building inventory of over 900K buildings, were simulated in order to identify the high-risk areas and suggest potential mitigation strategies as well as a financial budget plan that would ultimately alleviate the anticipated catastrophe in Israel. The results show excellent ability of Hazus to resolve the expected levels of damage, including damages for various types of buildings, debris and economic losses. Furthermore, it shows that the most intensive damage is expected to concentrate in northern Israel, mainly in the Haifa and Bet Sheàn regions, as well as in areas of older building stock and adjacent to the major fault lines. Comparison between the budget required for strengthening structures and the economic loss expected after a strong earthquake shows that strengthening structures will undoubtedly reduce the disaster magnitude dramatically. The loss estimations can provide decision makers a tool for planning post-earthquake emergency actions including rescue, debris clearance, building inspection, sheltering requirements and directing the civil protection authorities in a focused and proper response during an earthquake event. Although local fragility curves have not yet been developed in Israel, the new scenarios presented here demonstrate that the benefits of realizing already now the rough scope of earthquake damage greatly outdo future gains from as yet unavailable exact assessments.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24
  • Reply to a comment by Franco Gabrielli and Daniela Di Bucci:
           “Communicating earthquake risk to the public: the trial of the
           ‘L’Aquila Seven’”
    • Abstract: Abstract In this comment, I reply to criticisms of my article on the trial of seven defendants accused of providing the public with misleading information shortly before the L’Aquila, central Italy, earthquake of 6 April 2009.
      PubDate: 2014-07-23
  • Flood risk assessment for delta mega-cities: a case study of Jakarta
    • Abstract: Abstract Jakarta has suffered major floods in 2002, 2007, and 2013. To cope with and adapt to both the current and future flood problem, the city requires quantitative assessments of flood risk. In this study, we develop a flood risk assessment model for Jakarta. The model is based on the Damagescanner model, adapted for Jakarta using local information on hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. The model was first set up using existing estimates of economic exposure of different land use classes to represent exposure and depth-damage functions (vulnerability curves) from several existing studies in south-east Asia to represent vulnerability. Using these data to simulate damage led to an overestimation by several orders of magnitude. Hence, we held a series of expert meetings and workshops with local stakeholders to develop specific estimates of economic exposure per land use class and to derive vulnerability curves specific for Jakarta. We compare the resulting simulated damages to reported damages and found them to be in good agreement, giving confidence in the use of the model for flood risk assessment. Under current conditions, we found the annual expected damage due to river flooding in Jakarta to be approximately USD 321 million per year. We also examined the sensitivity of flood risk assessments to the use of different vulnerability curves. The sensitivity is high: using the six curves described in this study to simulate risk led to a factor eight difference between the lowest and highest values. Our findings demonstrate that flood risk assessments need to pay close attention to the selection, development, and testing of vulnerability curves.
      PubDate: 2014-07-20
  • Comment on “Communicating earthquake risk to the public: the trial
           of the ‘L’Aquila Seven’” by David E. Alexander
    • Abstract: Abstract In his paper on the so-called L’Aquila trial, David Alexander (2014) states that “much of the international reaction to the trial was misguided because it was based on incomplete, second-hand information about the proceedings.” To support this hypothesis, his reasoning process refers back to the entire National Service of Civil Protection of Italy and, in particular, to the Italian Department of Civil Protection. As civil servants of this Department who are well aware of the circumstances treated, we would like to comment some of the Alexander’s statements, which present a partial, if not totally incorrect, representation of events. This comment, however, is not aimed at providing alternative and exhaustive representations or interpretations of the events, but rather at allowing the reader to form his own opinion with a more comprehensive description of the circumstances treated by Alexander.
      PubDate: 2014-07-19
  • Quantifying household social resilience: a place-based approach in a
           rapidly transforming community
    • Abstract: Abstract In an era of ecological degradation, global climate change, demographic shifts and increasing intensity and frequency of natural hazards, the Pacific Islands including the State of Hawai‘i face heightened risk. Human and environmental well-being are tightly coupled; thus, science-based solutions must marry place-based, culturally relevant processes that link disaster preparedness, relief and recovery with resilience theories and applications. However, these fields remain mired in epistemological silos, and the operationalization of these theories has been slow, particularly at the community level. This paper explores the challenges of bridging these intersecting fields and the application of theory to practice, through a community-based case study in Hanalei, Hawai‘i. We deployed household surveys, key informant interviews and traditional talk-story sessions to gather baseline information on demographic and socio-ecological transformations, perceptions of risk and preparedness, and coping and adaptive capacity measures. Results showed that residents exhibit medium-to-high coping and adaptive capacities, while visitors present high vulnerability and dependence upon locals. Social resilience metrics highlight differential coping and adaptive capacities among households with varying characteristics (e.g., sex of head of household, longevity of residence and household size) offering risk reduction targets. A gap analysis developed from a qualitative analysis of open-ended survey questions highlights key sectors, areas and populations with perceived gaps in preparedness and resilience, coupled with ideas for solutions centered around local capacity building and improved knowledge and awareness. Community-based assessments underpin the development of long-term disaster resilience planning initiatives and to addressing gaps in vulnerable sectors and populations.
      PubDate: 2014-07-19
  • A geospatial approach to assessing soil erosion in a watershed by
           integrating socio-economic determinants and the RUSLE model
    • Abstract: Abstract The amount, degree of severity, and risk of soil erosion in managed landscapes mainly depend on human activities such as vegetation removal, grazing, urbanisation, poor agricultural management, and planned burning. However, the underlying mechanisms that ultimately drive the activities causing soil erosion for a particular location are less obvious. We address this issue by integrating stakeholder perceptions of socio-economic determinants of soil erosion and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) for the Phewa watershed, Pokhara, Nepal. A RUSLE model was applied to estimate the soil erosion status of the watershed based on socioeconomic-topographical factors. The output of the model indicated that the current annual rate of soil erosion in the Phewa watershed varies from 0 to 206.8 t ha−1 year−1, with a mean annual soil loss rate of 14.7 t ha−1 year−1. We used a structured questionnaire to collect socio-economic variables related to soil erosion in the watershed. Bivariate correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed ten socio-economic variables that were predictors of soil erosion. The analysis generated five predictive models: the first (R 2 = 0.65), second (R 2 = 0.71), third (R 2 = 0.79), and fourth model (R 2 = 0.85) significantly (p < 0.01) explained the variability of soil erosion rate across the watershed, while the fifth (full) model significantly (p < 0.01) explained 89 % of the variability of soil erosion rate (R 2 = 0.89). Our study identified socio-economic variables such as household size, farm labour availability, level of education, conservation cost, training, membership of organisation committees, distance, farm size, migration, and farm income as predictor variables of soil erosion.
      PubDate: 2014-07-18
  • Reply to comment on “Effect of surface wave inversion non-uniqueness
           on 1D seismic ground response analysis”
    • Abstract: Abstract Pettiti et al. (2014) commented on our study on the effect of surface wave inversion non-uniqueness on 1D seismic ground response analysis. They showed in their analyses that non-uniqueness has negligible effect on Fourier amplification and response spectra, which is in disagreement to our earlier observations (Roy et al. in Nat Hazards 68:1141–1153, 2013). The apparent discrepancies are due to the differences in the definition of problem used in the ground response analyses. Pettiti et al. (2014) extended our original profiles to a depth of 60 m and then assumed the presence of high-impedance layer of velocity 1,240 m/s, irrespective of the half-space velocity obtained from the surface wave inversion. This resulted in similar kind of responses of all the profiles in spite of the differences in their shear wave velocity and thickness variations. Otherwise, the observations made by Roy et al. (Nat Hazards 68:1141–1153, 2013) confirm findings of previous studies on the same topic (e.g., Boaga et al. in J Geophys Eng 8:162–174, 2011).
      PubDate: 2014-07-18
  • Analysis of the robustness of the French flood warning system: a study
           based on the 2009 flood of the Garonne River
    • Abstract: Abstract The reorganisation of the French flood warning system initiated in 2002 expresses the State’s motivation to improve the anticipation and reactivity of crisis management services. However, the example of the 2009 flood in the Garonne Marmandaise territory highlights vulnerabilities in institutional warnings, resulting partly from the reorganisation of the flood warning system. Although this flood was perceived as ordinary by the mayors, several communities were flooded and became isolated. The present study focuses on adjustments carried out by stakeholders during the flood warning process. The concept of robustness is applied to the French flood warning system through the analysis of (1) the resources mobilised by stakeholders to process the warning, (2) the constraints that hinder their actions, (3) the interactions and the efforts of coordination that link stakeholders within the system. Our results indicate that the robustness of the flood warning system partially rests upon the coping capacities present at a local level. Indeed, these coping capacities allowed institutional vulnerabilities to be overcome during the 2009 event. In addition, feedback engaged after the 2009 flood favoured interactions and sharing of lay and scientific knowledge among the French flood warning system stakeholders. These interactions reinforced both the French flood warning system’s robustness and coping capacities at a local level.
      PubDate: 2014-07-18
  • Seismic performance of elevated steel silos during Van earthquake, October
           23, 2011
    • Abstract: Abstract Silos are commonly used industrial structures to store dry/granular materials like cement or wheat. A typical silo consists of a vertical steel tank supported by a braced steel frame which rests on concrete support. Due to unloading purposes, the tank is generally located at an elevated position. This makes the structure vulnerable to axial loads in columns due to excessive overturning moments generated at the base of the structure. During the October 23, 2011 Van earthquake in Turkey, many silos collapsed either due to column buckling or foundation problems. In this paper, the field observations regarding the seismic performance of silos after the Van earthquake are first summarized. Then, the seismic performances of two steel-elevated silos located in the earthquake region are studied. One of the silos survived the earthquake by some minor damages in the form of buckling (at bottom horizontal brace) and spalling of concrete support, while the other silo remained undamaged. Nonlinear dynamic time history analyses are performed to evaluate the seismic performances of both silos. As the input ground motion, the recorded ground motion from a temporary aftershock station (about 2 km away from the silos) in the second earthquake is used. Analyses indicate that design and construction quality of elevated silos determine the seismic performance. Finally, recommendations are given to improve the seismic performance of new constructions.
      PubDate: 2014-07-17
  • Market risk in carbon market: an empirical analysis of the EUA and sCER
    • Abstract: Abstract The paper uses a capital asset pricing model to analyze the market risk in the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) and clean development mechanisms (CDM) and Zipf analysis technology to analyze the carbon price volatility in different expectations of returns in the two markets. The results show that the systematic risk of the EU ETS market is around 0.07 %, but the CDM market is clearly divided into two stages; the systematic risk of the futures contracts in the first stage (DEC09–DEC12) is less than the EU ETS market, but the systematic risk of the futures contracts that enter the market is greater than the EU ETS market and has a higher market sensitivity, although on the unsystematic risk. The CDM market is always greater than the EU ETS market. Abnormal returns in the two carbon markets are both lower than 0.02 %, but CDM is higher. The probability of price down is greater than that of price up. The carbon price is affected by market mechanisms and external factors (economic crisis and environmental policies) in the low expectations of returns. However, in the high expectations of returns, compared with the CDM market, the carbon price change in the EU ETS market is less stable and has higher risks.
      PubDate: 2014-07-12
  • Investigating the residential energy consumption behaviors in Beijing: a
           survey study
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates the residents’ direct and indirect energy consumption behaviors in Beijing, as well as the impact of age, educational background and income level on the behaviors. The results show that, first, there are a high proportion of residents who may support the policies and activities about consumption behaviors adjustment towards energy-saving and low-carbon pattern, but currently the residents’ awareness and behaviors are still not desirable. Second, the promotion of energy-saving appliance is effective to drive the energy conservation and emission reductions, and the current energy prices are higher but not effective to curb energy consumption and carbon emissions. Third, the direct energy consumption behaviors of older respondents and those with higher education background and income level generally tend to be more energy conservative than the younger respondents and other education and income level groups. The survey results may provide significant policy implications for the government and energy-saving product suppliers.
      PubDate: 2014-07-12
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