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BIOLOGY (1344 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Vestibular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Life : The Excitement of Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Life Sciences, Society and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Limnological Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipids in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
mAbs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Macromolecular Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Madroño     Full-text available via subscription  
Malacologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Malacologica Bohemoslovaca     Open Access  
Malayan Nature Journal     Open Access  
Mammal Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mammal Study     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover Natural Hazards     [SJR: 0.591]   [H-I: 40]
   [289 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]
  • Study on runoff simulation of the upstream of Minjiang River under future
           climate change scenarios
    • Abstract: Abstract Climate change is one of the main factors that affect runoff changes. In the upstream of Minjiang River, the temperature increased significantly in the last 50 years, while the precipitation decreased on the contrary. In order to analyze the effect of climate change on site runoff, watershed runoff depth and evaporation, nine climate scenarios are assumed based on rainfall and temperature indicators. A SWAT model of Minjiang River is constructed, and runoff simulation is carried out with the nine scenarios. The results show that if precipitation increases or decreases 20 %, the change rate of runoff depth will increase or decrease 28–32 %; if temperature increases or decreases 2 °C, the change rate of runoff depth will decrease or increase 1–6 %; if temperature increases or decreases 2 °C, the change rate of the potential evaporation will increase or decrease 5–16 %, and the actual evaporation rate of variation will increase or decrease 1–6 %. Overall, precipitation variation has greater effect on simulated runoff than temperature variation dose. In addition, temperature variation has more obvious effect on the runoff simulation results in dry years than in wet years. The actual evaporation of watershed depends on evaporation capacity and precipitation and increases with the increasing of the potential evaporation and precipitation. The study also shows that the climate change scenarios analysis technology, combined with SWAT hydrological model, can effectively simulate the effect of climate change on runoff.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Assessment of energy supply vulnerability between China and USA
    • Abstract: Abstract USA and China are the two largest energy-consuming countries, and energy supply vulnerability is a prior topic on energy policy. Then, we develop energy supply vulnerability assessment index including the sustainability, the stability, the reliability, and the diversification indicators to assess and compare the change of energy supply vulnerability between China and USA based on the data in 2001–2010. We found that the fluctuations of energy supply vulnerability in China are more than those of USA. In 2001–2006, the index of China’s energy supply vulnerability presented a quick uptrend, but it presented a slow downtrend in 2007–2010 due to the uncertainty of some indicators; energy supply vulnerability of USA presented smaller change from 2000 to 2008 because of the stable and comprehensive energy supply system, but in 2009 and 2010, it became obviously less than those in other years due to the decline of energy consumption per capita. Additionally, Chinese energy supply also faces higher maritime transportation and geopolitical vulnerability than that of USA. The comparisons of the change of energy supply vulnerability between China and USA show that it is important to develop comprehensive energy supply system to reduce the uncertainty of main effect indicators, such as the control of energy consumption growth, and the diversification of energy supply and import.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Vulnerability of infrastructure to natural hazards and climate change in
    • PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Market risk in carbon market: an empirical analysis of the EUA and sCER
    • Abstract: Abstract The paper uses a capital asset pricing model to analyze the market risk in the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) and clean development mechanisms (CDM) and Zipf analysis technology to analyze the carbon price volatility in different expectations of returns in the two markets. The results show that the systematic risk of the EU ETS market is around 0.07 %, but the CDM market is clearly divided into two stages; the systematic risk of the futures contracts in the first stage (DEC09–DEC12) is less than the EU ETS market, but the systematic risk of the futures contracts that enter the market is greater than the EU ETS market and has a higher market sensitivity, although on the unsystematic risk. The CDM market is always greater than the EU ETS market. Abnormal returns in the two carbon markets are both lower than 0.02 %, but CDM is higher. The probability of price down is greater than that of price up. The carbon price is affected by market mechanisms and external factors (economic crisis and environmental policies) in the low expectations of returns. However, in the high expectations of returns, compared with the CDM market, the carbon price change in the EU ETS market is less stable and has higher risks.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Erratum to: An overview of climate change vulnerability: a bibliometric
           analysis based on Web of Science database
    • PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Economic benefit assessment of the geo-hazard monitoring and warning
           engineering system in the Three Gorges Reservoir area: a case study of the
           landslide in Zigui
    • Abstract: Abstract The completion and operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China have increased the frequency of geo-hazards and dangers in the area. To monitor and to warn of geo-hazards effectively, the Chinese government has invested billions of funds for constructing a monitoring and warning engineering system. Similar to other social infrastructure investments, a reasonable assessment of investment returns is necessary. Therefore, this study proposes an economic benefit assessment model, which considers both the expected and the actual values. The economic benefit of the geo-hazard monitoring and warning engineering in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas is evaluated. Based on the engineering characteristics, the model reasonably defines the frontier of the input and output and adds the casualties and the losses of ecological environment into the economic benefit evaluation index system. A case study on the Zhangjiawan landslide in Guojiaba Town, Zigui County, was conducted. The evaluation results show that (1) land has the largest benefit in direct reductional loss (total of 56.7 %), while the largest indirect reductional losses of the hazard-bearing bodies are in agricultural production and ecological environment (total of 97.6 %); (2) the costs-to-expected return ratio of landslide monitoring and warning engineering is 1:280, whereas the cost-to-actual benefit ratio is 1:30; (3) the accumulation of relevant information and the public knowledge of geological disasters should be strengthened.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • A new technique for preventing and controlling coal and gas outburst
           hazard with pulse hydraulic fracturing: a case study in Yuwu coal mine,
    • Abstract: Abstract Coal and gas outburst is one of the main gas hazards in coal mines, and pulse hydraulic fracturing is a new technique for preventing and controlling gas hazards in coal mines and is presented based on conventional hydraulic fracturing. S2107 is a coal seam with high gas content and coal and gas outburst hazard but with low gas concentrations when extracted. To safely drive air tunnels into S2107, the pulse hydraulic fracturing technique is used on cross-measure boreholes placed from a high-level roadway to the driving roadway to improve the effects of gas drainage and ensure safety during production. The mechanism of coal fracturing via pulsed pressure is analyzed. A variable frequency method is used to strengthen the fatigue damage effect, and the initial pressure is estimated based on previous studies. The layouts of fracturing borehole and guide borehole are designed according to the layer relation, and a new hole sealing method is developed. The results indicate the pressure changes during pulse hydraulic fracturing reflect crack extension, and it is conducive to extending and connecting cracks under pulse pressures. The initial pressure during pulse hydraulic fracturing is negatively related to the water volume and fracturing time but cannot directly influence the fracturing radius. Moreover, this pressure is 30–43 % less than the calculated value. After this application, the gas desorption index, K 1, at the driving workface decreases to below the critical value. The gas drainage volume of fracturing boreholes and their guide boreholes increases relative to normal boreholes by 3.32-fold and 3.07-fold, respectively. The new technique is promising for preventing and controlling gas hazards in the future.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Degradation characteristics of permafrost under the effect of climate
    • Abstract: Abstract Based on the monitoring data from 13 typical monitoring sites along the Qinghai–Tibet Highway, the degradation characteristics of the permafrost under asphalt pavement and natural ground surface were analyzed with considerations of climate warming and engineering disturbance. Results indicated that the mean annual thawing indexes (MATI) and mean annual freezing indexes (MAFI) of asphalt pavement ranged from 895 to 2,540 °C days and from 290 to 1,097 °C days, respectively, while the MATI and MAFI of natural ground ranged from 144 to 1,550 °C days and from 127 to 1,544 °C days, respectively. In warm seasons, average temperatures of asphalt pavement were 0.76–8.58 °C higher than that of natural ground, while in cold seasons, average temperatures of asphalt pavement were 0.22–4.19 °C lower than that of natural ground. Both natural permafrost table and artificial permafrost table were continuously declining through 1995–2011. Under the effect of climate warming, the active layer thickness (ALT) increased about 0.44 m, with an average increasing rate of 3.42 cm a−1 in cold permafrost regions [the mean annual ground temperature lower than −1.0 °C (MAGT < −1.0 °C)], while in warm permafrost regions (MAGT > −1.0 °C), the ALT increased about 0.68 m, with an average increasing rate of 5.72 cm a−1. Under the effect of engineering disturbance, the ALT increased 1.38 m in cold permafrost regions, with an average increasing rate of 12.28 cm a−1, while in warm permafrost regions, the ALT increased 1.32 m, with an average increasing rate of 11.18 cm a−1. Meanwhile, changes in permafrost temperature under asphalt pavement were different from that under natural ground. The warming rate in permafrost under asphalt pavement at 6, 10 and 15 m depths was 0.024, 0.022 and 0.02 °C a−1, respectively, while the three values under natural ground were 0.016, 0.013 and 0.013 °C a−1. From these results above, it can be concluded that influences from climate warming on permafrost degradation in warm permafrost region were greater than that in cold permafrost region, and influences from engineering disturbance on permafrost degradation in warm permafrost region were less than that in cold permafrost region.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Analysis of possible sources of some unregistered historical earthquake
           tremors that affected the KwaZulu-Natal coastal regions of South Africa
           for seismo-tectonic investigations
    • Abstract: Abstract Historical earthquake information forms a critical dataset for seismo-tectonic investigations that can be used seismic hazard (SH) investigations of hazardous and high rise structures and national SH maps. This study systematically interrogates historical earthquake data for the region from various sources in order to have a better understanding of the origins of the larger earthquakes. Several previously undocumented earthquakes were found that can supplement the national catalogue. Various sources are postulated as origins of these tremors, namely local sources located in Mtubatuba and offshore sources as in the Mozambique Channel. These results re-emphasise the need to better understand the coastal environment for seismo-tectonic characterisation and to densify the seismic network towards the eastern coastline.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • A new prediction model for mining subsidence deformation: the arc tangent
           function model
    • Abstract: Abstract Ground subsidence in underground coal mining areas causes environmental damage and creates hazards on the ground surface, which is long-term, widely distributed, and can lead to large-scale geological disasters. Achieving a high-precision method to predict mining subsidence deformation is very important for assessing environmental damage and countermeasures. In this paper, based on the “S”-type settlement curves of the monitoring points in the collapsed pit and the failure mechanism of rock strata on the goaf, the arc tangent function model was proposed and applied to the Taihe coal mine in Fushun, Liaoning Province, China. Using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm for nonlinear curve fitting of the data, the parameters of the model are obtained, and extending it in time, the prediction function will be obtained. Using different monitoring data to validate the model shows that the accuracy of the medium- and short-term forecasting is very good. With continuous updating of the monitoring data, the forecasting achieves higher accuracy and the function of dynamic track forecasting is achieved. A very high correlation coefficient was obtained (0.996) using all the available data from the monitoring point for the best-fit curve. This prediction model provides a reference for the evaluation and treatment of ground subsidence in the Taihe coal mining area.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • The effects of biological geotextiles on gully stabilization in São
           Luís, Brazil
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper analyses the contribution of biological geotextiles to gully stabilization in the urban area of São Luis City (Sacavém District). Biological geotextile mats were constructed from palm leaves. At Sacavém, gully rehabilitation included the following techniques: (1) installation of Buriti geotextiles, in association with barriers of wooden stakes and the construction of contoured terraces; (2) analysis of sediment particle size and (3) photograph comparison of the development of vegetal cover. Rehabilitation used ~30 kg of grass seeds (Brachiaria decumbens) on slopes, in combination with geotextiles. Besides recuperating a degraded area, income has been generated to poor people, who live around Sacavém gully, either by producing the geotextiles or by applying them on the soil, together with grass seeds, lime and NPK to improve soil properties.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Spatial and temporal changes of meteorological disasters in China during
    • Abstract: Abstract Flood, drought, hail, low temperature and frost disasters from low temperature and frost (DLTF), and snowstorm are the five main meteorological disasters (MDs) in China. Based on the collection of historical documents during 1950–2013 and official records between 2012 and 2013, this paper analyzed the temporal trends of affected area induced by MDs during 1950–2013 and the spatiotemporal characteristics of disaster frequency in recent 2 years in China. Besides, the direct economic losses and deaths caused by MDs were further discussed at a provincial level. Results showed that the affected area of MDs, especially flood, drought and DLTF significantly increased during the past 60 years. Flood was the most frequent disaster in China during 2012 and 2013, followed by hail. Spatial patterns of disaster frequency showed that there were more frequent floods in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River basin, droughts in central and southwest China, hails in north, northwest and southwest China, DLTFs and snowstorms in north, northwest China and individual areas in south China. However, the economic losses caused by MDs were higher in economically developed provinces, and the deaths were higher in mountain regions. Additionally, flood was the major disasters type that contributing to the most losses in most regions of China. These results play an important theoretical guiding role in meteorological disaster prediction, disaster prevention and reduction in the future.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Land subsidence in the modern Yellow River Delta based on InSAR time
           series analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract To study the complex environmental characteristics of the modern Yellow River Delta (YRD), the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time series analysis technique based on 39 ERS1/2 SAR images was applied to obtain the spatial distribution and temporal changes of ground displacement of the YRD in the period of 1992–2000. The results show that land subsidence in the modern YRD is widespread and unevenly distributed with large differences. The average subsidence rate is −5.1 mm/year, while the highest subsidence rate of −33.2 mm/year occurs in the subsidence funnel formed in an oil field. The results of the InSAR are reliable, when compared with those measured by leveling surveys. In combination with various thematic maps, i.e., the river channels and shoreline changes, the distribution of the soft soil thickness, the development of residential areas and oil fields over the corresponding time period, and the effects of the factors controlling the land subsidence processes were determined in representative regions. Our results reveal that the factors leading to the land subsidence of modern YRD include oil extraction, sediment consolidation and compaction, surface load increases, and groundwater extraction. Our analyses also show that sediment consolidation and compaction, and oil extraction play a key role in contributing to the land subsidence in the modern YRD.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Analysis of geoenvironmental hazards in urban underground space
           development in Shanghai
    • Abstract: Abstract Underground space is becoming increasingly more utilized in the fast urbanization process of Shanghai. However, many geoenvironmental hazards, including land subsidence, slip flow, methane gas, piping, and quicksand, are occurring more frequently, as underground space development enters the state of “big, deep, long, fast, and dense.” In this paper, based on our investigation and studies of construction project cases, we analyze the possible factors causing geoenvironmental hazards and propose corresponding measures for their prevention. From the viewpoint of earth system science, the geoenvironmental hazards are caused by anthropogenic factors coupled with natural factors. Shanghai is built over layers of soft soil that were deposited during the Holocene. The paleogeographical environment of the Holocene produced soft soil with high water content, large void ratio, high sensitivity, thixotropy, low shear strength, and high compressibility; these characteristics lead to a geoenvironment that can be easily disturbed by underground engineering construction. To achieve sustainable development of underground space, a series of prevention and control measures are presented, especially awareness of the need for geoenvironmental protection and risk management should be enhanced, as well as incorporating technology including global positioning system, geographic information system, and synthetic aperture radar interferometry, and information construction in underground development projects.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Evaluating salinity damage to crops through satellite data analysis:
           application to typhoon affected areas of southern Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent times, tsunamis and typhoons have threatened Japan’s coastal lands with increased flooding and salinity. Using satellite data, we monitored the effect of increased salinity on vegetation health in the coastal area of southern Japan, which was affected by flooding following Typhoon 9918 in 1999. An index of plant activity called the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was evaluated before and after the typhoon, and the change in NDVI was computed as a comparison measure. The results were then correlated with electric conductivity, which is a measure of soil salinity. A strong negative correlation was found between NDVI ratio and salt concentration (r = − 0.7731, n = 50, p < 0.0001), indicating that the reduced NDVI values were attributable to increased salinity from the flooding. These results not only provide useful insight into a rapid method of assessing large-scale flood impacts using satellite data, but also validate the monitoring of NDVI as an indicator of salinity damage to vegetation. To summarise, by understanding the changes in vegetation health following natural disasters such as flooding (as revealed by NDVI), we can potentially develop improved management strategies.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Influence of seasonal melt layer depth on the stability of surrounding
           rock in permafrost regions based on the measurement
    • Abstract: Abstract During tunnel construction in permafrost regions, control of the temperature field and depth of the seasonal melt layer of surrounding rock are the key factors that determine the stability of surrounding rock and the security of a structure. Based on the monitoring data on the temperature of the surrounding rock at two sections of Jiangluling Tunnel, the distribution regularities of the temperature field of the surrounding rock in different depths from the tunnel wall are obtained. These findings are used to determine the changing rules of the depth as well as the increasing speed of the depth of seasonal melt layer with time. At the same time, the influence of the surface of the accumulated temperature of surrounding rock to seasonal melt layer is analyzed, and the influence of the rule of the depth of seasonal melt layer on the stability of surrounding rock and arch crown settlement is determined. Results show that the temperature of the surrounding rock and the depth of the seasonal melt layer are controlled by engineering geological conditions of the surrounding rock and the temperature inside the tunnel. The temperature of the surrounding rock decreases with the increase in depth from the tunnel wall. Correspondingly, the depth of seasonal melt layer increases along with the temperature inside the tunnel. It is a positive correlation between seasonal melt layer and the surface of the accumulated temperature of surrounding rock, and with the increase in the depth of seasonal melt layer, the arch crown settlement increases, whereas the stability of the surrounding rock decreases.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Mechanical behavior of a coal seam penetrated by a karst collapse pillar:
           mining-induced groundwater inrush risk
    • Abstract: Abstract A karst collapse pillar (KCP) is caused by the karst subsidence that occurs in carbonate rock distribution areas. Current KCP studies focus mainly on aspects such as the cause of formation, rule of development, groundwater inrush, and structural characteristics of the pillar and sidewall rock body. However, few existing studies focus on the influences of mining activity on the damage to KCP, its surrounding rocks, and the formation of the fracture zone, especially the mechanical behavior. In this paper, a numerical fast Lagrangian analysis of continua in three dimensions model was created to understand the mechanical state of a coal seam penetrated by a KCP during mining panel extraction. The numerical results suggest that (1) because of the structure defect, the stress field strongly depends on the mining activity, and the stress distribution varies in different parts of the KCP; (2) KCP and the surrounding rocks show dislocation when the working face passes the KCP, at which point shear failure may then occur, which will lead to a sidewall channel for groundwater inrush; and (3) as mining advances, the plastic zone in the KCP and its broken area develop gradually until the upper and lower plastic zones connect when the working face passes the KCP, which will cause a channel for groundwater inrush.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Modeling the early warning of grassland fire risk based on fuzzy logic in
           Xilingol, Inner Mongolia
    • Abstract: Abstract A fuzzy logic-based methodology modeling the early warning of risk to manage grassland fires in Inner Mongolia is presented. By establishing a membership function, this study first analyzed grassland fire hazard and vulnerability and subsequently integrated hazard and vulnerability using the fuzzy logic method to develop the Grassland Fire Risk Early Warning Index. The key parameters in the model were obtained by methods of undetermined parameters. The reliability of early warning results was demonstrated using historical grassland fires and grassland fire disasters. The results from this study are intended to support local, provincial, and national government agencies in making decisions in resource allocation, high-level planning and raising the public’s risk awareness of grassland fires.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Characterizing sudden geo-hazards in mountainous areas by D-InSAR with an
           enhancement of topographic error correction
    • Abstract: Abstract Differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (D-InSAR) has been viewed as a promising technique in monitoring sudden geo-hazards (e.g., earthquake and landslide) in mountainous areas. However, the tough natural settings (e.g., steep slopes and vegetation) pose the D-InSAR technique to face many challenges. Among them, phase residuals induced by inaccurate topographic heights that can result in intolerable error have not been paid adequate attention. We present, in this paper, a new strategy of using D-InSAR measurements to characterize sudden geo-hazards with an emphasis on the correction of topographic errors. In the proposed strategy, a least squares model with an outlier detector is constructed to estimate the topographic errors from multi-baseline wrapped differential interferograms, and the error-prone phase unwrapping procedure is not needed. The new strategy is applied to the ALOS PALSAR images acquired for monitoring a giant mudslide occurred in Zhouqu County, China. After refining the topographic height originally from the inaccurate ASTER GDEM, notable improvements to the D-InSAR measurements can be clearly seen, which is helpful to better interpret the deformation signals associated with the mudslide event. It is observed that the Zhouqu mudslide had caused large ground movements in the Luojiayu and Sanyanyu groove valleys. In addition, we find that the Suoertou landslide has been experiencing moderate ground movements during the geologic event.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
  • Spatial correlation between land subsidence and urbanization in Beijing,
    • Abstract: Abstract The large-scale construction of buildings, extensive road and rail networks, and increased traffic flow associated with urbanization has the potential to cause land subsidence. Land subsidence caused by urbanization is an increasingly significant problem in Beijing, China; therefore, it is important to investigate the relationship between urbanization and land subsidence. Landsat TM images covering the Beijing plain were used to acquire spatial changes information of built-up areas by calculating an index-based built-up index (IBI). We used ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar data acquired from 2003 to 2009 and persistent scatterers for SAR interferometry (PSI) technology to estimate land subsidence. Geographic information systems spatial analysis method was used to identify the relationship between the settlement rate and the IBI value for three different sampling units. The result showed that it was a positive correlation between construction density and land subsidence; for land subsidence, the effect from the combination of high-density building clusters and extensive transportation networks was more significant than the presence of buildings alone. However, there may be a delay between the completion of building construction and the development of land subsidence.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01
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