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BIOLOGY (1383 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Lipids     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management     Open Access  
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Zhejiang University : Agriculture & Life Sciences     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription  
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover   Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 45]   [123 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2280 journals]
  • Typhoon damage assessment model and analysis in Taiwan
    • Abstract: Abstract Typhoons are one of the world’s most frequently occurring natural disasters that cause severe damage. The losses caused by typhoons are not only related to the strength and structure of a particular typhoon, but also to the population density, home range, and type of economy in the affected area. Taiwan is centrally situated in the main path arc of typhoons generated in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. On average, 3–4 typhoons approach or make landfall in Taiwan yearly. The associated strong winds, violent rains, landslides, and storm surges or upwelling in coastal areas often catastrophically impact the citizens of Taiwan and cause severe damage to the national economy. Losses may amount to billions, or even tens of billions of New Taiwan Dollars. Due to the limitations imposed by the lack of complete data in earlier years, this study focuses on those typhoons with complete records which landed and affected Taiwan from 1965 to 2004. This study considers meteorological indicators including maximum daily rainfall, maximum central wind speeds, lowest central pressure, radius of class seven winds, and period during CWB issued land and sea warning, as well as disaster indicators that reflect damages resulting from typhoons such as the numbers of dead or missing persons, totally destroyed houses, and actual amounts of crop losses. This study aims to statistically analyze the meteorological and disaster indicators, and build a disaster assessment model which allows for a quantified assessment to be conducted. This would enable the relevant government departments to immediately assess or evaluate the disaster upon the receipt of predicted or actual data from a particular typhoon. Additionally, this study evaluated precautionary building principles in terms of the positive effect they have on improving disaster management.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Spatial–temporal distribution of storm surge damage in the coastal
           areas of China
    • Abstract: Abstract Storm surges account for increasing economic losses and casualties (including death and missing) because of sea-level rise and growing population in coastal areas. China is one of the several countries severely affected by storm surge disasters. In this study, the annual variation and geographical distribution of direct economic losses and casualties caused by storm surge in coastal areas of China were analyzed based on the losses database. The results show that: (1) the frequency of the tropical storm surges over the past 65 years has risen remarkably with a significant trend, while the frequency of extra-tropical storm surges does not display this trend; (2) the annual casualties caused by storm surge have decreased, with Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong provinces suffering the highest casualties from storm surge; and (3) the annual direct economic losses present no obvious trend, with Guangdong, Zhejiang, and Fujian experiencing the highest direct economic losses from storm surge. Taking GDP and the gross ocean production into consideration, their loss rates show an obvious decreasing trend over the past 25 years. Although population and exposed value have increased rapidly in coastal areas, the casualties and economic loss rate show a decreasing trend, suggesting that disaster reduction measures by the Chinese government have had a significant effect in storm surge disaster prevention.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Three modes of rainfall infiltration inducing loess landslide
    • Abstract: Abstract Rainfall infiltration depth in an integrated and homogeneous soil mass is extremely limited. How does rainfall infiltrate into a loess slope developed with various fractures and holes? How do infiltration mechanisms impact slope stability? These are issues this paper researched and discussed. Using the in situ monitoring and field investigation method, it obtained that the infiltration depth of rainfall in integrated loess mass is generally limited to 3.0 m underground and there are often developed various fractures and holes in loess slopes, which usually form the rapid infiltration channels to make the rainwater seep quickly and vastly and to influence the loess slope stability greatly. It put forward that the rainfall infiltration inducing loess landslide can be divided into three modes: (1) superficial infiltration inducing landslide, (2) blockage infiltration inducing landslide, and (3) breakthrough infiltration inducing landslide. The first mode requires a long-time continuous rainfall; the second mode requires a sufficient antecedent accumulative rainfall, meanwhile a certain infiltration time; and the third mode requires certain rainfall intensity.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • A discussion on “Extreme streamflow drought in Karkheh River Basin
           (Iran): probabilistic and regional analyses” by Reza Zamani et al.
    • Abstract: Abstract In the original paper, Zamani et al. (Nat Hazards 76:327–346, 2015. doi:10.1007/s11069-014-1492-x) analyzed droughts in arid and semiarid lands based on minimum streamflow values. In that article, drought index values at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month time scales were analyzed by the SDI index and L-moment method. This article points out some problems about the L-moment method, which are discussed and corrected in this discussion.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Risk assessment of soil erosion by application of remote sensing and GIS
           in Yanshan Reservoir catchment, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil erosion is considered to be a serious problem for environmental sustainability. Healthy and stable soils are crucial for human well-being, providing important ecosystem functions and services. There is a need for a simple and practical approach which estimates and maps soil erosion risk that uses available information as input data to facilitate water and soil conservation. In this work, we developed a predictive approach to estimating the soil erosion risk of the Yanshan Reservoir catchment, which combines remote sensing information, geographic information system spatial analysis technology and a soil erosion risk assessment model. Three dominating factors affecting soil erosion were considered: vegetation coverage, topographic slope and land use. The soil erosion risk was divided into six levels: slight, light, moderate, intense, severe and extremely severe. The slight and light erosion risk accounted for about 83 % of the watershed and was prominent in cultivated land areas, while areas with relatively higher erosion risk were on steep slopes. This approach pointed to inappropriate land use and development as a source of increased risk of soil erosion of the Yanshan Reservoir catchment. Compared with field survey data, the soil erosion modeling approach was shown to have a high accuracy. Therefore, this model could be used to estimate and map soil erosion intensity and distribution at the catchment scale, and could provide useful information for managers and planners to make land management and conservation decisions.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • On linking atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme wave events for
           coastal vulnerability assessments
    • Abstract: Abstract Atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs) are fundamental drivers of regional wave climates. A fuzzy rule-based classification algorithm has recently been developed to identify these atmospheric features. The algorithm is guided by wave heights and optimises the location, shape and strength of a set of CP classes in order to find features that drive extreme waves. This paper focuses on a method for evaluating the performance of CP classification algorithms and reducing the subjectivity in the selection of classification parameters. We suggest a method based on entropy to quantify the classification quality and provide a means to objectively define an optimal number of CP classes. We also explore the sensitivity to the temporal resolution of the data. For our case study site, the entropy measure indicates that a good quality classification requires 15–20 CP classes. However, regardless of the number of classes used, there is a persistent, common class that explains a large proportion of extreme wave events. The methods described here contribute to developing a new framework for improved statistical wave modelling in coastal vulnerability risk assessments.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Identifications and removal of diurnal and semidiurnal variations in radon
           time series data of Hsinhua monitoring station in SW Taiwan using singular
           spectrum analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Over the past three decades, anomalous temporal changes in radon concentrations have been reported in relation to earthquake occurrences. However, radon anomalies in all cases are not only controlled by seismic activity, but also by meteorological parameters which make isolation of earthquake precursory signals complicated. In the present study, characteristics of temporal variability of soil gas radon concentrations at the Hsinhua monitoring station, southern Taiwan, have been examined using singular spectrum analysis (SSA). In order to make continuity and regularity of the data before applying the SSA, the radon data were carefully edited for gaps and discontinuous jumps following intervals of malfunctioning of equipments. Digital filter has been applied in eliminating the long-term trend in the data and retains variations of <30 days. The radon changes exhibit dominant daily variations, which are controlled by atmospheric temperature inducted evaporation in surface water saturated soil (capping effect). The causal relationship is marked by a clear phase lag of 2–3 h in the sense that peak in the daily variation of radon succeeds the peak in temperature. Aperiodic variations in soil radon intensity in the range of 2–10 days are negatively correlated with temperature, while positively correlated with pressure. However, the negative correlation of the soil radon with temperature is found to be pseudo-effect arising due to interrelation between temperature and pressure.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Historical torrential flood events in the Kolubara river basin
    • Abstract: Abstract According to the number of torrential watercourses, the frequency of occurrence and the consequences that have resulted in the past, torrential floods are the most frequent and disastrous natural hazards in Serbia. Since they are always followed by severe material damages and often casualties, the character of torrential flood events seems to be a real challenge in natural risk management in our country. In this paper, phenomenon of torrential floods in Kolubara river basin is presented through temporal and spatial characterization of registered torrential flood events. The dataset of 121 recorded torrential flood events in the Kolubara river basin for the period from 1929 to 2010 is derived from the Inventory of torrential floods in Serbia for the period of 99 years, 1915–2013 (with 848 torrential flood events and over 133 casualties). The main focus is on the frequency of occurrence of registered torrential flood events. Within a year, there is a primary peak in May and June and secondary peak in March; this finding corresponds greatly to the monthly distribution of all registered events on the Inventory level. Frequency of torrential floods occurrence within a researched period shows a significant increment, the number of registered events is more than doubled comparing the latest period (1991–2010) with the first one (1929–1960), while the in-between period (1961–1990) already indicates that increase. These results can be used for improving the system of preventive and mitigation measures in order to reduce the torrential flood consequences to an acceptable level.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • An empirical analysis of hurricane evacuation expenditures
    • Abstract: Abstract Very little is known about evacuation expenditures at the household level even though improved understanding of those expenditures can provide inputs for designing more effective evacuation programs and planning. We conducted a household survey in Harris and Galveston counties in Texas after being hit by hurricane Ike (one of the costliest hurricanes that have impacted the USA) to investigate the determinants of evacuation expenditures. Results suggest that household income, hurricane risks and household size are significant determinants of household evacuation expenditures. Our empirical analyses indicate that an average household would spend approximately $194 if a voluntary evacuation order is received and more than $300 if a mandatory evacuation order is received. These estimates may provide inputs for future hurricane evacuation planning.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Estimation of building damage rates from future earthquakes in Taiwan in
           terms of MMI
    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study was to estimate the damage rate of steel and masonry buildings for different regions of Taiwan from future earthquakes according to the empirical data of 1999 M w 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan. The results are presented in quadratic equation relating building damage rates with modified Mercalli intensity. It is found that two zones are subject to high building damage rates. One zone extends from Hsinchu southward to Taichung, Nantou, Chiayi, and Tainan in western Taiwan, and the other extends from Ilan southward to Hualian and Taitung in eastern Taiwan. These zones are also characterized by low b values and also coincide with high peak ground shaking parameters. We also present the damage rates as function of waiting time for steel and masonry buildings in ten main metropolitans of Taiwan. The results show relatively low expected damage rates in Hengchun, Tainan, and Kaohsiung. But relatively high damage rates are found for most other areas. These results should be of use to government regulators and practicing engineers to enforce appropriate building codes to effectively mitigate potential seismic hazards.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Rainfall intensity and inflow rate effects on hillslope soil erosion in
           the Mollisol region of Northeast China
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil erosion in the Mollisol region of Northeast China is increasingly severe and directly affects national food security and sustainable development. However, few attempts have been made to create a clear distinction between the effects of rainfall and inflow on hillslope soil erosion. A laboratory study was conducted to discuss the roles and contributions of rainfall intensity and inflow rate to hillslope soil erosion and to fit equations based on variations of rainfall intensity and inflow rate (RI + IR) for soil erosion. A soil pan (8 m long, 1.5 m wide and 0.6 m deep and with an adjustable slope gradient of 0°–35°) was subjected to designed rainfall intensities (0, 50 and 100 mm h−1) and inflow rates (0, 50 and 100 mm h−1). The results showed that the effects of RI + IR treatments on hillslope soil loss were significantly greater than those on runoff. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall intensity on hillslope soil loss was significantly greater than the effect of inflow rate. Under the same total water supply, an increase in rainfall intensity resulted in greater average soil loss rates and stronger fluctuations in soil loss than an increase in the inflow rate. The occurrence of rill erosion significantly increased sediment transport capacity on the hillslope, which resulted in an increase in soil loss. Utilizing rainfall intensity and inflow rate, runoff and soil loss equations were generated and validated, and the performances of the two equations were satisfactory. Furthermore, it was determined that both equations are most applicable to the prediction of hillslope soil erosion under long rolling hillslope conditions. For the Mollisol region of Northeast China, the key factor affecting soil erosion on hillslopes is soil particle dispersion caused by rainfall. Therefore, taking measures to cover the soil, such as corn straw mulching, would effectively reduce rainfall erosivity and have significant positive effects on soil erosion prevention and control.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Erratum to: The Exxon and BP oil spills: a comparison of psychosocial
    • PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Dragon Aromatics plant explosion: introductions and reflections
    • PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Effects of complex interaction of Rayleigh waves with tunnel on the free
           surface ground motion and the strain across the tunnel-lining
    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of complex interaction of Rayleigh waves with lined and unlined tunnels on the free surface ground motion and longitudinal and shear strains across the tunnel-lining are documented in this paper. The effects of depth and diameter of tunnel and the embedding sediment on the amplification and de-amplification of ground motion are studied in detail. The effects of depth of tunnel and the embedding sediment on the longitudinal and shear strains across the tunnel-lining are also studied in detail. The seismic responses of various tunnel models were simulated using a fourth-order accurate staggered-grid viscoelastic P–SV-wave finite-difference algorithm. The analyses of the simulated results reveal that the amplification/de-amplification caused by the tunnel increases with the decrease in depth of tunnel. Ground motion amplification was obtained between the source and the tunnel. An increase in amplification/de-amplification pattern with increase in S-wave velocity in the embedding sediment and the diameter of the tunnel for a fixed depth was obtained. It is concluded that the chances of failure of tunnel-lining due to strain may be just opposite side of the incoming Rayleigh wave in case of a shallow tunnel (<25 m deep) and at the top of the tunnel in case of deeper one (>25 m deep).
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Relationship between earthquake dilatancy and electric precursor phenomena
    • Abstract: Abstract The nature of electromagnetic phenomena before an earthquake is associated with the excitation of the natural electromechanical transformation. This study investigated the impact of the relationship between the stress–strain and the dilatancy process on the electromagnetic phenomena and evaluated the relationship between electromagnetic changes and the seismogenic process. The impact of the change of the crustal stress field over time on the resistivity was analyzed. The ground displacement and pore pressure variation were calculated to simulate the variation characteristics of pre-earthquake electromagnetic waves according to stress. The changes in the crustal rock resistivity caused by the change in the crack aspect ratio due to the stress field were investigated as were the impacts of the dilatancy process on the waveform characteristics and frequency range of the electromagnetic signals. The relationships between the frequency and amplitude of electromagnetic radiation and the epicentral distance and strain were obtained. Apparent resistivity changes under small strain during the dilatancy stage of an impending earthquake are closely related to the voidage change. The rapid development and interconnections of microfissures and conductive fluid activity are the major causes of electrical change. The electromagnetic radiation frequency increases with the elastic modulus and decreases with the hypocenter size and intensity. The accumulation and release of the typical strain associated with major earthquakes give rise to a change in the medium resistivity, which in turn significantly changes the apparent resistivity. The crustal resistivity change may provide a sensitive method for studying the crustal properties during the dilatancy.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • The establishment of gas accident risk tolerability criteria based on
           F–N curve in China
    • Abstract: Abstract The serious situation of China coal mine safety has caused great concern in China. Gas accidents have been the subject of statistical analysis studies in some of the literature, and little research has focused on societal risk and tolerability criteria. This paper reports the results of a preliminary study of societal risk and tolerability criteria of gas accidents in China. This analysis is based on a study of 10 years of gas accidents statistical data from 2004 to 2013. After applying hierarchical cluster analysis, eight sets of data are available. Subsequently, regression analysis is used to establish F–N curves for gas accidents; these F–N curves are then revised to reflect the practical situation in China. Moreover, gas accidents’ risk tolerability criteria are decided according to the ALARP principle. This study reveals that tolerability criteria in developed countries are stricter than those in China. The findings of the paper give an in-depth look at the severity of gas accidents and may contribute to the improvement of the safety conditions of China’s coal industry.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • A new index for evaluation of risk of complex disaster due to typhoons
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examines a new index to evaluate complex disaster risk in coastal zones involving typhoons. Typhoons generate not only strong winds but also storm surges and high waves. Therefore, complex disasters attributable to typhoon forces can be expected to occur in coastal zones. The durations for which the wind speed, storm tide, and wave height simultaneously exceed their respective design values were calculated as simultaneous excess duration (SED) to evaluate the risk of a complex disaster. To verify the utility of SED, numerical simulations were conducted for intensified typhoons under both present-day and global warming climates in Ise Bay, Japan, using an atmosphere–ocean–wave coupled model with a typhoon bogussing scheme. Results showed that the middle part of Ise Bay is more dangerous from the standpoint of SED than the inner part of Ise Bay, which has been regarded as the most dangerous area from the standpoint of extreme values of storm tide. These results suggest that SED is important as an index of risk of complex disaster, and the risk of typhoon disaster should be evaluated not only from extreme values of storm tide but also from SED.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Observed and modeled tsunami signals compared by using different rupture
           models of the April 1, 2014, Iquique earthquake
    • Abstract: Abstract A major interplate earthquake occurred on April 1, 2014, in northern Chile with magnitude \({M}_w = 8.1\) , which ruptured part of the 1877 seismic gap segment. Following the earthquake, a tsunami was observed having a moderate impact in the nearest coastal areas. Here we propagate a tsunami generated by two different slip model distributions, as well as a homogeneous one, and compare them using observed tide gauge data from four stations along the Chilean coast, in order to estimate which best represents the measured tsunami waveforms. The heterogeneous models reproduce the general shape and amplitude of the observed data, while the tsunami signal modeled by the homogeneous slip overestimates the amplitude and underestimates the arrival time. This study shows that it is possible to accurately model near-field tsunami observations in Chile, using high-resolution bathymetry, and that they are better represented by heterogeneous sources.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Changing properties of precipitation extremes in the urban areas, Yangtze
           River Delta, China, during 1957–2013
    • Abstract: Abstract The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is one of largest river deltas and metropolitan areas in the world with strong human interference, so it is vulnerable to extreme weather events. Based on daily precipitation dataset of 16 rain gauges in Yangtze River Delta and Mann–Kendall trend detection techniques, the trend in annual and seasonal precipitation extremes has been investigated in the period 1957–2013. Possible links between changes in extreme precipitation and monsoon indices have also been explored. The results show that: (1) the increasing trends of consecutive wet days, maximum daily precipitation, maximum 5-day precipitation and maximum precipitation amount in the past 57 years in YRD can be detected. Much attention should be paid to higher risk of flash flood in these areas, especially in big cities of Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou and Ningbo. (2) Both precipitation days and amount of heavy events (defined as over 90th, 95th and 99th) exhibit overwhelming upward tendency in summer and winter throughout YRD. The summer is to meet with heavier precipitation events as result of larger increasing magnitude in heavy rain days and amounts in the past 57 years. So, high importance should be placed on the relief for flood in summer in the large cites. (3) There is an abrupt change point for extreme precipitation events, and increased annual total precipitation has impact on the upward tendency of heavy rainfall events in YRD on great scale. In addition, the significant correlations between indices (P90, P95, R90 and R95) and monsoon indices (East Asian Summer Monsoon Index and South Asia Summer Monsoon Index) indicate that extreme precipitation events are related to the EASMI and SASMI. Therefore, these properties of precipitation extremes are of great significance to the control of natural hazards in YRD with high degree of human activities and understanding the impact of climate change on hydrologic processes.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Increased preparation for drought among livestock producers reliant on
           rain-fed forage
    • Abstract: Abstract Increased preparation for drought among livestock producers reliant on rain-fed forage should reduce the economic losses and environmental degradation when the eventual drought occurs. We surveyed livestock ranchers in southeastern Arizona, USA, to determine their level of increased preparation for drought following 10 very dry years, as well as their level of threat from drought, importance of coping strategies, ranching experience, herd size, and satisfaction with drought management information. We used the protection motivation theory (PMT) model to structure our analysis because it provides a cognitive process approach to understand what motivates people to increase preparation for looming problems and how the likelihood of that behavior is a function of threat and coping strategy assessments. Thirty-seven percent of ranchers reported a high increase in preparedness, and another 31 % reported some increased preparation. Increased preparation was positively associated with three coping practices: reserve pastures, rotate grazing, and drought planning. However, increased preparation was negatively associated with drought threat severity, suggesting that the more prepared ranchers have implemented coping strategies that buffer them from the looming threat of drought. We found no relationship between increased preparation and levels of ranching experience, herd size, or satisfaction with drought information. Structure and content of education and assistance programs for improving rancher preparation for drought should benefit from the PMT-based analysis because it identifies drivers leading to increased preparedness and how those drivers differ among members of the ranching community.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
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