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Journal Cover Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.851]   [H-I: 60]   [177 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Early alert and community involvement: approach for disaster risk
           reduction in Rwanda
    • Authors: Lamek Nahayo; Christophe Mupenzi; Alphonse Kayiranga; Fidele Karamage; Felix Ndayisaba; Enan Muhire Nyesheja; Lanhai Li
      Pages: 505 - 517
      Abstract: Abstract Natural disasters’ socioeconomic and environmental losses are predicted to rise, unless early warning, full stakeholders and community involvement in the mitigation, adaptation and risk reduction are squarely engaged. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of early alert and community involvement in disaster risk reduction in Nyabihu District, Western Rwanda. A quota sampling method was employed to obtain a sample of 240 households from 12 sectors of Nyabihu District in 2015. A structured questionnaire was used, and the field data collected were computed by using SPSS16.0 for Windows. The results indicated that, as stated by respondents, the frequently experienced disasters are floods (51.25%) and landslides (42.08%). However, as asserted by 68% of informants, disaster-related information is communicated through radio channels after the occurrence, while 29% of them declared that disaster information is disseminated before occurrence, which implies the rising level of risk vulnerability and incidences to the community due to lack of early warning. A lower community participation in disaster risk preparedness and mitigation was noticed (6.2%) while 31.6% mentioned taking part in activities aimed at coping with the aftermath (adaptation). Moreover, disaster risk reduction government policies are preferentially implemented (42.9%) other than considering the community’s knowledge (14.1%). To halt the gradual increase in disasters’ associated risks and losses, it is suggested to introduce disaster-related training across the community, introduce disaster courses from elementary schools and integrate the community in decision-making process.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2702-5
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 2 (2017)
  • An index of Brazil’s vulnerability to expected increases in natural
           flash flooding and landslide disasters in the context of climate change
    • Authors: Nathan S. Debortoli; Pedro Ivo M. Camarinha; José A. Marengo; Regina R. Rodrigues
      Pages: 557 - 582
      Abstract: Abstract There is observational evidence that hydrometeorological extremes, such as heavy rainfall events, have become more frequent and intense in the last decades around the world. In Brazil, intense rainfall events that triggered flash floods and landslides were responsible for 74% of the deaths related to natural disasters in the 1991–2010 period. To evaluate Brazil’s hot spots of vulnerability to these disasters, two indices were developed using three data sets: (1) climate, with IPCC climate extreme indices; (2) environmental, including land use, drainage systems, relief, slope, road density and hydrography; and (3) socioeconomic, including the Gini coefficient, Human Development Index, housing conditions and a poverty-related index. Simulations at high resolution were carried out using the Eta 20-km regional climate model nested within two global climate models: HadGEM2 ES and MIROC 5 IPCC AR5 models. For the baseline period of 1961–1990, the vulnerability indices were adjusted by means of an iterative process and were validated by comparing them to the Brazilian National Disasters Data. The two indices were also used to estimate the vulnerability up to the end of the twenty-first century, using the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 from the IPCC AR5 RCP scenarios. The results indicate a large increase in Brazil’s vulnerability to landslides and flash floods in the context of climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2705-2
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 2 (2017)
  • Estimation of seismic hazard in Odisha by remote sensing and GIS
    • Authors: S. Dhar; A. K. Rai; P. Nayak
      Pages: 695 - 709
      Abstract: Abstract This paper determines the risk of earthquake hazard due to amplification of seismic waves in coastal Odisha. Seismic hazards has been estimated by analysis of geomorphological features and thickness of unconsolidated soil cover. Areas with quaternary to recent deposits have great potential to amplify intensity of seismic waves and consequently the ground motion. Morphometric analysis of the DEM data has been conducted to identify areas with high potential of accumulation of unconsolidated sediment, and other parameters that influence deposit of loose, unconsolidated soil in the region. Weighted overlay method has been used to create soil amplification susceptibility map for the coastal Odisha. The Mahanadi basin shows dominant structural control on seismic activity. Lineament patterns are mostly directed in the WNW–ESE, NE–SW and NNW–SSE directions and may induce elongation of isoseismic patterns. The analysis also shows that the western, northern and middle parts of the study region have low to moderate susceptibility whereas the coastal Odisha have high susceptibility for seismic amplification due to thick unconsolidated sediment accumulation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2712-3
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 2 (2017)
  • Wave hazards on microtidal shore platforms: testing the relationship
           between morphology and exposure
    • Authors: David M. Kennedy; Daniel Ierodiaconou; Adam Weir; Barbara Brighton
      Pages: 741 - 755
      Abstract: Abstract Open-ocean rocky coasts are dangerous environments when there is a coincidence of recreational activities occurring in areas of high wave energy. Management of drowning fatalities and near-drowning incidents on these landforms is difficult as traditional approaches to beach safety cannot be easily transferred to rocky shores. In this study, we take a morphological approach to quantifying the relative danger of shore platforms in microtidal regions. Platform elevation and nearshore water depth are key variables in determining the likelihood of wave overtopping of the platform edge. The relationship between these variables is tested along a 70-km-long section of the Otway Ranges coast in Victoria, Australia. It is found that exposure is highly variable along short (100 m scale) sections of shore platforms. This variability is driven by the complexity of the nearshore morphology which can have metre-scale relief. As exposed platforms may occur in areas of low wave energy, the morphological exposure index is combined with nearshore wave energy to produce a risk rating. Risk, like exposure, was found to be highly spatially variable. The relationship between elevation and water depth has the potential to provide managers with a tool for assessing safety on rocky shores.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2714-1
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 2 (2017)
  • A resilience loss assessment framework for evaluating flood-control dam
           safety upgrades
    • Authors: Byungil Kim; Sha Chul Shin; Du Yon Kim
      Pages: 805 - 819
      Abstract: Abstract Dams that were designed and built decades ago may not meet current design standards that reflect our improved knowledge of extreme rainfall events. When comparing dam safety upgrades, cost-efficient options that reduce the probability of overtopping are preferred. However, these criteria neglect flood damage costs resulting from controlled water flow inherent to the design of the safety upgrades. Therefore, to address this shortcoming, we apply the concept of resilience to evaluate dam safety upgrade options from a flood damage mitigation perspective through a resilience assessment framework. In this study, resilience is defined as the ability to provide flood-control service after an extreme rainfall event and to recover a desired level of functionality as soon as practicable. This framework features four main steps: estimating the probable maximum flood for the dam under investigation, calculating the dam discharge for each of the upgrade options, quantifying the loss in system resilience, and converting the losses into monetary units. This framework is applied to two dam safety upgrade options (constructing an emergency spillway and increasing dam crest height) for a large dam in Andong, South Korea. In practice, the former option is typically preferred as it is cost-efficient. However, we find that the latter option is superior when accounting for flood damage costs caused by water that is intentionally released from the dam during a probable maximum flood event. This study will help to ensure sound decision making when evaluating dam safety upgrade options by considering not only construction costs but also flood damage costs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2717-y
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 2 (2017)
  • Storm surge vulnerability assessment of Saurashtra coast, Gujarat, using
           GIS techniques
    • Authors: Manik Mahapatra; R. Ratheesh; A. S. Rajawat
      Pages: 821 - 831
      Abstract: Abstract The coastal stretch of Saurashtra, Gujarat, is seriously threatened by storm surges. Hence, assessing the preparedness to storm surge impacts is a major task in coastal disaster management where identification of relative vulnerability of coastal stretches is a prime concern. The aim of this study is to assess coastal vulnerability related to storm surge events along the coastal talukas of Saurashtra coast, by analyzing physical features and demographic variables using Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. Vulnerability of a taluka is defined in terms of its exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. We calculated vulnerability of Exposure Index, Sensitivity Index, and Adaptive Capacity Index separately in ArcMap s/w, and the vulnerability map of different indices in the study region was drawn. The Total Vulnerability Index (TVI) is prepared by integrating the above index. The TVI map shows that Kalyanpur, Porbandar, and Talaja talukas are highly vulnerable in comparison with other talukas as they have large area under low-lying, high sensitivity value, and low adaptive capacity value. On the other hand, Diu and Maliya are lower vulnerable due to the presence of rocky/cliffy coast, sand dune, small coastal length and located in elevated region although there exists high population density and built-up area. Our research finding will assist coastal disaster managers and decision makers to plan appropriate measures to minimize the losses due to storm surge impacts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2718-x
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 2 (2017)
  • Damage to grass dikes due to wave overtopping
    • Authors: Hai Trung Le; H. J. Verhagen; J. K. Vrijling
      Pages: 849 - 875
      Abstract: Abstract Grass covers have been applied as an effective measure for protecting river levees and sea dikes. We conducted experiments to show how roots considerably improve the shear strength of soil on dike slopes. Roots of 1-year-old Bermuda and Carpet grass may increase the total shear strength of up to 20 kPa. Exposed to severe overtopping flow, dike slopes may possibly fail in various manners including ‘head-cut’, ‘roll-up’ and ‘collapse’. The ratio between shear strength of the grass cover and its subsoil layer would get a value of two to distinguish the first two manners and would be zero for the last one. To some extent, the findings contribute to the basis for thoughtfully investigating the strength and failure mechanism of grass-covered slopes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2721-2
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 2 (2017)
  • Regional flood frequency analysis in the High Atlas mountainous catchments
           of Morocco
    • Authors: Wiam Zkhiri; Yves Tramblay; Lahoucine Hanich; Brahim Berjamy
      Pages: 953 - 967
      Abstract: Abstract In semi-arid catchments, the contribution of floods to annual runoff is important. The High Atlas Mountain catchments (N’Fis, Rheraya, Ourika, Zat and R’dat) located in the south of Morocco, upstream of the city of Marrakech, are an example of those basins where floods provide the main contribution to surface water resources. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether a regional flood frequency analysis could improve the estimation of the magnitude and the occurrence of floods in these mountainous catchments. The database considered is long-term measurement of daily discharge at the outlets with record length varying from 35 to 45 years. The index flood method is considered to build a regional model based on the generalized extreme values distribution. The results showed a contrasted seasonal behavior, with floods caused by either rainfall during the autumn season or a mix of rainfall and snowmelt for spring events. As a consequence, two distinct regional models have been computed, one for autumn and one for spring events. No significant trends have been found for seasonal maximum discharge in all the catchments. The results of the regional frequency analysis show that the regional model provides better flood quantiles estimates than a standard at-site model. However, there is a much greater uncertainty for both local and regional estimates of floods occurring during the autumn than during spring events, which are estimated with a good level of accuracy. This research provides insights into how to improve the estimation of flood return levels useful for water resources management in these semi-arid mountainous catchments.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2723-0
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 2 (2017)
  • Forging a paradigm shift in disaster science
    • Authors: A. T. Ismail-Zadeh; S. L. Cutter; K. Takeuchi; D. Paton
      Pages: 969 - 988
      Abstract: Abstract Despite major advancements in knowledge on disaster risks and disasters caused by natural hazards, the number and severity of disasters are increasing. Convolving natural, engineering, social and behavioral sciences and practices with policymaking should significantly reduce disaster risks caused by natural hazards. To this end, a fundamental change in scientific approaches to disaster risk reduction is needed by shifting the current emphasis on individual hazard and risk assessment dominant in the geoscientific community to a transdisciplinary system analysis with action-oriented research on disaster risk reduction co-produced with multiple stakeholders, including policymakers. This paradigm shift will allow for acquisition of policy-relevant knowledge and its immediate application to evidence-based policy and decision making for disaster risk reduction. The need for the paradigm shift is more critical now than ever before because of the increasing vulnerability and exposure of society to disaster risk and the need for cross-cutting actions in policy and practice related to climate change and sustainability.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2726-x
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 2 (2017)
  • The performance of SPI and PNPI in analyzing the spatial and temporal
           trend of dry and wet periods over Iran
    • Authors: Babak Amirataee; Majid Montaseri
      Pages: 89 - 106
      Abstract: Abstract Drought monitoring is carried out using various drought indices, including SPI, to generate time series of dry and wet periods. Furthermore, the dispersion of dry and wet periods was embossed with different intensities (high, medium, and low) over the data record years. Although these results were very necessary for planning and predicting future droughts, it appeared that the application of any trend over dry and wet periods could provide more accurate and unbiased or safer predictions in terms of analysis process. Generally, most of the researchers believed that the results of a drought trend analysis have been influenced by short-term persistence or significant autocorrelation with different lags on drought event time series and the mentioned impact should be preferably removed. Accordingly, drought monitoring was accomplished using SPI and PNPI drought indices to extract time series of dry and wet periods in terms of 50-year (1965–2014) annual rainfall data of 40 synoptic stations over Iran. Having used the basic and modified Mann–Kendall nonparametric tests, it was attempted to analyze the trend of dry and wet periods extracted from mentioned indices. The results represent the relative advantage of using the modified Mann–Kendall test in drought trend analysis. Furthermore, it was shown that the trend of dry and wet periods was negative in the majority of selected stations and that this trend was significant at 95% confidence level in northwest of Iran. Also, the results indicated the similar performance of SPI and PNPI indices in trend analysis of dry and wet periods.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2675-4
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 1 (2017)
  • Robustness of road systems to extreme flooding: using elements of GIS,
           travel demand, and network science
    • Authors: Amirhassan Kermanshah; Sybil Derrible
      Pages: 151 - 164
      Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this article is to study the robustness of road networks to extreme flooding events that can negatively affect entire regional systems in a relatively unpredictable way. Here, we adopt a deterministic approach to simulate extreme flooding events in two cities, New York City and Chicago, by removing entire sections of road systems using U.S. FEMA floodplains. We then measure changes in the number of real trips that can be completed (using travel demand data), Geographical Information Systems properties, and network topological indicators. We notably measure and discuss how betweenness centrality is being redistributed after flooding. Broadly, robustness in spatial systems like road networks is dependent on many factors, including system size (number of nodes and links) and topological structure of the network. Expectedly, robustness also depends on geography, and cities that are naturally more at risk will tend to be less robust, and therefore the notion of robustness rapidly becomes sensitive to individual contexts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2678-1
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 1 (2017)
  • Experimental research on the effect of slope morphology on bank collapse
           in mountain reservoir
    • Authors: Feng Ji; Yuchuan Shi; Huixing Zhou; Haiming Liu; Yi Liao
      Pages: 165 - 181
      Abstract: Abstract Bank collapse width (BCW) is a considerably important index in the construction of water conservancy projects. In recent years, China has built a large number of hydropower stations. However, after reservoir impoundment for decades, the development of bank collapse width required clarification. Very few studies have provided feedback surveys or examined contrasting features of BCW. Through an analysis of BCW in a large reservoir in China, which was emptied completely owing to leakage, combined with a series of laboratory tests, this study describes the degree of influence of profile morphology on BCW. In addition, the BCW and bank collapse length of different planform morphology slopes, including convex plane-type, concave plane-type, and straight plane-type slopes, are discussed. This is a novel research, and it provides an important and reliable basis for the establishment of a BCW prediction model.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2679-0
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 1 (2017)
  • Analysis of ice disasters on ultra-high-voltage direct-current
           transmission lines
    • Authors: Jiazheng Lu; Jun Guo; Jianping Hu; Li Yang; Tao Feng
      Pages: 203 - 217
      Abstract: Abstract Ice disaster is one of the biggest natural disasters posing great threat to the safe operation of power grid. With the construction and operation of ultra-high-voltage direct-current (UHVDC) Transmission Project, it is urgent to carry out research on ice-coating and ice-melting of large-section current-carrying conductors to provide technical support for the safe operation of UHVDC transmission project. Researchers have made a large amount of research on small-section conductors. However, these research results for small-section conductors cannot be applied to large-section conductors. Thus, our research team carries out the research on ice-coating and ice-melting of large-section current-carrying conductors under artificial conditions. The typical large-section current-carrying conductor LGJ-630/55 is employed to analyze the ice-coating and ice-melting characteristics of large-section current-carrying conductors with some main factors, including wind, precipitation, temperature, current, and so on. Based on the experiments’ results, we have arrived at several rules of ice-coating and ice-melting of large-section current-carrying conductors. Meanwhile, an improved Ice-melting Model taking account Heat Exchange and Gravity (IMHEG) is proposed in this paper. This IMHEG model is verified to be more proper than the traditional ice-melting model, and can be a useful model for practical application.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2682-5
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 1 (2017)
  • Environmental and social recovery asymmetries to large-scale disturbances
           in small island communities
    • Authors: Shankar Aswani; Ingrid van Putten; Sara Miñarro
      Pages: 241 - 262
      Abstract: Abstract People’s livelihoods in tropical small-island developing states are greatly dependent on marine ecosystem services. Yet services such as fisheries and coastal buffering are being degraded at an alarming rate, thus making people increasing vulnerable to protracted and sudden environmental changes. In the context of the occurrences of extreme events such as earthquakes and tsunamis, it is vital to uncover the processes that make people in these island states resilient, or not, to environmental disruptions. This paper compares people’s perceptions of social and environmental impacts after an extreme event in the Western Solomon Islands (11 different villages on 8 different islands) to better understand how knowledge systems influence the coupling of human and natural systems. We examine the factors that contributed to perceptions of respective recovery in the environmental versus the social domains across communities with different traditional governance and modernization characteristics in a tsunami impact gradient. First, we separately assessed, at the community and individual level, the potential determinants of perceived recovery in the environmental and social domains. At the community level, the average values of the perceived environmental and social recovery were calculated for each community (1 year after the tsunami), and at the individual level, normally distributed environmental and social recovery variables (based on the difference in perceptions immediately and 1 year after the tsunami) were used as dependent variables in two General Linear Models. Results suggest that environmental and social resilience are not always coupled correspondingly and, less unexpectedly, that asymmetries during recovery can occur as a result of the underlying social and ecological context and existing adaptive capacity. More generally, the study shows how by evaluating post-disturbance perceptional data in tsunami-affected communities, we can better understand how subjective perceptions of change can affect the (de)-coupling of human and natural systems.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2685-2
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 1 (2017)
  • Desertification in western Rajasthan (India): an assessment using remote
           sensing derived rain-use efficiency and residual trend methods
    • Authors: Arnab Kundu; N. R. Patel; S. K. Saha; Dipanwita Dutta
      Pages: 297 - 313
      Abstract: Abstract Owing to its impact on global ecosystem, climate change and related effects is being perceived as a serious issue worldwide especially in the arid and semi-arid regions. Climatic variability has been considered as a major cause for degradation of natural resources. Desertification caused by climatic or human-induced processes negatively affects the productivity of land within an ecosystem. It is noteworthy that depletion of vegetation cover plays a key role in land degradation; in fact reduction in plants and perennial cover is regarded as an indicator of the onset of desertification. Temporal analysis of satellite-based NDVI is one of the major remote sensing tools which can identify the depletion of vegetation cover. In the present study, rain-use efficiency (RUE) method has been used for monitoring vegetation degradation and, substantially, the process of desertification in western Rajasthan. RUE, the ratio between normalized growing season NDVI and rainfall, has been calculated for individual years (1983–2013). A correlation analysis was carried out by considering yearly RUE as dependent variable and time (years) as the independent variable. It shows that regression slope of RUE mainly depends upon the dynamic condition of integrated NDVI and rainfall. In order to monitor the areas under human-induced desertification, the residual trend method has been adopted. The correlation between rainfall and NDVI was found significant (p < 0.05) except some portion in the middle east. The study reveals that about 35% of the total area has experienced high human-induced desertification process.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2689-y
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 1 (2017)
  • Household-level disaster-induced losses and rural–urban migration:
           Experience from world’s one of the most disaster-affected countries
    • Authors: Asif Ishtiaque; Nurul Islam Nazem
      Pages: 315 - 326
      Abstract: Abstract Losses due to natural disasters induce rural–urban migration throughout the world. It is also a major driver of population influx in Dhaka city, the capital of one of the most disaster-affected countries in the world, Bangladesh. While the relationship between natural disasters and migration is evident, the magnitude of household-level losses inducing rural–urban migration has not been widely discussed. This paper approaches this issue based on an empirical study. Using appropriate sampling procedure, a total of 407 households in Dhaka statistical metropolitan area were interviewed. This research finds out that 18.43% of rural–urban migrants in Dhaka city are disaster induced. A sharp drop in income immediately after the disaster is the predominant reason behind their migration. The river bank erosion-affected migrants encountered as high as 89% drop in income, whereas the flood-affected migrants experienced 70% drop. This article identifies five post-disaster components that ultimately determine migration. To conclude, the paper offers several approaches to minimize mass rural out-migration.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2690-5
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 1 (2017)
  • Modeling coastal tsunami hazard from submarine mass failures: effect of
           slide rheology, experimental validation, and case studies off the US East
    • Authors: Stéphan T. Grilli; Mike Shelby; Olivier Kimmoun; Guillaume Dupont; Dmitry Nicolsky; Gangfeng Ma; James T. Kirby; Fengyan Shi
      Pages: 353 - 391
      Abstract: Abstract We perform numerical simulations to assess how coastal tsunami hazard from submarine mass failures (SMFs) is affected by slide kinematics and rheology. Two types of two-layer SMF tsunami generation models are used, in which the bottom (slide) layer is depth-integrated and represented by either a dense Newtonian fluid or a granular flow, in which inter-granular stresses are governed by Coulomb friction (Savage and Hutter model). In both cases, the upper (water) layer flow is simulated with the non-hydrostatic 3D σ-layer model NHWAVE. Both models are validated by simulating laboratory experiments for SMFs made of glass beads moving down a steep plane slope. In those, we assess the convergence of results (i.e., SMF motion and surface wave generation) with model parameters and their sensitivity to slide parameters (i.e., viscosity, bottom friction, and initial submergence). The historical Currituck SMF is simulated with the viscous slide model, to estimate relevant parameters for simulating tsunami generation from a possible SMF sited near the Hudson River Canyon. Compared to a rigid slump, we find that deforming SMFs of various rheology, despite having a slightly larger initial acceleration, generate a smaller tsunami due to their spreading and thinning out during motion, which gradually makes them less tsunamigenic; the latter behavior is controlled by slide rheology. Coastal tsunami hazard is finally assessed by performing tsunami simulations with the Boussinesq long wave model FUNWAVE-TVD, initialized by SMF tsunami sources, in nested grids of increasing resolution. While initial tsunami elevations are very large (up to 25 m for the rigid slump), nearshore tsunami elevations are significantly reduced in all cases (to a maximum of 6.5 m). However, at most nearshore locations, surface elevations obtained assuming a rigid slump are up to a factor of 2 larger than those obtained for deforming slides. We conclude that modeling SMFs as rigid slumps provides a conservative estimate of coastal tsunami hazard while using a more realistic rheology, in general, reduces coastal tsunami impact.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2692-3
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 1 (2017)
  • Spatial concentration, impact factors and prevention-control measures of
           PM 2.5 pollution in China
    • Authors: Xianhua Wu; Yufeng Chen; Ji Guo; Guizhi Wang; Yeming Gong
      Pages: 393 - 410
      Abstract: Abstract To improve the air pollution of China fundamentally, effective measures should be proposed based on the thorough understanding of the characteristics of air pollution. Based on spatial econometrics, this paper investigates the characteristics and analyzes the determinants of the spatial concentration of PM2.5 pollution in China. Results show that: (1) PM2.5 pollution is highly concentrated in Central and Eastern China, covering 17 regions which accounts for 75% of the total population and GDP (gross domestic product). (2) The PM2.5 values in China show a significant spatial correlation. Provinces such as Shandong, Henan, Anhui, and Hubei are high in PM2.5 concentration. Meanwhile, these provinces are high in population density, GDP, and coal consumptions and have a large amount of civilian cars. (3) PM2.5 pollution shows spatial spillover effects. A 1% increase in the PM2.5 values of neighboring provinces will lead to a 0.78% increase in that of one province. (4) An upward U-shaped relationship is observed between the density of per capita GDP and PM2.5, and the PM2.5 value is far from the turning point of growth. With the further growth of the density of per capita GDP, the PM2.5 value is expected to increase rapidly and continuously. (5) Based on the characteristics of spatial concentration and spatial spillover, this paper proposes several prevention-control measures for haze pollution, such as stressing on the treatment of air pollution in severely polluted provinces, avoiding moving pollution industries to neighboring areas, performing joint prevention and control nationwide. Air pollution may only be rooted by transforming the pattern of economic growth.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2697-y
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 1 (2017)
  • Study of portable infrastructure-free cell phone detector for disaster
    • Authors: ShiYang Tang; XueMing Shu; ShiFei Shen; ZhangHua Li; SiYang Cao
      Pages: 453 - 464
      Abstract: Abstract In disaster relief, especially in the rescue of serious disaster like great earthquake or tsunami, detecting the exact location of survivors via portable devices can greatly improve the efficiency of search and rescue work. A novel infrastructure-free cell phone positioning system based on software-defined radio, virtual base transceiver station software and its running scheme is proposed in this paper. The identification information of cell phones, receive signal strength and signal transceiver power data can be collected by this system. By using customized antennas with new positioning method, the proposed system can indicate the location of survivals trapped under debris without any operation on cell phones by survivors. With the new hybrid algorithm, search radius of the system can reach more than 1.2 km. And it is also able to implement accurate positioning by this system at the same time. Experimental results demonstrated that the system has significantly improved performance over the traditional methods.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2700-7
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 1 (2017)
  • Acknowledgement of reviewers
    • Pages: 493 - 504
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2746-1
      Issue No: Vol. 86, No. 1 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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