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BIOLOGY (1413 journals)

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Journal Cover Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.851]   [H-I: 60]   [151 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Storm surge risk assessment for Yuhuan County in Taizhou City
    • Authors: Yuexia Zhang; Ting Li; Hui Wang; Jing Guo
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Abstract Using an ADCIRC model with 26 coastal sea walls and assuming that not all coastal sea walls are damaged during a storm surge, we simulated the county of Yuhuan’s maximum possible inundation depth and performed a hazard assessment. Additionally, we assessed the vulnerability of Yuhuan County based on land use. Then, based on these assessments, we evaluated the overall storm surge risk for Yuhuan County. The results show that Yuhuan County can be divided into three areas. The first area includes the town of Shamen, the Damaiyu sub-district, etc., and is occupied by people and typically an active area. Although the hazard grade of a part of this area is not high, its risk grade is significant, and most areas belong to the extremely high-risk grade. The second area consists of the sea walls of Jiaomen, Puzhu, Xiaopuzhu-Xitan, Taiping, etc., and includes bare lands, farmlands, shoals, small villages and storage areas. Although the hazard grade for this area is extremely high hazard or high hazard, its risk grade is moderate risk. The third area includes the remaining area in Yuhuan County, where there is no submerged area; this area includes low-lying areas but also has two layers of sea walls. In this area, the surroundings of Xuanmen Bay are only partially used for aquaculture.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2328-7
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Control technology of direct passing karstic collapse pillar in longwall
           top-coal caving mining
    • Authors: Cun Zhang; Shihao Tu
      Pages: 17 - 34
      Abstract: Abstract Karstic collapse pillar (KCP) is a special geological structure caused by the palaeo-karst subsidence in carbonate areas, and it directly affects the safe and efficient production of the coal mines. In this article, in order to improve the recovery rate and reduce relocation of the longwall panel, the water-scarce KCP in 8203 longwall face, Jinzhuang Colliery was directly passed through. Based on the field conditions of KCP and above initial mining problems, a stress changes model including four stress zones in the surrounding rock is established. They are crushing zone, plastic stress-decreasing zone, elastic stress-increasing zone and in situ stress zone from inside out in turn. A variety of measures were taken to ensure that the longwall face safely and efficiently crossed the KCP. These measures contained intensive arched shed instead of bolt-mesh-spurting supporting technique, injection of cement and marithan, respectively, into longwall face in KCP and developmental plastic coalwall at the end of KCP, hard rock blast, reduction of mining height and increase in the working face drainage ability. During the face’s passing through the KCP, working resistance of the support indicated that four-stress-zone model of the surrounding rock with the KCP conformed to field observations.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2402-1
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Environmental health hazards on industrial disasters: a study on how to
           achieve community-level social support
    • Authors: Cheryl-Ann Sarita Boodram; Emmanuel Janagan Johnson
      Pages: 109 - 120
      Abstract: Abstract Efforts to prevent and mitigate the effects of disasters have largely emerged from the fields of science and human geography. However, social work has long been a profession aimed at the restoration and enhancement of individual and community social functioning. This article argues for the integration of social work in disaster prevention and mitigation efforts. The primary goal of this study is to explore how members of a community experience an oil spill and to take a critical look at the potential benefits of integrating social work practice in disaster mitigation efforts with this community. The study showed that community-level social work interventions can fill the existing gaps in disaster mitigation by providing the mechanism that facilitates the practice of knowledge exchange in environmental management disaster situations. The study also suggests the need to include a social work focus on building community social capital, including training of community responders to provide support and intermediary services with disaster response coordinators. The article re-enforces the need for a more structural approach to social work practice in the mitigation and management of industrial disasters as well as in building the political capital of communities to affect policies. The authors provide few recommendations to integrate social work methods into the field of health hazard.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2410-1
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Forecast model of allergenic hazard using trends of Poaceae airborne
           pollen over an urban area in SW Iberian Peninsula (Europe)
    • Authors: Santiago Fernández-Rodríguez; Pablo Durán-Barroso; Inmaculada Silva-Palacios; Rafael Tormo-Molina; José María Maya-Manzano; Ángela Gonzalo-Garijo
      Pages: 121 - 137
      Abstract: Abstract Cities are becoming bigger, being necessary the knowledge of associated natural hazards from organic and inorganic aerosols. This hazard could be included in the context of urban air pollution and climate change as environmental risk factors for allergy. Overall, grass pollens are the most important cause of pollinosis in Europe due to its high allergenicity and extensive distribution. The main objective of this work was to model daily average Poaceae airborne pollen concentrations from an urban area placed in a city in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula, taking into account the temporal distribution of five different meteorological variables from 23 years of continuous recording. This was achieved using a combination with the Shuffle Complex Evolution Metropolis Algorithm using as an optimisation function the root mean square error. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1993 to 2015 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The Poaceae Main Pollen Season lasted, on average, 89 days, ranging from 41 to 144 days, from April 17 to July 14. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations is described by one equation composed of two terms. The first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days, and the second term is obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. The fit of the model was examined for a forecast horizon of 1, 7, 15 and 30 days. The R 2 values obtained were 0.70, 0.69, 0.62 and 0.57, respectively, which show a trend in decreasing order. These results confirm the suitability of the proposed model.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2411-0
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Experiments to automatically monitor drought variation using simulated
           annealing algorithm
    • Authors: Hongbo Zhang; Nan Li; Wengang Zhang; Xiaofang Pei
      Pages: 175 - 184
      Abstract: Abstract A drought is a period of a lack of precipitation in water-deficient areas, causing shortages in their water supply, whether atmospheric, surface, or ground water. Drought with long-duration and wide-area coverage often leads to serious social and economic losses. Consequently, drought monitoring and assessment have become a critical research topic in the area. There are a number of related studies on identifying drought with different types of data, but few aim at automatic drought tracking since drought regions are time variant. In this study, an automatic drought monitoring method is proposed based on drought region tracking. Firstly, drought regions are identified with drought indexes. A simulated annealing algorithm is then used to automatically track different drought regions in successive time intervals based on the area and location of different drought regions. Preliminary results of a case experiment indicate that the simulated annealing algorithm is suitable to be used in automatic monitors and able to achieve desirable tracking results. The proposed method based on the simulated annealing algorithm is effective for automatically monitoring the variation in drought characteristics such as the spatial extent.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2414-x
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Effects of rainfall intensity on splash erosion and its spatial
           distribution under maize canopy
    • Authors: Tao Liu; Jian Luo; Zicheng Zheng; Tingxuan Li; Shuqin He
      Pages: 233 - 247
      Abstract: Abstract Splash erosion of soil particles by raindrops impacting a soil surface is the initiating mechanism of water erosion. To evaluate the effects of splash erosion on maize, spatial distribution of rainfall intensity and splash erosion rate were measured under maize cover in different growth stages. The relation between splash erosion rate under the maize canopy and rainfall intensity was analyzed. The results indicated that, the average rainfall intensity under the maize canopy gradually increased with the increase in rainfall intensity during the whole growth stage, and splash erosion rate under the maize canopy showed the same change. The average rainfall intensity and splash erosion rate under rainfall of 2.0 mm min−1 were significantly higher than those of the rainfall of 1.0 mm min−1. Under the same rainfall intensity, the minimum of splash erosion rate appeared in the jointing stage, while the maximum appeared in the tasseling stage. Compared with the seedling stage, the average splash erosion rates of the jointing stage showed the reduction of 23.9, 24.2, and 41.1 % the corresponding rainfall of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm min−1, respectively, under the maize canopy. Under rainfall of 1.0 and 1.5 mm min−1, there was a significant negative correlation between rainfall intensity under the canopy and splash erosion rate of every spot at the maize tasseling stage. Under rainfall of 2.0 mm min−1, there was also a significant negative correlation between rainfall intensity and splash erosion rate under the canopy of every spot at maize seedling stage and mature stage. The distribution of splash erosion rate was concentrated at maize seedling stage and mature stage. However, the dispersion degree of splash erosion rate was obvious at jointing stage and tasseling stage of maize. Splash erosion rates showed great difference under the canopy at every period of maize growth. Under rainfall of 1.0 mm min−1, the high splash erosion rate appeared at two spots, while under rainfall of 1.5 and 2.0 mm min−1, splash erosion rate was only concentrated in a spot. This study would provide theoretical guidance for soil erosion control based on crop growth and coverage.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2418-6
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Seismic vulnerability assessment at urban scale for two typical Swiss
           cities using Risk-UE methodology
    • Authors: P. Lestuzzi; S. Podestà; C. Luchini; A. Garofano; D. Kazantzidou-Firtinidou; C. Bozzano; P. Bischof; A. Haffter; J.-D. Rouiller
      Pages: 249 - 269
      Abstract: Abstract This paper contains a seismic assessment at urban scale of the cities of Sion and Martigny in Switzerland. These two cities have been identified for the present research based on their importance regarding size and the characteristics of the building stock for which information was available. Moreover, microzonation investigations are available for both cities. This results in a more accurate characterization of local expected ground shaking, which is expressed through specific response spectra. Sion and Martigny represent, respectively, the capital and second largest city of the canton of Valais. This region is characterized by the highest seismicity within Switzerland. The paper focuses on the assessment using Risk-UE methodology, namely the empirical method LM1 and the mechanical method LM2. The obtained results are compared in order to assess the related accuracy. Firstly, buildings of the two cities were surveyed in order to collect main structural characteristics in a database. Building stock is typical of that region and can be found similar to many other medium-sized Swiss cities. Around half of the buildings are unreinforced masonry buildings, while several others are reinforced concrete buildings with shear walls. Results show the most vulnerable part of the cities regarding earthquake. There are significant differences in global results between LM1 and LM2 methods. The mechanical LM2 method is more pessimistic since it predicts damage grades of about one degree higher than LM1 method. However, the main drawback of the empirical LM1 method is that an a priori determination of an adequate value of the macroseismic intensity is required. Nevertheless, LM2 method may lead to a global overestimation of damage prediction.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2420-z
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Intensity and economic loss assessment of the snow, low-temperature and
           frost disasters: a case study of Beijing City
    • Authors: Guizhi Wang; Lingyan Wu; Jibo Chen
      Pages: 293 - 307
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, an ordinal regression model and a K-means clustering method are employed to directly assess the intensity of snow, low-temperature and frost disasters in non-pasture areas. Then, economic loss caused by the disasters is evaluated quantitatively by static and dynamic input–output models, respectively. Finally, an empirical analysis is conducted taking Beijing as an example. Compared to historical data in Beijing, results show that snowstorms in 2010 occurred more frequently than before when the intensity was weaker. Meanwhile, the frequency of low-temperature and frost disasters occurring did not change much, but serious low-temperature disasters happened due to heavy snowfalls. The indirect economic losses of the snow, low-temperature and frost disasters occurring in Beijing in 2010 are 2.23 times the direct economic losses. And some sectors are very sensitive to the disasters. Furthermore, it is found that the total economic losses obtained by a dynamic input–output model are less than that evaluated by a static model.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2429-3
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • A classification method for pulse-like ground motions based on S-transform
    • Authors: H. Ghaffarzadeh
      Pages: 335 - 350
      Abstract: Abstract This article presents a new identification procedure to detect pulse-like ground motion based on the S-transform. The S-transform is utilized as an effective tool for time-frequency representation of ground motions. It is shown that plots of the S-transform in the time-frequency domain named as the S-feature provide useful information for initial detection of pulses in the velocity time history of the ground motions. To perfect identification of pulse-like motions, a method is presented for extraction of pulses from original ground motions based on the convolution theorem. The proposed procedure is applied for classification of pulse-like near-fault ground motions owing to directivity effects in a data set of selective earthquakes. The period of velocity pulses, as an important parameter in structural engineering, is also determined from extracted pulses. The results of this study provide a suitable platform for selecting pulse-like records, when seismic analyses of structures in near-fault areas are of primary interest.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2421-y
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Bridging the gap or broadening the problem'
    • Authors: Harinarayan Tiwari; Subash Pd. Rai; Kumari Shivangi
      Pages: 351 - 366
      Abstract: Abstract A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley or road for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. Bridges over rivers cause an alteration of flow and modify the flow characteristics because of the flow obstruction. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to study the alterations in river meandering characteristics. The objective of this study is to analyse the changes in river characteristics downstream of a bridge using satellite images for the lower Ganges River at two bridge sites in Bhagalpur and Munger in Bihar, India. ARC-GIS is used to calculate the normalised difference water index (NDWI), which has the capability to represent water bodies adequately from space. Based on NDWI maps, the river channel length and downvalley length were measured for different spatio-temporal conditions. The above parameters (channel length and downvalley length) were used to estimate the Sinuosity Index under 14 spatio-temporal situations. The Sinuosity Index (i.e. an indicator of local river fluvial characteristics) varies significantly because of the effect of bridges and their associated structures. There was an increase in the Sinuosity Index of 30 % magnitude in an 8-year time period (2006–2014) after the bridge construction phase at both locations. The pre-construction phase of the bridges indicates minor changes in the Sinuosity Index during the 9-year period from 1987 to 1996. The NDWI analysis also reveals that the river characteristics changed considerably in the pre- and post-bridge scenarios while the change was less significant for pre- and post-flood events (May 2014 to October 2014).
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2422-x
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • On the relation of vegetation and southwest monsoon rainfall over Western
           Ghats, India
    • Authors: T. V. Lakshmi Kumar; Koteswara Rao; R. Uma; Humberto Barbosa; K. V. K. R. K. Patnaik; Emily Prabha Jothi
      Pages: 425 - 436
      Abstract: Abstract This article presents the tendency of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the dependence of vegetation on the rainfall and number of rainy and non-rainy days over Western Ghats. The study makes use of MODIS Terra NDVI data with 8-day intervals and 250-m resolution from 2000 to 2010 during the southwest monsoon (June to September) season. The results show an increasing tendency of the NDVI over different test sites in Western Ghats. The relation of the NDVI with the Antecedent Precipitation Index obtained from rainfall showed good agreement, and the relation of rainfall and the NDVI was mainly dependent on the available soil moisture levels and elevations of the test sites. Correlations were significant and positive with the number of rainy days and negative with the number of non-rainy days with a nearly 2-month lag.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2426-6
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Facts and lessons related to the explosion accident in Tianjin Port, China
    • Authors: B. Zhao
      Pages: 707 - 713
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents facts related to the explosion accident that occurred on August 12, 2015, in Tianjin Port, China. Two serious explosions occurred continuously. Six large fire points and dozens of small ones occurred, and they resulted in heavy casualties and property losses. This paper discusses the catastrophe, causes, and related emergency response.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2403-0
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Dynamic game analysis on China’s public and private oil stockpiles
    • Authors: Huanan Li; Xin Chen
      Pages: 715 - 723
      Abstract: Abstract As the economic growth and industrialization, China’s demand for oil rapidly increased. The oil supply security is becoming a key consideration for China’s policy-makers. In this paper, an empirical analysis on optimal operating strategies of China’s public and private oil stockpiles in different market states, including normal oil supply and oil supply interruption, was made by developing a simple dynamic game model. Optimal operating strategies and inventory levels for public and private oil stockpile were derived. Influences on oil prices by stockpiles’ behaviours were derived. The construction processes of the public oil stockpiles were also taken into account.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2405-y
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Erratum to: Assessing the impacts of and resilience to Tropical Cyclone
           Bejisa, Reunion Island (Indian Ocean)
    • Authors: V. K. E. Duvat; A. K. Magnan; S. Etienne; C. Salmon; C. Pignon-Mussaud
      Pages: 725 - 726
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2475-x
      Issue No: Vol. 84, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Applications of geoinformatics for the prevention and mitigation of
           natural hazards
    • Authors: Silas Michaelides
      Pages: 1 - 4
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2554-z
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. S1 (2016)
       
  • Risk assessment of cultural heritage sites clusters using satellite
           imagery and GIS: the case study of Paphos District, Cyprus
    • Authors: A. Agapiou; V. Lysandrou; K. Themistocleous; D. G. Hadjimitsis
      Pages: 5 - 20
      Abstract: Abstract This paper aims to assess the risk of natural and anthropogenic hazards for cultural heritage in Cyprus by integrating multi-temporal GIS and earth observation analysis, in the area of Paphos District. The work presented here attends to re-evaluate previous results from earth observations and GIS analysis and go a step forward targeting more reliable outcomes for cultural heritage management. The scope of the paper was to develop a more accurate methodology for risk assessment against natural and anthropogenic hazards (e.g., soil erosion; urban expansion), based on homogeneous clustering of the monuments under consideration. The accomplished assessment approach, being lopsided and generic, cannot be applied across the board and undistractedly for cultural heritage management of all types of monuments of the district. Instead, the proposed clustering of monuments based on a variety of parameters is taking into consideration characteristics of their immediate environment, resulting rational local-based outcomes more useful for monuments and sites safeguarding and for prevention measurements. For each one of the five clusters of monuments located in the Paphos District, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method was followed in order to address the individual and unique characteristics of the monuments and sites within the same cluster area. Subsequently, the weight factors from these clusters were interpolated to the whole district, prior to the application of the overall AHP risk assessment. Ultimately, the results were compared with the overall AHP method applied for the entire Paphos District, indicating that the proposed methodology can be more accurate and realistic for the different groups of the monuments.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2211-6
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. S1 (2016)
       
  • Early detection of volcanic hazard by lidar measurement of carbon dioxide
    • Authors: Luca Fiorani; Simone Santoro; Stefano Parracino; Giovanni Maio; Marcello Nuvoli; Alessandro Aiuppa
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Abstract Volcanic gases give information on magmatic processes. In particular, anomalous releases of carbon dioxide precede volcanic eruptions. Up to now, this gas has been measured in volcanic plumes with conventional measurements that imply the severe risks of local sampling and can last many hours. For these reasons and for the great advantages of laser sensing, the thorough development of volcanic lidars has been undertaken at ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development). In fact, lidar profiling allows one to scan remotely volcanic plumes in a fast and continuous way, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. A differential absorption lidar instrument will be presented in this paper: BILLI (BrIdge voLcanic LIdar). It is based on injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser, double-grating dye laser, difference frequency mixing and optical parametric amplifier. BILLI is funded by the ERC (European Research Council) project BRIDGE (BRIDging the gap between Gas Emissions and geophysical observations at active volcanos). It scanned the gas emitted by Pozzuoli Solfatara (Naples, Italy) and Stromboli Volcano (Sicily, Italy) during field campaigns carried out from October 13 to 17, 2014, and from June 24 to 29, 2015, respectively. Carbon dioxide concentration maps were retrieved remotely in few minutes in the crater areas. To our knowledge, it is the first time that carbon dioxide in a volcanic plume is retrieved by lidar. This result represents the first direct measurement of this kind ever performed on active volcanos and shows the high potential of laser remote sensing in early detection of volcanic hazard.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2209-0
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. S1 (2016)
       
  • Analysis of precipitation extremes based on satellite (CHIRPS) and in situ
           dataset over Cyprus
    • Authors: Dimitrios Katsanos; Adrianos Retalis; Filippos Tymvios; Silas Michaelides
      Pages: 53 - 63
      Abstract: Abstract A study of a daily precipitation database for the island of Cyprus is performed for a period of 30 years. A number of climatic indices for precipitation are calculated using the recently available CHIRPS dataset, on high spatial (0.05°) and temporal (daily) resolution. The same parameters for the same time period (1981–2010) are then calculated using the dense network of rain gauges of the Cyprus Department of Meteorology. The results show a quite promising performance regarding indices related to daily precipitation thresholds, resulting in high correlation scores. In the case of indices referring to number of days, it seems that the results are ambiguous, with medium or no correlation, probably related to the criteria used for the identification of a wet (rainy) day on the CHIRPS dataset.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2335-8
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. S1 (2016)
       
  • Risk provision using field spectroscopy to identify spectral regions for
           the detection of defects in flexible pavements
    • Authors: Christodoulos Mettas; Athos Agapiou; Kyriacos Themistocleous; Kyriacos Neocleous; Diofantos Hadjimitsis; Silas Michaelides
      Pages: 83 - 96
      Abstract: Abstract Natural and physical hazards accelerate the deterioration of asphalted surfaces. Climatic factors are unavoidable and can affect the properties of asphalt mixtures, making them weaker and less durable. Thus, continuous monitoring of bituminous surfaces is something that can reduce the risks of public health. Remote sensing techniques have become an effective, noninvasive method for early detection of damaged asphalt pavements. This paper outlines a range of different remote sensing methodologies that can be used to monitor asphalt road pavements. This is complemented by the use of field spectroscopy for the examination of asphalt pavements of varying age and conditions. The results of the study found spectral differences regarding asphalt defects, such as physical cracking, patched cracking and polishing. These spectral changes were examined through “in-band” simulation analysis of the Landsat 7 ETM+ sensor, using appropriate relative spectral response filters, concluding that the ratio band 5/band 1 can be used to distinguish asphalt pavements of different date of construction and condition.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2262-8
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. S1 (2016)
       
  • Mapping the variability of carbonation progress using GIS techniques and
           field data: a case study of the Limassol district
    • Authors: Elia A. Tantele; Renos A. Votsis; Chris Danezis; Constantina Anastasiou; Nikolas Georgiou
      Pages: 183 - 199
      Abstract: Abstract Carbonation-induced corrosion of the steel reinforcement is the major deterioration factor of the RC infrastructures in urban areas. Carbonation progress in concrete is influenced by the exposure and environmental conditions prevailing at each area. Therefore, the rate of deterioration due to carbonation varies at different areas. Field measurements can quantify this carbonation progress for specific structures and areas. However, the scattered nature of individual field data offers little information to be considered for the assessment of existing structures or the design of new structures. This study aims to bridge this gap and shows that individual field data can be combined to characterise an area using GIS mapping tools. A generated map can depict the variability of carbonation progress with the geographical location. Measurements of the carbonation depth of several buildings at different locations in the Limassol district have been provided by a construction laboratory. Such information can be used to depict the carbonation progress on each structure through the calculation of the carbonation factor and then portray its value using mapping techniques. The result is a corrosion risk map of the Limassol district depicting the variability of carbonation progress with geographical locations. This can be used by engineers and managing authorities as a prediction tool for the initiation of carbonation-induced corrosion in existing structures and also at design stage to set the durability requirements of the concrete cover depth.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2509-4
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. S1 (2016)
       
 
 
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