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Journal Cover Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.851]   [H-I: 60]   [214 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • A geospatial framework to estimate depth of scour under buildings due to
           storm surge in coastal areas
    • Authors: Mariamawit Borga; Burak F. Tanyu; Celso M. Ferreira; Juan L. Garzon; Michael Onufrychuk
      Pages: 1285 - 1311
      Abstract: Hurricanes and tropical storms represent one of the major hazards in coastal communities. Storm surge generated by strong winds and low pressure from these systems have the potential to bring extensive flooding in coastal areas. In many cases, the damage caused by the storm surge may exceed the damage from the wind resulting in the total collapse of buildings. Therefore, in coastal areas, one of the sources for major structural damage could be due to scour, where the soil below the building that serves as the foundation is swept away by the movement of the water. The existing methodologies to forecast hurricane flood damage do not differentiate between the different damage mechanisms (e.g., inundation vs. scour). Currently, there are no tools available that predominantly focus on forecasting scour-related damage for buildings. Such a tool could provide significant advantages for planning and/or preparing emergency responses. Therefore, the focus of this study was to develop a methodology to predict possible scour depth due to hurricane storm surges using an automated ArcGIS tool that incorporates the expected hurricane conditions (flow depth, velocity, and flood duration), site-specific building information, and the associated soil types for the foundation. A case study from Monmouth County (NJ), where the scour damages from 2012 Hurricane Sandy were recorded after the storm, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the developed forecasting tool and to relate the scour depth to potential scour damage. The results indicate that the developed tool provides relatively consistent results with the field observations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2817-3
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Disaster risk management in agriculture: tragedies of the smallholders
    • Authors: Raza Ullah; Ganesh P. Shivakoti; Farhad Zulfiqar; Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal; Ashfaq Ahmad Shah
      Pages: 1361 - 1375
      Abstract: Agriculture sector is exposed to a variety of risks and uncertainties which can lead to sizeable losses in crop yields and alter farm incomes. Risk management is, therefore, an essential element of the overall farm management process. Farmers have number of options in managing farm risks; however, smallholders, due to their small operations and limited financial capabilities, find it difficult to adopt sophisticated risk management strategies to overcome yield and income instabilities at farm level. This study is, therefore, designed to investigate the enabling environment for small farmers to manage climatic risks at farm level. A total of 330 sampled respondents from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan are randomly selected for the study using multistage sampling technique. Analysis of variance technique is employed to compare the risk management adoption decision of small, medium and large farmers. A post hoc analysis is also performed to highlight the difference in means and the magnitude of differences. The results indicate that smallholders have significantly lower access to credit (both formal and informal), formal information sources along with significantly higher perceptions of pest and diseases. Smallholders are also at the tail end in the adoption of precautionary savings and agricultural credit to manage climatic risk at farm level. The study urges for risk management policies particularly in favor of the small farmers and intervention in the existing information and credit provision programs to facilitate smallholders in managing farm risks.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2821-7
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • A GIS-based multi-criteria analysis model for earthquake vulnerability
           assessment using Choquet integral and game theory
    • Authors: Milad Moradi; Mahmoud Reza Delavar; Behzad Moshiri
      Pages: 1377 - 1398
      Abstract: A GIS-based multi-criteria analysis model using the integration of the Choquet integral and game theory is proposed in this paper for seismic vulnerability assessment (SVA). The proposed SVA model is able to take into account the effects of complementary, redundant, and independent criteria. Moreover, the proposed model provides an insight into experts’ preferences using game theory parameters. The application of the proposed model is demonstrated by assessing the seismic vulnerability of Tehran city. Due to the limited accessibility to data, only nine contributing criteria are specified which are associated with physical, social, and systemic vulnerability. Five experts are asked to determine the seismic vulnerability degree of 100 randomly selected urban statistical units. Particle swarm optimization method is then applied to extract fuzzy measures from information provided by the experts. Game theory is also employed to compute the interactions among the criteria and to evaluate the role of each criterion in the decision-making process. Finally, a vulnerability map is produced based on the knowledge of the consensus of the five experts and the results are validated by comparing with the previous models using Spearman’s correlation coefficient method.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2822-6
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Swarm intelligence and neural nets in forecasting the maximum sustained
           wind speed along the track of tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal
    • Authors: S. Chaudhuri; D. Basu; D. Das; S. Goswami; S. Varshney
      Pages: 1413 - 1433
      Abstract: Tropical cyclones are well-known extreme weather and the cause of considerable damages, injuries and loss of life. The assessment of the maximum sustained wind speed along the track of the tropical cyclones is very important for estimating the strength of the cyclones. The swarm intelligence in the form of ant colony optimization (ACO) technique is introduced in this study to compute the pheromone deposition along the track of tropical cyclones followed by neural nets to forecast the maximum sustained wind speed of the cyclones occurring over the Bay of Bengal of North Indian Ocean. The ACO is a nonlinear problem-based meta-heuristic optimization method for finding approximate solutions to discrete optimization problems and simulates the decision-making processes of ant colony similar to other adaptive learning techniques. The method has shown its application potential in various fields including the prediction of monsoon rainfall. In this study, the amount of pheromone deposition during the successive stages of the cyclones has been estimated. A range of minimum central pressure (MCP), central pressure drop (PD), maximum sustained wind speed (MSWS) and intensity (T-No) associated with the cyclones of Bay of Bengal are utilized to form the input matrix of the neural nets. The neural nets are trained to forecast the maximum sustained wind speed along the track of the tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal. The result reveals that the errors in forecasting the MSWS along the track of tropical cyclones with 6, 12, 18 and 24 h lead time are 2.6, 2.9, 3.1 and 4.8, respectively. The result is compared with the existing dynamical, statistical and adaptive models to evaluate the skill of the present model. The result is well validated with observation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2824-4
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Reduction of future disaster damages by learning from disaster experiences
    • Authors: Hiroki Onuma; Kong Joo Shin; Shunsuke Managi
      Pages: 1435 - 1452
      Abstract: This paper examines the effect of a country’s own past disaster experiences and nearby countries’ past experiences on subsequent disaster damage. We use global disaster data from 1990 to 2010, which include disaster-related death tolls for both natural and technological disasters that are further divided into sub-categories. Overall, we find evidence of a reduction effect of past disaster damage on future disaster damage. More detailed analyses show that an adaptation effect seems to be present for certain combinations of disaster types and levels of economic development. The results show that a country’s own experiences reduce future damage for natural disasters but that the marginal effect is larger for lower-income countries. On the other hand, for technological disasters, a robust impact of experiences was found only in higher-income countries. In terms of the disaster experiences of nearby countries, the adaptation effect was found only for natural disasters, and the marginal impact was relatively higher for higher-income countries.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2825-3
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Use of sacrificial embankments to minimize bridge damage from scour during
           extreme flow events
    • Authors: Matthew W. Brand; Mandar M. Dewoolkar; Donna M. Rizzo
      Pages: 1469 - 1487
      Abstract: The leading cause of bridge failure has often been identified as bridge scour, which is generally defined as the erosion or removal of streambed and/or bank material around bridge foundations due to flowing water. These scour critical bridges are particularly vulnerable during extreme flood events, and pose a major risk to human life, transportation infrastructure, and economic sustainability. Retrofitting the thousands of undersized and scour critical bridges to more rigorous standards is prohibitively expensive requiring effective yet economical countermeasures. This research tested the efficacy of using approach embankments as intentional sacrificial “fuses” to protect the bridge integrity and minimize damage during large flow events by allowing the streams to access their natural floodplain and reduce channel velocities. This countermeasure concept was evaluated using the Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System models. Steady flow models were developed for three specific bridges on two river reaches. Streamflow return period estimators for both river reaches were developed using Bayesian analysis and available United States Geological Survey stream gauge data to evaluate sacrificial embankments under non-stationary climatic conditions. The use of sacrificial embankments was determined to be a cost-effective scour mitigation strategy for bridges with suboptimal hydraulic capacity and unknown or shallow foundations. Additional benefits of sacrificial embankments include reductions in upstream flood stage and velocity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2829-z
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Applicability of TRMM satellite precipitation in driving hydrological
           model for identifying flood events: a case study in the Xiangjiang River
           Basin, China
    • Authors: Yumeng Yang; Juan Du; Linlin Cheng; Wei Xu
      Pages: 1489 - 1505
      Abstract: Floods are one of the most hazardous types of natural disaster and cause huge losses and casualties every year. A good understanding of extreme stream flows is important for identifying potential flood events and thereby achieving the goals of disaster monitoring and risk management. Remote sensing precipitation data with high spatial–temporal resolution have been shown to be a potential alternative to ground-gauged data, which is sparse or unavailable in many locations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability of satellite-based precipitation data (TRMM 3B42V7) in driving the HEC-HMS hydrological model for flood monitoring in humid Xiangjiang River Basin in China. The results indicate that the TRMM precipitation data can be applied to identify flood events with hydrological model despite biases in the time and magnitude of flood peaks compared to those derived from historical records. In addition, the hydrological model is shown to have smoothing effects on the propagation of biases or errors in the TRMM precipitation data in the hydrological simulations. However, for a few extreme storm events, the data produced relatively large overestimations in precipitation volume and biases in the precipitation time, which caused overestimations in the streamflow simulations and deviation in the peak time, and should be regarded with caution.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2836-0
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • The comparison of NN, SVR, LSSVR and ANFIS at modeling meteorological and
           remotely sensed drought indices over the eastern district of Isfahan, Iran
    • Authors: Iman Khosravi; Yaser Jouybari-Moghaddam; Mohammad Reza Sarajian
      Pages: 1507 - 1522
      Abstract: This paper aims to employ and compare four methods of neural network (NN), support vector regression (SVR), least squares support vector regression (LSSVR) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for modeling the time series behavior of the meteorological and the remotely sensed (RS) drought indices of the eastern district of Isfahan during 2000–2014. The data used in the paper are the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the land surface temperature time series of MODIS satellite and the rainfall time series of TRMM satellite. Then, three RS drought indices namely vegetation condition index, NDVI deviation index and temperature vegetation index and three meteorological drought indices namely 3-month SPI, 6-month SPI and 12-month SPI are generated by the data. Afterward, based on the correlation coefficient between the RS and the meteorological drought indices, three indices are chosen as candidate indices for monitoring the drought severity of the study area. After modeling the time series behavior of these indices by the aforementioned methods, the results indicate that the SVR has the highest and the NN has the lowest efficiency among all the methods. In addition, the performance speed of the LSSVR and then the ANFIS is the highest. At the end of the paper, a fuzzy inference system (FIS) is presented based on the candidate indices to monitor the drought severity at spring and summer of 2000–2014. According to the results of the designed FIS, the spring status is normal in all years except 2000 and 2011 (moderate drought) and the summer status is severe drought in all years except 2000, 2010, 2011 and 2014 (moderate drought).
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2827-1
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Erratum to: The comparison of NN, SVR, LSSVR and ANFIS at modeling
           meteorological and remotely sensed drought indices over the eastern
           district of Isfahan, Iran
    • Authors: Iman Khosravi; Yaser Jouybari-Moghaddam; Mohammad Reza Sarajian
      Pages: 1523 - 1523
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2879-2
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Near-field probabilistic seismic hazard analysis with characteristic
           earthquake effects
    • Authors: Saman Yaghmaei-Sabegh; Mehdi Ebrahimi-Aghabagher
      Pages: 1607 - 1633
      Abstract: In conventional seismic hazard analysis, uniform distribution over area and magnitude range is assumed for the evaluation of source seismicity which is not able to capture peculiar characteristic of near-fault ground motion well. For near-field hazard analysis, two important factors need to be considered: (1) rupture directivity effects and (2) occurrence of scenario characteristic ruptures in the nearby sources. This study proposed a simple framework to consider these two effects by modifying the predictions from the conventional ground motion model based on pulse occurrence probability and adjustment of the magnitude frequency distribution to account for the rupture characteristic of the fault. The results of proposed approach are compared with those of deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses. The results indicate that characteristic earthquake and directivity consideration both have significant effects on seismic hazard analysis estimates. The implemented approach leads to results close to deterministic seismic hazard analysis in the short period ranges (T < 1.0 s) and follows probabilistic seismic hazard analysis results in the long period ranges (T > 1.0 s). Finally, seismic hazard maps based on the proposed method could be developed and compared with other methods.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2834-2
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Intensification of future heat waves in Pakistan: a study using CORDEX
           regional climate models ensemble
    • Authors: Fahad Saeed; Mansour Almazroui; Nazrul Islam; Mariam Saleh Khan
      Pages: 1635 - 1647
      Abstract: Future trends in the occurrence of heat waves (HW) over Pakistan have been presented using three regional climate models (RCMs), forced by three different global climate models (GCMs) runs under RCP8.5 scenarios. The results of RCMs are obtained from CORDEX (Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment) database. Two different approaches for the assessment of HWs are defined, namely Fixed and Relative approaches. Fixed approach is defined for a life-threatening extreme event in which the temperature can reach more than 45 °C for a continuous stretch of several days; however, Relative approach events may not be directly life-threatening, but may cause snow/ice melt flooding and impact on food security of the country in summer and winter seasons, respectively. The results indicate a consistent increase in the occurrence of HWs for both approaches. For the Fixed approach, the increase is evident in the eastern areas of Pakistan, particularly plains of Punjab and Sindh provinces which host many big cities of the country. It is argued that the effect of HWs may also be exacerbated in future due to urban heat island effect. Moreover, summer time HWs for Relative approach is most likely to increase over northern areas of the country which hosts reservoirs of snow and glacier, which may result in events like glacial lake outburst flood and snow/ice melt flooding. Furthermore, the increase in winter time HWs for Relative approach may affect negatively on the wheat production, which in turn can distress the overall food productivity and livelihoods of the country. It is concluded that this study may be a useful document for future planning in order to better adapt to these threats due to climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2837-z
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Recovery worker skills in post-earthquake Haiti: the disconnect between
           employer and employee perspectives
    • Authors: Christa L. Remington; Nazife Emel Ganapati
      Pages: 1673 - 1690
      Abstract: Although the research literature on humanitarian organizations is continually expanding, little is known about the skills that international aid agency workers need in post-disaster contexts. The present study aims to address this gap in the literature by examining differing perspectives on the skills needed in post-disaster contexts; specifically, we investigate whether a mismatch exists between the views of international aid organizations and on-the-ground employees on the skills needed. Using in-depth interviews with aid workers (n = 59), participant observation, and a review of secondary sources (e.g. job announcements) after the 2010 Haitian earthquake, we found that agencies prioritize technical skills and field experience in their hiring practices. However, compared to technical skills, field workers view emotive skills, communicative skills, and leadership skills as equally, if not more, important. These findings are significant because selecting workers that are better suited for long-term recovery work may mitigate the adverse consequences of sustained time in the field, including: burnout, emotional distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Healthier, better-adjusted workers improve overall organizational performance, thus contributing to the success of recovery programs on the ground.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2840-4
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Storm flood risk zoning in the typical regions of Asia using GIS
    • Authors: Jiafu Liu; Xinquan Wang; Bai Zhang; Jing Li; Jiquan Zhang; Xiaojing Liu
      Pages: 1691 - 1707
      Abstract: According to the basic principles of flood risk, risk of storm hazard, stability of disaster environment and vulnerabilities of hazard-affected bodies, we used South Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia as the study area and comprehensively considered major indicators, including the rainfall, topography, land use, vegetation, river network density, population and economic strength, to perform a disaster impact evaluation. The above-mentioned factors were normalized to obtain standardized multi-source raster data using the geographic information system (GIS) software package. The weights of relevant indicators were determined according to analytic hierarchy processes, and a model to perform comprehensive risk assessment of flood was constructed. We used GIS to obtain an assessment map of the flood comprehensive risk levels of typical Asian areas. With the help of the comprehensive analysis, genesis and mitigation service principles and assessment map of the flood comprehensive risk levels, both qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on the study region. Finally, the study area was divided into six sub-regions, the northwestern, southwestern, southern, and central districts, eastern plains, and southeastern coastal areas. Among these districts, the eastern plains and southeastern coastal areas had the highest risk, followed by the southern district. Meanwhile, the southwestern district had lower values, and the northwestern and central districts exhibited the lowest risk. The results from this research have significant reference values regarding macro-policy decisions on the prevention of flood disasters in the South Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2843-1
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Quantitative approach on erosion hazard, vulnerability and
           risk assessment: case study of Muriganga–Saptamukhi interfluve,
           Sundarban, India
    • Authors: Abhishek Ghosh
      Pages: 1731 - 1734
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2878-3
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • A WRF-based engineering wind field model for tropical cyclones and its
    • Authors: Lin Xue; Ying Li; Lili Song; Wenchao Chen; Binglan Wang
      Pages: 1735 - 1750
      Abstract: Strong winds induced by tropical cyclones (TCs) must be taken into consideration when performing engineering wind-resistant design and TC disaster mitigation in the coastal areas of China that are subject to the frequent passages of TCs. At present, TC engineering wind fields are usually estimated by simplified parametric models, resulting in large departures from observations. In this study, an engineering wind model based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for TCs (EMTC) is developed for engineering wind-resistant design. Results show that the EMTC model could output fine-scale wind fields, which are similar to the observations. By introducing TC intensity modification and developing the topographical transformation technique in the WRF, the TC could be sculptured to the requested intensity and track according to the needs of engineering wind-resistant design. Verifications using two examples demonstrate that the model could match the target terrain with any TC track and intensity, providing accurate TC wind simulations for wind-resistant designs. Based on model outputs at 1-km horizontal resolution and 10-min intervals, engineering wind parameters such as the wind attack angle, the maximum wind speed, horizontal wind speed shear, temporal variation of wind speed and direction, and storm relative helicity are calculated to qualify the effects of TC-induced strong wind on engineering structures. These wind engineering parameters can efficiently indicate stronger risk regions of a TC, such as the inner core and spiral rain bands, demonstrating that the EMTC is able to simulate the TC structure reasonably well, and provide quantitative references for wind-resistant design.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2845-z
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Direct and indirect economic loss assessment of typhoon disasters based on
           EC and IO joint model
    • Authors: Guizhi Wang; Rongrong Chen; Jibo Chen
      Pages: 1751 - 1764
      Abstract: In recent years, the typhoon disasters frequently occur, by which the economic loss caused is paid more and more attention. Combined with the uncertainty of real economy and the structure of detailed departments’ classification, traditional input–output models are extended in this paper. Moreover, static and dynamic models of economy and input–output are, respectively, constructed to evaluate the direct and indirect economic loss caused by typhoon disasters for related industrial departments. It is shown that when referring our proposed static model, the four dominant departments’ loss affected by typhoon in 2013 is 1271.9248 billion Yuan in total, accounting for 75.5303% of the total industrial product loss. In the case of the dynamic model, the longer the time of the sector returns to normal production, the bigger the cumulative economic loss caused by typhoon is.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2846-y
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Simulation of primary school-aged children’s earthquake evacuation
           in rural town
    • Authors: Mei-Ling Xiao; Yao Zhang; Benyu Liu
      Pages: 1783 - 1806
      Abstract: All of us are concerning about how to mitigate students’ casualties when an earthquake attacked primary and secondary school buildings. Pupil’s earthquake evacuation simulation for school building was manipulated in this paper: first, we investigated and analyzed earthquake damage of school building, students’ casualties. Second, we established the dynamic model for pedestrian earthquake evacuation; meanwhile, evacuation simulation of 576 school-aged children from grades 1 to 6 who were sitting in classrooms was carried out in the 2014 Ludian earthquake. A range of scenarios (with and without earthquake) was presented where children characteristics (such as size, individual travel speeds for year of different ages), and physical environment characteristics (such as number and size of exits, obstacles including chairs and desks in classroom, walkway and staircase layouts) were investigated. We also considered the building shaking by finite element method during children escaping. The results demonstrated that: total evacuation time for the earthquake scene was longer than that of no earthquake scene, because the floor shaking deferred the evacuation; students cost much more time to escaping from the building which damaged seriously under earthquake; more than 300 students could not evacuate to safe area leading to injuries, which is consistent with the practical situation in the 2014 Ludian earthquake.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2849-8
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Landfire hazard assessment in the Caspian Hyrcanian forest ecoregion with
           the long-term MODIS active fire data
    • Authors: Hamed Adab
      Pages: 1807 - 1825
      Abstract: Relatively little is known about the causes of landfire assembly in Golestan Province that are subject to environmental and anthropogenic factors. The present study investigated how the landfire hazard is influenced by the environmental and anthropogenic parameters in the fire-prone Hyrcanian forest. The MODIS hotspot data of the past 15 years were collected and analyzed in Golestan Province. The frequencies and distributions of landfires were investigated with 13 environmental and anthropogenic factors selected to construct landfire hazard maps by BLR and ANN methods. The comparison between MODIS active fire detections collected between 2000 and 2015 of the Golestan Province and landfire hazard areas, as predicted by the BLR and ANN, showed satisfactory results for ANN. The results of this study confirmed that anthropogenic variables were important predictors of landfire hazard and showed nonlinear relationships. Vegetation moisture, climate, and topography were also significant variables in the study area.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2850-2
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Residents’ satisfaction to post-Wenchuan earthquake recovery and
    • Authors: Yueqiao Yang; Ping Gao; Haijun Li
      Pages: 1847 - 1858
      Abstract: “People first” is one of the guiding principle of post-earthquake recovery and reconstruction (PERR) in China. Residents’ satisfaction should be one of the objects of PERR. The article examines the satisfaction level of residents in Lushan county of Sichuan Province, an area stricken both by the Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake in 2008 and the Lushan Ms7.0 earthquake in 2013. Census data and factor analysis were used for analysis. Based on the result of data analysis, eight factors are selected to indicate residents’ satisfaction: the relation of resident, infrastructure and employment, social security, the effect of disaster mitigation, natural environment, social affair, owner-occupied housing, price of commodities. Based on result of this study, some recommendations are put forward.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2852-0
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
  • Assessment and mapping of earthquake-induced landslides in Tigzirt City,
    • Authors: Lynda Djerbal; Ibtissam Khoudi; Nassima Alimrina; Bachir Melbouci; Ramdane Bahar
      Pages: 1859 - 1879
      Abstract: The natural hazard assessment is hampered by many difficulties due to the complexity of the phenomenon and the need to manage simultaneously several natural and/or technological hazards. Such is the case of most unstable urban sites in Algeria. The paper presents a risk analysis study of landslides and their reactivation in Tigzirt coastal city, located in the north of Algeria, which is classified in a moderate seismic zone. The spatial techniques based on geographic information systems are used to assess landslide susceptibility and hazard. Two qualitative studies of landslide hazard assessment are conducted using parameters defining the Algerian landslides context. The hazard is evaluated by performing a combination of the landslide susceptibility and the urban density. Earthquake-induced landslide hazard is assessed taking into account the Algerian seismicity. The study led to determination and mapping of the hazard induced by Tigzirt landslides.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2831-5
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 3 (2017)
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Heriot-Watt University
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