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BIOLOGY (1404 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Insect Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Integrated OMICS     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Landscape Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Leukocyte Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Lipid Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Lipids     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Progressive Research in Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Toxins     Open Access  
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management     Open Access  
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover   Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 45]   [168 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2276 journals]
  • Binary logistic regression versus stochastic gradient boosted decision
           trees in assessing landslide susceptibility for multiple-occurring
           landslide events: application to the 2009 storm event in Messina (Sicily,
           southern Italy)
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aims to compare binary logistic regression (BLR) and stochastic gradient treeboost (SGT) methods in assessing landslide susceptibility within the Mediterranean region for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events. A test area was selected in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy) where thousands of debris flows and debris avalanches triggered on the first October 2009 due to an extreme storm. Exploiting the same set of predictors and the 2009 event landslide archive, BLR- and SGT-based susceptibility models have been obtained for the two catchments separately, adopting a random partition (RP) technique for validation. In addition, the models trained in one catchment have been tested in predicting the landslide distribution in the second, adopting a spatial partition (SP)-based validation. The models produced high predictive performances with a general consistency between BLR and SGT in the susceptibility maps, predictor importance and role. In particular, SGT models reached a higher prediction performance with respect to BLR models for RP-modelling, while for the SP-based models, the difference in predictive skills dropped, converging to equally excellent performances. However, analysing the precision of the probability estimates, BLR produced more robust models around the mean value for each pixel, indicating possible overfitting effects, which affect decision trees to a greater extent. The assessment of the predictor roles allowed identifying the activation mechanisms which are primarily controlled by steep south-facing open slopes located near the coastal area. These slopes are characterised by low/middle altitude downhill from mountain tops, having a medium-grade metamorphic bedrock, under grassland and cultivated (terraced) uses.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Provincial evaluation of vulnerability to geological disaster in China and
           its influencing factors: a three-stage DEA-based analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract China is a country with frequent natural disasters. In order to prevent the losses caused by disaster, this paper plans to make evaluation on vulnerability to geological disaster in 31 provinces in China based on overcoming the disadvantages of traditional data envelopment analysis evaluation methods. The research selected some relevant indexes in China from 2004 to 2010, including the frequency of geological disasters, GDP, population density, personal injury and property loss so as to analyze vulnerability to geological disaster in each province (municipality), and it found that geological vulnerability in China presented an overall pattern of East China < Central China < West China. In addition, it found from the analysis of the influencing factors of vulnerability that industrial development and scientific and technological advancement could reduce vulnerability to geological disasters significantly, while the growth in per-capita GDP and mean sea level could increase vulnerability to geological disasters to a certain extent. Meanwhile, the research indicated that the investment in the prevention and control of geological disasters in China did not have significant effects on the whole vulnerability to geological disasters.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • A critical assessment on seismic liquefaction potential of fine-grained
    • Abstract: Abstract Devastating ground failures at seismically active sites underlain by saturated fine-grained soils have led to a need for revealing liquefaction potential of fines and effects of the characteristics governing this potential. A cyclic pore pressure model is introduced to examine the effects of plasticity index, ratio of water content to liquid limit and cyclic stress ratio on liquefaction susceptibility of such soils. The model is developed using data of 68 cyclic triaxial tests compiled through a comprehensive literature review. By means of pore pressure behavior estimated by the model and strain tendencies observed during the tests, a critical assessment on liquefaction susceptibility criteria for fine-grained soils is provided. Beyond evaluation of the susceptible and non-susceptible fines, this assessment partially provides distinction between liquefaction-related phenomena one of which is induced by complete loss of strength, whereas the other is induced by high strain levels without complete loss of strength.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • RETRACTED ARTICLE: The dynamics among poverty, vulnerability, and
           resilience: evidence from coastal Bangladesh
    • PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Direct and indirect energy consumption of rural households in China
    • Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, energy consumption of rural household in China has been changing. Thus, it is necessary to explore the direct and indirect energy consumption of rural households, which may present an overview of rural households’ energy consumption. In this paper, the consumer lifestyle approach method is utilized to estimate the indirect energy consumption of rural household during 1998–2011. Over the study period, the direct energy consumption gradually increased, while the indirect energy consumption decreased. In 2008, the direct energy consumption exceeded the indirect one. In 2011, per capita indirect energy consumption of rural resident decreased 36 % compared to 1998. The reduction in per capita indirect energy consumption for high-income resident was the fastest. Per capita indirect energy consumption of eastern rural resident was higher than that of other regions. Per capita indirect energy consumption of Shanghai rural resident was the biggest in 1998. However, per capita indirect energy consumption of Beijing rural resident became the biggest in 2011. The center of gravity for per capita indirect energy consumption is an overall movement toward the northwest.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Avalanche in Tuban: a hazard with no defense
    • Abstract: Abstract Gravity erosion is a widespread geologic hazard in the rural area of the Loess Plateau, China. Recently, an avalanche struck Tuban Town in northwest China. The small-size collapse, which led to seven fatalities, demonstrated the fragile defense capability in the area. Adverse destabilization from human activities, i.e., no protection practice after slope cutting, is the major cause of the incident; unrecorded slight geological activity could make an avalanche imminent. We look forward to alleviating such disasters in the near future with effective, low-cost measures.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Erratum to: Drought risk during the early growing season in Sahelian Sudan
    • PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Reflections on the current debate on how to link flood insurance and
           disaster risk reduction in the European Union
    • Abstract: Abstract Flood insurance differs widely in scope and form across Europe. Against the backdrop of rising flood losses, a debate about the role of EU policy in shaping the future of this compensation mechanism is led by policy-makers and industry. While the question of supply and demand is at the core of the debate, we argue that another key dimension is often overlooked: how to use insurance as a lever for risk reduction and prevention efforts. We investigate whether and how current EU policies influence flood insurance and how this interplays with the national policy level. First, we consider affordability, availability, and risk reduction linkages in an EU context, and then gather insights from two contrasting cases of flood insurance: the UK, where flood insurance provision is widely available, but subject to ongoing reform; and the Netherlands, where several efforts to introduce broader flood insurance coverage have failed. This is followed by an analysis of how EU policy could help address the challenges at member state level, based on a stakeholder workshop discussion. We conclude that there is wide agreement that a complete harmonization of flood insurance offering across the EU is unlikely to be effective. However, there is clear scope for EU policymakers to play a greater role in linking risk transfer and prevention, beyond existing channels, to ensure an integrated approach to flood risk management across the EU.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Potential of SAR intensity tracking technique to estimate displacement
           rate in a landslide-prone area in Haridwar region, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Landslides constitute one of the major natural hazards that could cause significant loss of life and various human settlements. Mansa Devi hill near Haridwar city has encountered with such potential hazard for several years due to the instability of the slopes. Therefore, preparedness both on regional and site-specific basis at spatial level in the form of surface movements is extremely important to diminish the damage of human life and settlements. Though the surface movement measurement through field-based technique is always very accurate, this technique is time-consuming and unfeasible over a widely affected region. Therefore, areal and satellite remote sensing is gaining importance in landslide investigation due to its wide coverage. In recent years, synthetic aperture radar has already proven its potential for mapping ground deformation due to earthquake, landslide, volcano, etc. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to identify the potential landslide-affected region in Mansa Devi area using one multi-temporal SAR technique and intensity tracking technique. Intensity tracking technique has identified significant mass movement in the landslide-affected region where the other conventional multi-temporal technique, SBAS, fails. An error analysis has been carried out in order to demonstrate the applicability of intensity tracking technique. This study demonstrated that intensity tracking can be considered as an alternative to conventional interferometry for the estimation of land surface displacement when latter is limited by loss of coherence due to rapid and incoherent surface movement and/or large acquisition time intervals between the two SAR images.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • New prospects for the spatialisation of technological risks by combining
           hazard and the vulnerability of assets
    • Abstract: Abstract Risk is currently considered as a function of hazard and the exposure of assets, depending on their vulnerability, on an area within which a disaster could occur. However, in France, technological risk management is shared between a technician management focused on hazard, where assets are identified only from direct exposure, and vulnerability assessment of the assets, which are rarely incorporated in their entirety. Early studies, which tried to take into account these two parts of management, are limited, as a result of incomplete identification of assets and their vulnerabilities. An absence or an inadequate combination between hazard and the vulnerability of assets is also frequently observed. Indeed, they are mainly based on the combination of territorial vulnerability through quantification of the hazard, which is not unproblematic: the characterisation of the hazard, translated into quality criteria in terms of technological hazards, is not a linear relation. To solve these problems, a geographical information system-based methodology is therefore suggested in this study, where hazard perimeters are combined with the vulnerabilities of the exposed assets in a qualitative way. It is based on a process that uses geospatial operations and a specific semiology to provide an efficient mapping of the global risk. This methodology could be applied to any kind of territory, hazard and assets, to produce operational and useful knowledge of technological risk cartography. It can also be considered as a first step to a more global Natech risk assessment, since floods may cause severe damages to the local industrial facilities and trigger major accidents involving human, material and environmental assets.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Flood risk perception in Central-Eastern European members states of the
           EU: a review
    • Abstract: Abstract Central-Eastern European (CEE) post-communist member states of the European Union have experienced several catastrophic floods during the last two decades, resulting in further discussions on implementation of the European Flood Directive (EC in Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks. European Community 2007). A particular issue being discussed is the level of public involvement in flood risk reduction because these countries are burdened by former highly centralized policy resulting in certain specifics in flood risk perception by the public, stakeholders and authorities. Through this paper, we try to fill the gap in current understanding of limits in flood risk reduction in CEE countries by analysing the current research on flood risk perception. We reviewed 19 studies published between 1990 and 2014 that were analysed regarding determinants of flood risk perception and the role of individual and public involvement in flood risk reduction. Although the research agenda itself seems to reflect the current trends in Western Europe, the results display significant differences. Based on our analysis, we argue that the path dependencies in flood risk perception in CEE countries results in a “thin” concept of flood risk reduction. This concept can be characterized by (a) considering risk reduction as a temporary event rather than a process, (b) a reductionist view on risk reduction measures with prevailing financial tools and (c) strong reliance upon the regional and national authorities in terms of both the risk communication and prevention measures. This gives an impetus for further research on tailor-made strategies to overcome these limits and facilitate the implementation of the European Flood Directive.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Vulnerability in north-central Vietnam: do natural hazards matter for
    • Abstract: Abstract This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does soon the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north-central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experienced long-term negative effects. The research showed that a high impact of natural disasters is correlated with decreases in income over time. As the disaster relief offered by the authorities is marginal compared to economic losses, some households react by increasing off-farm incomes (including remittances from overseas-migrated household members). We observed that the poor households do not switch to off-farm income strategies in response to income losses; this is perhaps because they have inadequate skills. However, on average households in our survey are becoming richer over time, despite the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability–resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Monitoring the recent trend of aeolian desertification using Landsat TM
           and Landsat 8 imagery on the north-east Qinghai–Tibet Plateau in the
           Qinghai Lake basin
    • Abstract: Abstract As an important part of Qinghai Plateau, the Qinghai Lake is a sensitive and fragile zone for global change impacts. It is one of the most strongly desertified regions on the Qinghai Plateau. Based on remote sensing, a geographic information system and using Thematic Mapper imagery for the years 1987, 2000, 2009 and Landsat 8 images for the year 2014 as data sources, we extracted information regarding the dynamic changes of aeolian desertification in the study area over the last 28 years. The spatio-temporal evolutions of the landscape patterns of regional aeolian desertified land (ADL) are discussed. Our objective is to provide references for desertification control and eco-environmental restoration in the Qinghai Lake basin (QLB). Results elicit an aeolian desertified area which has increased by 96.74 km2 over the past 28 years. ADL mainly experienced processes of increasing stable to decreasing trends, before 2000, the area of aeolian desertification increased by 338.03 km2. After 2000, desertification remains stable, but as we speak desertification decreases and a moderate and slight ADL took the lead. The dynamics of aeolian desertification in QLB is mainly determined by climate change, human activities and management.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Methodology of flood risk assessment from flash floods based on hazard and
           vulnerability of the river basin
    • Abstract: Abstract Flood protection is a society-wide task. The basic rules of prevention in flood protection are stipulated by the regulation of a secondary right of the European Union—Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2007/60/EC on assessment and management of flood risks. The paper is focused on preliminary flood risk assessment of flash floods. The task was to obtain knowledge on the spatial variability of flood risk from flash floods and in doing so supplement a preliminary flood risk assessment already conducted in 2011 for the purpose of proposing suitable flood mitigation measures for reducing the risk found. Flood risk in this study is understood as a combination of flood hazard and vulnerability. The main part of the work is devoted to the proposal of a methodological approach for preliminary flood risk assessment of flash floods. Application of the proposed approach in Bodva river basin, southern Slovakia, is described in the results section.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Risk analysis and emergency actions for Hongshiyan barrier lake
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the emergency response to the barrier lake created by the Mw 6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014, in Niulan River which is situated in Yunnan Province, southwest China. The lake, behind 83- to 103-m-high landslide dam, has a storage capacity of 260 million m3. The Hongshiyan hydropower station, situated just upstream of the landslide dam, was submerged by the lake water. The rescue actions include building an 8-m-deep drainage channel in the flood season, draining the lake water via a water release tunnel and rebuilding the landslide dam as a permanent structure. This paper presents the considerations and processes in deciding on the emergency actions. One major consideration is to minimize the hazards caused by a possible dam break flood induced by Hongshiyan barrier lake in the flood season. It was found that the barrier lake is classified as “grade I: extremely high risk” in which the 5- and 20-year floods should be used for design and check purposes of emergency works, respectively. The dam break flood evaluations indicated that an 8-m-deep diversion channel should be constructed in order to reduce the total amount of the released reservoir storage and to prevent possible overtopping of the downstream Huangjiaoshu rockfill dam. This study was based on an improved analytical approach to dam break flood modeling and a handy spread sheet developed by the authors. The considerations on various risks and the key analytical technology for dam break flood predictions described in this paper may be useful for other similar cases.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Flood risk perception along the Lower Danube river, Romania
    • Abstract: Abstract Risk can be seen as both objective, quantifiable, and subjective, constructed at an individual level. This paper focuses on the latter and aims to explore flood perceptions in relation to socio-demographic variables and various economic measures. The data were drawn from four villages on the banks of the Danube using quantitative questionnaires, villages data sheet and in-depth semi-structured interviews. This mixed method approach allowed for ecologically sound findings. Inequality of income and capital are linked with variations of some risk perception dimensions such as disaster temporal proximity, perceived resilience, and also with a reluctance to think about the future and the dangers it might pose. Past floods are associated with most dimensions tested, including income, inequality, and whether the next flood appears to be imminent. Lower-income households expect some form of assistance not from the community, the church, or local authorities, but from the government. This highlights erosion of social values, or inter-household monetisation, as the other major issue, alongside inequality, faced by rural populations living on the banks of one of Europe’s greatest rivers.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Urban planning and tsunami impact mitigation in Chile after February 27,
    • Abstract: Abstract Urban and regional planning can and should be a crucial tool to mitigate the potentially devastating effects of a tsunami. This article analyzes the role of urban planning in mitigating the impact of tsunami in Chile, specifically in reaction to the Cobquecura tsunami of February 27, 2010. First, it examines the draft regulations and policies to reduce the impact of tsunami proposed at the national level in response to the 2010 socio-natural disaster. Then, it analyzes in detail tsunami mitigation measures developed at the local level in recent reconstruction plans for coastal towns and villages in the Región del Maule and Región del Bío Bío, based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires realized with local and regional actors during 2011 and 2012. This article shows that there is a lack of guidance at the national level to mitigate the impact of tsunami and that mitigation policies are being developed mainly at the local level through non-binding coastal reconstruction plans, which focus strongly on “anti-tsunami” engineering solutions. Other available planning tools such as risk zone planning or relocation of housing and critical infrastructure have only been proposed in a few coastal reconstruction plans without adequate instruments for their implementation and lacking an active participation of citizens. Hence, a clear regulatory framework and set of urban policies is urgently required in Chile at the national and local level to reduce its vulnerability to tsunami.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Appropriate model use for predicting elevations and inundation extent for
           extreme flood events
    • Abstract: Abstract Flood risk assessment is generally studied using flood simulation models; however, flood risk managers often simplify the computational process; this is called a “simplification strategy”. This study investigates the appropriateness of the “simplification strategy” when used as a flood risk assessment tool for areas prone to flash flooding. The 2004 Boscastle, UK, flash flood was selected as a case study. Three different model structures were considered in this study, including: (1) a shock-capturing model, (2) a regular ADI-type flood model and (3) a diffusion wave model, i.e. a zero-inertia approach. The key findings from this paper strongly suggest that applying the “simplification strategy” is only appropriate for flood simulations with a mild slope and over relatively smooth terrains, whereas in areas susceptible to flash flooding (i.e. steep catchments), following this strategy can lead to significantly erroneous predictions of the main parameters—particularly the peak water levels and the inundation extent. For flood risk assessment of urban areas, where the emergence of flash flooding is possible, it is shown to be necessary to incorporate shock-capturing algorithms in the solution procedure, since these algorithms prevent the formation of spurious oscillations and provide a more realistic simulation of the flood levels.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Lightning fatality risk map of the contiguous United States
    • Abstract: Abstract A new method to calculate lightning fatality risk is presented in order to develop a way to identify the lightning risk in areas where lightning fatality data are not available. This new method uses GIS software to multiply lightning flash density and population density on a grid and display the results on a map. A comparison to the known lightning fatality data was done to verify the method. The method works well with a quadratic regression correlation coefficient as high as 0.864, although a hybrid quadratic/log-linear regression is preferred for various reasons despite having a slightly lower correlation coefficient (0.827). Given the good performance, the lightning fatality risk method may be useful for developing countries, where lightning fatality reports may not be reliable, to help guide where to allocate scarce resources for lightning safety initiatives.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Evaluation of land subsidence from underground coal mining using TimeSAR
           (SBAS and PSI) in Springfield, Illinois, USA
    • Abstract: Abstract We used advanced radar interferometry time-series analysis methods, persistent scatterer interferometry and small baseline subset, to delineate areas of ground deformation related to underground coal mining in Springfield, Illinois, USA, and to measure the temporal pattern of deformation. Two satellite radar systems were used: the European Remote Sensing satellites (ERS-1/2) covered a period from June 14, 1992 to August 30, 2000 and the Phased Array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) covered from June 18, 2007 to February 11, 2011. Results from ERS-1/2 processing showed several areas in Springfield subsiding. ALOS PALSAR, however, appears to overestimate deformation, probably because of large baselines and the limited number of images. Many of these areas are likely the result of collapse of underground mine workings and are consistent with reported incidents of past mine subsidence. The maximum deformation rate attributed to mine subsidence for the period from 1992 to 2000 was up to about −4.1 mm/year, while for the period from 2007 to 2011 the rate was up to about −35.9 mm/year. In addition, we discovered a railroad right-of-way south of Springfield that had subsided at a rate of about 3 mm/year during the 1992–2000 period. The measurements of both ERS-1/2 and ALOS PALSAR are consistent with on-the-ground survey data taken from November 29, 1989 to April 23, 2008. Our study has revealed several locations of subsidence likely caused by the collapse of abandoned underground mine workings. Also, the unexpected discovery of ground surface displacement of the railroad right-of-way reveals one of the advantages of satellite-based monitoring, namely discovering unknown deformation areas.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
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