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Journal Cover Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.851]   [H-I: 60]   [189 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Assessment of geo-environmental properties depressing urban development
           with GIS: a case study of Kozlu settlement, Turkey
    • Abstract: Kozlu is a mining town only 5 km away from the main city of Zonguldak and initially was not favored for settlement due to its rugged and hilly topography. However, along with hard coal production in large quantities throughout the years came the industrialization at its full speed with plenty job opportunities which then gave rise to intense population in the region where there were only a few sheds and slums just a century ago. Workers migrating to Kozlu in thousands needed dwellings to live in, but the law, so-called the Coal Basin Restrictions Law which came in effect in 1910, hindered the implementation of zoning plans. Planned housing was not possible in the region not until the abolishment of the law in 1986. During these 76 years, the settlement in the area mostly by the mining and industry workers was carried out without proper zoning plans, usually on demand basis. Today because of this unplanned housing and harsh topography, the Kozlu settlement area (KSA) has a history of being attraction point for many natural and man-made disasters which can be summarized as are topography, geological and carstic structure, mining activities and mass movements. In this study, a settlement suitability map is produced for the study area using a geographic information system. The map produced is designated into four settlement suitability zones, namely suitable to settlement, slightly suitable to settlement, suitable to settlement with precautions and unsuitable to settlement. It clearly shows that 24.73% of the study area lies in suitable and slightly suitable to settlement areas while the bulky rest pertains to suitable to settlement with precautions and unsuitable to settlement. The latest studies show that the 37.5% of the buildings and houses in the KSA are situated on the lithologic units identified as hydrogeological permeable and semipermeable, 7.8% on carstic caverns and a hefty rate of 47.6% on the surfaces deformed by mining-induced subsidence. Therefore, it is needless to claim that the administrators of Kozlu should promptly develop a settlement plan for the welfare of the city.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Analysis of ground deposition of radionuclides under different wind fields
           from the Fukushima Daiichi accident
    • Abstract: The relationship between ground deposition of radionuclides and wind fields from the Fukushima Daiichi accident was investigated using the weather research and forecasting/chemistry model with the improvements by adding the radioactive decay process, dry and wet deposition parameterizations. To examine this correlation, wind fields near Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) were defined as four different types mainly based on the wind direction, and the contaminated land areas were classified to five levels. The results showed that the distribution of the ground deposition of the radionuclides is mainly determined by the wind field rather than the precipitation distribution; Northeast wind has the largest contaminated land areas, and it is considered to much more easily accelerate the transport of radionuclides than any other wind direction near the FDNPP. It was also indicated by the results that in terms of high contaminated land area (>100 Bq/m2), total ground deposition is dominated by dry deposition for 131I, and by wet deposition for 137Cs.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Use of LSPIV in assessing urban flash flood vulnerability
    • Abstract: The probability of the occurrence of urban flash floods has increased appreciably in recent years. Scientists have published various articles related to the estimation of the vulnerability of people and vehicles in urban areas resulting from flash floods. However, most published works are based on research performed using numerical models and laboratory experiments. This paper presents a novel approach that combines the implementation of image velocimetry technique (large-scale particle image velocimetry—LSPIV) using a flash flood video recorded by the public locally and the estimation of the vulnerability of people and vehicles to high water velocities in urban areas. A numerical one‐dimensional hydrodynamic model has also been used in this approach for water velocity characterization. The results presented in this paper correspond to a flash flood resulting on November 29, 2012, in the city of Asunción in Paraguay. During this flash flood, people and vehicles were observed being carried away because of high water velocities. Various sequences of the recorded flash flood video were characterized using LSPIV. The results obtained in this work validate the existing vulnerability criterion based on the effect of the flash flood and resulting high water velocities on people and vehicles.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Gutenberg–Richter b -value determination and large-magnitudes
    • Abstract: Aki’s maximum likelihood method of Gutenberg–Richter b-value estimation is based on the premise that magnitudes above a given threshold are distributed exponentially and presupposes that sampling is adequate for all these magnitudes; clearly, sampling will not be adequate for magnitudes having average recurrence times longer than the observation time. Thus, for any given sample, there is a higher-magnitude completeness threshold. The importance of considering this higher-magnitude threshold is discussed, the effect of incomplete large-magnitude sampling is evaluated, and a method is given for correcting the observations.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Understanding different perspectives on the preservation of community and
           heritage buildings in the Wellington Region, New Zealand
    • Abstract: The Canterbury (New Zealand) earthquake sequence of 2010–2012 caused unexpectedly extreme levels of damage and disruption, being an unparalleled event in New Zealand in terms of the damage extent. Christchurch’s heritage buildings were seriously damaged during these events, with churches especially affected in 22 February 2011 M w 6.2 earthquake. During this earthquake, a total of 84% of the heritage unreinforced stone and 81% of the clay brick masonry churches in the Canterbury region were either considered unsafe (receiving red placards) or with restricted access (yellow placards). Following the earthquakes, authorities across New Zealand are reassessing the capacity of older buildings to resist earthquakes. Current legislation requires that a building judged as earthquake prone either be strengthened by retrofitting or be demolished within a legislated number of years. Many building owners are facing the problems of owning earthquake-prone buildings and lacking the funding to upgrade. This affects both community and heritage buildings, resulting in the likely abandonment or demolition of some buildings. To address the problem of the balance between life safety and preservation in the Wellington Region, this project gathered and compared the perspectives of the general public, church communities, heritage specialists, professional engineers, and local authorities to assist in balancing the interests of these stakeholders. As a result of the findings, several recommendations have been provided that include standardizing structural assessment processes and training, feasibility of additional public funding to upgrade buildings, new signage to increase public awareness of earthquake-prone buildings, and regular communication among stakeholders to understand and resolve differences.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Natural hazards and risk in rice cultivation along the upper Amazon River
    • Abstract: Farmers along the Amazon River each year face multiple natural hazards that threaten crop production and limit the potential for agricultural development of the expansive floodplain and active channel. In this paper we report the findings of a study of natural hazard-related risk associated with rice production on silt bars in the active channel of the Amazon River near Iquitos, Peru. Data were gathered in four rice producing communities in 2014 using household surveys (n = 83 households), focus group discussions, surveying of land elevations along the Amazon River, and interpretation of remote sensing imagery. The probability, extent, and severity of rice crop shortfalls were estimated for recent production years and the economic losses to farming households were also assessed. Our findings point to a very high risk of crop shortfalls due to natural hazards, suggesting that a good year brings rice farmers bounty and a bad year, near penury. River stage reversals (repiquetes) and edaphic conditions were found to be more problematic than the often cited hazard of high and/or early floods. Also surprisingly, farmers’ perceptions of hazards and risk diverged markedly from actual shortfalls experienced during the production years studied. Our results provide the first quantitative estimates of risk due to the multiple natural hazards along the Amazon River and point to the need to assist lowland farmers with risk mitigation so as to unlock the considerable potential of Amazon floodlands for agricultural production.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Numerical investigation of the influence of extreme hydrodynamic forces on
           the geometry of structures using OpenFOAM
    • Abstract: The main focus of the present study is to numerically examine the effects of tsunami-like-induced hydrodynamic loading applied to free-standing structures with various architectural geometries. To accomplish these goals, the authors employed a multi-phase numerical model utilizing the volume of fluid method in the three-dimensional space. The second objective of the present study is to improve the understanding of hydrodynamic loads on structural components in order to develop practical guidelines for the engineering design of structures located in areas with a high risk of tsunami hazards. In order to evaluate the performance of the numerical model, the results of the simulation are compared with various available experimental data and physical modeling studies. The tsunami-like wave was reproduced via a sudden release of water located in an impounding reservoir located at the upstream part of a flume in the form of a dambreak wave. The shear force exerted by the hydrodynamic force on the square and round structures in the downstream area is estimated to obtain the value of tsunami loading. Finally, the validated numerical model is employed to examine the influence of the structure’s geometry on the hydrodynamic loads exerted on it.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Application of a semiquantitative and GIS-based statistical model to
           landslide susceptibility zonation in Kayangan Catchment, Java, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Kayangan Catchment, one of the extremely landslide susceptible areas in Indonesia, is situated on the eastern flank of Menoreh Mountain in Yogyakarta Province on the island of Java. Landslides cause land and infrastructure damages because of their frequency in human settlements. The objectives of this study are twofold: (1) to analyze the spatial distribution of landslides and its correlation using terrain parameters; and (2) to analyze landslide susceptibility using both semiquantitative and statistical methods, i.e., analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and information value (IV) methods. Nine parameter maps were introduced to assess landslide susceptibility. The parameter maps and landslide distribution map were spatially overlaid to calculate the contribution of each parameter to landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map encompassed four different categories: very high, high, medium, and low susceptibility. The map was validated through a success rate curve by determining the area under the curve using existing landslide events. The success rate curves indicated that the IV was more accurate than the AHP, although both of them had high correlations. Both methods show that the precondition factors represented approximately 80% of the influence on landslide occurrence, with the remaining 20% attributed to the triggering factors, primarily rainfall and seismic factors.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Household migration in disaster impact analysis: incorporating behavioural
           responses to risk
    • Abstract: Detailed estimates of economy-wide disaster losses provide important inputs for disaster risk management. The most common models used to estimate losses are input–output (IO) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. A key strength of these models is their ability to capture the ripple effects, whereby the impacts of a disaster are transmitted to regions and sectors that are not directly affected by the event. One important transmission channel is household migration. Changes in the spatial distribution of people are likely to have substantial impacts on local labour and housing markets. In this paper, we argue that IO and CGE models suffer from limitations in representing household migration under disaster risk. We suggest combining IO and CGE models with agent-based models to improve the representation of migration in disaster impact analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Analysis and prediction of a catastrophic Indian coastal heat wave of 2015
    • Abstract: Heat wave of 2015 over India, a natural disaster with 2500 human deaths, was studied to understand the characteristics, associated atmospheric circulation patterns and to evaluate its predictability. Although temperatures are highest in May over India, occurrence of heat wave conditions over southeast coastal parts of India in May 2015 had been unanticipated. Analyses revealed that isolated region of Andhra Pradesh (AP) had experienced severe heat wave conditions during May 23–27, 2015, with temperatures above 42 °C and the sudden escalation by 7–10 °C within a short span of 2–3 days. Short-range weather predictions with Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model at 3-km resolution, up to 72-h lead time, have been found accurate with statistical metrics of small mean absolute error and root-mean-square error and high index of agreement confirming the predictability of the heat wave evolution. Analyses have indicated that regional atmospheric pressure disparities within the Eurasia region, i.e., increased pressure gradient between the Middle East and India, had been responsible for increased northwest wind flow over to northwest India and to southeast India which have advected higher temperatures. Estimates of warm air advection have shown heat accumulation over AP region, due to sea breeze effect. The study led to the conclusion that changing pressure gradients between Middle East and India, enhancement of northwest wind flow with warm air advection and sea breeze effect along southeast coast blocking the free flow have contributed to the observed heat wave episode over coastal Andhra Pradesh.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Nonlinear soil response to ground motions during different earthquakes in
           Nepal, to arrive at surface response spectra
    • Abstract: Catastrophic damages reported during an earthquake include building damages, excessive ground shaking, uneven settlements and liquefaction. While most of the seismic hazard studies map the probable level of ground shaking at the bedrock level, their use in assessing the above damages is very limited until the response of the local soil is also taken into account. Determination of the local soil response needs regionally recorded ground motions, dynamic soil properties, in situ geotechnical details, etc., which most of the time are not readily available for the region under study. In the present work, the response of local soil for Nepal has been studied indirectly taking into account the surface level of ground shaking during various past as well as recent EQs observed at various locations. Based on the present analysis, a low value of amplification factor for high peak horizontal acceleration and vice versa is observed in central, western as well as southern parts of Nepal. These observations suggest nonlinear soil behavior and are in accordance with the available literature. Further, the ground motion records during 2015 Nepal EQ show maximum soil response at 0.3 s which is exactly matching with the site class C obtained from in situ data for the above locations. Based on the above observations, various correlations between the high peak horizontal acceleration and the surface spectral acceleration are proposed to obtained site specific surface response spectrum for Nepal.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Wildfire occurrence patterns in ecoregions of New South Wales and
           Australian Capital Territory, Australia
    • Abstract: Wildfire occurrence is regulated by many factors such as climate, vegetation, topography and ignition source. The effects of these factors vary across space. In this study, generalised additive models were used to assist in understanding the drivers that regulate the spatial distribution of wildfire occurrence over five ecoregions in the south-eastern Australia. Fire occurrence data are sourced from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer active fire product over the period 2003–2013 and across New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. The experimental results suggest that vegetation is one of the key factors in most ecoregions; among the two vegetation factors, vegetation formations affect the fire occurrence pattern in the most fire-prone area; climate gradients drive fire occurrence in ecoregions with relatively broad areas; spatial effect drives the fire occurrence pattern in all the ecoregions; anthropogenic factors regulate fire occurrence patterns in the most populated area and two sparsely populated areas. In the most fire-prone area, fires are less likely to ignite from rainforests and wet sclerophyll forests than in dry sclerophyll forests. Normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and fire occurrence follows a non-linear relationship with each other in most ecoregions, with small to medium levels of NDVI show positive effect. In the temperate areas, fires tend to ignite from low precipitation, high temperature areas. Fires are also likely to occur near human facilities and at non-protected areas in some ecoregions, but away from roads in one ecoregion. The findings from this study provide a better understanding of long-term fire patterns and their drivers that can potentially help fire managers and rural communities make strategic-level decisions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • US tornado fatalities in motor vehicles (1991–2015)
    • Abstract: Motor vehicles historically have been dangerous locations to shelter in during tornado events. Throughout the twentieth century, motor vehicle design has become safer while tornado forecasting has become better understood. Despite such advances, tornado fatalities in motor vehicles still occur today, and some events periodically result in high numbers of deaths (e.g., ten motor vehicle occupants were killed by a single tornado in Garland, Texas, in 2015). We seek to examine all US tornado-induced motor vehicle fatalities documented between 1991 and 2015. Our findings indicate that motor vehicle fatalities have not significantly changed during this study period. We attribute annual fatality totals to persons lacking awareness of impending dangers coupled with numbers of significant tornado events for a given year. We find most fatalities result when vehicles are lofted or passengers are ejected, and this most typically occurs at the EF3–EF5 intensity thresholds. Fatalities that occur at weaker tornado winds (EF0–EF2) are most often attributed to collapsing debris (mostly trees) on vehicles. Spatially, motor vehicle fatalities are greatest in the Deep South and southern Great Plains regions where overall tornado and nighttime tornado frequencies are greatest. Some of the largest motor vehicle fatality events have resulted from tornadoes not being distinctly visible to motorists; such events have been characterized by tornadoes occurring at night or by tornadoes not appearing as “classic funnels.”
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Automatic detection of avalanches: evaluation of three different
    • Abstract: Automated detection of snow avalanches is an important tool for avalanche forecasting and for assessing the effectiveness of avalanche control measures at bad visibility. Avalanche detection systems are usually based on infrasound, seismic, or radar signals. Within this study, we compared three different types of avalanche detection systems: one avalanche radar, one infrasound array system consisting of four infrasound sensors, and a newly developed single sensor infrasound system. A special focus is given to the new single sensor system, which is a low cost, easy to install system, originally designed for the detection of debris flows and debris floods. Within this work, we analysed how this single sensor system could be adapted to detect also snow avalanches. All three systems were installed close to a road near Ischgl (Tyrol, Austria) at the avalanche-exposed Paznaun Valley. The valley is endangered by two avalanche paths which are controlled by several avalanche towers. The radar system detected avalanches accurately and reliably but was limited to the particular avalanche path towards which the radar beam was directed. The infrasound array could detect avalanches from all surrounding avalanche paths, however, with a higher effort for installation. The newly tested single infrasound sensor system was significantly cheaper and easier to install than the other two systems. It could also detect avalanches form all directions, although without information about the direction. In summary, each of the three different systems was able to successfully detect avalanches and had its particular strengths and weaknesses, which should be considered according to the specific requirements of a particular practical application.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Deterministic strong ground motion study for the Sitamarhi area near
           Bihar–Nepal region
    • Abstract: Deterministic seismic hazard assessment based study using various attenuation relationships has been taken up to find out the peak ground acceleration (PGA) for Sitamarhi region situated near the Bihar Nepal border. Seismicity data were collected from Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi and Seismotectonic Atlas of India (GSI 2000) and 38 seismotectonic sources were identified in the region. The results show that the Main Central Thrust and West Patna subsurface fault are the two main faults, which contribute to maximum PGA values for Sitamarhi region. The calculated PGA values are in confirmation with the observed values from other sources.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Modeling groundwater fluctuations by three different evolutionary neural
           network techniques using hydroclimatic data
    • Abstract: The accuracies of three different evolutionary artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, ANN with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA), ANN with particle swarm optimization (ANN-PSO) and ANN with imperialist competitive algorithm (ANN-ICA), were compared in estimating groundwater levels (GWL) based on precipitation, evaporation and previous GWL data. The input combinations determined using auto-, partial auto- and cross-correlation analyses and tried for each model are: (i) GWL t−1 and GWL t−2; (ii) GWL t−1, GWL t−2 and P t ; (iii) GWL t−1, GWL t−2 and E t ; (iv) GWL t−1, GWL t−2, P t and E t ; (v) GWL t−1, GWL t−2 and P t−1 where GWL t , P t and E t indicate the GWL, precipitation and evaporation at time t, individually. The optimal ANN-GA, ANN-PSO and ANN-ICA models were obtained by trying various control parameters. The best accuracies of the ANN-GA, ANN-PSO and ANN-ICA models were obtained from input combination (i). The mean square error accuracies of the ANN-GA and ANN-ICA models were increased by 165 and 124% using ANN-PSO model. The results indicated that the ANN-PSO model performed better than the other models in modeling monthly groundwater levels.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Delphi process applied to the 921 earthquake relief for damaged bridges in
    • Abstract: This paper presents panel-developed, expert opinion-based suggestions, and a Delphi process for the development of an earthquake damage assessment and recovery model. The model was specifically designed for the disaster relief of the damaged bridges of the 921 earthquake in Taiwan and uses four major indices: emergency handling ability, administrative capability, budget execution responsibility, and law enforcement reliability. The 921 earthquake, which occurred on September 21, 1999, forced the Taiwanese government into an unprecedented relief operation consisting of emergency rescue and reconstruction. However, some of the relief measures reflected possible inefficiency in intergovernmental cooperation. Regarded as one of the most decisive relief measures in Taichung County before it was consolidated and upgraded to a municipality on 25 December, 2010, the rescue and reconstruction of the majorly damaged bridges in the county were taken as an example to analyze the differences in the earthquake relief policies between the central and local governments. Based on experts’ experiences in government affairs and the four major indices of the damage assessment and recovery model, the ongoing governmental restructuring policy is considered retrospectively not only at the central government level but also at the local government level; this would serve to improve preparedness for catastrophes and to solve possible problems in earthquake-related intergovernmental cooperation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • A probabilistic model for evaluating the reliability of rainfall
           thresholds for shallow landslides based on uncertainties in rainfall
           characteristics and soil properties
    • Abstract: This study aims to develop a probabilistic rainfall threshold estimation model for shallow landslides (PRTE_LS) in order to quantify its reliability while being affected by uncertainties in the rainfall characteristics and soil properties. The rainfall characteristics include the rainfall duration, depth and storm patterns in which their uncertainties result from temporal variation. The effective cohesion of soil, the unit weight of soil, the angle of internal friction, hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic diffusivity are the soil properties represented as the soil parameters in the TRIGRS model in which uncertainties are attributed to spatial variation. After analyzing the sensitivity of rainfall characteristics and TRIGRS parameters to the estimation of rainfall thresholds, the maximum rainfall intensity, storm pattern and soil parameters (soil cohesion, soil friction angle and total unit weight of soil) are retreated as uncertainty factors used in the model development. The proposed PRTE_LS model is used for the reliability assessment of the issued rainfall thresholds in the Jhoukou River watershed, southern Taiwan, to demonstrate its applicability. The results indicate that the corresponding exceedance probability (i.e., underestimated risk) approximates 0.1 on average. In other words, its reliability reaches 0.9. However, issued rainfall thresholds with high reliability might hardly achieve the goal of early warning because shallow landslides can possibly happen before the actual rainfall amount exceeds the threshold. Consequently, the proposed PRTE_LS model can modify issued rainfall thresholds with the specific occurrence probability under the critical safety factors and warning durations being considered. As a result, the proposed PRTE_LS can not only quantify the reliability of the issued rainfall thresholds, but its results can also be referred to in modifying the issued thresholds in order to enhance the early-warning performance.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Spatiotemporal mapping of rainfall erosivity index for different return
           periods in Iran
    • Abstract: Analysis of event-based soil erosion magnitude with special return periods is essential to appropriately design strategies and adopt soil conservation practices. However, the spatiotemporal variations of soil erosion with different return periods, especially at national level, have not been adequately considered. Therefore, the present study aimed to zone rainfall erosivity index (R factor) as the most dynamic factor affecting variability of soil erosion rate, with different return periods in monthly, seasonal and annual time scales in Iran. Toward this attempt, the kinetic energy and maximum 30-min intensity (I 30) over 12,000 available and accessible events of 70 stations were calculated during the common period of 1984–2004 and the corresponding R factor of the Universal Soil Loss Equation was then computed. Subsequently, the best-fitted frequency distributions were determined in all stations in three time scales using the EasyFit Software. The R factor was accordingly estimated for 2-, 5-, 10-, 25- and 50-year return periods. In addition, the inverse distance weighting technique was employed to determine and analyze the spatial variability patterns of R factor in different time scales using geographic information system. The results indicated that the frequency distributions fitted to study data were different in study time scales due to variability of spatiotemporal patterns of R factor. In addition, no specific spatial pattern of R factor could be recognized for different return periods and time scales. The average annual R factor was also found 1.41 MJ mm ha−1 h−1, whereas the respective R factor for different respective return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 years was obtained 1.47, 2.62, 3.35, 4.48 and 5.54 MJ mm ha−1 h−1. These findings can be used for suitable decision making and effective environmental planning for land management Iran countrywide.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
  • Characterizing land displacement in complex hydrogeological and geological
           settings: a case study in the Beijing Plain, China
    • Abstract: Characterization of land displacement induced by long-term overexploitation of groundwater is necessary to ensure sustainable water supply in Beijing, China. The northern part of the Beijing Plain is an important water source area and is also designed for groundwater recharge from South-to-North Water Diversion Project. We aim to depict the process of characterizing land displacement under complex hydrogeological and geological context in the region using remote sensing and geographic information system. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar time-series analysis was used to detect land displacement from 2003 to 2010. Statistic linear regression equations between groundwater level and land displacement were built based on linear consolidation principle. The spatial difference of Pearson correlation coefficient (R) and slope (k) were discriminated to quantify the response of land displacement to groundwater level change. The results show that there are two major displacement cones with annual rates up to −40 and −24 mm year−1. R and k had a negative and positive correlation with increasing land displacement, respectively. A larger R reflects that the groundwater level has a closer relation with the occurrence of land displacement. The weak correlation is due to the delay in the propagation of the pressure drawdown in the fine-sediment layers or lens from the pumped aquifers where the pressure is measured. Thick compressible layer has more potential for land displacement. Results of this study are necessary to clarify the land displacement characteristics, to make full use of abundant spatial–temporal dataset, and ultimately to support hazard prevention and mitigation decisions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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