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BIOLOGY (1322 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Vestibular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Life : The Excitement of Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Life Sciences, Society and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Limnological Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipids in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
mAbs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Macromolecular Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Madroño     Full-text available via subscription  
Malacologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Malacologica Bohemoslovaca     Open Access  
Malayan Nature Journal     Open Access  
Mammal Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mammal Study     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mammalian Genome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mammalian Species     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Marine Biodiversity Records     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Materials Science and Engineering: C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mathematical Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Matrix Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Médecine Nucléaire     Full-text available via subscription  
mBio     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover Natural Hazards
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [216 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.591]   [H-I: 40]
  • A framework for the probabilistic analysis of meteotsunamis
    • Abstract: Abstract A probabilistic technique is developed to assess the hazard from meteotsunamis. Meteotsunamis are unusual sea-level events, generated when the speed of an atmospheric pressure or wind disturbance is comparable to the phase speed of long waves in the ocean. A general aggregation equation is proposed for the probabilistic analysis, based on previous frameworks established for both tsunamis and storm surges, incorporating different sources and source parameters of meteotsunamis. Parameterization of atmospheric disturbances and numerical modeling is performed for the computation of maximum meteotsunami wave amplitudes near the coast. A historical record of pressure disturbances is used to establish a continuous analytic distribution of each parameter as well as the overall Poisson rate of occurrence. A demonstration study is presented for the northeast U.S. in which only isolated atmospheric pressure disturbances from squall lines and derechos are considered. For this study, Automated Surface Observing System stations are used to determine the historical parameters of squall lines from 2000 to 2013. The probabilistic equations are implemented using a Monte Carlo scheme, where a synthetic catalog of squall lines is compiled by sampling the parameter distributions. For each entry in the catalog, ocean wave amplitudes are computed using a numerical hydrodynamic model. Aggregation of the results from the Monte Carlo scheme results in a meteotsunami hazard curve that plots the annualized rate of exceedance with respect to maximum event amplitude for a particular location along the coast. Results from using multiple synthetic catalogs, resampled from the parent parameter distributions, yield mean and quantile hazard curves. Further refinements and improvements for probabilistic analysis of meteotsunamis are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Observations of meteorological tsunamis along the south-west Australian
    • Abstract: Abstract Tide gauge data were used to identify the occurrence, characteristics, and cause of tsunamis of meteorological origin (termed ‘meteotsunamis’) along the Western Australian coast. This is the first study to identify meteotsunamis in this region, and the results indicated that they occur frequently. Although meteotsunamis are not catastrophic to the extent of major seismically induced basin-scale events, the wave heights of meteotsunamis examined at some local stations in this study were higher than those recorded through seismic tsunamis. In June 2012, a meteotsunami contributed to an extreme water-level event at Fremantle, which recorded the highest water level in over 115 years. Meteotsunamis (wave heights >0.4 m, when the mean tidal range in the region is ~0.5 m) were found to coincide with thunderstorms in summer and the passage of low-pressure systems during winter. Spectral analysis of tide gauge time series records showed that existing continental seiche oscillations (periods between 30 min and 5 h) were enhanced during the meteotsunamis, with a high proportion of energy transferred to the continental shelf oscillation period. Three recent meteotsunami events (22 March 2010, 10 June 2012, and 7 January 2013) two due to summer thunderstorms and one due to a winter frontal system were chosen for detailed analysis. The meteotsunami amplitudes were up to a factor 2 larger than the local tidal range and sometimes contributed up to 85 % of the non-tidal water signal. A single meteorological event was found to generate several meteotsunamis along the coast, up to 500 km apart, as the air pressure disturbance propagated over the continental shelf; however, the topography and local bathymetry of the continental shelf defined the local sea-level resonance characteristics at each location. With the available data (sea level and meteorological), the exact mechanisms for the generation of the meteotsunamis could not be isolated.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Recent observations of meteotsunamis on the Finnish coast
    • Abstract: Abstract We present four case studies of exceptional wave events of meteorological origin, observed on the Finnish coast in the summers of 2010 and 2011. Eyewitnesses report unusually rapid and strong sea-level variations (up to 1 m in 5–15 min) and strong oscillating currents during these events. High-resolution sea-level measurements confirm the eyewitness observations, but the oscillations recorded by tide gauges mostly have a considerably smaller amplitude. The oscillations coincide with sudden jumps in surface air pressure at coastal observation stations, related to the passage of squall lines or gust fronts. These fronts propagate above the sea at a resonant speed, allowing efficient energy transfer between the atmospheric disturbance and the sea wave that it generates. Thus, we interpret the observed sea-level oscillations as small meteotsunamis, long tsunami-like waves generated by meteorological processes and resonance effects.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Assessing meteotsunami potential of high-frequency air pressure
           oscillations observed in the middle Adriatic
    • Abstract: Abstract High-resolution air pressure series collected from a triangle of middle Adriatic microbarograph stations between April 2009 and March 2011 have been analysed to extract the rapid pressure changes normally found during meteotsunamis. Five-minute air pressure tendencies were used to detect an event. Wavelet and cross-wavelet analysis showed that the energies of high-frequency pressure changes that occurred during the warm part of the year were an order of magnitude higher than those that occurred during the cold part of the year. Coherence between stations was normally found at periods longer than 1 h, while air pressure disturbances were dispersive and not coherent at shorter periods. This implies that the disturbances had little to no potential to generate meteotsunamis in the middle Adriatic area, as the eigenoscillations in bays and harbours of the region are over timescales of minutes up to a few tens of minutes.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Meteorological tsunamis on the US East Coast and in other regions of the
           World Ocean
    • PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Meteotsunami in the Great Lakes and on the Atlantic coast of the United
           States generated by the “derecho” of June 29–30, 2012
    • Abstract: Abstract Tsunami-like intense sea-level oscillations, associated with atmospheric activity (meteorological tsunamis), are common in the Great Lakes and on the East Coast of the United States. They are generated by various types of atmospheric disturbances including hurricanes, frontal passages, tornados, trains of atmospheric gravity waves, and derechos. “Derecho” is a rapidly moving line of convectively induced intense thunder storm fronts producing widespread damaging winds and squalls. The derecho of June 29–30, 2012 devastatingly propagated from western Iowa to the Atlantic coast, passing more than 1,000 km and producing wind gusts up to 35 m/s. This derecho induced pronounced seiche oscillations in Lake Michigan, Chesapeake Bay, and along the US Atlantic coast. Sea-level records from the updated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide gauge network, together with the NOAA and automated surface-observing system air pressure and wind records, enabled us to examine physical properties and temporal/spatial variations of the generated waves. Our findings indicate that the generation mechanisms of extreme seiches in the basins under study are significantly different: energetic winds play the main role in seiche formation in Chesapeake Bay; atmospheric pressure disturbances are most important for the Atlantic coast; and the combined effect of pressure oscillations and wind is responsible for pronounced events in the Great Lakes. The “generation coefficient,” which is the ratio of the maximum observed sea-level height and the height of air pressure disturbance, was used to map the sea-level response and to identify “hot spots” for this particular event, i.e., harbors and bays with amplified seiche oscillations. The Froude number, Fr = U/c, where U is the speed of the atmospheric disturbance and c is the long-wave speed, is the key parameter influencing the water response to specific atmospheric disturbances; the maximum response was found for those regions and disturbance parameters for which Fr ~1.0.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Meteotsunami forecasting: sensitivities demonstrated by the 2008 Boothbay,
           Maine, event
    • Abstract: Abstract To support development of a meteotsunami forecasting capability for the USA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration funded a project in 2011 focused on meteotsunami forecasting for the US east coast. Meteotsunami forecasting shares many similarities with traditional tsunami forecasting, though the characterization and integration of the source with numerical forecast models is much different. Given meteotsunami source characterization through atmospheric observations and models, it is conceivable that meteotsunami alerts could be issued and their impact forecasted using existing tsunami forecast models with high-resolution coastal definition. To test this, the 2008 Boothbay, Maine, meteotsunami is simulated using an atmospheric source consisting of a moving pressure disturbance coupled with a tsunami forecast model. Sensitivities of the modeled impact to the source characteristics, such as speed, wavelength, and direction, are also tested. Results show that the observed impact can be re-created through numerical modeling when the pressure disturbance period is roughly matched with the harbor resonance and observed meteotsunami period.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • High-frequency radar observations of the June 2013 US East Coast
    • Abstract: Abstract We report here on the observation and offline detection of the meteotsunami off the New Jersey coast on June 13, 2013, using coastal radar systems and tide gauges. This work extends the previous observations of tsunamis originating in Japan and Indonesia. The radars observed the meteotsunami 23 km offshore, 47 min before it arrived at the coast. Subsequent observations showed it moving onshore. The neighboring tide gauge height reading provides confirmation of the radar observations near the shore.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Simultaneous meteorological tsunamis and storm surges at Buenos Aires
           coast, southeastern South America
    • Abstract: Abstract Meteorological tsunamis are frequently observed in different tide stations at the southeastern coast of South America. They are associated with the occurrence of atmospheric gravity waves during the passages of cold fronts over the Buenos Aires Province continental shelf. On the other hand, storm surges are also frequent in the region, and they are associated with strong and persistent southerlies, which are also frequent during cold front passages. The impact of meteorological tsunamis in coastal erosion and in the statistics of storm surge trends is discussed in this paper. For this study, fifteen meteorological tsunamis (with maximum wave heights higher than 0.20 m), seven of them simultaneous to the occurrence of storm surge events (with extreme levels higher than ±0.60 m ), are selected from April 2010 to January 2013. The impact of meteorological tsunamis in the storm erosion potential index (SEPI) is evaluated. Not significant differences are obtained between SEPI calculated with and without filtering the meteorological tsunami signal from the storm surge data series. Moreover, several experiments are carried out computing SEPI from synthetic sea level data series, but very low changes (lower than 4 %) are also obtained. It is concluded that the presence of moderate meteorological tsunamis on sea level records would not enhance this index at the Buenos Aires Province coast. On the other hand, taking into account that meteorological tsunamis can reach up the 20–30 % of the storm surge height, it was concluded that the statistics of storm surge trends (and their uncertainties) should be revised for Mar del Plata data series.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • The Dwarskersbos, South Africa local tsunami of August 27, 1969: field
           survey and simulation as a meteorological event
    • Abstract: Abstract We investigate the hitherto unexplained wave which inundated the village of Dwarskersbos, South Africa, in the early hours of August 27, 1969, in the absence of any seismic disturbance or major meteorological storm. A field survey, based on the interview of nine elderly witnesses still residing in the community, documented maximum run-up of 2.9 m, concentrated on an extremely short segment of coastline, less than 2 km in length. These characteristics are incompatible with generation by a seismic source (which, at any rate, should have been felt by the population). A landslide source, located at the only canyon featuring a steep enough ocean floor, is also ruled out since a numerical simulation fails to reproduce the concentration of the wave at Dwarskersbos. By contrast, the wave can be explained as a “meteo-tsunami” resulting from resonance between a meteorological squall propagating at 18 m/s in the azimuth \(\hbox {N101}^{\circ }\hbox {E}\) and a gravity wave propagating in the shallow waters off the eastern shore of St. Helena Bay. This is confirmed by numerical simulation under the formalism of Proudman (Dynamical oceanography. Methuen, London, 1953), which provides a satisfactory model of the distribution of run-up along the beach.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Abiki oscillations in Sakitsu Bay, west Kyushu, Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract Sakitsu and Yokaku bays in Amakusa in west Kyushu, Japan, experienced inundation damage in the February 2009 meteotsunami (Abiki) event. The oscillation characteristics of both bays are investigated by taking field measurements and conducting numerical experiments with regard to flood mitigation with the aim to reduce the flood impact during Abiki events. A continuous wavelet transform and bandpass filtering both of the pressure and water level indicated that a sequence of pressure disturbances, as small as 1.0 hPa, caused the large amplified oscillation within Sakitsu Bay. When a sequence of ocean long waves entered the bay, a surf beat evolved in the early stages. Subsequently, the sea level began to undergo large amplitude oscillations, and there was a secondary peak of oscillation with a period of around 24 min, as seen in both field measurements and numerical experiments. A surf beat with the period of 12 min formed in Yokaku Bay owing to the continuous incidence of ocean waves with period of 12 min, but its wave period was almost half of that of the natural period of the bay. This surf beat may have entered Sakitsu Bay with natural period of 11.8 min and caused large water-level fluctuations.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Tidal influence on high frequency harbor oscillations in a narrow entrance
    • Abstract: Abstract High frequency sea level oscillations at Wells Harbor (Maine, Northeastern US), with periods in the range of several tens of minutes, display a tidally modulated response. During low tides, these sea level oscillations reach amplitudes of 10–20 cm, while during high tides they are significantly smaller. Wells Harbor is located in a low lying area with a tidal range of about 2 m and is connected to the open ocean through a narrow channel. Thus, the extent and depth of the bay significantly vary over a tidal cycle. This changing geometry determines both the resonant periods and the amplification factor of the bay. Numerical results confirm the link between observed variability and these specific topographic features. Results imply that when exceptionally energetic long waves reach the Wells Harbor entrance (as in the case of a tsunami or meteotsunami) the expected response will be significantly stronger during low tide than during high tide. Although mean sea level would be lower in the former case, the currents inside the bay would be stronger and potentially more dangerous. This tidally modulated response could be extrapolated to other sites with similar topographic characteristics.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Atmospheric mesoscale conditions during the Boothbay meteotsunami: a
           numerical sensitivity study using a high-resolution mesoscale model
    • Abstract: Abstract The article aims to test the sensitivity of high-resolution mesoscale atmospheric model to fairly reproduce atmospheric processes that were present during the Boothbay Harbor meteotsunami on 28 October 2008. The simulations were performed by the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model at 1-km horizontal grid spacing by varying initial conditions (ICs) and lateral boundary conditions (LBCs), nesting strategy, simulation lead time and microphysics and convective parameterizations. It seems that the simulations that used higher-resolution IC and LBC were more successful in reproduction of precipitation zone and surface pressure oscillations caused by internal gravity waves observed during the event. The results were very sensitive to the simulation lead time and to the choice of convective parameterization, while the choice of microphysics parameterization and the type of nesting strategy (one-way or two-way) was less important for reproducibility of the event. The success of the WRF model appears limited to very short-range forecasting, most advanced parameterizations, and very high-resolution grid spacing; therefore, the applicability of present atmospheric mesoscale models to future operational meteotsunami warning systems still has a lot of room for improvements.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Sea level surges of June 2011 in the NE Atlantic Ocean: observations and
           possible interpretation
    • Abstract: Abstract We present a synthesis of tide gauge data recorded on June 26–28, 2011, along the NE Atlantic and the English Channel coastlines, which show a significant sea level disturbance observed from Portugal to England during several hours. Though the amplitude was low (a few centimeters at most), the main disturbance was observed in about 30 harbors. The phenomenon started in south Spain and Portugal in the last hours of 26 June and reached the French west coastline on 27 June, at about noon. Finally, it was observed in the English Channel (UK and France) from 27 June to 28 June and also noticed by witnesses as tidal bores in Cornwall. For some of the places investigated, it was followed by a second signal about 12 h later, especially in the SE of the Bay of Biscay. Spectral analyses show a dominant periods of 25 min present on almost all data and that the phenomenon highlighted the resonant periods of the harbors. Using travel time modeling, we observe that the disturbance traveled much more slowly than long-wave propagation and that the timing does not compel with a single source for all the recordings. A comparison with available atmospheric data reveals that a pressure anomaly traveled the same day across the area, from south Portugal to the English Channel and was probably the origin of several sources for the phenomenon, with a second one completing the later signals. Finally, historic facts present that these kinds of event can be potentially lethal or damaging.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Atmospheric processes responsible for generation of the 2008 Boothbay
    • Abstract: Abstract We investigated the atmospheric processes and physics that were active during a tsunami-like event hitting Boothbay Harbor area (Maine, USA) on 28 October 2008. The data collected by tide gauges, ground and sounding stations and meteo–ocean buoys in the area were analyzed, together with satellite and radar images. The atmospheric processes were reproduced by the weather research and forecasting model, verified by in situ and remote sensing data. A cold front moved over the area at the time of the event, with embedded convective clouds detected by satellite and radar data and the internal gravity waves (IGWs) detected by radar and reproduced by the model at the rear of the frontal precipitation band. According to the model, the IGWs that passed over Boothbay Harbor generated strong ground air-pressure oscillations reaching 2.5 hPa/3 min. The IGWs were ducted towards the coast without significant dissipation, propagating in a stable near-surface layer capped by an instability at approximately 3.5 km height and satisfying all conditions for their maintenance over larger areas. The intensity, speed and direction of the IGWs were favourable for generation of a meteotsunami wave along the Gulf of Maine shelf. Operational observation systems were not capable of sufficiently capturing the ground disturbance due to a too coarse sampling rate, while the numerical model was found to be a useful tool in eventual future detection and warning systems.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • The Lake Michigan meteotsunamis of 1954 revisited
    • Abstract: Abstract Two large meteotsunami wave events on Lake Michigan impacted the Chicago coastline within 10 days of each other in 1954. Initial data analysis suggested that the fatal first event (June 26) was caused by a Proudman resonant non-trapped wave, while the second event (July 6) was caused by Greenspan resonant trapped edge waves. In this study, a numerical hydrodynamic model was used to reveal the detailed behavior of these events. For both events, the atmospheric pressure and wind perturbations were found to be essential to explain the magnitude of the wave activity, in contrast to the initial conclusions that the waves were primarily pressure-driven. In the June 26 meteotsunami, Proudman resonance wave was the primary cause of the destructive wave, though the storm also generated edge waves which persisted for many hours, hindering rescue efforts. The maximum wave heights for the July 6 event were found to be the product of a superposition of edge waves and non-trapped waves rather than purely edge waves as originally thought. The results from these events demonstrate the enclosed Lake Michigan basin retained and focused wave energy, leading to their large magnitude, long duration, and destructive nature.
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
  • Urgent landslide susceptibility assessment in the 2013 Lushan
           earthquake-impacted area, Sichuan Province, China
    • Abstract: Abstract The Lushan earthquake with magnitude M s 7.0 (M w 6.6, USGS) in Sichuan Province, China, triggered a large number of landslides, which seriously aggravated the earthquake’s destructive consequences. This paper mainly focuses on the methodology of the urgent landslide susceptibility assessment right after the earthquake. The detailed landslide inventory (including 5,688 landslides) is prepared by means of urgent post-earthquake landslide field survey, landslide remote sensing interpretation of multi-source remote sensing images including high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle images and historical landslide archives. Ten remarkable causative factors for landslide occurrence have been selected to conduct the landslide susceptibility assessment, including earthquake intensity, landslide density and slope gradient. An integration assessment approach is developed to facilitate the effective urgent post-earthquake landslide susceptibility assessment using three methods: factor sensitivity analysis, analytical hierarchy process and factor-weighted overlay. Such integration can effectively reduce the subjectivity and uncertainty resulting from using single method. The validation evaluation using the area under curve suggests the landslide susceptibility assessment results have satisfactory accuracy, and the suggested methodology is effective for the urgent post-earthquake landslide susceptibility assessment. The study results reveal that earthquake intensity and slope gradient are the two most important causative factors for post-earthquake landslide occurrence in the Lushan earthquake-impacted area. The dominant slope gradient and slope aspect with relatively higher landslide frequency are 45°–50° and south-east direction, respectively. The intense earthquake impact increased the dominant slope gradient of landslide spatial distribution, and the thrust campaign of seismogenic fault with strike NE–SW made south-east direction as the dominant slope aspect of the landslide spatial distribution. The locations with very high and high landslide susceptibility are mainly distributed in the regions with higher earthquake intensity and adverse terrain conditions, such as Shuangshi town and Longmen town of Lushan county and Muping town of Baoxing county. The study results are expected to provide a beneficial reference for the landslide prevention and infrastructure reconstruction after the Lushan earthquake.
      PubDate: 2014-09-28
  • Drought severity change in China during
           1961–2012 indicated by SPI and SPEI
    • Abstract: Abstract Using monthly meteorological observation data at 633 sites in China during 1961–2012, the drought severity change has been investigated in terms of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) with potential evapotranspiration estimated by the Penman–Monteith equation (SPEI_pm). Significant wetting appeared to have occurred in northwestern corner of China (Xinjiang Province), especially in winter. The middle to northeastern Tibetan Plateau also experienced wetting in the last 52 years in general. Significantly, drying occurred in Central China (mostly in the middle Yellow River basin) and southwestern China (Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau) in spring and in autumn. There is no evidence of an increase in drought severity over China taking the whole country into account. On the contrary, the hyper-arid and arid zones got significantly wetter in the last 52 years as indicated by both SPI and SPEI.
      PubDate: 2014-09-28
  • Exploring commercial sector building energy consumption in China
    • Abstract: Abstract With the development of economy, commercial sector building energy consumption becomes more and more noticeable in China. The aim of this paper was to study the influencing factors governing commercial sector building energy consumption and the decoupling relation between building energy consumption and commercial sector economic development. The main results of this paper are as follows: (1) Commercial sector energy intensity decreased from 61.78 gce/yuan in 1991 to 36.70 gce/yuan in 2011, representing a decrease of 40.59 %. Since 2003, electricity has exceeded coal products and become the dominating energy. (2) The economic activity effect makes a positive contributor to the increase in commercial sector building energy consumption; however, the energy intensity effect plays an important role in decreasing energy consumption, followed by the energy structure effect. Same results have also been observed according to the relational degree. (3) Only four kinds of decoupling index occurred over 1991–2011. Strong decoupling occurred only in the years 1994, 1997, and 2008.
      PubDate: 2014-09-28
  • Spatial and temporal changes of meteorological disasters in China during
    • Abstract: Abstract Flood, drought, hail, low temperature and frost disasters from low temperature and frost (DLTF), and snowstorm are the five main meteorological disasters (MDs) in China. Based on the collection of historical documents during 1950–2013 and official records between 2012 and 2013, this paper analyzed the temporal trends of affected area induced by MDs during 1950–2013 and the spatiotemporal characteristics of disaster frequency in recent 2 years in China. Besides, the direct economic losses and deaths caused by MDs were further discussed at a provincial level. Results showed that the affected area of MDs, especially flood, drought and DLTF significantly increased during the past 60 years. Flood was the most frequent disaster in China during 2012 and 2013, followed by hail. Spatial patterns of disaster frequency showed that there were more frequent floods in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River basin, droughts in central and southwest China, hails in north, northwest and southwest China, DLTFs and snowstorms in north, northwest China and individual areas in south China. However, the economic losses caused by MDs were higher in economically developed provinces, and the deaths were higher in mountain regions. Additionally, flood was the major disasters type that contributing to the most losses in most regions of China. These results play an important theoretical guiding role in meteorological disaster prediction, disaster prevention and reduction in the future.
      PubDate: 2014-09-27
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