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BIOLOGY (1323 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Vestibular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Life : The Excitement of Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Life Sciences, Society and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Limnological Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipids in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
mAbs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Macromolecular Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Madroño     Full-text available via subscription  
Malacologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Malacologica Bohemoslovaca     Open Access  
Malayan Nature Journal     Open Access  
Mammal Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mammal Study     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mammalian Genome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mammalian Species     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Marine Biodiversity Records     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Materials Science and Engineering: C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mathematical Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Matrix Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Médecine Nucléaire     Full-text available via subscription  
mBio     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover Natural Hazards
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [232 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]   [SJR: 0.591]   [H-I: 40]
  • Qingdao pipeline explosion: introductions and reflections
    • Abstract: Abstract As a result of rapid economic development, China is consuming roughly 500 million tons of oil. At present, it is the second-largest consumer of oil worldwide. Furthermore, the increase in its oil consumption has been the highest in the world for 13 consecutive years. The total mileage of domestic oil–gas transportation pipelines in China is 102,000 km, and these pipelines are hazardous. On November 22, 2013, an oil pipeline exploded in Qingdao City in Shandong Province, thus resulting in great personnel and property losses. This short communication briefly introduces this catastrophe, its causes, and some of the related emergency responses.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Adapting project management method and ANFIS strategy for variables
           selection and analyzing wind turbine wake effect
    • Abstract: Abstract We present a project management methodology designed for the selection of wind turbines wake effect most influential parameters, who need to run wind farm project for large energy conversion. Very frequently, the managers of these projects are not project management professionals, so they need guidance to have autonomy, using minimal time and documentation resources. Therefore, agile method is adapted to assist the project management. Wind energy poses challenges such as the reduction in the wind speed due to the wake effect by other turbines. If a turbine is within the area of turbulence caused by another turbine, or the area behind another turbine, the wind speed suffers a reduction and, therefore, there is a decrease in the production of electricity. In order to increase the efficiency of a wind farm, analyzing the parameters, which have influence on the wake effect, is one of the focal research areas. To maximize the power produced in a wind farm, it is important to determine and analyze the most influential factors on the wake effects or wake wind speeds since the effect has most influence on the produced power. This procedure is typically called variable selection, and it corresponds to finding a subset of the full set of recorded variables that exhibits good predictive abilities. In this study, architecture for modeling complex systems in function approximation and regression was used, based on using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Variable searching using the ANFIS network was performed to determine how the five parameters affect the wake wind speed. Our article answers the call for renewing the theoretical bases of wind farm project management in order to overcome the problems that stem from the application of methods based on decision-rationality norms, which bracket the complexity of action and interactions in projects.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Levels and distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in
           middle reach of Huaihe River, China: anthropogenic influences and
           ecological risks
    • Abstract: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of aromatic hydrocarbons with high toxicity to human health. PAH emissions from industrial activities have become the primary sources of PAH contamination in Chinese watersheds. Here, we analyzed 10 individual priority PAHs in 120 water samples taken from middle reach of Huaihe River, China. The results show that the PAH levels in studied watershed are significantly lower as compared to other Chinese watersheds, approaching or slightly exceeding the PAH levels in watersheds from selected European and North American countries. We observe rather large variation in spatial and vertical PAH distributions, pointing to PAH inputs from local industrial emissions, and PAH cycle among atmosphere, water and sediment. Individual PAH ratios (i.e., phenanthrene/anthracene and fluorene/pyrene) and principal components analysis suggest a primarily pyrolytic PAH sources (combustion of coal and coke) in water column. Other accompanying PAH sources include emissions from steel industry and gasoline. Total toxic benzo[a]pyrene equivalent of PAHs in studied water column indicates that PAHs in watershed of middle reach of Huaihe River pose limited toxicity to the environment.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • The assessment of submarine slope instability in Baiyun Sag using gray
           clustering method
    • Abstract: Abstract It is a significant task to evaluate the seafloor stability for the exploitation of marine resources and the construction of marine structures. This paper analyzes the impact factors of submarine slope instability using geological and geophysical data of the Baiyun Sag in the Pearl River Mouth Basin and builds the evaluation index system of submarine slope instability. The weight of each index is calculated by analytic hierarchy process method to weaken subjective effect. Gray clustering method is applied to estimate the risk of submarine slope instability in Baiyun Sag qualitatively and quantitatively. The assessment standard is divided into five grades, and the whitening function of each gray cluster is determined by the assessment scheme. The gray evaluation weight vector of each indicator is calculated by the table-dispatching method. The gray assessment value is estimated by making the gray assessment weight vector single value, and the gray grade is determined according to the maximum principle. The evaluation results show quantitatively that the risk grade of submarine slope instability in the Baiyun Sag is medium, and the gray clustering method is reasonable and feasible.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Experiments on internal erosion in sandy gravel foundations containing a
           suspended cutoff wall under complex stress states
    • Abstract: Abstract Internal erosion is one of the most common failure modes of embankment dams or foundations, and the simplest and most effective preventive measure is to build a cutoff wall. The soil at the bottom of the cutoff wall is usually under complex stress states. The deeper the cutoff wall, the higher is the stress. In this study, the effects of stress conditions on the evolution of internal erosion were investigated in sandy gravel foundations containing a suspended cutoff wall using a newly developed stress-controlled erosion apparatus. Three series of erosion tests were conducted on gap-graded soil under different confining stresses, different deviatoric stresses, and different confining and deviatoric stresses. The results of these tests are as follows: (1) The discharge and permeability decrease with an increase in the confining stress, but the critical hydraulic gradient increases. (2) In the second series of erosion tests, the specimen is compressed under low deviatoric stress; the specimen undergoes shear expansion under high deviatoric stress. (3) In the third series of erosion tests, the confining and deviatoric stresses synchronously change, and therefore, their combined effect on the evolution of internal erosion is complicated. Under low stress, the soil is compressed in the early stage of the experiment, and its structure may change during internal erosion. When the stress level is high, the specimen also undergoes shear expansion, and the degree of expansion is controlled by both confining and deviatoric stresses.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Environmental impacts caused by phosphate mining and ecological
           restoration: a case history in Kunming, China
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the environmental impacts caused by surface mining and the ecological rehabilitation of Haikou phosphate deposits, Kunming, China. Surface mining entails the removal of the overburden to expose bare rock surfaces, not only causing destruction of pre-existing vegetation, but also occupying large areas of land for dumping the spoil. Severe environmental impacts are caused, e.g. rock desertification, poor forest stand structure, loss of biodiversity, aesthetic depreciation of the landscape, and the potential hazard of landslide and ground erosion. Ecological restoration has been conducted in a demonstration area since 1989 by means of control of geological hazards and revegetation of the disturbed areas. On-site dumping of waste rock for restoration of the abandoned mine area was adopted, providing a new mode of mining reclamation with high economic, environmental, and social value. Countermeasures for prevention and control of landslides included cut and fill technology, drainage, safety netting protection, retaining wall construction, and vegetation cover. By recruiting native plant species to the mine site and planting a forest imitating a natural mixed forest, the mine area was successfully revegetated.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Gas drainage efficiency: an input–output model for evaluating gas
           drainage projects
    • Abstract: Abstract Gas drainage not only ensures safety in coal mine but also produces clean energy and reduces emission of greenhouse gases. However, a good method to evaluate the efficiency of gas drainage is still absent. In this study, we firstly propose a definition of gas drainage efficiency which is defined as the ratio of the real output–input efficiency to the ideal output–input efficiency. The definition combines both engineering parameters such as radius, length of borehole and economical parameters such as drilling cost to develop a comprehensive index for the assessment of the engineering–economical efficiency. Then, three important factors to determine gas drainage efficiency including the difficulty level, the input and output, namely investment and production, and the attenuation characteristic of gas drainage are discussed. Based on the relative standards, the index can reasonably evaluate gas drainage projects with different difficulty levels, thereby avoiding dependence on an absolute standard for the evaluation of overall difficulty levels. The indicator can also take both input and output into consideration and reflect the reduction of gas drainage flow with time. Besides, we investigate the relationship between gas drainage efficiency and several engineering parameters, including borehole radius, borehole length and the quality of borehole sealing. The results show the possibility of optimizing engineering parameters to maximize gas drainage efficiency. Finally, the evaluation method is proven efficient by performing case studies.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Spatio-temporal distributions of climate disasters and the response of
           wheat yields in China from 1983 to 2008
    • Abstract: Abstract Climate disasters are now on the rise and more likely to increase in frequency and/or severity under climate change in the future. To clearly illustrate spatial–temporal distributions of climate disasters and the response of wheat yields to disasters over the past three decades, several disaster indices including the impact of climate disasters, the sensitivity to climate disasters and the response index of wheat yield losses to climate disasters were defined and calculated. The impact and sensitivity indices were examined by the agricultural production losses due to climate disasters, and the response of wheat yields to climate disasters was assessed by wheat yield loss compared with the 5-year moving average. The results showed that the indices of climate disaster impacts and sensitivities as well as response index of wheat yields to climate disasters could represent the spatial–temporal distributions of climate disasters well in the whole China. Droughts in northern China had higher impacts and sensitivities than those in southern China during the period 1983–2008, but the impacts of floods were opposite. In northern China, although impacted area by drought was larger than that by flood, the flood sensitivities were larger than drought sensitivities when flood happened. Although drought significantly affected wheat yields in most of the regions with drier conditions during 1983–2008 in major wheat-producing regions, better management practices like irrigation and drought-tolerant cultivars applied in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain can adapt to climate disasters especially droughts. To ensure the stability of agricultural production, future food security will need to be achieved through quantifying the relative effects of climate disasters and effective adaptation to increasingly frequent extreme climate events.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • A multi-criteria evaluation model of earthquake vulnerability in Victoria,
           British Columbia
    • Abstract: Abstract Researchers have recently examined the geographic variability of the vulnerability of populations to earthquakes. These studies focus mainly on the complex modelling of geophysical processes or identification of socio-economically disadvantaged populations. However, no studies to date have integrated different components of vulnerability with metrics of travel distance to hospitals and trauma centres (systemic vulnerability). We argue that this previously unaccounted component is an important conceptual and practical aspect of earthquake vulnerability. Accordingly, this paper presents a multi-criteria model for combining physical, social, and systemic components, moving towards a more comprehensive assessment of vulnerability. An analytic hierarchy process is used to produce a place-specific index of social vulnerability, which we combine with soil liquefaction and amplification index and a road network model for access to hospitals and trauma services. Using a geographic information system, we implemented this model for the Greater Victoria region (483 km2, 2011 population: 345,000) in British Columbia, Canada. Clustering of total vulnerability was found in outlying areas, highlighting the importance of access to trauma centres. We conclude by identifying challenges in measuring earthquake vulnerability and advocate integration of systemic vulnerability components in natural hazards research.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Breaking mode of cohesive homogeneous earth-rock-fill dam by overtopping
    • Abstract: Abstract Breaking tests on homogeneous earth-rock-fill dams destroyed by overtopping flow are presented. Two types of shear erosion are found: wetting shear erosion and quick shear erosion; the water level-discharge process is divided into “sharp rise and drop of flow” and “slow change of flow” types. Furthermore, overtopping break modes are divided into head-cut erosion and scour breaching mode (Mode 1), shear erosion and collapse breaching mode (Mode 2), and wetting shear erosion mode (Mode 3) based on the main failure types and their coupled mode during dam break. In Mode 1, the downstream slope encounters head-cut erosion at the onset of the breach and expands and undercuts gradually at the development stage; in Mode 2, the dam slope encounters rapid shear erosion and the downstream edge of the crest erodes quickly towards the upstream face at the onset of breach: the breach expands suddenly due to instability and collapse at both sides of the breach in its development stage; in Mode 3, the strength of the dam’s materials continuously decreases by wetting and erosion happens is localised at positions where wetting caused the most strength loss, no obvious breach was developed. Dam breaking time, dam-break flow process, and the maximum discharge flow varied for each breaking mode. Overtopping flow size, materials, height, and initial breach size of dam are important factors influencing breaking mode, by virtue of their changing the relative strength of the relationship between the critical shear stress of dam materials at the edge of the dam crest and the lower parts of its slope, and the given flow’s destruction capacity. Overtopping will cause different manifestations of damage to be exhibited, so modal classification is favourable for safety assessment and preparation of relevant protective measures for protection of earth-rock-fill dam against overtopping.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Erratum to: Analysis of landslide causes and associated damages in the
           Kashmir Himalayas of Pakistan
    • PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Urban impacts of ice storms: Toronto December 2013
    • Abstract: Abstract In late December 2013, Eastern Canada was hit by a severe ice storm that covered Southern Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes. Toronto, the largest city of Canada, was among the hardest hit. The freezing rain lasted for 3 days, leaving up to 30 mm coat of ice covering the ground and infrastructure. The urban forestry was badly hit as the ice accretion caused major tree failures and damage to the trees. Trees snapped as they were dormant and fragile during winter weather. In addition, tree limbs with branches heavily coated with ice brought down power lines. About 300,000 power customers (over a million people) were left without power for almost 3 days and tens of thousands for more than a week. The damages from the ice storm cost the city of Toronto over $106 million, while the cost of insured losses was in the range of $200 million. This short paper gives a brief overview of the ice storm, its impact on the city of Toronto, and the response and recovery measures that followed.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Effects of fatigue on the physiological parameters of labor employees
    • Abstract: Abstract Human factors have contributed to the causes of several accidents. The physiological parameters change law of labor employees before and after fatigue is researched in this paper. The purpose of this research is to find the relationship between physiological parameters and fatigue, design corresponding fatigue monitoring and early warning system, reduce the accident rate and optimize the working environment. The labor employees’ heart rate, RR interval, respiration rate and blood pressure under fatigue state are determined in the laboratory. The change law of labor employees’ heart rate, RR interval, respiratory rate and blood pressure are analyzed based on the paired samples t test by using SPSS software. The results show that labor employees’ heart rate and RR interval have no significant difference before and after fatigue. Labor employees’ respiration rate has significant difference before and after fatigue: the respiration rate decreased after fatigue. Labor employees’ blood pressure has significant difference before and after fatigue: blood pressure of labor employees after fatigue can be elevated. The results provide a richer theoretical and practical basis in what criteria are used to determine the fatigue. It has important significance in the safety management field and accident prevention.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Experimental investigation into rockfill dam failure initiation by
    • Abstract: Abstract Rockfill is the most abundant building material. It is often used for water retention under different contexts, such as dams, embankments or drainage systems. Climate change may cause water levels to rise in reservoirs. As rockfill structures are not able to resist strong overtopping flow, rising water levels will constitute a danger for rockfill dam stability as well as for people living nearby. This work is aimed at the development of an empirical formula that enables calculation of the critical water level of overflow at the crest from the geometrical and physical parameters of a dam. To achieve these objectives, several experimental tests on a rockfill dam model with two different impervious cores, moraine with a sand filter and an empty wooden formwork, were conducted in a hydraulic channel at the hydro-environmental laboratory at École Polytechnique de Montréal. The purpose of these tests was to study the initiation of a riprap failure under the influence of different variables, such as rock size, riprap bank, downstream side slope and bed slope. Results showed linear trends between the critical water level and both the downstream side slope and bed slope. Also, a power trend was observed between the critical level and riprap grain size. A formula that gives the critical overtopping water level was developed from these results.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • The effects of Typhoon Morakot on concentration of airborne particulates
           derived from unvegetated riverbanks
    • Abstract: Abstract Landslides frequently occur during large earthquakes and storms in Taiwan, supplying large volumes of sediment to downslope areas. When coupled with the intense northeast monsoon over Taiwan in the dry winter season, this can lead to high concentrations of airborne particulates that are hazardous to human health. Air quality monitoring stations near unvegetated riverbanks recorded high concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM10) after Typhoon Morakot in 2009. The objective of this study was, therefore, to analyze the effects on air quality of sediment caused by the typhoon. A deflation module was simulated, and the resulting estimates were compared with observed data from the Taitung monitoring station for 2004 and 2005. The relationship of dust flux to average atmospheric dust concentration was analyzed for October to December 2001–2010. Analysis showed that the 2001–2008 data are highly correlated (0.78) with the average concentration. The intercept of 28.07 represented the background concentration with no dust emission, from October to December of 2001–2008. Based on the dust flux potential in 2009, the average yearly PM10 concentration would be 37.98 µg/m3; however, the measured concentration was 61.67 µg/m3 from October to December. This suggests the strong influence of dust re-suspended from unvegetated riverbanks by Typhoon Morakot.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • The 2012/2014 swarmquakes of Jaen, Spain: a working hypothesis involving
           hydroseismicity associated with the hydrologic cycle and anthropogenic
    • Abstract: Abstract A total of 2,300 swarmquake-type seisms have been striking the Torreperogil–Sabiote Hill (TSH) in southern Spain (Jaen) from October 2012 to the present, involving a major seismic crisis with six subseries until May 2013 (TSH seismic series, TSHS), followed by seven final series (FS). Two mild premonitory events occurred nearby in 2010–2011. Several evidences suggest cause–effect relationships between water and seismicity at the TSH: (1) The characteristics of seisms with a vast majority of ill-defined shallow/small events, spatial/temporal variations of the better constrained diffuse swarmquakes, increasing seismic velocities preceding stronger events, marked periodicities, abundant hydro-tremors, etc. (2) A series of spatial/temporal relationships between water and seismicity: Time lags between rainfall/reservoir peaks and seismic peaks; spatial links between swarmquakes and several factors (underground hydrogeology, reservoirs, etc.); etc. (3) From May 2013 to January 2014 evolution of rainfall and FS seismicity declined drastically at the same time. We suggest a hydroseismic hypothesis for TSH swarmquakes resulting from a complex series of cumulative factors: (1) A million-years natural setting involving geological, hydrogeological, geomorphological and tectonic elements. (2) A decades-long series of natural and anthropogenic factors are as follows: the 2012/2013 meteorological change, the massive overexploitation of the confined aquifers and alternating impoundment/emptying of the Giribaile reservoir.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • The progress of emergency response and rescue in China: a comparative
           analysis of Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes
    • Abstract: Abstract Earthquake emergency response and rescue (ERR) is a global challenge, but especially in developing countries. As a large earthquake-prone developing country, China’s experiences and lessons in ERR can provide a useful reference for other developing countries. In this article, China’s ERR progress is summarized by comparatively analyzing the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes, two major recent earthquake events in Sichuan Province. From a comprehensive investigation of the research, it can be concluded that emergency response speed, inter-organizational coordination, and relief resource mobilization are the three critical ERR indicators which can be further subdivided into sixteen sub-indicators. Using these indicators, the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquake ERR processes were comprehensively compared based on data collected from observations and interviews. The results showed that the response and rescue efforts at the Lushan earthquake were faster, more coordinated, and more orderly than those at the Wenchuan earthquake. In addition, the unified earthquake ERR system, the people-oriented principle, and the information disclosure mechanism were examined, which also revealed several major shortcomings, such as deficits in the adaptability to relief technologies, the lack of coordination between rescue organizations, and the lack of capabilities in the local communities. Finally, several recommendations are given for the practical improvement of and future research into the establishment of an effective ERR.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Prediction of long-term settlements of subway tunnel in the soft soil area
    • Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, the issue of predicting soil settlement has gradually become an important research area. The theory of predicting soil settlement under static load is comparatively mature, while the method of predicting soil settlement under dynamic loading is still at the exploratory stage. This paper aimed to find a suitable model to satisfy the prediction of long-term settlements of subway tunnel. The settlement monitoring data of Subway Line 1 in Shanghai were taken as the case. In this paper, current nonlinear prediction methods of settlement were summarized. The fitting method was introduced and applied in the settlement data of Shanghai subway tunnel; correlation coefficient r of the fitting results can keep a high level in most cases, illustrating the validity of segmentation simulation. Two kinds of prediction methods and its utilizing methods were introduced in this paper, i.e., Grey Model (1, 1) and Auto-Regressive and Moving Average Model (n, m). The settlement trend of Subway Line 1 in Shanghai was predicted by GM (1, 1) and ARMA (n, m) model. The results show that ARMA (n, m) model is more precise than the GM (1, 1). As a new method in settlement prediction field, ARMA (n, m) model is prospective in the future.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Implications of the 2011 Tuscaloosa EF4 tornado for shelter and refuge
    • Abstract: Abstract This research provides an overview and discussion of language used in tornado safety recommendations along with development of a rubric for scaled tornado safety recommendations. Residents living in affected areas and those temporarily housed at relief stations were surveyed to collect information on their experiences during a 2-week period following the April 27, 2011 Tuscaloosa, Alabama EF4 tornado. Respondents were asked about their refuge plans during the storm and about any future changes to those plans. A specific focus of this research evaluated the adequacy of each respondent’s plan. Each refuge plan was compared using a tornado refuge rubric developed through the use of enhanced Fujita (EF) scale degree of damage ratings for available damage indicators. There was a significant difference in the counts of refuge adequacy for Tuscaloosa residents when holding the locations during the April 27 tornado constant and comparing adequacy ratings for weak (EF0–EF1), strong (EF2–EF3), and violent (EF4–EF5) tornadoes. There was also a significant difference when comparing the future tornado refuge plans of those same participants to the adequacy ratings for weak, strong, and violent tornadoes. This research introduces renewed discussion on proper refuge and shelter alternatives for days when violent tornadoes are forecasted.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Community resilience, latent resources and resource scarcity after an
           earthquake: Is society really three meals away from anarchy?
    • Abstract: Abstract Immediately after an earthquake event, how long people survive in place using their limited resources is relatively unknown, as is the behavioural response to resource scarcity. Computer-aided personal interviews were conducted with 172 householders to examine how many days people believed they were able to shelter in place without official aid in a simulated earthquake event, taking into account not only the water, food and medicine they had stockpiled, but also the availability of less obvious sources (such as water in the hot water cylinder or food from gardens). Based on recommended daily resource allowances, after a 3-day period without aid, 46 % of people had run out of at least one of these necessary resources and this increased to 90 % of people after 7 days. After a 7-day period without official aid, there is an increase in people’s perceived willingness to (1) ask for assistance from neighbours (but a reduction in people’s willingness to offer aid to others), (2) commit less socially acceptable acts (such as breaking into an empty house to take food and water) and (3) commit unsafe acts (such as drinking unpurified water). The results are discussed with regard to particular post-disaster social behaviours and how social norms shift as people adapt to survive.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
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