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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2843 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (214 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1382 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (128 journals)

BIOLOGY (1382 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Lipid Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Lipids     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management     Open Access  
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Zhejiang University : Agriculture & Life Sciences     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription  

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover   Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 45]   [96 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2291 journals]
  • Assessment of seismic building vulnerability based on rapid visual
           screening technique aided by aerial photographs on a GIS platform
    • Abstract: Abstract The stability of buildings in seismic prone areas depends upon the structural behavior of buildings subjected to ground motion. Buildings of plan and vertical irregularities with respect to either geometry or stiffness have exhibited poor performance during past earthquakes . Identification of seismic building vulnerability is required for metropolitan cities which have moderate to high level of seismic proneness and have a high building density. Inspection of a large number of buildings individually requires enormous time and manpower. Using aerial photograph approach in GIS platform is an ideal choice to overcome these constraints. Chennai city is the thirty-fourth largest city in the world and prone to moderate earthquake hazards. This paper presents a methodology to analyze and predict the seismic vulnerability of buildings with five storeys and above in Chennai. Aerial photographic data of all buildings, land features and roads, within the city and its direct surroundings, were digitized and incorporated on a GIS platform, resulting in a digital vector map. A number of structural parameters determined on the basis of engineering knowledge and observations through rapid visual screening (RVS) have been used to identify the plan and vertical irregularities of the buildings. A new vulnerability scoring system to identify the level of damageability has been introduced based on RVS technique and compared with traditional grading system. Subsequent to RVS, a database of buildings having different range of vulnerability scores has been prepared. The percentage of desirable and undesirable features of buildings with respect to their contribution to damage was assessed based on past experiences and vulnerability scores of buildings. The survey shows that 30 % of the buildings are in the A category of being vulnerable to collapse. There are no buildings that can be classified as defect-free. It is also to note that 55–70 % of buildings lie in the category of D (low damage vulnerability).
      PubDate: 2015-07-04
       
  • Effects of gas pricing reform on China’s price level and total
           output
    • Abstract: Abstract Natural gas plays an important role in the mitigation of climate change, yet its development is constrained by the current natural gas pricing mechanism in China. In the context of the natural gas pricing reform, this paper analyzes the potential effects on price level and total output. Through the input–output model, some conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) The gas pricing reform has relatively great impact on the products’ price of the sectors that have large gas consumption, such as industrial sectors and some service sectors, and on the total output of the gas production and supply sectors and the petroleum and natural gas extraction sectors, whereas the reform has relatively small impact on other industries; (2) effects of gas pricing reform on urban and rural residents are dissymmetrical, with larger effects on urban residents and (3) the reform has relatively small impacts on both various price indices and total output levels; thus, the government can realize the promotion of gas pricing reform nationwide at a cost of relatively small increase in general price level and little lose of total output.
      PubDate: 2015-07-02
       
  • Effect of damage evolution of coal on permeability variation and analysis
           of gas outburst hazard with coal mining
    • Abstract: Abstract Coal and gas outburst disasters in coal seams are becoming more serious as coal mines extend deeper underground in China. Damage evolution has affected gas flow in coal seam greatly, which also controls gas permeation and gas extraction results, and finally, it has tremendous influence on prevention and control of gas disaster accidents. In this paper, the cracking process of coal under compressive stress condition and the permeability variation during the whole process is experimentally studied with the aid of 3D acoustic emission monitoring system. The experimental results suggest that the coal failure and degradation of mechanical properties are essentially related to the propagation and coalescence of induced cracks. Using a damage tensor defined by the direction-dependent crack density, the damage evolution during the whole loading process is studied. It is revealed that the damage evolution is mainly initiated with the appearance of microcracks and accelerated in the post-peak region. During the post-peak region, a similar increase tendency of damage and permeability is noticed, and therefore, a post-peak permeability model is proposed considering the influence of damage evolution on the permeability variation in the post-peak region. Finally, we analyze the gas outburst hazard with coal mining. There exists a transition zone around the vertical stress concentration, and energetic failure may result in this transition zone.
      PubDate: 2015-07-02
       
  • Identification of multiple climatic extremes in metropolis: a comparison
           of Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Identifying historical trends in the integrated frequencies of various climate extremes is meaningful in climatic hazard research. However, the variation trends in regional climate extremes still need to be described by more effective indices, correlations among multiple climatic extremes and different regions need to be quantified, and the urban heat island backgrounds and thermal bioclimate conditions in which people live need to be noted. In this study, the threats of heat wave, heavy rain, strong wind, and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) stress were identified both by units of days using the 90th percentile threshold, and by an unscaled magnitude index derived from kernel density functions for Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China, in 1960–2013. The results show that both metropolises experienced an increase in heat wave threat and a decrease in strong wind threat, and the change amplitudes were higher for Guangzhou than Shenzhen. The correlation of heat wave threat between the two metropolises was significant, while the other correlations depended on the city and index. The heat wave threat was correlated with the UTCI stress in Guangzhou, while both heat wave threat and UTCI stress were correlated with strong wind threat in Shenzhen. The UTCI stress indicated that bioclimate conditions for human habitat have not deteriorated, especially in Shenzhen. In the daily-level results, the heat waves had close relationship between the two adjacent cities, and people suffered from hazard events were usually in high weighted indices of extremes.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • China’s future investments in environmental protection and control
           of manufacturing industry: lessons from developed countries
    • Abstract: Abstract A country’s manufacturing industry is an indicator of its economic competitiveness internationally. In 2009, China has its manufacturing added values surpassed the USA and now became the largest manufacturing country in the world, followed by Germany, the USA and Japan. However, manufacturing industry’s development aggravates environmental resource externalities and environmental pollution. The controls for the environmental pollution are essential to achieve the manufacturing industry’s sustainable development. In this comparative analysis, we examine environmental pollution control expenses, environment-related taxes and waste management capacities in the UK, Germany and Japan to seek the effective practices that China can follow to achieve sustainable development. We conclude that China’s manufacturing industry needs more investments in environmental protection and control. To achieve sustainable development, recycling and environment-related taxes are effective methods for China’s manufacturing industry besides government expenditures in environmental protection and control. Such measures would be a “win-win” for both economy and environment.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Spatial–temporal evolution patterns of land subsidence with
           different situation of space utilization
    • Abstract: Abstract Long-term over-exploitation of underground water, static and dynamic load is increasing year by year, which influenced the occurrence and development of regional land subsidence in Beijing, China. We used Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar data acquired from 2003 to 2009 and PSI (persistent scatterers for SAR interferometry) and small baseline technology to estimate regional land subsidence information in Beijing, China. In different situation of space utilization, we chose five typical settlement areas according to classified information of land-use, multi-spectral remote sensing images and geological data. We analyzed the time-series evolution characteristics of uneven subsidence by GIS spatial analysis. The comparative analysis results suggest that for five typical settlement areas, the complex situations of space utilization affect the trend of uneven subsidence, the simpler space utilization situation (relatively fewer transport lines, construction), the smaller settlement differences and the smaller trend of the uneven subsidence.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Evolution and coping research for flood disaster social stability risk
           based on the complex network
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, according to the characteristics of floods, the closeness centrality of complex network is improved to analyze the evolution of flood disaster social stability risks. Based on the investigation conducted on the flood occurred in Hunan Province in August 2013, and related papers, the topology map for the evolution of flood social stability risk is analyzed and constructed by means of the improved closeness centrality. On this basis, the evolution of social stability risks incurred in floods is divided into three grades, in which such risks as house collapse, crops ruining, looting shopping, social panic etc. produce the maximum impacts on the entire evolution system. So, during the disaster relief, priority should be given to resolve the difficulties in meeting the basic necessities that are closely associated with people’s life.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Research on Chinese public finance in response to domestic natural
           disasters
    • Abstract: Abstract Public finance plays an extremely important role in responding to natural disasters. This paper proposes a package solution to improve the efficiency of Chinese public finance dealing with domestic natural disasters, using systematic approach of application, distribution and recovery of financial contingency funds. Specifically, the effective ways of adjusting to tactics are the following five aspects: (1) allocate financial contingency funds and build a good financial integration mechanism; (2) promote network integration of emergency contingency funds and improve financial management system; (3) enhance funds management and prevent corruption; (4) specify the boundaries between fiscal power and administrative authority and define responsibility properly; (5) improve relevant laws and provide legal protection for emergency finance.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Erratum to: Forest–water dynamics within a mountainous catchment in
           Austria
    • PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Erratum to: Application of landslide hazard scenarios at annual scale in
           the Niraj River basin (Transylvania Depression, Romania)
    • PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Assessing the influence of watershed characteristics on the flood
           vulnerability of Jhelum Basin in Kashmir Himalaya by Gowhar et al., 2015
    • Abstract: Abstract This comment raises a number of scientific questions about the research work conducted by Gowhar et al. 2015. It shows that the structural, topographic, and geomorphic architecture of the Kashmir Basin is mainly shaped by an active interaction between the tectonics and climate. This is backed by the historical and geological records, which clearly demonstrate that climate change and unplanned urbanization are NOT the major reasons for flooding. The historical data show that the devastating floods occurred in Jammu and Kashmir before the climate change science came into existence, and this strongly brings into question the climate argument made by the authors and equally challenges the urbanization argument because the population of Kashmir was much less in the past and has increased in the last 24 years, plus urbanization is a recent phenomenon in the history of Kashmir. Therefore, it is an over-exaggeration to claim that unplanned urbanization is the single-most important factor causing the flooding in Jhelum in 2014. It equally questions the proposed construction of an alternate flood channel for the Jhelum River because the geological and tectonic history has clearly shown that a number of destructive floods were caused by earthquakes, and significant drainage reversals have also been reported in the KB. Therefore, it is important to reassess the various causes of flooding and offer a balanced alternative.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • How does pipeline construction affect land desertification? A case
           study in northwest China
    • Abstract: Abstract The expansion of large pipelines can strongly affect fragile ecosystems in arid regions. However, the issue of oasis desertification due to pipeline construction has rarely been addressed. In this study, three parallel pipelines routed through the Zhangye Oasis located in the middle Heihe River Basin in northwest China were chosen as a case study, and the intensity and extent of the pipeline construction disturbances on oasis desertification were evaluated using satellite images. The results indicated that land desertification increased from 20,427 ha before the pipeline disturbance to 26,312 ha after the construction in the 5000-m buffer zone. The relative rate of land desertification was used to identify the cumulative impact of pipeline disturbance. The threshold distance of the first pipeline’s disturbance was 2000–3000 m. However, after the second and third pipeline installations, the threshold extended to 3000–4000 m, which may result from the cumulative impact of the incremental projects. The disappearance of soil and vegetation, and rivers across was the direct impacts of the pipelines’ construction on oasis desertification. Cutting and grazing along the ancillary road made for increasing reclamation led to indirect impacts of the pipelines’ construction on oasis degradation. To reduce the effects of pipeline disturbance on oasis desertification, the implementation of mitigation measures such as backfilling the removed soil, recovery of the local vegetation, retirement of the degraded cropland, limitation of ancillary roads, and cross-river cofferdam diversions are recommended for the environmental management of pipeline projects.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Arsenic and fluorine in groundwater in western Jilin Province, China:
           occurrence and health risk assessment
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the triangular fuzzy numbers theory is introduced to health risk assessment. On the basis of defining the parameters as triangular fuzzy numbers, uncertain models were established. As a case study, the fuzzy models were applied to evaluate the health risk of arsenic and fluorine in groundwater in western Jilin Province. The evaluation results indicated that there was great carcinogenic risk of arsenic in Quaternary phreatic water, Quaternary confined water, and Tertiary confined water, and the most probable risk values were 20.94 × 10−5, 55.22 × 10−5, and 24.02 × 10−5 a−1, respectively; all of these values are greater than 5.0 × 10−5 a−1, the acceptable maximum value recommended by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The most probable risk values of fluorine in Quaternary phreatic water, Quaternary confined water, and Tertiary confined water were 3.64 × 10−8, 2.48 × 10−8, and 2.17 × 10−8 a−1, respectively, all of which are less than the acceptable maximum value recommended by IARC. The assessment results showed that groundwater in the study area posed great health risks, and the fuzzy models reveal the health risk state of hazardous substances in groundwater more scientifically than traditional models.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Estimation of the Risk Management Index (RMI) using statistical analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Based on a statistical analysis, we developed a methodology to determine the Risk Management Index (RMI) at the local level. The algorithm is transparent, relatively easy to update periodically by the affected communities themselves, and the results are easy to understand by public policymakers. The main characteristics of this tool are: (1) It considers disaster management issues at the local level; (2) RMI values are obtained using a statistical analysis; (3) levels of performance are classified in a scale of numbers ranging from 0 to 5, where 0 = nonexistent, 1 = low, 2 = incipient, 3 = significant, 4 = outstanding, and 5 = optimal; (4) the weight of the indicators is determined using the analytic hierarchy process. As case studies we applied this methodology to the districts of Iztapalapa and Xochimilco in Mexico City, Mexico. Our results indicate that, to date, the Xochimilco District has not implemented any actions designed to reduce risk or to provide financial protection. Low performance was measured also in risk identification and disaster management. The Iztapalapa District has an outstanding level of performance in risk identification. However, its score is low in activities related to risk reduction, disaster management, and financial protection. The RMIs obtained in both communities highlight the need for developing permanent programs for disaster prevention, mitigation, and response. The methodology used here is designed to aid in evaluating and understanding existing disaster management problems in a community and in guiding the decision-making processes to reduce the hazard and to conduct remedial actions at the local level.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Separation of source, site and near-surface attenuation effects in western
           Turkey
    • Abstract: Abstract We analyzed 1764 records from 322 micro- and moderate-size local earthquakes in the central west Turkey to separate source, site and near-surface attenuation effects by utilizing a generalized inversion technique (GIT) to the spectra. GIT site transfer functions were compared with horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) estimates by Akyol et al. (Pure Appl Geophys 170(12):2107–2125. doi: 10.1007/s00024-013-0661-2, 2013). Large amplitude values of vertical component GIT site transfer functions were obtained at different frequency bands for some of the sites. These results imply contaminations of HVSR estimates due to basin geometry induced waves caused by deep or shallow lateral heterogeneities. GIT source function estimates were interpreted as Brune source model. Weak epicentral dependence of near-surface attenuation parameter κ with large scattering could be attributed to the source and propagation path complexities along different paths arriving to the stations. Large f e values with large κ 0 values emphasize near-surface weathered zones attenuation effect at high frequencies.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Pine wilt in response to meteorological hazardous events during the
           climate change in China and Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract During the process of climate change in East Asia since the 1980s, increasing climate influence and meteorological hazardous events occurred, such as persistent drought, strong typhoon, and intercurrent meteorological extremes. The maximum temperature and persistence of rain-free days rose during the most recent 30 years in many cities in China. The combination of these extremes may evidently decrease the threshold of tree responses to the extreme stresses, even cause pine wilt in the area. By studying the geographic distribution of pine wilt disease, climate change characteristics, and the relationship between resin excretion and meteorological hazardous events, the relationship between pine wilt events and the summer droughts and strong typhoons in East Asia was investigated. The spatial and temporal consistency of the prevalence of pine wilt disease with climate change characteristics in both China and Japan suggests that pine wilt is related to local environmental variance. After extreme summer drought and strong typhoons, the ability of pines to excrete oleoresin was often reduced, and deaths were observed. The special adaptive characteristics of pines to meteorological hazard events during climate change, such as stopping or reducing resin excretion, may be the key of their wilt.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Tropical cyclones in the Mozambique Channel: January–March 2012
    • Abstract: Abstract Tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the Mozambique Channel from January to March 2012 resulted in five landfalls that affected Madagascar and southeastern Africa. The rainfall, circulation, and temperature fields surrounding the TCs were studied for anomalous characteristics. Case studies were considered for two TCs, which brought flooding to southern Mozambique and adjacent areas: Dando 17 January and Irina 3 March. Weather forecasts underestimated rainfall from Dando and poorly resolved the looping track of Irina. An anomalous easterly circulation associated with Pacific La Niña and warm SST in the SW Indian Ocean are indicated as mechanisms supporting repeated tropical cyclogenesis in the Mozambique Channel. The downstream shedding of a vortex from Madagascar contributed to the variable nature of TC tracks and forecast errors in January–March 2012.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Local scour induced by upstream riverbed level lowering
    • Abstract: Abstract Upstream riverbed level lowering causes local scour occurring downstream bed, which may endanger the channel stability and structures safety. In this paper, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of the induced local scour. Meanwhile, a non-equilibrium sediment transport model and a diffusion model were proposed to theoretically predict the scour profiles. The experiment results show that a local scour hole preserves shape similarity during the scouring process. Therefore, formulas based on dimensional analysis and the measured data were developed to describe the temporal variation of the scour hole, including the maximum scour depth, location of the maximum scour and the longitudinal scour length. These parameters were found to be strongly related to the dimensionless excess friction velocity. Comparisons between the theoretical models and the measured data show that the scour process is divided into two stages by a critical time. The maximum scour depth in the earlier and later stages can be well described by the non-equilibrium sediment transport model and diffusion model, respectively. Furthermore, the instantaneous bed profiles near the bottom of the scour hole and further downstream fit well with the non-equilibrium sediment transport model and diffusion model, respectively.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Effects of climatic events on the Chinese stock market: applying event
           analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Unexpected events occur and influence both enterprises and investors. Based on event analysis, this study investigates the effects of unexpected climatic events that have occurred in the country and abroad on the Chinese stock market. The sample includes 21 indices according to industry from the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in China. The effects of climatic events that occurred in China and the USA on the Chinese stock market are compared. Results show that meteorological disasters (i.e., the snow storm in 2008 and strong tropical storm in 2011 in China, as well as the hurricane in 2005 and the snow storm in 2006 in the USA) have significant effects on the Chinese stock market. Moreover, the influences of these disasters on the Chinese stock market are different. The unexpected domestic climatic events have a greater effect on the volatility of the Chinese stock market than those that occurred in the USA. The same climatic event can have different effects on various industries, whereas different climatic events can have different effects on the same industry in China. Moreover, the manner in which these events influence industries may change in the future. We find that the magnitude of the effect on each industry depends on the sensitivity of the industries to the unexpected climatic events. Finally, several reasonable recommendations are proposed.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
  • Spatial similarity in the distribution of invasive alien plants and
           animals in China
    • Abstract: Abstract With ongoing development of global economy and increasing trade between countries, China faces increasingly serious invasions by alien species, causing great harm and potential disasters to agriculture, forestry and natural environment. According to a national survey of invasive alien species in China, there are 265 species of invasive alien plants and 171 species of invasive alien animals in China, most of which are widely distributed. In general, there are more invasive species, either plants or animals, in the south than in the north, and more in coastal areas than in interior areas. The distribution of first detection locations of invasive alien plants and animals shows a similar pattern. The cluster analyses showed that the distribution of invasive alien plants and animals was significantly influenced by geographical region, and the alien species of invasive plants and animals were similar in the same geographical region. Thus, the overall distribution of invasive alien plants and animals are spatially similar in China. The results remind us an ongoing invasion pressure from other countries to China and from the provinces with more invasive species to the provinces with less invasive species. Considering different biological and ecological characteristics of plants and animals, common social-economic factors and environmental conditions in each province lead to such similar spatial patterns, supporting the distribution prediction of establishment possibility based on the invasive pest assemblages.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
       
 
 
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