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BIOLOGY (1378 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Lipids     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management     Open Access  
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Zhejiang University : Agriculture & Life Sciences     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription  
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover   Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 45]   [112 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Hindcast of the Hércules winter storm in the North Atlantic
    • Abstract: Abstract The study describes the Hércules storm hindcast performed with the WAM model during one of the major cyclones that occurred in the North Atlantic in the last several years. A description of the development of a peculiar winter season in which a number of consecutive storms took place severely beating the west of Europe is provided. The performed hindcast was carefully conducted applying WAM model in combination with the reanalysis of NOAA/NCEP (CFSRv2). These results were validated against the network wave buoys of the Port of Authorities (Puertos del Estado) of Spain around the North Atlantic Spanish and Portuguese continental shelf showing a high correlation during the 2 months of the simulation period (1 December 2013 up to 5 February 2014). The study also determined the Benjamin–Feir index and showed that close to the Iberian Peninsula there was a high probability of occurrence of abnormal waves generated in this storm.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Lateral thermal disturbance of embankments in the permafrost regions of
           the Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor
    • Abstract: Abstract Numerous engineering projects have been completed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and with continued economic growth, additional important engineering projects are being planned. Major transportation construction is largely restricted to the Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor, which is as narrow as a few hundred meters in some places. In this narrow corridor, projects such as the Qinghai-Tibet Railway and the Qinghai-Tibet Highway can influence the stability of the permafrost. We use a numerical model to investigate the individual thermal disturbance caused by the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, the Qinghai-Tibet Highway, and the planned Qinghai-Tibet Expressway. To simulate an upper limit of disturbance under current climate we use the most unfavorable combination of engineering design practices, with unprotected embankments, a traditional ballast embankment for the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, and traditional asphalt pavement embankments for the Qinghai-Tibet Highway and the Qinghai-Tibet Expressway. The lateral thermal disturbance extent of the three projects increases linearly with embankment height. Under the same embankment heights, the lateral extent of thermal disturbance is smallest for the Qinghai-Tibet Railway and is largest for the full Qinghai-Tibet Expressway. The model results provide guidance for minimum distances between the transportation projects to prevent thermal interaction, as a function of embankment height and design. In future research it is important to evaluate the thermal disturbance scopes of other engineering structures, such as tunnels, bridges, and oil pipelines, and to evaluate the thermal interaction and cumulative impact of multiple structures under current and future climate scenarios.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Trema orientalis : a suspected indicator plant for palaeo-landslides in
           tropical areas
    • Abstract: Abstract In the creation of a landslide inventory of Kerala, India, the profuse growth of Trema orientalis (Family Cannabaceae) in landslide-affected areas has helped in identifying palaeo-landslide locations. This is the first report of the discovery of this particular plant being associated with landslide-affected areas. Trema is found to be an opportunistic plant, utilising the opportunity of canopy clearance during a landslide, to thrive.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Alongshore correspondence of beach users and rip channels at Pensacola
           Beach, Florida
    • Abstract: Abstract The potential for rescues and drownings is dependent on the spatial and temporal correspondence of an active rip current with the distribution of vulnerable beach users. This short communication examines the alongshore correspondence among the (1) exit locations of the walkovers, (2) the spatial and temporal distribution of beachgoers, and (3) the position of semipermanent accretion rips at Pensacola Beach, Florida. Results suggest that the alongshore distribution of beach users on the beach and in the water corresponds to the location of beach access points, which during this period of time sit directly landward of the three rip channels visible in the camera frame during the busy summer season of 2010. Assuming that the majority of beach users are unable to identify a rip current and avoid the hazard, the selection of swimming locations based on convenience suggests that beach safety efforts need to focus on guiding beach users to relatively safe locations away from rip current activity.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Evaluation of seismic hazard and potential of earthquake-induced
           landslides of the Nilgiris, India
    • Abstract: Abstract The Nilgiris district in the Tamilnadu state of India is frequented by many landslides in the recent past. Though many of these landslides are rainfall-induced, there is a need to evaluate the potential of earthquake-induced landslides considering seismicity of the region. In this paper, deterministic seismic hazard of Nilgiris is carried out by considering a study area of 350 km radius around Nilgiris. Seismotectonic map of the Nilgiris, showing the details of faults and past earthquakes, is prepared. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at bed rock level and response spectrum are evaluated. The potential sources for Nilgiris are Moyar and Bhavani shears. The PGA at bed rock level is 0.156 g corresponding to maximum considered earthquake 6.8. Ground response analysis for seven sites, in the Nilgiris, is carried out by one-dimensional equivalent linear method using SHAKE 2000 program after considering the effect of topography. PGA of surface motion got amplified to 0.64 g in Coonoor site and 0.44 g in Ooty site compared to 0.39 g of the input motion. The bracketed duration of time history of surface acceleration has increased to 20 s in Coonoor site and 18 s in Ooty site compared to that of 8 s of input motion. Results from seismic displacement analysis using Newmark’s method revealed that out of seven sites investigated, five sites have moderate seismic landslide hazard and two sites (Coonoor and Ooty) have high hazard.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Spatial and temporal variations of wave height in shelf seas around India
    • Abstract: Abstract The spatial and temporal variations of wave height in shelf seas around Indian mainland are examined based on the ERA-Interim dataset produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The study shows that during the summer monsoon, higher wave heights are observed in all locations except at the southern locations in the shelf seas around India, where the winter monsoon is predominant. The annual average significant wave height is highest (~1.6 m) at the southern location. During 1979–2012, a weak statistically significant increasing trend (maximum ~0.20 cm/year) in wave height is observed in the northern and southern region of eastern Arabian Sea, whereas the middle region shows negligible negative trend. A weak decreasing trend (maximum ~−0.18 cm/year) in wave height is observed in the western Bay of Bengal except along the southern region. At most of the locations weak decreasing trend (0.1–2.5 cm/s/year) is observed for the annual mean wind speed. The conflicting trends in the wind speed and wave height are mainly due to the swell dominance in the North Indian Ocean.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Assessment of the ground motion levels for the Vrancea (Romania) November
           1940 earthquake
    • Abstract: Abstract This short paper focuses on the evaluation of the ground motions levels likely experienced in ten cities seriously damaged during the November 1940 intermediate-depth Vrancea (Romania) earthquake (M W = 7.7). In the first step of the analysis, the ground motion levels are evaluated using a recently developed ground motion model (Vacareanu et al. in J Earthq Eng 19(3):535–562, 2015) for the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source. Next, the stochastic method of simulation (Boore in Pure App Geophys 160:635–676, 2003) is employed in the same purpose. In order to include the nonlinear soil effects into the results of the stochastic simulations, a dedicated amplification function is derived from the ground motions recorded during two large magnitude Vrancea earthquakes in 1986 and 1990. The results obtained for the November 1940 Vrancea earthquake show that the largest spectral ordinates are obtained when the nonlinear soil effects are taken into consideration, while the peak ground accelerations are in almost all cases in excess of 0.15 g. In addition, the results for Bucharest are validated through a site-specific response analysis performed using a soil profile from the literature. This site response analysis for the 1940 seismic event reveals long-period spectral amplitudes, similar to the ones observed in Bucharest during the Vrancea 1977 earthquake.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Government ideology and the natural disasters: a global investigation
    • Abstract: Abstract This article examines whether natural disaster losses vary under the tenure of a government with a different ideology. Using panel data for 123 countries over the period of 1975–2013, we find that right-wing governments experience fewer natural disaster losses (measured by people’s deaths, those affected, and economic damages) in the case of the full sample. We hence account for possible heterogeneity in our sample and re-estimate the empirical model between 30 OECD countries and 93 non-OECD countries. In summary, we again discover that right-wing governments suffer less natural disaster damages in non-OECD countries, but this effect is statistically insignificant at conventional levels in OECD countries. We believe that the results herein have important implications for the policies of disaster prevention. In addition, voters will be able to choose a responsible government via the voting booth in accordance with our findings. Overall, our results suggest that a more partisan ideology could more precisely capture policy attitudes, especially in developing countries.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Variability of summer monsoon rainfall over Indo-Gangetic plains in
           relation to El-Nino/La-Nina
    • Abstract: Abstract The Indo-Gangetic plains (IGPs) incorporate seven meteorological subdivisions, viz. Punjab, West Uttar Pradesh and East Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Gangetic West Bengal. IGPs are generally characterised by fertile soils, favourable climate and an abundant supply of water. They are considered as the ‘breadbasket’ for much of South Asia. The main source of rainfall is the southwest monsoon which is normally sufficient for agriculture. Based on observed available rainfall data, a time series of summer monsoon rainfall (SMR) (1871–2012) over the IGPs has been developed. Decadal and 30-year variability in SMR reveal alternate epochs of above and below normal rainfall. These epochs tend to last for a decade or two. Although small in magnitude, the long-term trend (1871–2012) in SMR shows a decreasing nature. On the other hand, the decadal variability in the SMR reveal a dominance of a positive phase in the past (during the period 1913–1922) and a negative phase during the recent decade (1993–2002). Recent climatology (1983–2012) shows a downward trend of the rainfall anomalies with the turning point around 1997 (associated with century’s strongest El-Nino, in 1997). The period before 1997 depicts subdued above normal rainfall, while the period after 1997 depicts below normal rainfall activity. Furthermore, the study reveals that SMR variability is enhanced during the El-Nino years and is suppressed during the La-Nina years, but the presence of El-Nino (La-Nina) does not guarantee droughts (floods) over the Gangetic plains. The spatiotemporal changes in rainfall activity are attributed to global warming and associated changes in the Indian summer monsoon circulations and the general atmospheric circulation.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • A study on the occurrence of flood events over Jammu and Kashmir during
           September 2014 using satellite remote sensing
    • Abstract: Abstract During the first week of September 2014, the Jammu and Kashmir region witnessed devastating floods across the majority of its districts, caused by multi-day heavy rainfall events. According to data provided by the Home Ministry of India, several thousand villages across the state were hit and 390 villages completely submerged. The preliminary assessment of property damage was estimated between INR 50,000 million to INR 60,000 million. Approximately 277 people died. In this study, an effort was made to analyze the heavy rainfall events over Jammu and Kashmir using hourly data at the fine spatial scale from satellite remote sensing. Data over Jammu and Kashmir reveal strong diurnal variation in rainfall over the severely affected districts. Most of these districts experienced continuous frequent heavy rainfall rates in the range of 15–22 mm/h during the first week of September 2014. The results show that the cumulative rainfall during 2–6 September 2014 may have contributed to the flood events.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Erratum to: Seismic risk assessment of building stocks in Indian context
    • PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Community participation in flood mapping in the Amazon through
           interdisciplinary methods
    • Abstract: Abstract Community participation is an increasing issue in risk and disaster management. This paper argues that interdisciplinary methods are necessary for mapping flooding areas. On the one hand, hazards can be quantified and mapped through deductive approaches and methods from the natural sciences. On the other hand, hazards can also be described from the population perspective at a local level using social sciences methods. The methods are successfully mixed with a geographical information system environment. In the first case, important inputs include topographic and slope data for geomorphological mapping. In the second case, timeline methodology can indicate temporally the most severe floods, and a participatory map construction gives the population the opportunity to point out the affected areas. These methods were applied in a case study in the lower Amazon River Region in the urban area of the Santarém municipality. High-resolution images and remote sensing were essential tools. Results show that nine neighborhoods have high and moderate susceptibility areas to riverine floods. Another nine neighborhoods are affected by flash floods. Flood mapping is the first step in risk mapping for the sustainability of regional planning.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Seismic risk assessment of building stocks in Indian context
    • Abstract: Abstract A relative in-depth review of current earthquake loss estimation software packages are given and compared in this paper. A simple and user-friendly tool for quick seismic risk assessment has been developed for Indian condition using spectrum-based, micro-level-based ground motion attenuation relation. The attenuation relation used here defines a suitable hazard scenario with moment magnitude and location of the earthquake as parameters. A comparison of losses using the proposed software with other open-source software tools has been carried using two case studies situated at different location of India, covering different building typologies. It is observed that the losses estimated by the proposed tool found to be less than the losses estimated by other two tools based on macroseismic intensity and PGA approach. The variation in the loss estimates results mainly from the lack of correlation between the different definitions of seismic hazard and different vulnerability models.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Monitoring ground deformation in the settlement of Larissa in Central
           Greece by implementing SAR interferometry
    • Abstract: Abstract The settlement of Larissa in the eastern part of Central Greece suffers from continued land deformation as evidenced by ground fissures, sinkholes and subsidence. We used three different interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques to monitor ground deformation dynamics in the study area. Spatial patterns of short-term changes (35 days) were studied using conventional InSAR, longer-term changes (13 years) by interferometric stacking, and change dynamics of single objects was assessed by permanent scatterer technique. The results indicate co-occurring subsidence and uplift processes in the region with their average annual change rates reaching up to −2.9 and 6.6 mm a−1, respectively. Some of these changes may be attributed to tectonic fault movements, but there are also other mechanisms of continued ground deformation in the region, particularly the swelling and shrinking of expansive soils and human-induced changes in the groundwater level.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Effect of alternative distributions of ground motion variability on
           results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is a regularly applied practice that precedes the construction of important engineering structures. The Cornell–McGuire procedure is the most frequently applied method of PSHA. This paper examines the fundamental assumption of the Cornell–McGuire procedure for PSHA, namely the log-normal distribution of the residuals of the ground motion parameters. Although the assumption of log-normality is standard, it has not been rigorously tested. Moreover, the application of the unbounded log-normal distribution for the calculation of the hazard curves results in nonzero probabilities of the exceedance of physically unrealistic amplitudes of ground motion parameters. In this study, the distribution of the residuals of the logarithm of peak ground acceleration is investigated, using the database of the strong-motion seismograph networks of Japan and the ground motion prediction equation of Zhao and co-authors. The distribution of residuals is modelled by a number of probability distributions, and the one parametric law that approximates the distribution most precisely is chosen by the statistical criteria. The results of the analysis show that the most accurate approximation is achieved with the generalized extreme value distribution for a central part of a distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution for its upper tail. The effect of replacing a log-normal distribution in the main equation of the Cornell–McGuire method is demonstrated by the calculation of hazard curves for a simple hypothetical example. These hazard curves differ significantly from one another, especially at low annual exceedance probabilities.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Assessing the accuracy of multiple regressions, ANFIS, and ANN models in
           predicting dust storm occurrences in Sanandaj, Iran
    • Abstract: Abstract Dust storms in the Sanandaj area in the western region of Iran, mainly during spring and summer, have become an environmental crisis. Prediction of dust storm occurrences helps the residents to their detrimental effects. However, no study has been conducted to determine the accuracy of the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model in predicting dust storm occurrences. For that purpose, the prediction accuracy of ANFIS model was compared with that of two conventional models used for dust storm prediction: the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and Multiple Regression (MLR) models. Daily mean meteorological variables from Damascus (Syria) and PM10 concentration, measured at a ground station in Sanandaj, Iran, from 2009 to 2012, were selected as independent and dependent variables, respectively. After data normalization between zero and one, the data from 2009 to 2011 were used for the simulation, while the data of 2012 were utilized for testing the models. The performance of the ANFIS model in simulating dust storm occurrences was higher compared with those of MLR and ANN. In the simulation results, among the three models, the highest Pearson correlation coefficient between the observed and the estimated dust storm occurrences was obtained for the ANFIS model. The prediction tests showed that the accuracy of the ANFIS model was higher compared with ANN and MLR. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the ANFIS model has the potential to forecast dust storm occurrences in western Iran by using meteorological variables of the dust storm creation zone in the Syrian deserts.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • ROCADA: a gridded daily climatic dataset over Romania (1961–2013)
           for nine meteorological variables
    • Abstract: Abstract Daily records of nine meteorological variables covering the interval 1961–2013 were used in order to create a state-of-the-art homogenized climatic dataset over Romania at a spatial resolution of 0.1°. All meteorological stations with full data records, as well as stations with up to 30 % missing data, were used for the following variables: air pressure (150 stations); minimum, maximum, and average air temperature (150 stations); soil temperature (127 stations); precipitation (188 stations); sunshine hours (135 stations); cloud cover (104 stations); relative humidity (150 stations). For each parameter, the data series were first homogenized with the software MASH (Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization); then, the data series were gridded by means of the software MISH (Meteorological Interpolation based on Surface Homogenized Data). The datasets are freely available on request on the PANGAEA data portal (
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Monitoring sea level rise-induced hazards along the coast of Accra in
    • Abstract: Abstract Sea level rise, increased erosion and flooding threaten vulnerable coastal communities globally. Monitoring the changes in the coastal zone enables the risk levels to be detected and quantified. Such information facilitates developing sustainable policies to effectively manage hazards in the coastal zone. This study used available geospatial data to assess the physical state of the Accra coast and established ground control points that will facilitate effective monitoring of change. The data used included a bathymetric map (hard copy) with last revision in 1992, digital topographic map (2002) of the coast, 2005 orthophoto map and the geology map of Accra. The reliability of the data was determined, and the data were analysed using GIS tool. Ten concrete ground control points were established, mapped using DGPS and connected to the Ghana national coordinate system to form a network for effective monitoring in the coastal zone. The results revealed that the western region of the Accra coast has lower elevations onshore which will facilitate inundation from sea level rise. Comparing nearshore bathymetric profiles indicates that the eastern coast is deeper relative to the central and western. This will enable waves to break closer to the coast under increasing sea level rise thereby dissipating energy to facilitate sediment transport. Computed potential sediment transport rate revealed that the rate ranges between 4.1 × 105 and 7.2 × 105 m3/year. Using the control points established as reference points to monitor the coastal system will enable changes that can result in hazard to be detected and quantified.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Modeling of the equivalent permeability for an underground coal fire zone,
           Xinjiang region, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Underground coal fires (UCFs) constitute severe disasters, yet the quantification of the process of coal fire propagation, the first step in knowing how to extinguish a UCF, remains a great challenge even after decades of research. An important feature for understanding oxygen supply to a coal fire is the permeability of the UCF zone. Here, we propose a model for a typical UCF zone based on an analysis of the deformation of the overlying rocks caused by the UCF. We delineate the physical boundaries of the UCF and show how the zone includes both porous media and fractured zones. We then attempted to quantify the permeability of these porous and fractured zones and use the quantitative model to design, build, and employ an elementary UCF air/smoke flow experimental apparatus to run a permeability experiment. Subsequent to the experiments, we used simulation software to build a numerical model of the experimental apparatus. Calculated results from the numerical model agreed reasonably well with results from the physical experiments, though for this model to be applied in practice to quantify UCF propagation, further research on problems such as the size and distribution of the fractures and the relationship between the fractures and stress in the rock matrix will be required.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Zoning Iran based on earthquake precursor importance and introducing a
           main zone using a data-mining process
    • Abstract: Abstract In the present research, Iran was studied and zoned based on the extent and magnitude of foreshocks before the occurrence of earthquakes larger than magnitude 5 using a data-mining process. The aim of this research is to stress the importance of foreshock precursors for different zones of the country; therefore, these zones will be important for earthquake prediction research based on study of precursors. To conduct this research, foreshock precursors were introduced and then separated from the seismic database for the country considering reliable references during declustering operations. After preparing a foreshock database for the country, clustering operations were performed on it using the self-organizing map (SOM) and k-means methods. Using the silhouette index, it was found that the best classification of foreshocks was to classify them into six main clusters, and then group these clusters using Duncan and Tukey statistical tests for investigation in terms of magnitude. Finally, the terminal sequence of the Zagros–Makran Transition Zone was determined to be the main zone of the country in terms of number, relation, and magnitude of foreshocks before the occurrence of earthquakes of magnitude larger than 5. The Hormozgan region is completely located in this zone; i.e., foreshocks have a very close relation with large earthquakes, and most earthquakes in this region were accompanied by foreshocks of relatively high magnitude.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
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