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BIOLOGY (1322 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Vestibular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Life : The Excitement of Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Life Sciences, Society and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Limnological Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipids in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
mAbs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Macromolecular Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Madroño     Full-text available via subscription  
Malacologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Malacologica Bohemoslovaca     Open Access  
Malayan Nature Journal     Open Access  
Mammal Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mammal Study     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mammalian Genome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mammalian Species     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Marine Biodiversity Records     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Materials Science and Engineering: C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Mathematical Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Matrix Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Médecine Nucléaire     Full-text available via subscription  
mBio     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Natural Hazards
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [200 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.591]   [H-I: 40]
  • Retrieving three-dimensional coseismic displacements of the 2008 Gaize,
           Tibet earthquake from multi-path interferometric phase analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from ENVISAT ASAR ascending, descending and ALOS PALSAR ascending orbits are collected to investigate the coseismic displacements of the Mw 6.4 earthquake occurred in Gaize, Tibet on January 9, 2008 and the Mw 5.9 aftershock on January 16, 2008. Two interferometric phase analysis techniques, i.e., D-InSAR and multi-aperture InSAR, are employed to process the SAR data, with which the displacement measurements along three different line-of-sight (LOS) and three different azimuth directions are retrieved, respectively. Complete three-dimensional (3-D) coseismic displacement fields caused by the earthquake are then resolved by integrating the obtained LOS and azimuth displacement measurements with a weighted least squares adjustment, whose distributions are conformed to the two north-northeast trending northwest-dipping normal faults detected in previous studies. Ground subsidence and uplift are observed in the hanging wall and footwall of the main fault, respectively, and the subsidence reaches its maximum in the hanging wall of the second fault as a superimposed result of the Gaize earthquake and its aftershock. Anti-symmetric horizontal movements are also detected during the seismic events, which move inward in the focal region, but outward at the marginal. The left-lateral motions near the main fault indicate a small striking slip component caused by the Gaize earthquake. Finally, we discuss the potential of applying the derived spatially continuous 3-D displacement fields to determine the high-resolution 3-D strain fields of the Gaize earthquake, which provide important knowledge for assessing the source mechanism.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Application of a nonlinear model in landfall number forecasting for
           tropical cyclones in China
    • Abstract: Abstract Meteorological phenomena evolve according to both external influences and their own internal physical processes. Nevertheless, multivariate analysis ignores the evolution of individual meteorological events overtime, while time series analysis does not make full use of the implicit information on influencing factors. Instead, the threshold autoregressive model considers not only the additive effects of influencing factors, but also the processes controlling the evolution of the meteorological phenomena. Meanwhile, this approach deals with the nonlinear problems of meteorological processes through piecewise linearization, yielding improved fit to observations and better forecasts. The pooled variance, mean square error, and maximum fitted error of TARSO(2, (1, 1), (1, 3)) are all smaller than those obtained using TAR(2, 1, 2). The errors of the landfall number associated with TARSO(2, (1, 1), (1, 3)) are smaller than those associated with TAR(2, 1, 2). At present, however, time series data for meteorological processes are generally short, such that the corresponding information system is incomplete. Therefore, extrapolation should not be too far-ranging. It is strongly suggested that the current information system should be supplemented by the addition of new information each year, in the hope of improving future model accuracy and forecast skill.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • An epidemiological approach to determining the risk of road damage due to
    • Abstract: Abstract Disruption of segments of roads can have a significant impact on the vulnerability of the entire network. Natural disasters are frequent causes of disruptions of this kind. This article focuses on determining the risk of road disruptions due to landslides. Our approach is based on methodology widely used in the field of epidemiology. We had available data on the location of the landslides, the road network and a list of the disrupted road segments. With the use of a 2 × 2 table, we determined the relationship between landslide data and road segment disruptions and derived the risk coefficient based on the number of landslides in the vicinity of the road and its length. The result is a disruption risk map with risk coefficients ranging from 0 to 47.94. In order to distinguish the most risky segments, we calculated a threshold of 12.40 with the use of a risk breakdown in a group of segments without damage. Nineteen percentage (402 km) of the road network in the Zlín region (Czech Republic), where the methodology was applied, is located beyond this threshold. The benefits of this approach stem from its speed and potential to define the most risky areas on which a detailed geomorphologic analysis can be focused.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Application of in-seam directional drilling technology for gas drainage
           with benefits to gas outburst control and greenhouse gas reductions in
           Daning coal mine, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Gas outburst disasters are becoming more serious as the underground coal mines become deeper in China, and a thick zone of deformed coal provides conditions favorable to coal and gas outbursts. The Daning coal mine’s main mining seam is the No. 3 coal seam with coal and gas outburst hazard, which often contains two normal coal sub-layers and one deformed sub-layer. Considering both the geological conditions of the coal seam and applications of the in-seam directional longhole drilling technology, a new schematic diagram of in-seam directional longholes for gas drainage is developed. The two borehole layout models of longwall panel and main entries for gas outburst disasters control have been successfully applied. The gas drainage rates of both models are >70 %, and the residual gas contents are both <8 m3/t, which can be considered that the gas outburst disasters were effectively controlled. To better guide gas drainage, gas drainage normal and failure modes have been obtained. Although in-seam directional longhole technology has been successfully applied for regional gas drainage with benefits to gas outburst control, there are also some problems that are detrimental to greenhouse gas reductions in gas drainage and gas utilization. The three main problems are air leakage failure in gas drainage, decreasing gas concentration and a low gas utilization ratio. To address the problems mentioned above, five improvements are suggested.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Anomalous atmospheric events leading to Kyushu’s flash floods, July
           11–14, 2012
    • Abstract: Abstract During July 11–14, 2012, deadly floods and landslides triggered by a series of unprecedented heavy rains hit Kyushu, Japan, causing at least 32 deaths and around 400,000 evacuations. We focus on synoptic anomalies identified after inspecting rainfall patterns and documenting the conditions associated with this tragic event using data combined from the Global Rainfall Map in Near Real Time data, the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset, and the global forecast system. Rainfall maps indicated that there were many heavy rains in Kyushu in these days and this disaster was associated with the pattern of forecasts and standardized anomalies. A weather trough with positive height anomalies appeared, the center of which moved to the north of Japan over this period, which might cause wind anomalies and whereby lots of water vapor were transported to Kyushu area with up to 90 m s−1, and high values of precipitable water formed with up to 60 mm. These results suggest that a larger-scale pattern is conducive for heavy rainfall and the anomalies put the pattern in context as to the potential for an extreme rainfall event, which can provide insights and methods for predicting extreme events’ or something similar.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Strong motion scenario of 25th November 2000 earthquake for Absheron
           peninsula (Azerbaijan)
    • Abstract: Abstract Urban earthquake scenario requires compilation and interpretation of topographical, geological, geotechnical, macroseismic, and instrumental data, along with identification of proper ground motion prediction and site response analysis. Within the intensive city planning and infrastructure improvement of Baku city (the capital of Azerbaijan), and due to land and water instabilities, intensified landslides, and increasing seismic activity, Absheron peninsula has turned into one of the strategic earthquake case studies, representing exposure to earthquake hazard in the region. The last strongest 25th November 2000 earthquake revealed that the peninsula was severely vulnerable to seismic events, since there was a lack of public awareness of seismic disaster and its consequences, and there were not any preventive measures which might have been derived from the scenario-based simulations and prediction of strong motion distribution over the area. In the present work, integrated analysis of seismicity, engineering geology, geomorphology, topography, and site response is used to model strong motion dynamics in terms of peak ground acceleration distribution and intensity level for Absheron peninsula along with Baku city. The strong motion scenario of the 25th November 2000 earthquake shows that the larger area of the peninsula coincides with the VIII–IX intensity level, including Baku city. The scenario distribution can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Liquefaction of soil in the Emilia-Romagna region after the 2012 Northern
           Italy earthquake sequence
    • Abstract: Abstract At the end of May 2012, the Po plain region in northern Italy was shaken by a long sequence of seismic events. The 2012 Northern Italy earthquake sequence counted two mainshocks, about 1,600 aftershocks and lasted for several weeks. Although the mainshocks, which occurred on May 20 and May 29, 2012, registered a moment magnitude of 5.9 and 5.8, respectively, these two events caused widespread soil liquefaction and substantial damages to the built environment. This paper reports lessons learnt from a field investigation conducted in the areas affected by the earthquake sequence. Based on the field observations, it was concluded that despite the relatively low magnitudes of the shocks, most of the damages occurred as a consequence of liquefaction phenomena and/or absence of retrofitting of historical structures. The latter comprise churches, tower bells, towers, castles and fortresses. It was found that the occurrence of liquefaction was mainly associated with the presence of saturated alluvial soil deposits which were characterised by high liquefaction susceptibility. It was noted that these highly liquefiable soils were mainly located in proximity of ancient river courses that were artificially diverted in the eighteenth century to mitigate flooding and other hydrological risks.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Analysis of spatial distribution of global energy-related CO       class="a-plus-plus">2 emissions
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this paper is to use the gravity theory to study the spatial distribution and centers of gravity for the global energy-related CO2 emissions and to determine how they have changed over time. The main results are as follows: (1) In 2011, global energy-related CO2 emissions reached 34,032.74 Mt, and Asia was the largest CO2 emitter, which accounted for 45.25 % of total CO2 emissions in the world. (2) Since 2006, China has exceeded the USA and become the biggest CO2 emissions country. (3) In terms of the annual growth speed of CO2 emissions, China is the fastest, followed by India, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, and South Africa. (4) During the study period, the center of gravity for CO2 emissions is an overall movement toward the southeast, and Asia has become the center of gravity for CO2 emissions.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • An objective prediction model for typhoon rainstorm using particle swarm
           optimization: neural network ensemble
    • Abstract: Abstract A nonlinear ensemble prediction model for typhoon rainstorm has been developed based on particle swarm optimization-neural network (PSO-NN). In this model, PSO algorithm is employed for optimizing the network structure and initial weight of the NN with creating multiple ensemble members. The model input of the ensemble member is the high correlated grid point factors selected from the rainfall forecast field of Japan Meteorological Agency numerical prediction products using the stepwise regression method, and the model output is the future 24 h rainfall forecast of the 89 stations. Results show that the objective prediction model is more accurate than the numerical prediction model which is directly interpolated into the stations, so it can better been implemented for the interpretation and application of numerical prediction products, indicating a potentially better operational weather prediction.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Seismic microzonation for Penang using geospatial contour mapping
    • Abstract: Abstract Shear wave velocity (V s) and the fundamental site period of the subsurface condition are the primary parameters that affect seismic soil amplification in particular sites. Within the topmost layer of the soil, which measures 30 m, the average shear wave velocity V s30 is commonly used to build codes for site classification for the design of earthquake-resistant structures and to conduct microzonation studies. In this study, the development of a microzonation map for V s30 distribution, National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program V s30 site classification, and a fundamental site period for Penang are presented. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) test was conducted for more than 50 sites with available borehole data to develop the microzonation maps. The ten selected V s profiles measured by MASW show a good correlation with the data obtained using empirical correlations in a previous study. The highest V s values were identified at the northeastern and southeastern parts of Penang Island, corresponding to the shallow bedrock and the outcrop zone. Conversely, the lowest V s values were found in the northwestern and southwestern parts of the Penang mainland owing to the thick layer of soft clay and silt deposits. The site period map shows the variation in site periods, with the highest value of 1.03 s at the western part of the Penang mainland and the lowest value of 0.02 s at the eastern part of the Penang Island. The microzonation maps developed in this study are vital to studies on seismic hazard and earthquake mitigation programs in Malaysia.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Analysis of extreme ground snow loads for Canada using snow depth records
    • Abstract: Abstract Snow depth records from daily measurements at climatological stations were obtained from Environment Canada and were processed and analyzed. It was identified that there are 549 stations, each with at least 20 years of useable annual maximum snow depth data. Both the Gumbel distribution and generalized extreme value distribution were used to fit the annual maximum snow depth, considering several distribution fitting methods. Statistical analysis results indicated that, according to the Akaike information criterion, the Gumbel distribution is preferred for 72 % stations. The estimated return period value of annual maximum snow depth at stations was used to calculate their corresponding ground snow load. The at-site analysis results were used as the basis to spatially interpolate the ground snow loads for locations tabulated in the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) since a code location and a climatological site are usually not co-located. For the interpolation, the ordinary co-kriging method with elevation as co-variate was used because a cross-validation analysis by using several deterministic and probabilistic spatial interpolation techniques indicated that the ordinary co-kriging method is preferred. A comparison of the newly estimated ground snow loads to those locations tabulated in the 1995 edition and 2010 edition of the NBCC was also presented.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Effect of bedding structural diversity of coal on permeability evolution
           and gas disasters control with coal mining
    • Abstract: Abstract Bedding structure has affected gas flow in coal seam greatly, which also controls gas permeation direction and gas extraction results, and finally it has tremendous influence on prevention and control of gas disaster accidents. Combined with engineering practice of gas disaster prevention and control in China, in this paper, permeability evolution of nature coal in different bedding directions in the condition of loading is studied, and the results showed that in three directions of bedding fractures, permeability of coal which is parallel to bedding planes is the highest; it would be much easier for gas percolation along the bedding planes than other directions. In the unloading process, tension–shear destruction appears in coal sample which is oblique to bedding along the bedding planes, with a sudden increase in permeability. It is difficult for the crack damage from loading process to recover in unloading process, that is, permeability of unloading isn’t just a simple reverse process of loading. Combined with the permeability evolution of the three coal samples in the whole process, three permeability evolution models which include elasticity, plasticity and fracture are proposed. Based on the experimental results, gas extraction using boreholes along coal seam and through coal seam is compared during depressurized mining. Due to the bedding structure of coal seam, a large area of fracture network of “boreholes–bedding fractures” is formed among boreholes through coal seam and bedding structure, which makes the good effect of gas extraction using boreholes through coal seam. Research results will be of important guiding significance for choosing the best gas extraction scheme, layout of setting parameters of drilling boreholes and gas disaster prevention in the underground coal mine.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Philipp Schmidt-Thomé and Johannes Klein (eds): Climate change
           adaptation in practice. From strategy development to implementation
    • PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Activity and distribution of geohazards induced by the Lushan earthquake,
           April 20, 2013
    • Abstract: Abstract An Ms7.0 earthquake, focal depth 13 km, struck Lushan on April 20, 2013, caused 196 deaths and 21 missing, 13,484 injuries, and affected more than two million people. A field investigation was taken immediately after the quake, and the induced hazards were analyzed in comparison with the Wenchuan earthquake. We have identified 1,460 landslides and avalanches and four dammed lakes, which were generally small and concentrated on high elevation. Avalanches and rockfalls developed in cliffs and steep slopes of hard rocks, including Jinjixia of Baosheng Town and Dayanxia of Shuangshi Town, Lushan, and the K317 section the Xiaoguanzi section north to Lingguan Town along the provincial highway S210. Landslides were relatively less, mainly in moderate and small scales, developing in sandstone, shale, and loose colluviums. Only one single large landslide was observed to turn into debris slide-flow. Dammed lakes were formed by avalanches and landslides, all in small size and of low danger degree. The earthquake-induced hazards distributed in belt on the hanging wall along the faults, and their major controlling factors include tectonics, lithology, structure surface, and landform. More than 99 % landslides were within 30 km to the epicenter, and 678 within 10 km, accounting for 46 % of the total; about 50 % landslides were distributed on slopes between 35° and 55°, and 11 % on slope exceeding 75°; 60 % on slopes at the altitudes between 1,000 and 1,500 m, 77 % on slopes between 900 and 1,500 m; and 24 and 62 % in hard rocks and section between hard and soft rocks, respectively. Compared with the case of Wenchuan earthquake, both the number and extension of landslides and avalanches in Lushan earthquake-affected area are much smaller, only 5.53 % in number and 0.57 % in area. The earthquake has increased the instability of slope and potentiality of landslide and debris flow. Accordingly, the active period is expected to be relatively short comparing with that in Wenchuan earthquake-hit area. However, the insidious and concealed hazards bring difficulty for risk investigation.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Overexploitation status of groundwater and induced geological hazards in
    • Abstract: Abstract During the process of urbanization and industrialization, groundwater has been extensively overexploited, with the direct result of continuously decreasing groundwater level, followed by the appearance of large scale of depression cones, which is furthermore followed by land subsidence, seawater intrusion, and increasing difficulties in subsequent groundwater exploitation. This paper makes an analysis on the geological disasters caused by overexploitation of groundwater. The consumption and overexploitation status of groundwater in representative regions in China is discussed first, with the distribution and development of depression cones elaborated the next. And the problems of land subsidence, seawater intrusion, and increasing difficulties caused by overexploitation of groundwater are analyzed at last. Results show that overexploitation of groundwater is positively related to economic development. Moreover, geological disasters such as land subsidence and seawater intrusion caused by long term of overexploitation also aggregate, posing threats, and losses to people’s lives and production. According to the analysis, the fundamental resolution for overexploitation of groundwater as well as consequential geological damages is to properly control city size and to utilize groundwater rationally and efficiently.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Compressibility of cement-stabilized zinc-contaminated high plasticity
    • Abstract: Abstract The presence of heavy metals at high concentrations (percent levels) in soils has been a growing concern to human health and the environment, and the cement stabilization is considered to be an effective and practical approach to remediate such soils. The compressibility of such stabilized soils is an important consideration for redevelopment of the remediated sites for building and/or roadway construction. This paper investigates the effects of high levels of zinc concentration on the compressibility of natural clay stabilized by cement additive. Several series of laboratory compression (oedometer) tests were conducted on the soil specimens prepared with the zinc concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 %, cement contents of 12 and 15 %, and curing time of 28 days. The results show that the yield stress and compression index at the post-yield state decrease with an increase in the zinc concentration regardless of the cement content. The observed results are attributed to the decrease in the cement hydration of the soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the cementation structure of the soils is weakened, and the compressibility increases with the elevated zinc concentration, particularly at relatively high levels of zinc concentration.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Tectonic structures across the East African Rift based on the source
           parameters of the 20 May 1990 M7.2 Sudan earthquake
    • Abstract: Abstract Earthquakes in Kenya are common along the Kenya Rift Valley because of the slow divergent movement of the rift and hydrothermal processes in the geothermal fields. This implies slow but continuous radiation of seismic energy, which relieves stress in the subsurface rocks. On the contrary, the NW-SE trending rift/fault zones such as the Aswa-Nyangia fault zone and the Muglad-Anza-Lamu rift zone are the likely sites of major earthquakes in Kenya and the East African region. These rift/fault zones have been the sites of a number of strong earthquakes in the past such as the M w = 7.2 southern Sudan earthquake of 20 May 1990 and aftershocks of M w = 6.5 and 7.1 on 24 May 1990, the 1937 M s = 6.1 earthquake north of Lake Turkana close to the Kenya-Ethiopian border, and the 1913 M s = 6.0 Turkana earthquake, among others. Source parameters of the 20 May 1990 southern Sudan earthquake show that this earthquake consists of only one event on a fault having strike, dip, and rake of 315°, 84°, and −3°. The fault plane is characterized by a left-lateral strike slip fault mechanism. The focal depth for this earthquake is 12.1 km, seismic moment M o = 7.65 × 1019 Nm, and moment magnitude, M w = 7.19 (≅7.2). The fault rupture started 15 s earlier and lasted for 17 s along a fault plane having dimensions of ≅60 km × 40 km. The average fault dislocation is 1.1 m, and the stress drop, ∆σ, is 1.63 MPa. The distribution of historical earthquakes (M w ≥ 5) from southern Sudan through central Kenya generally shows a NW-SE alignment of epicenters. On a local scale in Kenya, the NW–SE alignment of epicenters is characterized by earthquakes of local magnitude M l ≤ 4.0, except the 1928 Subukia earthquake (M s = 6.9) in central Kenya. This NW–SE alignment of epicenters is consistent with the trend of the Aswa-Nyangia Fault Zone, from southern Sudan through central Kenya and further southwards into the Indian Ocean. We therefore conclude that the NW–SE trending rift/fault zones are sites of strong earthquakes likely to pose the greatest earthquake hazard in Kenya and the East African region in general.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • The role of friction in the seismic risk mitigation of freestanding art
    • Abstract: Abstract The problem of reducing the seismic risk for art objects, that are the objects generally contained within Museums, is of great interest. The first studies were performed in Japan and were successively organized in a general framework by a research program performed at Southern California University and sponsored by the Getty Museum at Malibu, California. In these papers and in the following Italian studies, the theoretical models for the problem concerning vases and statues are based on the dynamic behavior of rigid blocks and have been deeply developed. Unfortunately, because of the great lack of experimental data, determinant parameters for the problem characterization (like the friction between two superimposed blocks or between the art object and the support plane) are often assumed without reference to real values derived from laboratory tests. This paper presents the results of a research program containing the experimental determination of the friction coefficient between the art object and the support (by means of a testing apparatus on purpose realized) together with dynamic tests performed on simple-shaped objects made of different materials. The dynamic tests were performed using an unidirectional shaking table and different supporting surfaces, so that the influence of different friction coefficients has been analyzed.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Erratum to: Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of interconnected
           infrastructure: a case of Iranian high-pressure gas supply system
    • PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Trends and extreme value analysis of rainfall pattern over homogeneous
           monsoon regions of India
    • Abstract: Abstract Trends of pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon rainfall pattern were studied on decadal basis over different homogeneous monsoon regions in India for the period 1871–2008. It is attempted to understand the relation of monsoon rainfall with the global teleconnections of El Niño and La Niña, for which the correlation analysis has been carried out with Darwin pressure and Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature (Niño 3.4 SST). The correlation analysis inferred that the significant correlations were observed when monsoon rainfall is related to ENSO indices on decadal scale than on annual ones. The study also found that the north-west region is more affected by the moderate El Niño years compared to strong El Niño years. The regions Central North-East and North-East could not make any difference among weak, moderate and strong La Niña events. The authors also have carried out the extreme value analysis over different homogeneous monsoon regions of India as well as for whole India. The results show that the return values of rainfall are increasing with the return periods for the forthcoming 10, 20, 50 and 100 years. The heterogeneity in number of threshold years that were recorded for the extreme rainfall over north-east (humid climatic type) and north-west (arid climatic type) described the climate variability. The results of the present study may be useful for the policy makers in understanding the rainfall exceedance in different return periods for planning the risk management strategies.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
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Heriot-Watt University
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