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BIOLOGY (1416 journals)

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Journal Cover Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 45]   [146 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2334 journals]
  • Erosion and heavy mineral depletion of a placer mining beach along the
           south-west coast of India: Part I— Nearshore sediment transport
           regime
    • Authors: R. Prasad; L. Sheela Nair; N. P. Kurian; T. N. Prakash
      Pages: 769 - 796
      Abstract: Abstract The Chavara coast of southwest India is well known for its rich beach placer deposits which are being commercially exploited by the industries. Replenishment of these resources, which consist of heavy minerals of varying densities, by the hydrodynamic processes is essential for maintaining the stability of the coast as well as sustenance of mining. Rich concentrations of heavy minerals were reported consistently in the beach sediments of this coast in the past, but a systematic reduction in the concentration of the heavies has been reported during the past one-and-a-half decades. This paper, the first in a series of three, emanates from a programme of study launched to understand the mechanisms that manifest the reported changes in the morphology and mineralogy along this coast. In this study the longshore and cross-shore sediment transport rates along this coast have been estimated adopting numerical model studies. The validated LITDRIFT and LITPROF modules of the LITPACK modelling system have been used for computing the longshore and cross-shore sediment fluxes in the surf zone and innershelf region. The net annual longshore sediment transport is northerly in the surf zone where as it is southerly in the innershelf. Detailed analysis of the computed results shows domination of onshore transport over offshore transport. The beach volume change estimated from the measured beach profile on the other hand shows a reduction in the annual replenishment. The domination of the onshore flux as seen in the computations is actually not reflected in the field observations, and this can be attributed to the influence of excessive sand mining by the industries.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2368-z
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Coastal boulder deposits attesting to large wave impacts on the
           Mediterranean coast of Egypt
    • Authors: Majid Shah-Hosseini; Amr Saleem; Abdel-Moneim A. Mahmoud; Christophe Morhange
      Pages: 849 - 865
      Abstract: Abstract Coastal boulder accumulations are documented along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt between Alexandria and Marsa Matrouh at four distinct sites. The spatial distribution and dimensions of 116 medium to large boulders were documented along four representative coastal profiles. Boulders weigh up to 23 metric tons and are located up to 40 m from the shoreline. Geomorphologic features, morphometric properties and the presence of attached marine organisms attest that the boulders are detached and transported from original subtidal or intertidal settings by the impact of unusually large waves. Adapted hydrodynamic models were applied to evaluate the height of the transporting waves. Our result shows that largest boulders could be transported by tsunami waves of 2.6 m or storm wave of about 10 m in height. Radiocarbon dating was performed on fixed marine gastropod (Vermetidae and Dendropoma) shells found on four representative large boulders. A calibrated age from the easternmost site is roughly coincident to the well-known tsunami of 1303 AD in the eastern Mediterranean. Three other calibrated ages correspond to a period ranging from the eighteenth century AD to present. A large tsunami like the event of 1303 AD would have been able to transport all of the studied boulders. However, radiocarbon ages and morphological properties such as freshly broken edges and surfaces suggest younger ages for the majority of boulders. Since there have been no large, post-1303 AD tsunamis reported, we suggest that the majority, if not all, of the boulders were most likely deposited by multiple intense storms. According to the wave height model, storms with wave heights exceeding 9 m at their breaking point probably occur about once every 100 years. A relationship between the boulder deposits and the high storm frequency that characterized the little ice age in the Mediterranean Sea is plausible. This study emphasizes the potential hazard of large waves on this part of the Mediterranean coast of Egypt.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2349-2
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Estimation of the source parameters of the Nepal earthquake from strong
           motion data
    • Authors: A. Joshi; Monu Tomer; Sohan Lal; Sumer Chopra; Sandeep Singh; Sanjay Prajapati; M. L. Sharma; Sandeep
      Pages: 867 - 883
      Abstract: Abstract Kathmandu and its surrounding region were rocked recently by a devastating earthquake on April 25, 2015. This is the largest earthquake that has occurred in this region since the past eight decades. This earthquake was recorded on strong motion stations located about 470–522 km away from its epicenter. Records of accelerographs from these stations have been used to determine the location of this earthquake using hypo71 algorithm given by Lee and Lehr (HYPO71, a computer program for determining hypocenter, magnitude and first motion pattern of local earthquakes. US Geological Survey Open file report, 100, 1975). The recorded accelerograms have been corrected for site effects using site amplification curve obtained from ambient seismic noise recorded at each station. Site effect has been computed using H/V ratio method given by Nakamura (Q Rep RTRI 30(1):25–33, 1989) using ambient noise data. The corrected record is further used to obtain source displacement spectra. The source spectrum obtained from strong motion data is compared with theoretical source spectrum obtained from Brune’s (J Geophys Res 75:4997–5009, 1970) model for the horizontal components. The long-term flat level and corner frequency from source displacement spectra are used to calculate stress drop, source radius and seismic moment of this earthquake. The present study indicates that the Nepal earthquake originated 12.0 km below the epicenter located at 27.93°N, 84.70°E. The source radius, stress drop and seismic moment of this earthquake estimated from source displacement spectra are 44.13 ± 3.85 km, 18.68 ± 5.93 bars and 3.53 ± 0.28 × 1027 dyne cm, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2351-8
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Study and numerical modeling of 1945 Makran tsunami due to a probable
           submarine landslide
    • Authors: Ehsan Rastgoftar; Mohsen Soltanpour
      Pages: 929 - 945
      Abstract: Abstract The Makran subduction zone (MSZ), located along the southern coasts of Iran and Pakistan, has experienced some deadly earthquakes and tsunamis, including the destructive 1945 Makran tsunami that led to more than 4000 fatalities. In spite of past studies on 1945 Makran tsunami, there are still unresolved problems, particularly on mismatches between the tsunami wave heights and arrival times with reported observations at different locations. The significant disagreement between the results of numerical models and existing data supports the existence of another mechanism involved during the generation of the tsunami. In the present study, a submarine landslide, triggered by the 1945 Earthquake, is studied as the major source of 1945 Makran tsunami. The simulation of seismic 1945 Tsunami, using high-resolution bathymetry data with a fine nested grid to increase the accuracy of modeled tsunami wave heights, confirms the large discrepancies between the reported tsunami waves and simulated values. Assuming the location and dimensions of a probable landslide, the GEOWAVE model, a combination of TOPICS and FUNWAVE models, is applied to model the non-seismic 1945 Tsunami. The simulated landslide tsunami demonstrates a fair agreement with the reported tsunami wave heights at different locations in Pakistan, Iran and India. The arrival times of tsunami waves at Pasni and Karachi in Pakistan can also be interpreted if the occurrence time of the probable submarine landslide is assumed with 3.5 h delay after the quake. The study highlights the potential danger of a non-seismic landslide tsunami in unconsolidated sediments at the MSZ and the necessity of the development of suitable countermeasures against other potential Makran tsunamis in future.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2356-3
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Quantification of intensity of landscape changes using remote sensing and
           GIS with special reference to the Bhuj earthquake (26th January, 2001, M
            = 7.9)
    • Authors: Ketaki Joshi; Deepali Gadkari
      Pages: 989 - 1005
      Abstract: Abstract Change detection is used to detect changes after the Bhuj earthquake of January 26, 2001 and quantify the intensity of changes using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Changes are generally studied for their locations and spatial distribution, band sensitivity, aerial extent (quantity of changes), nature (permanent change, seasonal/cyclic change) and processes are inferred that may have led to the changes. The present research is an attempt to quantify the intensity of changes using remote sensing and GIS techniques. It may be possible to just visually detect changes in landscape, but to detect the variations in intensity of changes, techniques of image processing need to be employed. In the present study, one of the techniques of change detection, namely ‘temporal band differencing,’ is used to detect changes in landscape and their intensity after the Bhuj earthquake (26th January 2001, magnitude = 7.9 on Richter scale). In this method of change detection, temporal difference between two images is computed by subtracting time 2 image values from time 1 image values (brightness values) of corresponding pixels. Output image contains absolute differences in brightness values of corresponding pixels. This research work attempts to study the change detection technique in which bandwise change detection and areawise change detection is carried out. All the changes are then correlated with the geology and tectonics of the area around Bhuj and epicenter of the Bhuj earthquake.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2359-0
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Farmer-level adaptation to climate change and agricultural drought:
           empirical evidences from the Barind region of Bangladesh
    • Authors: Md. Nazir Hossain; Swapna Chowdhury; Shitangsu Kumar Paul
      Pages: 1007 - 1026
      Abstract: Abstract The north-western part of Bangladesh especially the Barind region is considered as a drought-prone area. The objective of this paper is to find out the adaptation measures practised by farmers to cope with climate change and agricultural drought in two drought-prone villages of the north-western Bangladesh. The primary data for this study were collected from a structured questionnaire survey conducted on 130 households selected from 192 through simple random sampling. The present study finds that agriculture of this area is recurrently disrupted by frequent drought events. Moreover, the climate change will increase both frequency and magnitude of extreme drought events in this region. This paper identifies that the impacts of drought on agriculture are difficulties in irrigation, disruption in cropping pattern, depletion of ground water table, problem in fish cultivation and so on. On the other hand, analyses unveil that respondents practised a range of adjustment strategies to combat adverse impacts of drought such as adoptions of drought-tolerant crop varieties, rainwater harvesting, mango and jujube intercropping with rice, kitchen gardening, weed control and reducing water loss, constructing water control structures, irrigation and cultivation of fast-growing fish species. Therefore, the present study recommends proper drought early warning system, reserving surface water, managing supplemental irrigation, tree plantation, re-excavation of canals and traditional ponds, credit support to the farmers, preparedness and awareness rising to ensure the future sustainable agricultural development in the study areas.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2360-7
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Detection of 2011 Sikkim earthquake-induced landslides using neuro-fuzzy
           classifier and digital elevation model
    • Authors: Krishna Kant Singh; Akansha Singh
      Pages: 1027 - 1044
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a semiautomatic method for landslide detection from satellite images and digital terrain information using generalized improved fuzzy Kohonen clustering network (GIFKCN) classifier is presented. The proposed method classifies the pre- and post-landslide images using the GIFKCN classifier which is trained using spectral indices such as normalized difference vegetation index, normalized difference building index and normalized difference water index. The changes in the vegetation class are identified using the pre- and post-classified images. Generally, landslides result in loss of vegetation; thus, using this property, candidate landslides are identified. Finally, false positives are removed using a rule set created from DEM derivatives slope and aspect. The proposed method is applied on Landsat 5 and Advanced Land Imager EO-1 satellite images to detect earthquake-induced landslides that occurred in Sikkim state of India due to the September 18, 2011, earthquake of magnitude M w = 6.9. The terrain information used is ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model of the area. The accuracy assessment of the method is done, and the results show that the landslides are identified and classified efficiently.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2361-6
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Flood damage assessment of an urban area in Taiwan
    • Authors: Yi-Ru Chen; Chao-Hsien Yeh; Bofu Yu
      Pages: 1045 - 1055
      Abstract: Abstract In Taiwan, flooding is one of the major natural hazards causing death and millions of dollars of economic losses every year. In order to minimize damage, a detailed and comprehensive flood damage assessment is necessary for both flood control planning and emergency service operations. As such, the objectives of this study were to assess possible flood damages and provide a comprehensive flood risk index for Taichung City in Taiwan. An analytic hierarchy process questionnaire, which included the factors of different land-use types, was designed and answered by 33 experts from governments, industry, and academia in Taiwan. Questionnaire responses were analyzed, and numerical values were allocated for each land-use type. A flood risk index was then produced by combining the potential of inundation and the flood damage scores. Higher flood risk was found along major roads and the main channel of the Fazih River. The methodology used in this study can be applied to most urbanized areas in Taiwan and elsewhere in the world when the required data sets are available.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2362-5
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • One-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of GLOF and impact on hydropower
           projects in Dhauliganga River using remote sensing and GIS applications
    • Authors: Praveen K. Thakur; Suruchi Aggarwal; S. P. Aggarwal; S. K. Jain
      Pages: 1057 - 1075
      Abstract: Abstract This study presents the one-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling for the Glacier Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) simulation for the six hydroelectric (HE) power projects in Dhauliganga River of Alaknanda Basin. ArcGIS and HEC-GeoRAS extension is used for the whole river GIS database creation. Elevation values and cross-sections were taken from digital elevation models. The initial flow hydrographs were used as upstream boundary condition in MIKE11. The land use/land cover map and Manning’s N values for roughness were prepared using LANDSAT TM and CARTOSAT-1 and verified by the field observation. Cross-sections were also modified after identifying the actual cross-sections width and depth. Subsequently, simulation has been carried out by using MIKE11 HD model at different sections of the river stretch. Calibration is done for the period of June 1, 2001, to May 31, 2002, and validated for the year of 2005 with about 95 % accuracy of observed data. In this study, results have been carried out by 100-year flood ordinates and considering the redistribution of lateral flow from five catchments of Alaknanda Basin. The GLOF peaks for the breach parameters are 1394.28, 1552.04 and 1898.04 m3/s for breach width 40, 60 and 80 m, respectively, just the downstream of the lake site. It is inferred from the study that the GLOF for 80 m breach width gives the peak flood of 1575 m3/s at the project site 1 for first scenario and 3500 m3/s at the site 6 for second scenario. The maximum simulated water levels and depth for the Central Water Commission gauging site at Joshimath are 1381.49 and 4.329 m, respectively, for 100-year-plus GLOF event. This information is critical for the project design discharge calculations.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2363-4
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • A Weibo-based approach to disaster informatics: incidents monitor in
           post-disaster situation via Weibo text negative sentiment analysis
    • Authors: Hua Bai; Guang Yu
      Pages: 1177 - 1196
      Abstract: Abstract Similar to Twitter, Weibo is a popular Chinese microblogging service that is used to read and write millions of short text messages on any topic within 140-character limit. Users create status messages, which sometimes show opinions about different subjects. Particularly, after a disaster, people always express their states and emotions toward the situation via microblogging service. The previous study works revealed that public negative emotions could be associated with the subsequent incidents. Therefore, once a disaster happens, the crowed negative sentiment among victims needs to be paid more attention, which could be useful to discover the following emergency events such as public fear and crisis. In order to detect potential incidents implicated by victims’ negative emotions in the post-disaster situation, this paper proposes a structured framework including three phases. The first phase focuses on how to identify disaster-related Weibo messages from the massive and noisy microblogging stream, and the second phase is about how to filter negative sentiment messages from all of the disaster-concerned microblogging. We introduced machine learning methods into both of the above phases. In the last phase, we pay attention on crowd negative sentiment, by tracking and predicting victims’ negative emotions changing trend on the base of GM (1, 1) to carry out incidents discovery in a post-disaster situation. By the case study of Ya’an earthquake, we demonstrated that the proposed framework could perform well in incidents monitors such as aftershocks and potential public crisis, which is meaningful and useful to disaster relief process and emergency management in post-disaster situation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2370-5
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Exploring underlying causes and assessing damages of 2010 flash flood in
           the upper zone of Panjkora River
    • Authors: Shakeel Mahmood; Amin-ul-Haq Khan; Shaker Mahmood Mayo
      Pages: 1213 - 1227
      Abstract: Abstract The paper assesses the damage caused by 2010 flash flood and its underlying causes in the upper zone of Panjkora River within district Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province in Pakistan. Floods in general and flash floods in particular are very common in the area, and the phenomenon has intensified in the wake of observed climatic changes in the region. Anticipating an increase in the multiplicity of causes and a rise in the human, livelihood, and property losses attributed to flash floods calls for a detailed study of affected communities in the region. Within the study area of District Dir Upper—within the band of 200 m on both sides of Panjkora River, three most affected communities, namely Barikot, Kalkot, and Sharingal, were picked on random basis to have detailed analysis of underlying causes and the quantification of damage assessment in the area. Questionnaire-based household survey and structured interviews were conducted to investigate physical and economic damages in the sample sites. Global positioning system (GPS) survey is also conducted to acquire absolute location of damages, and geographic information system is used to visualize land use, land cover, physical features, and GPS data. Monsoon winds interacted with the westerlies abnormally caused unprecedented high intensity rainfall in the valley. The steep topography of the area caused rainwater to accumulate rapidly in the Panjkora River channel, overpowering the withholding capacity of the river. The flash flood inflected heavy losses to life and properties of the local population. The infrastructure such as houses, roads, retaining walls, bridges, water supply schemes, and irrigation channels were destroyed severely in the whole area particularly in Kalkot. Three explored underlying causes of flash floods and the degree of damage due to 2010 flash floods in the region call for an enhanced realization for climatic change adaptability, flood risk management, and mitigation measures, better flood response through early warning systems, and improved rehabilitation and recovery efforts within flood prone areas such as district Dir Upper, KP, Pakistan.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2386-x
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • An evaluation of disaster risk reduction (DRR) approaches for coastal
           delta cities: a comparative analysis
    • Authors: Sarfaraz Gani Adnan; Heidi Kreibich
      Pages: 1257 - 1278
      Abstract: Abstract Deltas are the promising places with multifarious ecosystems and arable soils along with the ease of water transportation system; hence, a number of important cities are established in or near coastal delta regions. However, due to the geomorphic characteristics, those cities are extremely exposed to hydro-meteorological hazards, especially to riverine and coastal flood. Additionally, climate change, rapid urbanization and subsidence are exacerbating the existing situation and causing monumental loss. Researchers as well as various international organizations like United Nations Inter-Agency Secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction have recognized the implications of formulating disaster risk reduction (DRR) plans for coastal delta cities. This demands for the excogitation of adaptation policies and measures in addition to the mitigation efforts to reduce flood risks. In this regard, to support the comprehensive concept development, this study elicits different components of flood risk reduction policies and measures, congenial for coastal delta cities in respect of physical and environmental perspectives. Eleven precedent (model) cities are selected to study their various initiatives for reducing coastal flood risks. Findings show that protecting cities from flooding and reducing exposure to floods are two different but interrelated approaches of DRR. Combinations of structural and non-structural measures are the prerequisites to achieve the goal of effective DRR.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2388-8
      Issue No: Vol. 83, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • A database for fatalities and damages due to the earthquakes in Turkey
           (1900–2014)
    • Abstract: Abstract Considering the possibility of the reoccurrence of the earthquakes in which loss of life and property have accrued, the possibility of future losses can be minimized. In Turkey, although the information about the fatalities and damaged buildings might be contrived in the resources, those have limited information and contain substantial differences. Moreover, that information might not be presented in a common database. Some information presented by Turkey Prime Ministry Disaster & Emergency Management Authority, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute and United States Geological Survey is inconsistent not only in the number of earthquakes, fatalities, damaged buildings, the magnitude and intensity of earthquakes, but also at the date of the same earthquake. In this study, first, the resources providing the data regarding the earthquakes causing fatalities and damage between 1900 and 2014 in Turkey have been analyzed. Then, through examining all the databases, literature and available historical documents, a single updated list of the earthquakes that shows the fatalities and damages between 1900 and 2014 in Turkey has been prepared. Finally, in light of the data rearranged, the statistical facts about the losses in the historical earthquakes are presented.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2397-7
       
  • Dynamic risk assessment of waterlogging disaster for maize based on
           CERES-Maize model in Midwest of Jilin Province, China
    • Authors: Enliang Guo; Jiquan Zhang; Yongfang Wang; Ha Si; Feng Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Waterlogging disasters are one of the most destructive meteorological disasters, which lead to crop yield reduction and cause a great threat to humanity and economic structure. This study presents the methodology and procedure for dynamic risk assessment of waterlogging disasters for maize in Midwest of Jilin Province, China. We took the representative waterlogging disaster years of 1994, 2005, and 2010 as examples, the growth-stage waterlogging index was established to assess the waterlogging disaster hazard by using standard antecedent precipitation index and the relative humidity index. Maize growing data and maize planting area data were combined to assess the waterlogging disaster vulnerability of maize, in which the CERES-Maize model was used to simulate the growth of maize at a daily time step for each grid. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk, the dynamic risk assessment model of waterlogging disaster for maize was built. In this study, the risk indexes were divided into five classes by using an optimal partition method. The grid GIS technology was used to map the spatial distribution of data and the grade of waterlogging disaster risk at a resolution of 5000 × 5000 m. The results show that areas with very low waterlogging disaster risk are mainly located in western and northeastern regions; in contrast, very high and high waterlogging disaster risk levels are mainly located in southern and central regions. Meanwhile, high risk areas at different growth stages gradually spread from the southwestern to the Midwestern and southeastern regions. This study could help the government when they make strategic decisions regarding food security in China, and the method of dynamic waterlogging risk disaster assessment could also be applied for other crops to control and prevent the occurrence and development of waterlogging disasters and reduce their adverse influence.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2391-0
       
  • Northern hemisphere tropical cyclones during the quasi-El Niño of
           late 2014
    • Authors: A. H. Sobel; Suzana J. Camargo; A. G. Barnston; M. K. Tippett
      Abstract: Abstract During the second half of 2014, the tropical Pacific was in a state marginally consistent with El Niño. While oceanic indicators were indicative of a weak El Niño event, a number of atmospheric indicators were not, and a number of forecast centers did not declare an El Niño. Nonetheless, the most active tropical cyclone basins of the northern hemisphere—those of the North Atlantic and Pacific—showed tropical cyclone statistics that in some respects were consistent with El Niño. In particular, the numbers of relatively intense storms in the four basins considered—major hurricanes in the Eastern North Pacific and North Atlantic, super typhoons in the Western North Pacific, and hurricanes in the Central North Pacific—formed a pattern strongly consistent with El Niño.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2389-7
       
  • Relationship between peak rainfall intensity (PRI) and maximum flood depth
           (MFD) in an urban catchment of Northeast India
    • Authors: Sanat Nalini Sahoo; P. Sreeja
      Abstract: Abstract The present study demonstrates the relationship between peak rainfall intensity (PRI) and maximum flood depth (MFD) for an urban catchment in Northeast India. To study the impact of land use (LU) change and the rainfall intensities on the flooding pattern of the urban study area, the inundation maps are prepared for different LU. Also series of historical rainfall events and rainfall intensities with different return periods have been considered for the preparation of flood inundation maps. MFD has been determined from the inundation maps for all the historical rainfall events and probabilistic storms. MFD and PRI have been related to different rainfall intensities. This relationship between PRI and MFD would serve as a readymade decision-making tool for instant estimation of MFD corresponding to a given PRI and thus aid managers and decision makers to manage urban flood problem. The relation between PRI and MFD shows an exponential trend. The ratio of MFD in 2011–2006 varies between 1.06 and 1.21. The average increase in MFD from 2006 to 2011 is 1.12, which is attributed to an increase in effective impervious area from 2006 to 2011.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2374-1
       
  • Community disaster resilience: a qualitative study on Iranian concepts and
           indicators
    • Authors: Abbas Ostadtaghizadeh; Ali Ardalan; Douglas Paton; Hamidreza Khankeh; Hossain Jabbari
      Abstract: Abstract The concept of community disaster resilience (CDR) has become one of the most popular terms in disaster literature. This concept is recognized as a culture-bound phenomenon that is influenced by diverse domains and indicators in any specific culture. This qualitative study uses content analysis to explore conceptual and working definitions, as well as domains and indicators of CDR in Iranian context. CDR is defined as “The ability of a community to coexist, cope with, and manage disasters through an integrated, comprehensive, participatory and positive approach.” Seeking a working definition, CDR explores as “The level of hazards that a community absorbs with no damage, the level of main functions that remains active, and the period a community needs to return to normal conditions.” CDR in Iran is formed by social, managerial, economic, cultural, physical, and environmental domains and as a holistic approach that makes disaster management effective and efficient.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2377-y
       
  • Selected physical parameters as determinants of flood fatalities in
           Bangladesh, 1972–2013
    • Authors: Bimal Kanti Paul; Sharif Mahmood
      Abstract: Abstract Bangladesh is vulnerable to frequent and disruptive flooding, which adversely affects the country’s economy and society, and causes fatalities. Because of their recurrent nature and devastating impacts, floods have received significant attention from hazard researchers. However, on a national scale, few rigorous attempts have been made to identify what actually affects flood fatalities. Using a temporal approach, this paper examines the determinants of flood deaths in Bangladesh for the 1972–2013 period. Application of Poisson regression reveals that the extent of the area flooded, the number of people affected by the event, flood duration and frequency, and the interactions of these factors have a significant effect on flood deaths. The study findings may help future flood disaster management in Bangladesh.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2384-z
       
  • Measuring and mapping the flood vulnerability based on land-use patterns:
           a case study of Beijing, China
    • Authors: Jie Liu; Zhenwu Shi; Dan Wang
      Abstract: Abstract In recently years, flood disasters have produced immense economical and ecological damages in worldwide, particularly in the developing cities. The increasing damages contribute to “vulnerability” that illustrates which areas are vulnerable to what and why. Therefore, researching vulnerability is an essential and invaluable tool for helping the policy makers to identify the vulnerable people and hot-spots in advance, and to design and implement effective preparedness strategies. In this paper, using the example of Beijing, we propose a quantitative model for measuring flood vulnerability based on land-use patterns which is one of the key variables affected flood vulnerability. By combining the flood hazard characteristic “inundation depth”, a series of flood vulnerability maps demonstrate differential flood vulnerability of flood-prone areas at regional level with the approach of remote sensing and GIS techniques. These maps detect and show the distribution characteristics of vulnerable hot-spots and reveal challenges that the public faced when living in the flood-prone areas.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2375-0
       
  • Seismic performance assessment and potential failure modes of intake
           towers
    • Authors: Hanyun Zhang; Liaojun Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract The seismic safety and proper functioning of intake towers immediately after an earthquake is crucial to the seismic reliability of the whole hydraulic engineering. This study proposes a performance-based seismic design methodology for intake towers based on the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), which takes into account the interactions of the main intake tower with hoist chambers, foundations, and reservoirs. An IDA-based seismic assessment method including fractile and fragility analyses for high-rise intake towers is developed. A high-rise intake tower of a hydropower station in Southwest China is taken as a demonstration case. The initiation and propagation of seismic cracks, and the potential failure modes and mechanisms were investigated according to a series of nonlinear numerical simulation tests.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-016-2395-9
       
 
 
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