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BIOLOGY (1298 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (6 followers)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of The Indian Academy of Wood Science     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (4 followers)
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (2 followers)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (2 followers)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Journal of Vestibular Research     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (15 followers)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (4 followers)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (7 followers)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Life     Open Access   (2 followers)
Life : The Excitement of Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Life Sciences, Society and Policy     Open Access   (1 follower)
Limnological Papers     Open Access   (1 follower)
Lipid Insights     Open Access   (1 follower)
Lipid Technology     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Lipids in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
mAbs     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Macromolecular Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Madroño     Full-text available via subscription  
Malacologia     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Malacologica Bohemoslovaca     Open Access  
Mammal Review     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Mammal Study     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Mammalian Genome     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Mammalian Species     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Marine Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Marine Biodiversity Records     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (85 followers)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Materials Science and Engineering: C     Hybrid Journal   (14 followers)
Materials Technology: Advanced Performance Materials     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Mathematical Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (4 followers)
Matrix Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Médecine Nucléaire     Full-text available via subscription  
mBio     Open Access   (2 followers)
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Mechanisms of Development     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
médecine/sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Medical and Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Membrane Protein Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Metabolic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Metabolites     Open Access   (1 follower)
Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Metallomics     Full-text available via subscription  
Methods     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Methods in Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Methods in Cell Science     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Methods in Ecology and Evolution     Partially Free   (11 followers)
Micologia Aplicada Internacional     Open Access  
Microarrays     Open Access  

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Natural Hazards    [101 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2187 journals]   [SJR: 0.591]   [H-I: 40]
  • The impact of extreme weather and climate change on inland waterway
    • Abstract: Abstract Similarly to other modes of transport, inland waterway transport has to deal with weather events, affecting navigation conditions and the infrastructure on inland waterways. Most significant extreme weather events result from high precipitation, droughts and temperatures below zero degrees Celsius. Heavy rainfall, in particular in association with snow melt, may lead to floods resulting in suspension of navigation and causing damage to the inland waterway infrastructure as well as the property and health of human beings living in areas exposed to flooding. Long periods of drought may lead to reduced discharge and low water levels, limiting the cargo-carrying capacity of vessels and increasing the specific costs of transportation. Temperatures below zero degrees Celsius over a longer period may cause the appearance of ice on waterways, leading to suspension of navigation and possible damage to infrastructure, for example, buoys. Neither extreme weather events as well as climate change are new phenomena nor is their general occurrence expected to change suddenly. However, due to climate change, extreme weather events may change positively or adversely in severity and frequency of occurrence, depending on the respective weather event and the location of its occurrence. This paper gives an overview of the impact of extreme weather events on inland waterway transport in Europe, focussed on the Rhine–Main–Danube corridor, followed by a discussion on how climate change will change these events and their impacts.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Severe weather affecting European transport systems: the identification,
           classification and frequencies of events
    • Abstract: Abstract Severe weather can have serious repercussions in the transport sector as a whole by increasing the number of accidents, injuries and other damage, as well as leading to highly increased travel times. This study, a component of the EU FP7 Project EWENT, delineates a Europe-wide climatology of adverse and extreme weather events that can be expected to affect the transport network. We first define and classify the relevant severe weather events by investigating the effects of hazardous conditions on different transportation modes and the infrastructure. Consideration is given to individual phenomena such as snowfall, heavy precipitation, heat waves, cold spells, wind gusts; a combined phenomenon, the blizzard, is also considered. The frequency of severe weather events, together with the changes in their spatial extension and intensity, is analyzed based on the E-OBS dataset (1971–2000) and the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset (1989–2010). Northern Europe and the Alpine region are the areas most impacted by winter extremes, such as snowfall, cold spells and winter storms, the frequency of heavy snowfall. The frequency of hot days is highest in Southern Europe. Severe winds and blizzards are the most common over the Atlantic and along its shores. Although heavy rainfall may affect the whole continent on an annual basis, extreme precipitation events are relative sparse, affecting particularly the Alps and the Atlantic coastline. A European regionalization covering similar impacts on the transport network is performed.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Impact of climate change on hydrological conditions of Rhine and Upper
           Danube rivers based on the results of regional climate and hydrological
    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of the Effects of Climate Change On the Inland waterway Networks (ECCONET) EU FP7 project was to assess the effect of climate change on the inland waterway transport network with special emphasis on the Rhine and Upper Danube catchments. The assessment was based on consolidation and analysis of earlier and existing research work as well as application of existing climate change and hydrological modelling tools. A key premise at the planning stage of the project had been that all impact studies conducted within ECCONET should be comparable with each other. This can be guaranteed by the common meteorological and hydrological basis. The climate model simulations, which are the most physics- and process-oriented tools for projecting the future climate evolution, include several uncertainties. In addition, uncertainties exist in the hydrological model simulations. In ECCONET, an effort was made to quantify the uncertainty range by using “representative projections” that represent both the lower and upper signals of hydrological low-flow parameters for 2021–2050 over the Rhine catchment. Their evaluation indicated that the finally chosen two regional climate model simulations could be applied also for the Upper Danube catchments as representative projections. The raw climate model outputs have been corrected to the observation data set through application of the linear scaling and the delta-change method. The first impact studies carried out after validation of the hydrological models resulted in discharge scenarios used as input to the economic models in ECCONET.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Vulnerability of transportation to extreme weather and climate change
    • PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Identification of weather trends for use as a component of risk management
           for port operations
    • Abstract: Abstract Efficiency in modern shipping must not come at the expense of undertaking avoidable risks. The complexity of most activities in shipping requires a cooperative effort made by specialists to comprehend the uncertainties of risk and to seek measures for its reduction. Such an effort, however, must not hinder operations but aim at promoting productivity by addressing those factors that have a negative effect on it. This imperative need to deal with the problems of risk led to the development of a series of risk-related disciplines. Identifying the factors that create hazards and finding an effective way of minimizing them, whenever possible, leads to smoother operations, better time frames and, eventually, lower costs. One of the factors that can generate risks and reduce productivity in maritime-related operations is weather. Like any other factor that bears uncertainties and risks, weather hampers actual port operations (such as the loading/unloading of goods and passengers), but it also leads to problems for a whole chain of upstream and downstream industries. In this study, an attempt is made to identify and register hazardous weather trends in the Port of Limassol (used as a case study for Mediterranean ports). An up-to-date picture of the prevailing weather conditions in the area is presented with the aim to provide vital information for risk assessment purposes, both in the short and in the long term.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Weather effects on recycled concrete used as a paving material for roads
    • Abstract: Abstract Transportation is vital for the economic and social development and prosperity of every country. Weather phenomena can significantly affect transportation, having huge impacts on the economy and transport user safety. Research indicates that the road transportation system is the most vulnerable system to weather effects. Results from a nine-year period in Cyprus showed that extreme weather conditions resulted in a 5.8 % increase in fatalities on the roads. On the other hand, there is pressure to develop more environmentally sustainable materials to be used in roads, considering the availability of natural aggregate resources and the amount of waste concrete material arising from construction and demolition. This paper describes the use of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) as a paving material in roads and its properties related to weather effects. Eight different concrete mixtures containing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) were tested for the weather-related parameters of sorptivity, porosity and permeability. Results showed that the use of RCA and eventually RAC will affect the behaviour of road pavements, due to their higher sorptivity, porosity and permeability. However, it is believed that this will not be detrimental to the quality of road surfaces.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Foreward: EU-funded projects on extreme and high-impact weather
           challenging European transport systems
    • Abstract: Abstract Three major projects initiated by the European Commission within its 7th Framework Programme that have studied the weather phenomena and their projections to the future in relation to their impacts and implications to the European transport systems have recently been concluded. All of the transport modes were covered, as well as all of the critical phenomena present within the European area. The three projects (that ran from 2009 and 2012) are as follows: (1) EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport—; (2) ECCONET (Effects of climate change on the inland waterway networks—; (3) WEATHER (Weather Extremes: Assessment of Impacts on Transport and Hazards for European Regions— In this Foreward to the Special Issue on “Vulnerability of Transportation to Extreme Weather and Climate Change,” the key results of the above three projects are addressed concisely, offering the reader a broader view of their findings; since some of these are enveloped in the research papers hosted in this volume, they will not be covered in detail. However, the rich output of these projects in the form of “Project Deliverables” and “Reports” is also an important source of information on the findings and results from these three projects which are publicly available on the projects’ Web sites. The purpose of this Foreward is to bring to the attention of the interested reader these sources and overview briefly some of the projects’ outcomes. Also, a short comparative discussion on selected findings is made, outlining agreements and disagreements between the projects.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Integrated use of GIS and remote sensing for monitoring landslides in
           transportation pavements: the case study of Paphos area in Cyprus
    • Abstract: Abstract This study considers the impact of landslides on transportation pavements in rural road network of Cyprus using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) techniques. Landslides are considered to be one of the most extreme natural hazards worldwide, causing both human losses and severe damages to the transportation network. Risk assessment for monitoring a road network is based on the combination of the probability of landslides occurrence and the extent and severity of the resultant consequences should the disasters (landslides) occur. Factors that can trigger landslide episodes include proximity to active faults, geological formations, fracture zones, degree and high curvature of slopes, water conditions, etc. In this study, the reliability and vulnerability of a rural network are examined. Initially, landslide locations were identified from the interpretation of satellite images. Different geomorphological factors such as aspect, slope, distance from the watershed, lithology, distance from lineaments, topographic curvature, land use and vegetation regime derived from satellite images were selected and incorporated in GIS environment in order to develop a decision support and continuous landslide monitoring system of the area. These parameters were then used in the final landslide hazard assessment model based on the analytic hierarchy process method. The results indicated good correlation between classified high-hazard areas and field-confirmed slope failures. The CA Markov model was also used to predict the landslide hazard zonation map for 2020 and the possible future hazards for transportation pavements. The proposed methodology can be used for areas with similar physiographic conditions all over the Eastern Mediterranean region.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Statistically downscaled climate change projections of surface temperature
           over Northern Italy for the periods 2021–2050 and 2070–2099
    • Abstract: Abstract Future changes of seasonal minimum and maximum temperature over Northern Italy are assessed for the periods 2021–2050 and 2070–2099 against 1961–1990. A statistical downscaling technique, applied to the ENSEMBLES-Stream1 and CIRCE global simulations (A1B scenario), is used to reach this objective. The statistical scheme consists of a multivariate regression based on Canonical Correlation Analysis. The set-up of the statistical scheme is done using large-scale fields (predictors) derived from ERA40 reanalysis and seasonal mean minimum and maximum temperature (predictands) derived from observational data at around 75 stations, distributed over Northern Italy, over the period 1960–2002. A similar technique is also applied to the number of frost days and ice days at a reduced number of stations in order to construct projections on change of the selected extreme temperature indices for the two future periods. The evaluation of future projections for these extreme indices is relevant due to its impacts on transports, health, and agriculture. The downscaling scheme constructed using observed data is then applied to large-scale fields simulated by global models (A1B scenario), in order to construct scenarios on future change of seasonal temperature, mean and extreme indices, at local scale. The significance of changes is tested from the statistical point of view. The results show that significant increases could be expected to occur under scenario conditions in both minimum and maximum temperature, associated with a decrease in the number of frost and ice days in both periods and more intense to the end of the century.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Assessment of extreme weather events on transport networks: case study of
           the 2007 wildfires in Peloponnesus
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper deals with the 2007 wildfires that hit Peloponnesus, the southern peninsula of Greece, presenting an overview of the impacts in terms of infrastructural damages and human injuries and losses. Network performance and components’ criticality analyses are used to assess the effects of the fires in vehicular traffic and the overall transport network. The crisis and emergency management of the event are discussed in depth, highlighting potential gaps and possibilities for future improvement. The paper concludes with a presentation of the adaptation measures that succeeded the event in terms of recovery plans, national efforts on fire prevention programs and wildfire management.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Transport system management under extreme weather risks: views to project
           appraisal, asset value protection and risk-aware system management
    • Abstract: Abstract Until recently, research on potential economic impacts of climate change and extreme weather events on transport infrastructure was scarce, but currently this area is rapidly expanding. Indeed, there is a growing international interest, including the European area, regarding the impacts of extreme weather and climate change on the management of various transportation modes. This paper reviews briefly the present status regarding the knowledge of financial aspects of extreme weather impacts on transportation, using recent research findings from Europe, and proposes some new views in cost-benefit analysis, project appraisal and asset value protection for the management of transport systems under extreme weather risks. Quite often, risk management is understood as a response to truly extreme impacts, but this constitutes a misunderstanding. Some values are more extreme than others, and in the context of extreme weather, some weather phenomena are more extreme in their intensity and resulting impacts. An analysis of the level of costs and risks to societies, as a result of extreme weather, reveals that the risks in different European Union member states deviate substantially from each other. Also, the preparedness of different societies to deal with extreme weather events is quite variable. Extreme weather and climate change costs and risks represent a new type of item, which has to be dealt with in project appraisal. Although a fully established procedure does not exist, some fundamental ideas of cost-benefit analysis under extreme weather scenarios are presented in this paper, considering accident costs, time costs and infrastructure-related costs (comprising physical damages to infrastructures and increased maintenance costs). Cost-benefit analysis is usually associated with capital investments, but the original idea of cost-benefit analysis is not restricted to investment appraisal. Therefore, activities such as enhanced maintenance, minor upgrades, adoption of new designs, improved information services and others may be subject to cost-benefit analysis. Extreme weather and climate change costs and risks represent a new type of item, which apparently has to be dealt with also in project appraisal. A fully established procedure does not exist, although some basic principles have been introduced in analytical format. There is a lack of models to estimate extreme weather impacts and consequences and how to adapt to those costs. Optimising the efforts in maintenance and new design standards is even further away, but constitutes an overwhelming task. In this respect, new approaches and ways of thinking in preserving asset’s residual value, return periods, sustainability and equity and formal methods supplementing cost-benefit analysis are put forward. The paper concludes with a call for the need for more integrated management of transport systems. In particular, it is recognised that the different stages of transport system planning pose their own challenges when assessing the costs and benefits of policy measures, strategies and operational decisions.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Large and small numbers: options for quantifying the costs of extremes on
           transport now and in 40 years
    • Abstract: Abstract The past 15 years has been characterized by a high density of record-breaking weather extremes in Europe. These include the extratropical cyclones Lothar, Kyrill and Xynthia across western and mid Europe; the major floods in the UK, Germany and eastern Europe; the heat waves in 2003 and 2007 and, after a long period of mild winters, the heavy winter seasons in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Inspired by the rising trends in weather-related damages worldwide and the studies on the topic carried out in overseas, the EC funded the sister projects such as Weather Extremes-Assessing the Impacts on Transport and Hazards for European Regions (WEATHER), EWENT and ECCONET to determine the magnitude of current and future risks to the European transport sector and to assess suitable adaptation strategies. This paper presents the assessment framework of the WEATHER project and the results of weather-inflicted damage costs now and in 2040–2050. Total annual damages are found to be around €2.5 billion, which largely attribute to road traffic. However, broken down to passenger and ton kilometers the highest risk is borne by rail traffic due to its expensive infrastructures and its comparably complex operating structure. This indication even amplifies when looking four decades ahead: while average road transport costs will only raise by 7 % due to milder winters, rail traffic costs may increase by up to 80 % due to more floods and less predictable winter periods. A comparison with the results of the EWENT study uncovers a high range of uncertainty concerning methodological approaches and data treatment. Thus, the final figures might even be much higher.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Adapting rail and road networks to weather extremes: case studies for
           southern Germany and Austria
    • Abstract: Abstract The assessment of the current impacts of extreme weather conditions on transport systems reveals high costs in specific locations. Prominent examples for Europe are the economic consequences of the harsh winter periods 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 and the floods in Austria, Eastern Europe, Germany and the United Kingdom in 2005 and 2007. Departing from the EC-funded project WEATHER, this paper delves into the subject of adaptation strategies by revisiting the project’s general findings on adaptation strategies and by adding two specific cases: (1) advanced winter maintenance on roads in southwest Germany and (2) technical and organizational measures in Alpine rail transport. For these two cases, feasible adaptation strategies are elaborated and their potential is discussed in light of damage cost forecasts up to 2050. For the road sector, we find a high potential to mitigate weather-related costs, although damages here are expected to decline. In contrast, rail systems face strongly increasing damages and the mitigation options offered by improved information and communication systems seem to be largely exploited. Consequently, it is easier to justify expensive adaptation measures for high-cost rail infrastructures than for road transport. A generic analysis of 14 damage cases worldwide, however, revealed that generally awareness raising, cooperation and communication strategies are sufficient to mitigate the most severe damages by natural disasters.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • The extreme weather risk indicators (EWRI) for the European transport
    • Abstract: Abstract The European 7th Framework Programme project Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport devised a holistic analysis of extreme weather risks for the transport system. The analysis provided an overview of extreme weather risks, or a risk panorama. The risk panorama was built on a probabilistic approach to extreme weather phenomena occurrences and on vulnerability analysis based on selected macro-level economic and transport system indicators of the member states of EU-27. The panorama covers all transport modes and views infrastructure-related risks, time delay risks, and accidents risks. In addition to climatic circumstances, the devised risk indicator is also dependent on regional circumstances, such as population and transport density and income level. This paper describes the construct and application of an extreme weather risk indicator (EWRI). EWRIs are counted for each country and each transport mode separately. Furthermore, this paper also presents the most significant extreme weather events in different parts of Europe and on the transport modes they affect the most.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
  • Hazardous geology zoning and influence factors in the near-shore shallow
           strata and seabed surface of the modern Yellow River Delta, China
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, on the basis of 3,200 km shallow stratigraphic section and side-scan sonar data of the coastal area of the Yellow River Delta, we delineated and interpreted a total of seven types of typical hazardous geologies, including the hazardous geology in the shallow strata (buried ancient channel and strata disturbance) and hazardous geology in the seabed surface strata (pit, erosive residual body, sand patch, sand wave and scour channel). We selected eight parameters representing the development scale of the hazardous geology as the zoning indexes, including the number of hazardous geology types, pit depth, height of erosive residual body, length of scour channel, area of sand patch, length of sand wave, width of the buried ancient channel and depth of strata disturbance, and implemented the grid processing of the research area to calculate the arithmetic sum of the zoning indexes of each unit grid one by one. We then adopted the clustering analysis method to divide the near-shore waters of the Yellow River Delta into five hazardous geology areas, namely the serious erosion disaster area controlled by Diaokou lobe waves, hazardous geology area of multi-disasters under the combined action of the Shenxiangou lobe river wave flow, accumulation type hazardous geology area controlled by the current estuary river, hazardous geology area of single disaster in the deep water area and potential hazardous geology area of the Chengdao Oilfield. All four of the main factors affecting the development of hazardous geology, namely the diffusion and movement of sediment flux of the Yellow River water entering the sea, seabed stability, bottom sediment type and distribution, as well as the marine hydrodynamic characteristics, show significant regional differentiation characteristics and laws. These characteristics and laws are consistent with the above-mentioned zoning results, in which the distribution, scale and genetic mechanism of hazardous geology are considered comprehensively. This indicates that the hazardous geology zoning based on the cluster analysis is a new attempt in research regarding the hazardous geology zoning of the near-shore waters of the modern Yellow River Delta and that this type of zoning has a high level of reasonability.
      PubDate: 2014-04-17
  • Anthropogenic effects and climate change threats on the flood diversion of
           Erchung Floodway in Tanshui River, northern Taiwan
    • Abstract: Abstract The Erchung Floodway, one of the successful measures of the Taipei Flood Prevention System, was constructed to mitigate the Tanshui River floods in the Taipei metropolitan area. The Taipei metropolitan area is the most crowded region in Taiwan. More than one-third of the total population of the country resides in this area. However, its function has changed due to urban development and natural alterations over time. The main concerns of this study are to investigate the current diversion capacity and the current vulnerability of the Taipei Flood Prevention System in accordance with influential environmental factors, including anthropogenic effects and climate change threats. Thirty-two scenarios were established for sensitivity analysis using HEC-RAS model. The results indicate that the capacity of the Erchung Floodway diversion has noticeably decreased from 9,200 to 6,300 m3/s under a 200-year recurrence flood. Three vulnerable locations have been identified: Shihtzutou, Shezi, and Wugu. It was also found that the Taipei Flood Prevention System will encounter challenges if the roughness of the riverbed within the Erchung Floodway increases by over 50 %, the roughness of the riverbed within the Tanshui River increases by over 25 %, the water stage at the river mouth rises to 5.03 m, or the 200-year recurrence flood increases to 28,300 m3/s. Two proposed cost-effective mitigation strategies in the present study are: (1) to remain or decrease the riverbed elevation and roughness within the Tanshui River (Taipei Bridge section); (2) to decrease the riverbed roughness by at least 25 % within the upstream and midstream of the Erchung Floodway.
      PubDate: 2014-04-17
  • Sensitivity of different convective parameterization schemes on tropical
           cyclone prediction using a mesoscale model
    • Abstract: Abstact This study presents an intercomparison of four cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS) in the prediction of three cases of tropical cyclones in the north Indian Ocean. The study makes use of the Weather Research and Forecasting model of Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model version with a horizontal resolution of 27 km. The four deep cumulus schemes studied are (a) modified Kain–Fritsch (KF), (b) Betts–Miller–Janjic, (c) Simplified Arakawa–Schubert and (d) Grell-Devenyi Ensemble (GD) schemes. Three cases chosen for the study are unique cases with entirely different characteristics, synoptic/convective conditions and with varying levels of performance of the driving global model forecasts. The objective of the current study is to report the relative performance of the CPSs rather than the accuracy of the forecasts, under different convective conditions as reflected in the initial and boundary conditions. The study shows that generally KF scheme produced near-realistic track, intensification and the associated rainfall patterns and GD performed worst in terms of convective organisation and the sustained intensity. The impact of cumulus parameterization schemes and its performance vary widely among the three cases studied. The standard verification scores and the contribution of grid-scale precipitation towards the total rainfall by the mesoscale model are also compared between the different cases as well as the different cumulus parameterization schemes. The performance evaluation of the tropical cyclone predictions by the mesoscale model is influenced by not only the model physics but also the convective conditions as input into the model .
      PubDate: 2014-04-13
  • Liquefaction of soil in the Emilia-Romagna region after the 2012 Northern
           Italy earthquake sequence
    • Abstract: Abstract At the end of May 2012, the Po plain region in northern Italy was shaken by a long sequence of seismic events. The 2012 Northern Italy earthquake sequence counted two mainshocks, about 1,600 aftershocks and lasted for several weeks. Although the mainshocks, which occurred on May 20 and May 29, 2012, registered a moment magnitude of 5.9 and 5.8, respectively, these two events caused widespread soil liquefaction and substantial damages to the built environment. This paper reports lessons learnt from a field investigation conducted in the areas affected by the earthquake sequence. Based on the field observations, it was concluded that despite the relatively low magnitudes of the shocks, most of the damages occurred as a consequence of liquefaction phenomena and/or absence of retrofitting of historical structures. The latter comprise churches, tower bells, towers, castles and fortresses. It was found that the occurrence of liquefaction was mainly associated with the presence of saturated alluvial soil deposits which were characterised by high liquefaction susceptibility. It was noted that these highly liquefiable soils were mainly located in proximity of ancient river courses that were artificially diverted in the eighteenth century to mitigate flooding and other hydrological risks.
      PubDate: 2014-04-13
  • Monitoring large oil slick dynamics with moderate resolution multispectral
           satellite data
    • Abstract: Abstract Accidental release of crude oil into the sea due to human activity causes water pollution and heavy damages to natural ecosystems killing birds, fish, mammals and other organisms. A number of monitoring systems are used for tracking the spills and their effects on the marine environment, as well as for collecting data for feeding models. Among them, Earth observation technologies play a crucial role and moderate spatial resolution satellite systems are able to collect images with a very short revisit time or even daily. This paper describes the use of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data for monitoring large oil slicks with the fluorescence/emissivity index and object-based image analysis. Two case studies are presented: the Deepwater Horizon (2010) and the Campos Basin (2011) oil spill accidents. Results show that it is possible to track the dynamics of the slick both for massive and long-lasting accidents and for smaller and very quick accidents. The main advantages of the method proposed are a straightforward implementation, a fast and semi-automated data processing and the capability of integration of daytime and nighttime acquisitions, as well as its adaptability to different sensors.
      PubDate: 2014-04-13
  • Movement of radiocaesium fallout released by the 2011 Fukushima nuclear
    • Abstract: Abstract The moment magnitude (M w) 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, generating an unusually large tsunami. The seismic shocks and tsunami inundation severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Radionuclide emission due to reactor breakdown contaminated wide areas of Fukushima and its surroundings. Heavy rainfall causes runoff across surface soil, and fine soil particles are susceptible to uptake by the flowing water. The high radioactivity of grains suspended in floodwater indicates that radioactive fallout was streamed into rivers in particulate form and transported downstream under high-flow conditions. Here, we investigated the diachronic mode of 134Cs and 137Cs in central Fukushima, through which the contaminated air mass drifted and caused wet deposition of radionuclides. Stratigraphic measurements of radioactivity in sediment cores is the method employed in this study to determine the basin-wide movement of 134Cs and 137Cs, to evaluate the significance of the erosion–transportation–accumulation processes on natural decontamination in terrain characterized by steep slopes and high precipitation. Stratigraphic results illustrate the process of fluvial sediment discharge, and the massive deposition of radiocaesium suggests basin-wide movement of fallout during concentrated rainfall. Grain suspension in torrential currents is an important pathway for transportation of radionuclides from land to sea, and the appearance of hotspots on floodplains and the offshore sea floor is the consequence of erosion and transportation under seasonal heavy precipitation. Radioactive horizons occur in offshore sediment columns and thus radiocaesium discharged from the estuary will persist forever under the sea floor if no artificial disturbance occurs.
      PubDate: 2014-04-10
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