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BIOLOGY (1428 journals)

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Journal Cover Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.851]   [H-I: 60]   [255 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • An investigation of disaster education in elementary and secondary
           schools: evidence from China
    • Authors: Tian-Tian Zhu; Yue-Jun Zhang
      Pages: 1009 - 1029
      Abstract: The role of school-based disaster education in mitigating natural disaster has received extensive emphasis across the world. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the elementary and secondary schools in China have attached more importance to disaster education. However, it is unclear about the outcome up to now. Therefore, we conduct a relatively extensive survey in Beijing, Hunan, Guangdong and Sichuan recently, based on the perspectives of both students and teachers, so as to explore their attitude, gains, and expectations. The findings indicate that, first, it is the consensus that school-based disaster education should be enhanced to raise the awareness and capability of students to address disasters. Second, school-based disaster education has received overall positive outcome in recent years, although there are also 18% students expressing that their schools have not opened disaster curricula or they are unclear about that. Third, almost all the teachers argue that schools should develop disaster-related curricula, incorporate disaster education curricula into the compulsory curricula, and design special textbooks for disaster education. Finally, most teachers insist that the school-based disaster education has limited effect on students to improve their disaster prevention awareness and capability; in particular, the disaster education tends to impart knowledge for the most part but lack attractiveness and local features.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3004-2
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Fuzzy probabilistic seismic hazard analysis with applications to Kunming
           city, China
    • Authors: Jelena M. Andrić; Da-Gang Lu
      Pages: 1031 - 1057
      Abstract: China is prone to highly frequent earthquakes due to specific geographical location, which could cause significant losses to society and economy. The task of seismic hazard analysis is to estimate the potential level of ground motion parameters that would be produced by future earthquakes. In this paper, a novel method based on fuzzy logic techniques and probabilistic approach is proposed for seismic hazard analysis (FPSHA). In FPSHA, we employ fuzzy sets for quantification of earthquake magnitude and source-to-site distance, and fuzzy inference rules for ground motion attenuation relationships. The membership functions for earthquake magnitude and source-to-site distance are provided based on expert judgments, and the construction of fuzzy rules for peak ground acceleration relationships is also based on expert judgment. This methodology enables to include aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in the process of seismic hazard analysis. The advantage of the proposed method is in its efficiency, reliability, practicability, and precision. A case study is investigated for seismic hazard analysis of Kunming city in Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China. The results of the proposed fuzzy logic-based model are compared to other models, which confirms the accuracy in predicting the probability of exceeding a certain level of the peak ground acceleration. Further, the results can provide a sound basis for decision making of disaster reduction and prevention in Yunnan province.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3007-z
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A resilience framework for safety management of fossil fuel power plant
    • Authors: Zaijing Gong; Dapeng Liang
      Pages: 1081 - 1095
      Abstract: This paper investigates safety management of the fossil fuel power plants from a resilient perspective; we identified the principles for embedding resilience in fossil fuel power plants by considering both system characteristics and attributes of fossil fuel power plants. Then, a two-dimensional matrix framework is provided to guide resilience management. The first dimension is principles that a resilient system shall possess (“top management commitment,” “flexibility,” “awareness” and “learning”), the other dimension covers almost all the aspects that a fossil fuel power plant could involve. After that, a case study of “China Guodian Harbin Taiping Power and Heat Co., Ltd” is given to illustrate the application of the framework. Through the analysis, we found that physical configuration is of high-level resilience, i.e., the “hardware part” of the plant is desirable. However, elements related to external and internal cognitive and social domains are not ideal. Most of the components are of low resilience or medium resilience. Generally, as a state-owned enterprise, “Taiping power plant” is subjected to both the local economic environment and its lack of initiative.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3009-x
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Modelling a storm surge under future climate scenarios: case study of
           extratropical cyclone Gudrun (2005)
    • Authors: Martin Mäll; Ülo Suursaar; Ryota Nakamura; Tomoya Shibayama
      Pages: 1119 - 1144
      Abstract: Weather Research and Forecasting atmosphere model and Finite Volume Community Ocean Model were for the first time used under the pseudo-climate simulation approach, to study the parameters of an extreme storm in the Baltic Sea area. We reconstructed the met-ocean conditions during the historical storm Gudrun (which caused a record-high +275 cm surge in Pärnu Bay on 9 January 2005) and simulated the future equivalent of Gudrun by modifying the background conditions using monthly mean value differences in sea surface temperature (SST), atmospheric air temperature and relative humidity from MIROC5 in accordance with the IPCC scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 for 2050 and 2100. The simulated storm route and storm surge parameters were in good accordance with the observed ones. Despite expecting the continuation of recently observed intensification of cyclonic activity in winter months, our numerical simulations showed that intensity of the strongest storms and storm surges in the Baltic Sea might not increase by the end of twenty-first century. Unlike tropical cyclones, which derive their energy from the increasing SST, the extratropical cyclones (ETCs) harvest their primary energy from the thermal differences on the sides of the polar front, which may decrease if the Arctic warms up. For climatological generalizations on future ETCs, however, it is necessary to re-calculate a larger number of storms, including those with different tracks and in different thermal conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3011-3
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Simulation-based optimization of emergency evacuation strategy in
           ultra-high-rise buildings
    • Authors: Ning Ding; Hui Zhang; Tao Chen
      Pages: 1167 - 1184
      Abstract: Emergency evacuation in high-rise buildings is a crucial problem. The evacuation strategy of using stairs and evacuation elevators should be optimized. In this paper, simulation-based optimization method is used to optimize the evacuation strategy of using stairs and elevators in high-rise buildings. The stair simulation is based on a cellular automata model, and several typical pedestrians’ walk preferences are considered in this model. In the simulation, evacuation elevators can arrive at the refuge floors, and the scheduling of the elevators is optimized based on the GA algorithm. The simulation-based optimization is designed as a two-level problem: The upper level is a strategy level; the lower level is an operation level. In the study case, the evacuation strategy of a 100-floor ultra-high-rise office building is optimized. We find that if evacuees follow the traditional stair evacuation strategy, the evacuation time is 42.6 min. After optimization, the evacuation time of optimal strategy by using both stairs and elevators is 25.1 min. Compared with the traditional stair evacuation strategy, the efficiency of evacuation is improved by 41.1%. It is also found that the merging behavior in stairwells will decrease the velocity of the pedestrian flow. Stairs are still the main egress, and evacuation elevators are an assistant egress during high-rise building evacuation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3013-1
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Slip monitoring of a dip-slope and runout simulation by the discrete
           element method: a case study at the Huafan University campus in northern
           Taiwan
    • Authors: Chia-Han Tseng; Yu-Chang Chan; Ching-Jiang Jeng; Yu-Chung Hsieh
      Pages: 1205 - 1225
      Abstract: Slope failure is a widely observed phenomenon in the mountainous areas in Taiwan due to rainy climatic and fragile geological conditions. Landslides easily occur after intense rainfall, especially from typhoons, and, accordingly, cause a great loss of human life and property. At the northern end of the Western Foothill belt in northern Taiwan, Huafan University is founded on a dip-slope about 20° toward the southwest composed of early Miocene alternations of sandstone and shale. Data from continuous monitoring using inclinometers and groundwater gauges reveal that 6–10 mm/month of slope creeping occurs, and a potential sliding surface is then detected about 10–40 m beneath the slope surface. To understand the potential runout process of the dip-slope failure at the campus, particle flow code 3D models based on a discrete element method are applied in this study. Results of the simulation reveal a critical value of the friction coefficient to be 0.13 and that more than 90% of the campus buildings will slide down in 100 s when the friction coefficient is reduced to half the critical value. The weakening of the shear zone due to the rise of groundwater during rainstorms is assumed to be the main factor. Some suggestions for preventing landslide disasters are to construct catchpits to drain runoff and lower the groundwater table and to install a sufficient number of ground anchors and retaining walls to stabilize the slope.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3016-y
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Impact of sea level rise and coastal slope on shoreline change along the
           Indian coast
    • Authors: P. C. Mohanty; R. S. Mahendra; R. K. Nayak; T. Sirinivasa Kumar
      Pages: 1227 - 1238
      Abstract: Densely populated coastal zones of India are highly exposed to natural environment. These are impacted by episodic natural events, continuous coastal process, gradually rising sea levels and coexisting human interventions. The present study is an attempt to assess the implication of the sea level rise and coastal slope in the coastal erosion for entire mainland of India. In this regard, two methods were employed to estimate the shoreline change rate (SCR): (1) satellite-derived SCR using the Landsat TM and ETM+ acquired during 1989–2001 and (2) SCR derived by Bruun Rule using the parameters coastal slope and sea level trend derived from satellite altimetry. Satellite-derived SCR has been compared with the shoreline change estimated based on Bruun Rule, revealing a better agreement with each other in terms of trend. Peaks of shoreline retreat calculated using Bruun model and satellite-observed SCR offset by 25–50 km. Offset in these peaks was observed due to net drift towards north in the east coast and south in the west coast of India, revealing the applicability of the Bruun Rule along the Indian coast. The present study demonstrates that coastal slope is an additional parameter responsible for the movement of shoreline along with sea level change. The results of satellite-derived SCR reveal the highest percentage of erosion along West Bengal coast with 70% followed by Kerala (65%), Gujarat (60%) and Odisha (50%). The coastlines of remaining states recorded less than 50% of coasts under erosion. Results of this study are proving critical inputs for the coastal management.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3018-9
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Children in disasters: the role of household preparedness
    • Authors: Ilona M. McNeill; Kevin R. Ronan
      Pages: 1239 - 1254
      Abstract: To increase children’s resilience to disasters, it is important to expand our understanding of what increases their vulnerability. One household factor that has been tied to disaster resilience in general is the extent to which households have prepared themselves. In the context of wildfire preparedness, the current study examined whether households with very young, young, or teenage children differ in the extent to which they prepare their household compared to childless households. A two-wave survey study amongst Australian residents of wildfire-prone areas (N wave1 = 998, N wave2 = 514) found that households with young (under twelve years old) and very young (under six years old) children had prepared their properties less for wildfires compared to childless households at the start of the wildfire season, but they had caught up in property preparedness by the end of it. However, households with younger children also performed fewer disaster-planning actions than childless households. This difference remained significant throughout the season. The former group also reported lower motivation to prepare, greater perceived difficulty in preparing, and greater lack of time to prepare than childless households. The majority of these findings were explained by the younger age of the adult parents rather than the presence of younger children per se. An exception was that those with young and very young children reported a greater lack of time to prepare than childless adults of a similar age. We discuss practice and public policy implications that follow from this research.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3019-8
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Numerical simulation of tropical cyclone thane: role of boundary layer and
           surface drag parameterization schemes
    • Authors: M. Sateesh; C. V. Srinivas; P. V. S. Raju
      Pages: 1255 - 1271
      Abstract: In the recent times, several advanced numerical models are utilized for the prediction of the intensity, track and landfall time of a cyclone. Still there are number of issues concerning their prediction and the limitation of numerical models in addressing those issues. The most pertinent question is how intensive a cyclone can become before it makes a landfall and where the cyclone moves under the ambient large-scale flow. In this paper, detailed study has been carried out using Weather Research Forecast model with two boundary schemes to address the above question by considering a recent tropical cyclone in Bay of Bengal region of North Indian Ocean. In addition, the impact of the surface drag effect on the low-level winds and the intensity of the cyclone are also studied. The result reveals that large differences are noted in the ocean surface fluxes between YSU and MYJ with MYJ producing relatively higher fluxes than YSU. It is found that the YSU scheme produced a better simulation for the THANE cyclone in terms of winds, pressure distribution and cloud fractions. Comparison with available observations indicated the characteristics of horizontal divergence, vorticity and vector track positions produced by YSU experiment are more realistic than with MYJ and other experiments. However, when the drag coefficient is changed as 0.5 or 2.0 from the default values, appreciable changes in the surface fluxes are not noticed. A maximum precipitation is reported in YSU as compared to the MYJ PBL scheme for the tropical cyclone THANE.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3020-2
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Tasks and problems involved in the handling of disaster waste upon April
           2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan
    • Authors: Amirhomayoun Saffarzadeh; Takayuki Shimaoka; Hirofumi Nakayama; Takao Hanashima; Kentaro Yamaguchi; Kazutoshi Manabe
      Pages: 1273 - 1290
      Abstract: A series of earthquakes struck Kumamoto City area, SW Japan, including a magnitude 7.3 (mainshock) at 01:25 (Japan Standard Time: JST) on April 16 and a foreshock with a magnitude 6.5 at 21:26 JST on April 14, 2016. The earthquakes tremendously damaged the vulnerable structures and left a huge amount of disaster waste. Immediately after the earthquake, the Kumamoto Prefectural Government designated a number of locations for the erection of temporary waste storage facilities essentially in the vicinity of the most affected zones for the purpose of removing of the disaster waste from the damaged areas and their accumulation in the properly managed sites. The facilities provided sufficient ground for the temporary storage, handling, early sorting, and crushing of metallic objects, wood and its derivatives, glass, soil and rock, concrete, and household appliances. Mashiki Machi (town) and Nishihara Village were the nearest settlements to the epicenters of Kumamoto earthquakes that were severely damaged. The estimated amount of the disaster waste generated in Kumamoto Prefecture was about 2.89 million tons, the recycling and disposal of which must be completed within two years from the date of earthquake. Among various waste disposal facilities, the Nishihara Village storage facility was selected as the target for in-depth site investigation and disaster waste estimation. Drone survey was also conducted at different intervals at Nishihara Village facility with emphasis on wood debris. The drone technique employed in this survey demonstrated a reliable method for capturing high-resolution images from the selected site in a remarkably short period of time, and a relatively quick measure for estimating the amount of the disaster waste immediately after the disaster occurred.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3021-1
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Research of reservoir watershed fine zoning and flood forecasting method
    • Authors: Jiazheng Lu; Jun Guo; Li Yang; Xunjian Xu
      Pages: 1291 - 1306
      Abstract: Flood disaster is an important threat to the safe operation of reservoirs. Accurate flood forecasting can provide important information for optimal reservoir operation. Generally, the characteristic of precipitation spatial distribution is analyzed based on observation of several discreet preset stations. This cannot catch the rainstorm center all the time and will lead to deviation in the characteristic of precipitation spatial distribution. Therefore, it can hardly arrive at optimal sub-watershed delineation and flood modeling. Therefore, a novel method is proposed for analysis of characteristic of precipitation spatial distribution in consideration of rainfall distribution and the delay of rainfall–runoff concentration. Based on the analysis results of precipitation spatial distribution, several key sub-basins which have significant impact on the flood process can be recognized. And then the elaborate sub-watershed delineation and flood modeling approach is put forward consequently on these key sub-basins. The efficacy of the proposed method is estimated on the flood forecasting of Zhexi reservoir watershed. The results verify that the proposed method can significantly improve the flood forecasting precision, which can provide important decision-making basis for reservoir operation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3017-x
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Flood risk assessment in a coastal lagoon under present and future
           scenarios: Ria de Aveiro case study
    • Authors: Carina L. Lopes; Fátima L. Alves; João M. Dias
      Pages: 1307 - 1325
      Abstract: Floods are one of the major threats to low-lying coastal lagoons, affecting people, socio-economic activities and ecosystem services. This work proposes a methodology to assess present and future flood hazard and risk in west-boundary low-lying coastal lagoons, using the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) as case study. A multidisciplinary approach supported on Source–Pathway–Receptor–Consequence model combined with a GIS-based multi-criteria analysis was developed and applied. This comprised the following steps: (1) definition of present and future climate scenarios associated with oceanic, fluvial and combined events, combining sea levels and river discharges for different return periods; (2) characterization of flooding pathway through hydrodynamic modelling; (3) assessment of flood hazard combining flood depth and probability from hydrodynamic simulations; (4) assessment of flood risk calculating the adverse consequences on assets exposed to flood hazard. Results highlight that endangered regions are strongly dependent on the floods origin: oceanic floods threaten settlements and economic activities located along the margins of the lagoon main channels as well as habitats in the lagoon central area; fluvial floods endanger the river’s mouth adjacent areas causing damage in restricted settlements, economic activities and farmland habitats; the combined floods also threaten the margins adjacent to the transition zones. For future scenarios, it is predicted the flood risk increase/decrease for oceanic/fluvial events, as a consequence of mean sea level rise/river discharges reduction predicted for the region. Finally, this work demonstrated the value of the methodology proposed and its potential for flood risk analysis, supporting the decision-making process underlying the flood risk management.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3025-x
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of community leaders’ perception regarding Alerta Rio, the
           warning system for landslides caused by heavy rains in Rio de Janeiro
    • Authors: Patricia de Oliveira Melo; Renata Marques de Britto; Tharcisio Cotta Fontainha; Adriana Leiras; Renata Albergaria de Mello Bandeira
      Pages: 1343 - 1368
      Abstract: Warning systems help reduce damage and save lives in disasters; however, there is a lack of research analyzing the population perception of these systems. In Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), because the city slums face the risk of landslides caused by heavy rains, a siren early warning system named “Alerta Rio” was installed in 102 areas. The purpose of this paper was to understand the perception of community leaders regarding this alert system. To this end, a survey was conducted with community leaders to collect data on whether and why the public do or do not attend to the alert. Results indicated that (1) public adherence to Alerta Rio is low despite the generally positive view of the system, (2) local violence was reported as the reason for staying at home to protect one’s property, and (3) problems with temporary shelters and the routes to them result in lack of people’s involvement in the system. Whereas these factors are similar to population perception regarding other warning systems, the community leaders also raised the public’s lack of trust in the city hall’s adopted concept of risk and in the politicians as a relevant factor in the population perception of Alerta Rio. These factors, together with the lack of prevention policies complementary with the alert system, led to perception of reduced importance of the system. For potential solutions to enhance alarm compliance, this study recommends improvement in communication, educational programs, and public engagement strategies tailored for each target group.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3023-z
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Flash flood hazard affected Ras Gharib city, Red Sea, Egypt: a proposed
           flash flood channel
    • Authors: Ahmed A. Elnazer; Salman A. Salman; Ahmed S. Asmoay
      Pages: 1389 - 1400
      Abstract: Ras Gharib area received heavy rainfall during October 26–27, 2016. This abnormal quantity of rainfall led to flash flooding in the area and consequentially to death of tens of people as well as damage to infrastructures and properties. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model V002 are used with data resolution 30 m. Data of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission detected that precipitation near Ras Gharib was about 10 mm/day. Hydrological and surface analyses are generated using GIS tools. Some important morphometric analyses are calculated for basins description. The intensity and distribution of flood destruction in the study area were controlled by the geologic, geomorphologic characteristics of the study area. Also, huge amount of precipitation in short time and uncontrolled and unplanned development increase the impact of the flood. The results indicate the presence of two basins in the study area characterized by the possibility of flooding. Accordingly, establishing flood channel, of about 38 km long, is vital to protect the city from flood hazards in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3030-0
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Accessing the southeastern Brazil 2014 drought severity on the vegetation
           health by satellite image
    • Authors: Ana Carolina Campos Gomes; Nariane Bernardo; Enner Alcântara
      Pages: 1401 - 1420
      Abstract: Droughts are natural events that can cause water scarcity and can consequently have undesired environmental, social and political effects. Because droughts are related to land use and land cover modifications, satellite images are used to monitor and identify drought episodes through indices as Standardized Precipitation Index based on rainfall data and vegetation-based indices as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Changes in vegetation cover have as impact the increasing of the land surface temperature (LST) that is a significant indicative of drought occurrence. This work explored the NDVI–LST relation through the Vegetation Health Index (VHI) in a tropical environment in Tietê River, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to assess changes in vegetation condition in two periods (2000 and 2014). Results showed that stressed areas are coincident with areas presenting high rate of modification in land cover; this areas presented low values of VHI and high values of LST. The worst conditions are verified in 2014, the same period of the most severe drought occurrence that reduced storage capacity in reservoirs in Tietê River.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3029-6
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The catastrophic landside in Maoxian County, Sichuan, SW China, on June
           24, 2017
    • Authors: Junling Qiu; Xiuling Wang; Siyue He; Houquan Liu; Jinxing Lai; Lixin Wang
      Pages: 1485 - 1493
      Abstract: This short communication gives a brief investigation of the catastrophic natural landslides in the Diexi town, Maoxian County, Sichuan province, SW China, which occurred on June 24, 2017. According to the preliminary statistics of Sichuan government, about 73 people lost contact, and 62 houses and more than 1600 m roads were buried. The collapse volume of landslide is approximately 8 million m3. The maximum drop is about 1600 m, and plane sliding distance is 2500–3000 m. Unfortunately, the secondary collapse incident occurred repeatedly on June 25 and 27, respectively. In this communication, the accident background, accident scene, and related emergency response are presented. In virtue of the in situ reconnaissance conducted by geological experts, the main reason for the collapse is the high-level and long-distance debris flow in earthquake fracture zone induced by continuous rainfall.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3026-9
      Issue No: Vol. 89, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • HVSR estimation of site effects in Melilla (Spain) and the damage pattern
           from the 01/25/2016 Mw 6.3 Alborán Sea earthquake
    • Authors: Carlos López Casado; Jesús Garrido; José Delgado; José Antonio Peláez; Jesús Henares
      Abstract: The January 25, 2016, Mw 6.3 Alborán Sea earthquake shook the autonomous city of Melilla (Spain) with a macro-seismic intensity of VI (EMS-98). In spite of this low intensity, significant non-structural damages were reported, whose cost was estimated in more than 13 million euros. The damages were concentrated in the modernist district, which is considered the most important and valuable part of the city. This scenario is not new in Melilla, since historical and instrumental seismicity studies based on intensities felt in Melilla have revealed that earthquakes with intensities of V–VI have a return period of approximately 25 years. However, seismic microzonation studies have not been carried out so far. In this paper, we present a seismic microzonation study based on seismic noise measurements and the foreshock, mainshock and aftershock records of the January 25, 2016, earthquake. The seismic signals were processed using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique. The frequency amplification results were correlated with geological formations, and after that they were correlated with the distribution of damages. The lagoon and the recent alluvial deposits show the maximum number of damaged buildings and maximum frequency amplifications of 2–8 between 2 and 7 Hz. In the coastal deposits, some amplification in the same frequency range has been observed, but other formations show a minimum number of damaged buildings and a flat spectral response ratio. Two important factors in this damage pattern are the high vulnerability of ornamental facades characteristics (non-structural elements) of the modern architecture buildings and their location on the lagoon and the recent alluvial deposits where maximum site amplification is reached.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3132-8
       
  • The impact of environmental regulation on the coordinated development of
           environment and economy in China
    • Authors: Huaming Zhang; Zhishuang Zhu; Yingjun Fan
      Abstract: The contradiction between environmental protection and economic development has become an important issue in China. Environmental regulation, as a vital content of public regulation, is an effective approach to rectify market failure. Thus, studying the impact of environmental regulation on the coordinated development between environment and economy is beneficial to design the most suitable environmental management system for Chinese government. Based on the theory of regulation economics and industrial organization, this paper incorporates environmental regulation policy in the traditional SCP paradigm and analyzes the conduction mechanism of market structure and market behaviors on the coordinated development between environment and economy. With the empirical analysis, we find the existence of an EKC curve, which means that tightening the environmental regulation is an effective means of guaranteeing economic growth and optimizing environmental quality. Eventually, we point out the problems existing in China’s current environmental regulation system and design a new one which is more suitable for the current economic development stage of China.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3137-3
       
  • Evaluation of the moderate earthquake resilience of counties in China
           based on a three-stage DEA model
    • Authors: Yang Liu; Jiuchang Wei; Jia Xu; Zhe Ouyang
      Abstract: China has been struck by earthquakes at all scales, and such quakes have resulted in enormous human and property losses. Previous studies have mainly focused on large-scale earthquakes. However, small-scale quakes can also have long-term impacts. This study sheds light on moderate earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 5.0 to 7.0. It aims to evaluate county resilience to moderate earthquakes based on 102 moderate quakes that occurred in Mainland China during 2002–2014. To overcome the shortcomings of traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) evaluation methods, this study adopts a three-stage super-efficient DEA model to evaluate the resilience of counties that have been struck by moderate earthquakes. Moreover, it identifies socioeconomic factors that can effectively affect county resilience. Results suggest that most counties in China that have been struck by moderate earthquakes exhibit low efficiency and resilience. The research uses Tobit regression to demonstrate that insurance intensity, hospital beds, teledensity, government financial expenditure, and disaster experience can efficiently improve county resilience to moderate earthquakes, which indicates the future improvement direction of local resilience. Moreover, a region with a high frequency of moderate quakes displays relatively low efficiency and resilience. Considerable attention and effort should be afforded to these areas.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3142-6
       
  • Correction to: Evaluation of the real-time TRMM-based multi-satellite
           precipitation analysis for an operational flood prediction system in Nzoia
           Basin, Lake Victoria, Africa
    • Authors: Li Li; Yang Hong; Jiahu Wang; Robert F. Adler; Frederick S. Policelli; Shahid Habib; Daniel Irwin; Tesfaye Korme; Lawrence Okello
      Abstract: Unfortunately, the name of author Daniel Irwin was misspelled as Daniel Irwn in the original publication. We hereby correct this.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-3100-3
       
 
 
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