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BIOLOGY (1408 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Histology & Histopathology     Open Access  
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hymenoptera Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Insect Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Integrated OMICS     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Landscape Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Leukocyte Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Life Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Lipid Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Lipids     Open Access  
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access  
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Progressive Research in Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access  
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 45]   [117 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2280 journals]
  • Tsunami hazard assessment along the Chinese mainland coast from
           earthquakes in the Taiwan region
    • Abstract: Tsunami disasters have been documented several times in Chinese history, mostly in the Taiwan region. To assess the tsunami hazard along the coast of mainland China from sources in Taiwan, this study analyzed historical tsunamis and undersea seismic events around Taiwan and found that the frequency and magnitude of earthquakes around Taiwan are significantly higher than in the adjacent Ryukyu and Manila trenches. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis method was adopted to estimate the maximum possible earthquake magnitude around Taiwan. Then, six tsunami sources were assumed in those places where both earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred previously. Numerical models of the tsunamis were used to calculate the probable maximum tsunami amplitude and tsunami arrival time. The largest tsunami amplitude and the shortest arrival time were drawn on a GIS map. The modeling results provided a summary of tsunami hazards along the coast of mainland China from tsunami sources in Taiwan. The results showed that tsunamis triggered by the maximum possible earthquakes in the Taiwan region would arrive first at Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, and Hainan Provinces within 3 h; the largest tsunami amplitude was up to 3.3 m. Thus, parts of Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong Provinces were identified as regions with the highest hazard levels.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Diagnosis of the 2010 DJF flood over Zambia
    • Abstract: This study diagnoses the circulation anomalies associated with the 2010 December–February (DJF) flood in comparison with the 1992 DJF drought over Zambia. Monthly precipitation data for 39 meteorological stations were sourced from Zambia Meteorological Department, the Climate Research Unit precipitation data, and reanalysis datasets are used. Composite analysis was employed to understand the circulation anomalies during the period under review. Results show that the average precipitation over Zambia was above normal; however, some parts of the country received normal rainfall. The climatology of zonal wind is characterized by easterly flow except at low level. During the flood year, this flow was enhanced as observed in the anomalous vertical cross section of the zonal wind; a reversed flow was observed during the drought year. The region was characterized by rising motion during the flood year, which is associated with convergence at low level and divergence at upper level, as opposed to the drought year which exhibited sinking motion. Convergence at low level leads to vertical stretching, whereas divergence at low level leads to vertical shrinking, which suppresses convection due to subsidence. The observed atmospheric circulations can be monitored in the update of seasonal weather forecast to avert the losses associated with floods in future.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in addressing
           development-induced disasters: a comparison of the EIA processes of Sri
           Lanka and New Zealand
    • Abstract: Disasters are no longer viewed as natural events, but as the results of ill-planned development and poor governance. It has been generally accepted that instruments such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reduce disaster risks of development projects. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the EIA process in addressing disaster risks in development projects in Sri Lanka and New Zealand, two countries with quite different quality of governance. We find that governance quality does not result in substantive improvements, and neither of the two EIA processes is found to be effective in addressing disaster risk. This is due to inadequate policy integration of disaster risk into the environmental legislation that governs the EIA process. The results suggest that more specificity is needed in legislative provisions.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Acknowledgement of reviewers
    • PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Influence of local site conditions on strong ground motion characteristics
           at Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India
    • Abstract: Local site conditions strongly influence the characteristics of strong ground motion. In this study, influence of local site conditions on characteristics of strong ground motion records and their further effects on hazard studies were investigated for the Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India, where the thickness of soil cover varies significantly from few meters to several hundreds of meters. Another importance of these sites is that these sites have strong motion recording stations. Site characterization of each of the strong ground motion station is conducted using MASW tests to obtain shear wave velocity profiles of the sites. Further, site-specific ground response analysis is carried out using SHAKE2000 to investigate local site effects on strong ground motion records. Results clearly show the differences in IS 1893:2002 (Part-1) suggested 5 % damping response spectrum and the one obtained from ground response analyses. For sites having Vs30 around 200 m/s, constant acceleration frequency band is significantly widened in comparison with 5 % damping response spectrum of IS-1893:2002 (Part-1). This study further suggests the importance of thorough site characterization of strong motion instrumentation sites.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Soil structural indicators of hillslope destabilization in the Serra do
           Mar mountain range (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil)
    • Abstract: Mass movements are amongst the main problems related to natural disasters in Rio de Janeiro State. The cities which suffer most due to these events remain on alert during each rainy season. Many surveys have been conducted to map hazard risk areas. Many authors associate these phenomena with geological characteristics, and some recognize the role of soil properties. This paper outlines the soil indicators which contribute to hillslope destabilization in the Serra do Mar mountain range. A hillslope was selected and soil samples collected from six trenches, along the slope. Soil micromorphological and physico-chemical analyses were conducted to assess mass movement hazard. The presence of gibbsite on the upper third of the slope is one of the factors that can decrease horizon permeability and therefore destabilize slopes. On the lower third of the slope, structures demonstrate that part of this soil is formed by material originating from the upper slope.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Integrated simulation method for waterlogging and traffic congestion under
           urban rainstorms
    • Abstract: Heavy rainstorms are increasingly frequent events in urban areas. Urban rainstorms lead to road waterlogging and low visibility, which affect drivers’ behavior and can thus cause traffic congestion and potential accidents. It is important to study the mechanisms of waterlogging and traffic congestion caused by rainstorms to more effectively predict them and reduce losses. In this paper, an integrated simulation method to analyze the influence of urban rainstorms on waterlogging and traffic congestion was developed. Firstly, waterlogging simulation was conducted to predict the spatiotemporal distribution of water depth on roads based on an urban storm water model. Secondly, psychological questionnaires were distributed to study the drivers’ behavior during a rainstorm. Based on the psychological questionnaires’ results, the vehicles’ speed was estimated under different water depth and visibility conditions. Finally, a microscopic traffic simulation was carried out to predict the traffic condition using the results of the previous two parts. Case studies were conducted on a simplified road model. The effects of different parameters on waterlogging and traffic congestion were analyzed. Then the method was applied to an actual urban area in Beijing, and a detailed waterlogging situation and traffic situation were obtained. Alternate future scenarios of adding drains to mitigate waterlogging and traffic congestion during heavy rainstorms were simulated, and the method’s potential to assist in decision making for urban drainage system design was shown. The integrated simulation method is helpful for early warning and risk management of urban rainstorms on waterlogging and traffic congestion.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Seismic hazard analysis of Adjara region in Georgia
    • Abstract: Seismic hazard assessment is a very important issue for seismic design and engineering projects. Generally, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) is used for such kind of studies, which gives a probabilistic description of earthquake characteristics such as selected ground motion parameter (peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration), against the annual frequency of exceedance (or its reciprocal, return period) and fault displacement. The design value is the ground motion level that corresponds to the preselected design return period. For many engineering projects, standard buildings and typical bridges, the seismic loading is taken from the appropriate seismic design code, the basis of which is usually a PSHA. Each step necessary for PSHA was studied separately: active tectonic settings that are the reason of moderate seismicity in Caucasus Region, seismicity, magnitude–distance distributions, ground motion prediction models, etc. As a result, calculation of probabilistic seismic hazard was performed using Software CRISIS2007 by Ordaz (Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Mexico, 2007). CRISIS offers many advantages at different stages of PSHA. Our study shows that in case of Adjara region, significant contribution to seismic hazard comes from local sources with quite low M max values.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Drought hazard assessment in typical corn cultivated areas of China at
           present and potential climate change
    • Abstract: Drought hazard is the main restrictive factor in the field of food production in China, and climate change may aggravate it over the long run. The present study aims to assess the potential drought hazard at present, as well as determine future different climate change scenarios based on the data of monthly precipitation and temperature. Drought is defined using the Standardized Precipitation–Evapotranspiration Index. The probability density function of SPEI was used to create the drought hazard index (DH), which provides a comprehensive overview of the frequency and intensity of drought events. The statistical downscale method was used to convert the regional climate model output grid data into meteorological station data for the near future (2020–2050) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The results showed that in the baseline (1981–2010), DH is much serious in Jilin compared with Henan. In the near future (2020–2050), DH increases in the case of RCP8.5, and the increased scale is larger in Henan. In the case of RCP4.5, the DH will be flat with baseline in Jilin and slightly increase in Henan. DH may relieve in case of RCP2.6. The results can help to optimize agriculture allocation and policy making with regard to climate change adaptation.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • A comparison of forest fire burned area indices based on HJ satellite data
    • Abstract: The accurate extraction of burned area is important for biomass burning monitoring and loss evaluation. Environment and Disasters Monitoring Microsatellite Constellation put forward by China has two satellites of HJ-1A and HJ-1B in orbit. Each satellite has two CCD cameras with four bands to meet the need of mapping burned area. In order to evaluate the capability for mapping the burned area using HJ satellite’s CCD data, a forest fire occurring in Yuxi, Yunnan Province of Southwest China, was selected to analyze the spectral characteristic in the range of visible and near infrared in this paper. The research of mapping burned area was carried out based on the HJ satellites using three spectral indices (NDVI, GEMI and BAI). The color composite images including NIR band could reflect the spectral change in post-fire vegetation with a higher repetition cycle (2 days, or 1 day in some region) and higher spatial resolution (30 m). Through the comparison with the discrimination index M and extraction accuracy, the BAI has higher discrimination capability than NDVI and GEMI, and the highest M value is 2.1943. The extraction of burned area based on BAI showed higher accuracy, and the highest kappa value is 0.8957. Using HJ satellites, the map of burned area with higher temporal–spatial resolution and higher accuracy could provide the potential for dynamic monitoring and analyzing fire behavior.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • The mechanism of shallow submarine landslides triggered by storm surge
    • Abstract: Submarine landslides triggered by storm surge have a major impact on human life by destabilizing offshore installations and generating tsunamis. Based on disaster-related marine geology, this paper analyzes the characteristics of storm surge load and response of seabed soil under the action of storm surge, and then examines mechanisms of submarine landslides triggered by storm surge. Important advances in this field are summarized and a scope for future studies is suggested. Current studies show that there are three load forms of storm surge: storm tide, storm wave, and storm current. Among these, the storm wave is the main factor in submarine slope instability. Under storm surge load, there is a series of changes in seabed soil, such as pressure consolidation, liquefied rheology, and mass transport. Therefore, two types of theory can be used to explain the mechanism of submarine landslide, liquefaction failure, and shear failure. Future studies in this field may focus on the mechanism of soil–water interaction under storm surge, establishing the critical condition of slope failure and failure modes of submarine landslides, and improving techniques of field monitoring and testing.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Study of CO 2 emissions in China’s iron and steel industry based on
           economic input–output life cycle assessment
    • Abstract: With the growing demand, China’s iron and steel industry has obtained rapid development since the 1990s. China’s steel output reached 220 million tons for the first time in 2003, becoming the first country whose annual production exceeded 200 million tons. The iron and steel is an industry of high energy consumption, high pollution and high emissions which has attracted deep concern of Chinese government. Previous research has estimated the direct CO2 emissions in individual processes of iron and steel production, while research on the indirect CO2 emissions from the related sectors of the iron and steel industry is scarce. To explore the whole CO2 emissions, this paper evaluates the direct and indirect carbon emissions in the iron and steel industry and carbon emission deduction by building an economic input–output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) model based on the latest available data of the input–output extension table in 2010 and China’s Energy Statistical Yearbook in 2011. The results show that coke and coal produce the most direct CO2 emissions and raw chemical materials, medical and chemical fiber manufacturing, transportation storage and the postal industry, the electricity heat production and supply industry, nonmetal mineral production, petroleum processing of coke and nuclear fuel processing, coal mining and dressing are the six sectors that produce the largest indirect CO2 emissions among the 35 sectors in the iron and steel industry. Based on the results, we suggest that China should (1) improve the quality of coke and coal, increase the efficiency of coke and coal, coal blending technology and the cokes’ strength, and employ the scrap or cities’ minerals as main raw materials in the production, and at the same time, the government and enterprises may increase to invest in technology innovation; (2) and use high-strength iron and steel instead of the ordinary one. Meanwhile, the spatial distributions of the six sectors are mainly concentrated in Shandong Province, Jiangsu Province, Zhejiang Province and Shanxi Province. Shandong Province, Jiangsu Province, Zhejiang Province and Shanxi Province may adjust their industrial structure by increasing the proportion of the third industry and accelerating the development of high-tech industries and services.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Background and reflections on Gorkha earthquake of April 25, 2015
    • Abstract: Earthquakes are one of the most disastrous natural disasters and can cause large-scale loss of life and property. Earthquakes can even destroy the whole cities. Earthquakes have secondary hazards including aftershock, landslide, liquefaction, tsunami and avalanche. And sometimes the earthquake-induced secondary effects are more dangerous than the quake itself. On April 25, 2015, a 7.8-magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. More than 8800 people were killed and 23,000 were injured. About 299,588 country’s homes were destroyed and 269,107 were damaged. The earthquake is destructive for the Nepal’s economy and social structure. This paper mainly introduces this catastrophe, geological features, secondary hazards and some of the related emergency responses.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Atmospheric conditions controlling extreme summertime evapotranspiration
           in Poland (central Europe)
    • Abstract: Extremely high evapotranspiration may constitute a threat to agriculture and to water storage, supply, management and quality. To better understand the occurrence of high evapotranspiration, our goals were to (1) document the synoptic conditions favorable for extreme evapotranspiration and (2) determine the anomalies in the factors that directly affect extremely high evapotranspiration on a daily scale. We calculated the daily reference evapotranspiration (ET0; June–August, 1971–2010) for 31 stations in Poland using the FAO-56 Penman–Monteith method and identified the days with the highest ET0 values (>90th percentile). For these days, we calculated the sea level pressure (SLP), the 500 hPa geopotential heights (z500), the air temperature at 850 hPa (t850) and the amount of precipitable water. We detected a correlation between the air pressure field and high ET0 values (r > 0.4, p < 0.001) in northeast Poland; positive anomalies in SLP, z500 and t850 were documented on days with high ET0. Substantial anomalies were also observed in the factors that directly affect evapotranspiration, i.e., sunshine duration and air temperature (positive) and relative humidity (negative). The conditions favorable for high ET0 events are characteristic of anticyclonic weather, so when an anticyclone center is near northeast Poland, high evapotranspiration can be expected.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Impact of industrialization on water protection in the Huai River Basin
           within Shandong Province, China
    • Abstract: Despite rapid economic growth and industrialization in the Huai River Basin within Shandong Province, water quality improved during 2005–2010 under state-controlled monitoring. The industrial structure theory, environmental Kuznets curve, and statistical analyses were used to examine correlations between economic development and industrial water pollutant loads. The beverage, textile, paper, and food processing industries are major polluters, and structural pollution deters simultaneous industrialization and water resource management. This paper proposes policy actions and indicates that constant adjustments to the industrial structure are important for promoting coordinated growth of industry and water environmental protection.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Meteorological drought analysis over India using analytical framework on
           CPC rainfall time series
    • Abstract: Drought is a natural climatic phenomenon occurring due to deficiency of precipitation. It is precursor of famine and is difficult to monitor due to its slow progression. The present study employs understanding drought and analyzing its various parameters such as rainfall. One of the main aspects of drought planning and mitigation includes hazard assessment, which describes the physical nature of drought and plays an important role in the relationship between vulnerability and risk. The study uses CPC rainfall time series of 12 years, 2001–2012, during the major rainfall period, i.e., southwest monsoon (June–September) over India at 10 km × 10 km pixel for the meteorological drought analysis. Drought occurrence patterns in the country in the 12-year time series period were analyzed using mean, inter-annual variability (coefficient of variation CV) and drought frequency of rainfall and rainy days. The analysis has highlighted the areas with lower mean rainfall and higher CV and higher drought frequency. Meteorological drought map based on rainfall and rainy day deviations was prepared separately, for all the 12 years, based on IMD criteria of rainfall deviations. Spatial agreement analysis between rainfall-based drought map and rainy days-based drought map was performed using kappa index. It is interesting to note that the agreement between the two maps was <50 % in all the 12 years. The result indicates that a combination of rainfall and rainy days brings additional information on drought intensity. Therefore, in this study, a methodology was suggested to generate drought maps by combining rainfall and rainy days.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Experimental research on water inrush in tunnel construction
    • Abstract: With the rapid development of underground construction, a large number of tunnels will be built at the positions where unprecedentedly complex geological conditions exist. It results in more and more tunnel water inrush accidents. Study on water inrush becomes more and more important. The water inrush in tunnel construction is the results of water–rock coupling interaction. The surrounding rock stress state changes continuously in tunnel excavation, so recording the data of stress, displacement and water pressure in the whole process is essential to the research of the tunnel water inrush mechanism. By the physical simulation experiment of water inrush in tunnel excavation, the change laws of stress, displacement and water pressure were analyzed: The displacement increased gradually at the beginning, but sharply increased when excavation reached the water-bearing structure; the stress concentrated in the early period and released later; the water pressure increased sharply firstly and stabilized afterward with slow but continuous decrease. The whole water inrush process can be divided into two periods: accumulating period and instability period. The accumulating period was characterized by the stable development with elastic potential energy and rock damage accumulating continuously, while the instability period performed state’s sudden changing. Based on the analysis above, actual engineering cases and cusp catastrophe theory, the criteria of water inrush were established and verified with the experimental data.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Landslides and other geomorphologic and hydrologic effects induced by
           earthquakes in Portugal
    • Abstract: A geodatabase of landslides and other geomorphologic and hydrologic phenomena, triggered by earthquakes in Portugal, was built based on the analysis of historical records. As a result, 28 earthquake-triggered landslides were identified; the landslides were associated with 10 earthquakes that occurred between 382 and 1969. However, the landslide recognition and the definition of its precise location were difficult due to the time elapsed since the occurrence of most of the landslides and to the changes in the morphologic features of the affected slopes. Despite these limitations, it was possible to establish that most landslides were disrupted landslides that affected jointed rocks. The earthquake-triggered landslides are concentrated in the southern and central areas of Portugal, close to the main seismic sources, as opposed to the recurrent landslides induced by precipitation in the northern and central parts of the country. Other identified geomorphologic and hydrologic phenomena induced by earthquakes in mainland Portugal include: ground cracks (48 cases), liquefaction (75 cases) and water spring and fountains anomalies (262 cases). These secondary earthquake effects were reported for 5 earthquakes, but these may be considered representative only in two cases: the earthquakes of 1 November 1755 and of 23 April 1909. The distance between the site of the above-mentioned phenomena and the corresponding earthquake epicentre varies according to the earthquake magnitude and the type of phenomena. The 1755 earthquake (Mw 8.7) induced geomorphologic and hydrologic effects farther from the epicentre (maximum distance of 658 km) than the 1909 earthquake (Mw 6), whereas the effects associated with the latter were felt much closer to the earthquake epicentre (maximum distance of 172 km). The hydrologic effects brought about by the 1755 earthquake probably occurred throughout the country (distance of at least 658 km from epicentre) in contrast to ground cracks (526 km) and liquefaction (504 km).
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Improving landslide hazard and risk mapping in Guatemala using terrain
    • Abstract: Guatemala is in the path of numerous atmospheric hazards that trigger landslides by saturating mountain slopes with water reducing their safety factor. Available local studies of landslide characterization in Guatemala have indicated the importance of slope in hazard and risk mapping, but, for the most part, ignored another topographic index: aspect. However, many regional studies analyzing the effect of hurricanes on terrain show that Caribbean and Central American locations experience higher impact from hurricanes and storms on eastern, southeastern, southern and southwestern slopes. Since hazard and risk mapping focuses on infrastructure and settlements located on slopes with various orientations, this factor needs to be addressed. This study uses landslide data from three areas in Guatemala affected by hurricanes Stan (2005) and Mitch (1998). The results from the conducted spatial and statistical analyses show a high association of landslide prone slopes with aspect within the 76 to 260 range (i.e., eastern–southeastern–southern and southwestern slopes). We hypothesize that this is the result of the regional wind circulation pattern governing moisture distribution. Integrating aspect in landslide analysis may improve hazard and risk mapping in Guatemala and other Central American and Caribbean regions by taking into account the regional patterns of wind circulation and the dominant role of eastern–southeastern–southwestern slopes in landslide processes.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
  • Developing an early warning system for a very slow landslide based on
           displacement monitoring
    • Abstract: The Ripley Landslide is a soil slide moving on a fully developed, sub-horizontal, shear surface. The landslide represents a hazard for two important railway lines across its toe. The landslide is being monitored by an array of displacement measurement systems including GPS units, a ShapeAccelArray (SAA), satellite InSAR, and crack extension metres, as well as an array of piezometers targeting pore water pressures in the vicinity of the shear surface. The displacement monitoring system shows an annual cycle of slope deformations most active between September and May. Annual horizontal displacements range between 60 and 100 mm. Vertical displacements range between 20 and 80 mm of settlement. The average horizontal velocities during the active displacement period are between 0.2 and 0.35 mm/day, with maximum velocities of up to 0.6 mm/day. This paper describes the development of an early warning system based on landslide displacement measurements. The system is based on GPS and SAA measurements, which provide near real-time displacement data. The early warning system focuses on detecting changes in landslide annual displacement cycles and potential accelerations, as well as the effects of slope deformation on the railway alignment. As such, the system monitors both the integrity and performance of the slope.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
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