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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2840 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1385 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Invertebrate Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Landscape Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Leukocyte Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Lipid Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Lipids     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Vestibular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Zhejiang University : Agriculture & Life Sciences     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover   Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 45]   [98 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • A serious flooding event in Nigeria in 2012 with specific focus on Benue
           State: a brief review
    • Abstract: Abstract In March 2012, a serious flooding event had occurred in Nigeria killing over 430 people and displacing about 566,466 and causing inundation of approximately 4,701 km2 area. The two most affected areas were Kogi and Benue States. The flooding occurred due to a combination of two events—the first being a very heavy rainfall locally and the second event is the release of excess water from the Lagto Dam which is in the neighboring country of Cameroon. The flooding is a recurring phenomenon in the low-lying and flood-prone areas in Benue and surrounding state. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of flooding impact using the social vulnerability approach in order to establish the role of social vulnerability in the disaster and to strategize resilience building.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • IFRC: World Disasters Report 2014: focus on Culture and Risk
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Monitoring spatio-temporal pattern of drought stress using integrated
           drought index over Bundelkhand region, India
    • Abstract: Abstract Monitoring of drought and associated agricultural production deficit using meteorological indices is essential component for drought preparedness. Remote sensing-based NDVI also plays a key role in drought assessment, but alone it fails due to time lag of 3–4 weeks. In view of improving drought monitoring in Bundelkhand region of India, it was proposed to use combination of meteorological and remote sensing-based approach. The study aims to monitor and assess inter-annual variability in spatial drought and related crop loss in Bundelkhand region using time series of daily rainfall of Climate Prediction Centre (NOAA) and SPOT-VGT-based normalized difference vegetation index. Instead of NDVI, vegetation condition index (VCI) was used to normalize geographical differences in vegetation types and physiographical setting. The new approach is linear weighted index called spatial vegetation drought index (SVDI) constructed from VCI derived from SPOT-VGT and meteorological index named rainfall anomaly index (RAI) for monitoring short-term drought stress in Bundelkhand region. The spatial and temporal pattern of drought matches well with RAI. VCI found to be significantly related to drought stress in terms of rainfall anomaly for majority of decades as well as crop yield anomaly of both food grains and pulses. A modified rainfall anomaly (MRAI) was also constructed by assigning weights to RAI of past three decades to normalize the residual moisture status. The newly formulated SVDI obtained by integrating MRAI and VCI improved the spatial prediction of drought and to detect crop loss associated with short-term drought stress. Comparing real-time drought condition from the observation around the concerned area showed that SVDI was able to illustrate drought stress on large-scale efficiently and can give information about the departure in crop productivity when correlated with crop yield anomaly.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Potential of support vector regression for solar radiation prediction in
           Nigeria
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the accuracy of soft computing technique in solar radiation prediction based on series of measured meteorological data (monthly mean sunshine duration, monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature) taking from Iseyin meteorological station in Nigeria was examined. The process, which simulates the solar radiation with support vector regression (SVR), was constructed. The inputs were monthly mean maximum temperature (T max), monthly mean minimum temperature (T min) and monthly mean sunshine duration ( \( \bar{n} \) ). Polynomial and radial basis functions (RBF) are applied as the SVR kernel function to estimate solar radiation. According to the results, a greater improvement in estimation accuracy can be achieved through the SVR with polynomial basis function compared to RBF. The SVR coefficient of determination R 2 with the polynomial function was 0.7395 and with the radial basis function, the R 2 was 0.5877.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Salt dust storm in the Ebinur Lake region: its 50-year dynamic changes and
           response to climate changes and human activities
    • Abstract: Abstract The dynamic changes characteristics of salt dust storm in the Ebinur Lake of Xinjiang were investigated using the monitoring data during 1957–2007 of atmospheric dust storm and floating dust from four meteorological stations surrounding the dry lakebeds, and the gray correlation analysis method was used to calculate the correlation degree between annual dust storm days and meteorological and socioeconomic factors. The results showed that salt dust storm in the Ebinur Lake region presented a fluctuating process during 1957–2007, in which 1975 and 2000 were the two cut-off points. During 1975–2000, there were very frequent storms, and the average annual number of salt dust storm days was 10–48, while the average annual number of storm days was not more than 12 both before 1975 and after 2000. The annual variation of salt dust storm displayed a double-peak pattern, of which storm in spring accounted for 62–90 % of the total dust storm days of a year, and that in autumn accounted for 7–13 %. Among the meteorological factors, strong winds had the greatest impact on salt dust storm, followed by temperature and precipitation. For the anthropogenic factors, agricultural acreage exhibited the strongest influence on salt dust storm, followed by lake surface area and population number, while livestock number showed the smallest effect.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Empirical seismic vulnerability curve for mortality: case study of China
    • Abstract: Abstract Most seismic casualty estimations are based on the vulnerability of various categories of structure and facilities in the region concerned. These approaches require detailed inventory database of the structures and facilities in the region. In China, however, the data is not always available, especially for some underdeveloped regions. This motivates the development of empirical models that use historical casualty data for earthquakes and provide a country- or region-specific earthquake death rate as a function of ground shake. However, diminishing divergences in fitting method and obtaining higher accuracy are still a great challenge. Building on the findings of previous research, the present paper employs vulnerability curves to express the relation between seismic intensity and mortality. From data of the death rate by intensity, curves are established for the whole of China and western China. Some methodological improvements are also discussed. To validate the curves, data from four recent strong earthquakes occurred in western China are used, and the best curves for estimation are selected and compared with similar models. Results indicate that the established curves for western China give a better estimation for the four earthquakes and the logistic functions show higher accuracy. They can be used to clarify the magnitude of seismic deaths in western China when structure and facility data are unavailable. Uncertainties and the application of the models are also analyzed and discussed in the conclusion.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • The potential of recurrent epidemics and pandemics in a highly mobile
           global society
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to demonstrate how latent epidemics can potentially evolve into a pandemic instantaneously due to globally mobile human population in recent times, as can be seen in the ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa. Selected cases of current epidemics are used in this study to identify emergent patterns. These cases exemplify the need for a comprehensive analysis of infectious diseases and serve as an initial stage when developing appropriate strategies in improving epidemic management. This study can help better understand the complexities of infectious diseases and assist in developing a specific set of preventative processes from the individual to international levels when developing strategies to reducing the effects of an epidemic outbreak.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Extreme scour effects on the buckling of bridge piles considering the
           stress history of soft clay
    • Abstract: Abstract Scour is a natural phenomenon caused by the erosion or removal of streambed or bank material from bridge foundations due to flowing water. As the buckling capacity of bridge piles varies inversely with the square of the unsupported pile height, an extreme scour at the pile caused by floodwater could result in a buckling failure of the pile and collapse of the bridge. The common way to analyze the scour-affected buckling stability of bridge piles is to remove the scoured soil layers while possible changes in stress history of the remaining soils are ignored. In reality, however, the remaining soils undergo an unloading process due to scour, and its overconsolidation ratios are increased. In this study, an analytical model with modified lateral subgrade modulus is presented to investigate the extreme scour effect on the buckling of bridge piles in soft clay considering the stress history of the remaining soils. A case study is used to compare the calculated results by considering and ignoring the stress history effect. The results show that ignoring the stress history of the soft clay will overestimate the buckling capacity of bridge pile foundation under scour.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Fuzzy—probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, case study: Tehran
           region, Iran
    • Abstract: Abstract This study presents a new model for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment based on fuzzy sets theory. To accomplish seismic hazard analysis in the framework of fuzzy sets theory, all of the variables are first converted into Gaussian fuzzy sets using α-cut method. Then, fuzzified variables are used in seismic hazard analysis. Finally, the outputs are defuzzified using center of area method. The method is applied to Tehran region, Iran, and the fuzzy hazard curve is obtained for the site. The curve displays a fuzzy-probabilistic estimate of peak ground acceleration (PGA) over bedrock for the various return periods. PGA values for the region are estimated to be 0.18–0.20 g and 0.42–0.48 g for 50- and 475-year return periods, respectively. The results are given as fuzzy intervals which accommodate the vagueness inherent in the data.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Numerical simulation of 3D liquefaction disasters using an automatic time
           stepping method
    • Abstract: Abstract Three-dimensional numerical simulation of large model under seismic loading is a time-consuming process due to the huge number of degrees and the duration of time. With respect to the uniform time stepping method, an automatic time stepping strategy is proposed based on a finite element–finite difference coupled scheme and an effective mixed error estimation of the solid–fluid mixture. Two seismic liquefaction examples are conducted, one is a three-dimensional embankment located in liquefied area, and the other is a three-dimensional caisson wharf subjected to the seismic load. The results show that the liquefaction induces large displacement to the embankment and caisson wharf; the proposed automatic time stepping method can save 17–24 % computational time than the uniform time stepping method at the premises of similar accuracy.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Snow hazard estimation and mapping for a province in northeast China
    • Abstract: Abstract The estimation of annual maximum snow load is important for designing light-weight structures experiencing severe winter climate. The specified (basic) snow load in the Chinese design code is based on statistics of the return period values of ground snow load. The code tabulates the values for a few locations in a region. For example, values are only available at 31 sites for Heilongjiang Province with an area of more than 470,000 km2, China. The snow load needs to be spatially interpolated for sites far away from the tabulated locations. However, the statistical justification of the selected probability distribution to model snow depth or load hazard is unclear and the preferred spatial interpolation technique is unknown. This study focuses on the extreme value analysis and spatial interpolation of the annual maximum snow depth and ground snow load using the records at 83 stations in Heilongjiang Province from 1981 to 2010. The statistical analysis results show that the use of the lognormal distribution rather than the Gumbel distribution for the annual maximum snow depth suggested in the code is preferred for most sites, and the application of the ordinary co-kriging is adequate for spatial interpolation of extreme snow depth. The results also show that the uncertainty in snowpack bulk density should not be neglected in estimating the extreme (ground) snow load for updating the snow load in Chinese design code.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Exploration of copula function use in crop meteorological drought risk
           analysis: a case study of winter wheat in Beijing, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Many factors are involved in the occurrence of crop drought events, and some related studies have focused on the problems of multi-factor integration. Probability is the basis of disaster risk research, but the solver of multi-element integrated probability, commonly used in drought risk analysis, cannot solve the multi-factor nonlinear relationship. Therefore, new methods are needed to build the joint probability distribution of multi-element integration, and the use of the copula function is one approach that can better explain the combined effects of multi-factor equations. We extracted the sequence of meteorological drought events during the growth period of winter wheat in Beijing from 1952 to 2012 and selected the appropriate characterization of drought severity and duration. The copula function was used to build a joint distribution function and to calculate the return period of drought events. Based on the joint probability method, the joint return periods were calculated and resulting risk was analyzed. The joint return periods were close to reality, and they offer greater potential for improving high-level meteorological drought disaster mitigation, strategy planning, program design, and risk management. Using the joint probability and values of the featured variables, the joint return period under different conditions could be calculated easily. The contribution of the copula function in estimating the uncertainty of drought level risk can lay the foundation for a joint analysis of multi-factor crop meteorological disaster risk.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Geophysical, socio-demographic characteristics and perception of flood
           vulnerability in Accra, Ghana
    • Abstract: Abstract Empirical studies of residential flood vulnerability have generally concentrated on either the geophysical characteristics or the socio-economic characteristics of a given region, rather than a combination of the two. In addition, studies using subjective assessments of flood vulnerability are not very common. However, due to the fact that people’s perceptions influence their risk behaviour, and therefore their vulnerability, understanding perceptions about a phenomenon is very significant for the design of effective communication as well as mitigation, coping, and adaptation strategies. This study uses a digital map (to calculate mean elevation, slope, proximity to lagoon, sea, and drain length by area) and the EDULINK Round II Household Survey (for socio-demographic characteristics of households) for the analysis. Perception of flood vulnerability is derived from responses from heads of households to the question, “Do you perceive your household to be vulnerable to floods'” The responses are either in the affirmative or negative. Results show that even when a subjective assessment of vulnerability is undertaken, it is geophysical characteristics that have significant associations with perceptions of flood vulnerability.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Landslide susceptibility of volcanic landforms in the Río El Estado
           watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico
    • Abstract: Abstract The combination of high-quality landslide inventories and geomorphic attributes that can be derived and analyzed by geographic information systems can provide powerful and straightforward input into mapping landscape-wide landslide susceptibility. A methodology for generating landslide susceptibility maps can assist land managers in reducing risk to populations and economic land use from landslide hazards, particularly in areas prone to landslide disasters, such as tropical mountain ranges. Pico de Orizaba is the highest stratovolcano in Mexico, and throughout its geologic history, it has had large landslides triggered by flank collapse as well as small landslides triggered by high seasonal rainfall on terrains covered by poorly consolidated materials. The present work analyzes the distribution of small landslides embedded in volcanic landforms to characterize slope instability. The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano has been selected as a study area. In the area, landforms are ascertained through aerial photographs, field investigations, and an adaptation of the Landslide Hazard Zonation Protocol of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Forest Practices Division in a GIS-based technology. For each landform, a semi-quantitative overall susceptibility rating is derived by using the landslide area rate and the landslide frequency rate. This analysis divides the watershed into seven mass-wasting landforms that are assigned slope stability susceptibility ratings from low to very high. The overall susceptibility rating for this watershed is very high. The technique and its implementation are presented and discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Erratum to: Earthquake-and-landslide events are associated with more
           fatalities than earthquakes alone
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Erratum to: Ice type extraction of rough ice in the eastern coast of
           Liaodong Bay with shore-based radar
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Erratum to: The effects of biological geotextiles on gully stabilization
           in São Luís, Brazil
    • PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Extreme rainfall and floods in southern Africa in January 2013 and
           associated circulation patterns
    • Abstract: Abstract During January 2013, very heavy rainfall over central and southern Mozambique led to severe flooding more than 100 deaths, and the displacement of about 200, 000 people. The atmospheric and oceanic patterns associated with this devastating event are analysed. An active South Indian Convergence Zone (SICZ) in January 2013 was associated with the heavy rainfall event. The SICZ was sustained by a low-level trough, linked to a Southern Hemisphere planetary wave (wavenumber-4) pattern and an upper-level ridge over south-eastern Africa. The low-level trough and upper-level ridge contributed to the convergence of moisture over south-eastern Africa, particularly from the tropical South East Atlantic (specifically offshore of Angola in the so-called Benguela Niño region), which in turn contributed to the prolonged life span of the event. Positive SST anomalies (1–2 °C) in the Benguela Niño region were favourable for the substantial contribution of moisture fluxes to the event from the South Atlantic Ocean. This contribution is of particular interest since previous work has tended to ignore this basin and regard the Indian Ocean as the most important moisture source for rainfall over south-eastern Africa. The guidance forecast issued by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre, Pretoria for the period indicated its likely occurrence with a lead time of 4 days; however, the magnitude was underestimated, which may be linked to the threshold system used in the forecast system.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Impacts of the Wenchuan earthquake on tree mortality and biomass carbon
           stock
    • Abstract: Abstract The Wenchuan earthquake caused tremendous damages to forests, which could increase tree mortality, disrupt forest carbon cycling, and pose serious challenge to sustainable forest management. In this study, we analyzed data from 871 permanent forest plots from the Sichuan forest inventory (SFI) system to quantify the impacts of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake on tree mortality and forest biomass carbon. Our results showed that the 5-year tree mortality had significantly increased from 2.26 to 3.52 % in the region with seismic intensity of ≥VII (VII and above), and even more dramatically in the hardest hit zone with seismic intensity of X and XI, which showed an increase from 3.77 to 8.96 %. It is estimated that the Wenchuan earthquake had killed as much as 34.5 million trees and mobilized a dead carbon pool of 1050 Gg C (7.87 Mg C/km2/a) in the region with seismic intensity of ≥VII. Our results suggested that the earthquake was the main cause of this risen tree mortality and the loss of huge amount of forest biomass carbon. This study demonstrated that tree mortality derived from forest plots can be used to estimate disaster-induced forest carbon loss for the purpose of hazard assessment.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Reducting risk from urban heat island effects in cities
    • Abstract: Abstract Many urban centers are at risk of heat wave events. These events are exacerbated in urban environments by the urban heat island effect (UHI) which is the built environment’s characteristic to store heat during the day and release it at night time, thus increasing the temperature. This study takes stock of UHI effect and evaluates the integration of mitigation measures with land use planning in two large cities of Canada, namely Montréal and Toronto. The two cities have been chosen because they have put in place active mitigation measures through a hot weather response plan in response to recent events of heat waves. The premise was that because the UHI effect is a built environment’s characteristic, it is possible to modify the built environment in order to reduce heat storage. Usually, local land use plans provide cities with development and redevelopment guidelines, implementation measures, and policies to be considered. The study also discusses most commonly used mitigation strategies and measures and their effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
 
 
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