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BIOLOGY (1363 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Lipids     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the North American Benthological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tropical Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Vestibular Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Life : The Excitement of Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Life Sciences, Society and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Limnological Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover   Natural Hazards
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 45]   [312 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-0840 - ISSN (Online) 0921-030X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Assessing infrequent large earthquakes using geomorphology and geodesy:
           the Malawi Rift
    • Abstract: Abstract In regions with large, mature fault systems, a characteristic earthquake model may be more appropriate for modelling earthquake occurrence than extrapolating from a short history of small, instrumentally observed earthquakes using the Gutenberg–Richter scaling law. We illustrate how the geomorphology and geodesy of the Malawi Rift, a region with large seismogenic thicknesses, long fault scarps, and slow strain rates, can be used to assess hazard probability levels for large infrequent earthquakes. We estimate potential earthquake size using fault length and recurrence intervals from plate motion velocities and generate a synthetic catalogue of events. Since it is not possible to determine from the geomorphological information if a future rupture will be continuous (7.4 ≤ M W ≤ 8.3 with recurrence intervals of 1,000–4,300 years) or segmented (6.7 ≤ M W ≤ 7.7 with 300–1,900 years), we consider both alternatives separately and also produce a mixed catalogue. We carry out a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment to produce regional- and site-specific hazard estimates. At all return periods and vibration periods, inclusion of fault-derived parameters increases the predicted spectral acceleration above the level predicted from the instrumental catalogue alone, with the most significant changes being in close proximity to the fault systems and the effect being more significant at longer vibration periods. Importantly, the results indicate that standard probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) methods using short instrumental records alone tend to underestimate the seismic hazard, especially for the most damaging, extreme magnitude events. For many developing countries in Africa and elsewhere, which are experiencing rapid economic growth and urbanisation, seismic hazard assessments incorporating characteristic earthquake models are critical.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Risk assessment of maize drought hazard in the middle region of
           farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China
    • Abstract: Abstract Global warming has drawn great attention in recent years, and the resultant extreme drought events have seriously influenced food security. Drought hazard has become a major stress factor for food production in China. The present study aimed to assess the drought hazard risk of maize in middle region of farming-pastoral ecotone of Northern China using spatial maize drought hazard intensity index. The drought hazard intensity index model was set up based on the output variable water stress of environmental policy-integrated climate model and yield loss contribution rate α of water stress in each growth stage. The yield loss contribution rate α is calculated based on the relationship between the water deficit in different stages and the yield loss. Added with the spatial data in time series, results are used for risk assessment. It shows that the tendency of maize drought hazard intensity index was increasing from 1966 to 2011 and was becoming significant after 1996. The volatility is becoming stronger, especially in central basin and northwestern plateau of the study area. The extreme drought events were more frequent. The degree of maize drought was aggravated, and scope of influence was extended after 1999. And the risk of drought hazard is relatively high in the study area, especially in the central basin. In conclusion, this paper presents an effective way to analyze maize drought hazard risk. For the middle region of farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, the seriously increasing maize drought hazard is demonstrated by the temporal and spatial analyses and the probability distribution of maize drought hazard intensity index, which presents its sensitivity to climate change and its representativeness to the study of agricultural drought hazard.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Exploring a spatial statistical approach to quantify flood risk perception
           using cognitive maps
    • Abstract: Abstract Modern flood risk management strategies have evolved from flood resistance to a holistic approach incorporating prevention, protection and preparedness with the aim of reducing the likelihood and/or impact of flooding. This evolution has been driven by a trend of increasingly damaging and frequent flood events due to climate change. Populations at risk are required to be an active participant within modern flood risk management plans, resulting in management plan effectiveness being partially dependent on the relevant population’s flood risk perception. Thus, understanding how at-risk populations perceive their own flood risk, and how this compares to the reality of the situation, is a significant component of flood risk management. This paper compares subjective risk perception to an objective measure of risk within a specific case study area, where 305 residents were surveyed on their perception of flood risk. As part of the survey, respondents were asked to delineate the areas of the study area that they perceived would be at risk of inundation during a severe flood event. Using spatial statistical indicators, including Fuzzy Kappa comparison, it was possible to quantify the divergence between subjective and objective measures of risk extent, enabling an assessment of the ‘correctness’ of subjective perceived risk. This novel approach identified significant deviations between risk perception and objective risk measures at an individual level. The paper concludes by considering potential policy implications.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • An empirical solution for tsunami run-up on compound slopes
    • Abstract: Abstract Deterministic numerical models for tsunami inundation provide the most accurate means for estimating tsunami run-up when the bathymetry/topography and water-level time history at the seaward boundary are well known. However, it is often the case that there is uncertainty in both the bathymetry/topography and water level at the seaward boundary. For these reasons, empirical solutions for tsunami run-up may be preferred because the run-up can be computed quickly allowing a probabilistic estimate the tsunami run-up risk. In this paper, an empirical solution for tsunami run-up is developed based on an analytic solution and calibrated using a Boussinesq wave model for plane-sloped and compound-sloped cases, including the effects of bottom friction, wave breaking, and the slope of the inundated land area. The new relation is a function of the tsunami wave amplitude at a specific water depth (100 m) to provide clear guidance for practical application, and of two values of the surf-similarity parameter to account for a compound slope. The model comprises three equations for three regions: breaking, transition, and non-breaking. The model predictions are compared with survey data from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami in Japan without recalibration. The new equation provides reasonable estimates of run-up height and is generally conservative.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Mapping of rainfall-induced landslide susceptibility in Wencheng, China,
           using support vector machine
    • Abstract: Abstract This study presents a framework for mapping rainfall-induced landslide susceptibility in the Wencheng area of Zhejiang Province, China, using support vector machine (SVM). Seven conditioning factors of elevation, slope, aspect, distance to roads, lithology, land use, and normalized difference vegetation index selected by correlation analyses, and two triggering factors of daily and cumulative rainfall data were employed as input data in the SVM modeling. The training dataset was constructed using 354 landslide inventories identified from field surveys between 1981 and 2010, and 354 points not prone to slides selected as positive and negative samples, respectively, based on a statistical method of factors. A fivefold cross-validation and receiver operation characteristic were applied to evaluate the performances of the SVM model. The summarized area under the curve result was 0.96, indicating that SVM demonstrated good and stable performance in mapping landslide susceptibility. Two practical cases were investigated: the Trami typhoon of August 22, 2013, and the Kong-Re typhoon of August 26, 2013, which brought heavy rainfall of 300 and 111 mm, respectively, to the Wencheng area. The resulting maps showed that SVM could provide a map with high probability values over small areas, demonstrating good properties of generalization. In addition, mapping of landslide susceptibility could be converted easily into landslide warning by replacing the triggering factor with weather forecasting data. Landslide susceptibility maps based on the results of this study could be used to assist governments and planners, and help reduce the economic and social costs of rainfall-induced landslides.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Landslide erosion associated with the Wenchuan earthquake in the Minjiang
           River watershed: Implication for landscape evolution of the Longmen Shan,
           eastern Tibetan Plateau
    • Abstract: Abstract In tectonically active mountain belts, earthquakes can contribute to surface erosion by generating large-scale landslides. This study focuses on establishing the relationship between surface erosion caused by the earthquake-induced landslides and landscape evolution of the Longmen Shan, eastern Tibet Plateau. The inventory of landslides related to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in the Minjiang River watershed was based on high-resolution remote sensing images and field surveys. The estimated landslide erosion rate related to the Wenchuan earthquake is of the order 0.4–0.6 mm year−1 on both sides of the Minjiang River and its tributaries. This erosion is similar to erosion rates of 0.5–0.8 mm year−1 measured by low-temperature thermochronology over a Myr-timescale. The landslides associated with repeated large earthquakes may contribute to this Myr-timescale surface erosion via enhanced erosion efficiency. Post-seismic high-resolution digital elevation models covering the period from 2008 and 2012 were compared to quantify fluvial erosion in the Baisha River, a tributary of the Minjiang River. The volume of eroded materials was approximately 1.9 × 104 m3 over the 4-year period. In addition, the rapid removal of co-seismic knickpoints indicates significant post-seismic river transportation. If large earthquakes, such as the Wenchuan earthquake, have occurred at intervals of 2,000–3,000 years, then the associated rapid landslide erosion together with fluvial erosion during inter-seismic intervals may have played an important role in shaping the present landscape of the Longmen Shan.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Quantifying the impact of impervious surface location on flood peak
           discharge in urban areas
    • Abstract: Abstract To date, limited attention has been paid to the role of impervious surface (IS) location in influencing flood processes. However, this topic is of tremendous significance for developing guidelines for urban planning and flood management. This study uses the Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to investigate the impact of land-use change on flood processes and proposes a new index to quantify the impact of IS location on basin peak discharge. The results indicate that rapid urban expansion in the Longhua Basin, China, has increased peak discharge and flood volume by 140 and 162 % over the past 30 years, respectively. The new index, named the Impervious Surface Impact Index, describes the spatially varying effects of IS increase in individual sub-basins on a basin’s peak discharge. For the Longhua Basin, the index varies from 0.43 in downstream sub-basins to 5.91 in upstream sub-basins. An increase in upstream IS increases peak discharge nearly 14 times more than the same increase in downstream IS. Accordingly, the location of newly created IS can influence flood processes significantly. These findings can help to find suitable locations for urban development while mitigating the impact of land development on flood risks.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Spectral coherence between climate oscillations and the M
            ≥ 7 earthquake historical worldwide record
    • Abstract: Abstract We compare the NOAA Significant Earthquake Historical database versus typical climatic indices and the length of the day (LOD). The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) record is mainly adopted because most of the analyzed earthquakes occurred at the land boundaries of the Pacific Plate. The NOAA catalog contains information on destructive earthquakes. Using advanced spectral and magnitude squared coherence methodologies, we found that the magnitude \(M\ge 7\) earthquake annual frequency and the PDO record share common frequencies at about 9-, 20-, and 50- to 60-year periods, which are typically found in climate records and among the solar and lunar harmonics. The two records are negatively correlated at the 20- and 50- to 60-year timescales and positively correlated at the 9-year and lower timescales. We use a simple harmonic model to forecast the \(M\ge 7\) significant earthquake annual frequency for the next decades. The next 15 years should be characterized by a relatively high \(M\ge 7\) earthquake activity (on average 10–12 occurrences per year) with possible maxima in 2020 and 2030 and a minimum in the 2040s. On the 60-year scale, the LOD is found to be highly correlated with the earthquake record ( \(r=0.51\) for 1900–1994, and \(r=0.95\) for 1910–1970). However, the LOD variations appear to be too small to be the primary earthquake trigger. Our results suggest that large earthquakes are triggered by crust deformations induced by, and/or linked to climatic and oceanic oscillations induced by astronomical forcings, which also regulate the LOD.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Planning emergency shelter locations based on evacuation behavior
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigates the challenges of emergency shelter location planning during disaster events. Previous research has been hindered by the inability to consider both the service capacity and the mobility of the road network and by the lack of a method for assigning evacuees to emergency shelters after a disaster causes road closures. This study proposes a framework for the use in a developed catchment to determine where to locate safe and convenient emergency shelters based on evacuation behavior. The model uses space syntax and road-closure indices based on mobility-based evacuation to produce a safety and mobility of the road-network index using geographic information systems. The results describe four regional evacuation areas: isolated islands, deliberate evacuation areas, temporary settlements, and local disaster preparedness areas. This study contributes to an integrated framework for the equitable distribution of emergency shelters and provides insights into evacuation planning practices.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Effects of large-scale climate patterns and human activities on
           hydrological drought: a case study in the Luanhe River basin, China
    • Abstract: Abstract Evaluation of the impact of climate variability and human activities on hydrological drought is of great significance for drought mitigation strategies. In this study, standardized runoff index (SRI) at various time scales is used to characterize hydrological droughts in the Luanhe River basin, northeast of China, for the period of 1959–2011. Correlation analysis is conducted to examine the associations between the hydrological droughts and large-scale oceanic–atmospheric patterns (AMO and ENSO). Climate-induced and human-induced influence indices are also developed based on standardized precipitation index and SRI to investigate the possible influences of the climate patterns and human activities on the hydrological droughts. Results indicate that the significant influence of AMO on hydrological drought at different time scales is evident among different months across the Luanhe River basin, with warm (cold) AMO phases favoring drought (wet) conditions. The direct linkage of ENSO to hydrological drought is relatively weak in the basin, while the extent of the linkage can be improved with increasing time lags. Moreover, El Niño phases show a closer relation with the drought events of the region as compared with La Niña phases. It is also implied that human activities exhibit aggravating effects on hydrological drought at shorter time scales over the basin, whereas they might show mitigating effects at longer time scales in some areas of the basin. These findings can be beneficial for better understanding how the hydrological drought responses to climate changes and human activities, thereby providing valuable references for drought forecasts and water resources managements in the Luanhe River basin.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Tracking a tropical cyclone through WRF–ARW simulation and
           sensitivity of model physics
    • Abstract: Abstract The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model’s Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamic solver is one of the most popular regional numerical weather prediction models being used by operational and research personnel. In this study, we simulate a tropical cyclone to reproduce the track direction and strength of the storm that formed at low latitudes in the West Pacific Ocean. The cyclone is known as “Haiyan” and assessed as category-5 equivalent super typhoon status due to its strong sustained winds and gusts, making it the strongest tropical cyclone in the region. We study the sensitivity of three different model physics options: the microphysics schemes, the planetary boundary layer schemes, and the impact of cumulus parameterization schemes. The realism of the cyclone simulation for different physics options is assessed through the comparison between the model outputs and the best track data, which are taken from the Japan Meteorological Agency. The experimental model simulations are carried out with two different global datasets: the ERA-Interim analysis from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and NCEP GFS forecast data, as initialization and boundary conditions. In addition, wind–pressure relationships are developed for different physics combination runs. Verification results associated with the model physics and boundary condition are discussed in this article. Overall, irrespective of the physics sensitivity, while the WRF simulation performs well in predicting the track propagation of the typhoon, substantial underestimation is seen in the intensity prediction.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Environmental effects of the December 28, 1908, Southern
           Calabria–Messina (Southern Italy) earthquake
    • Abstract: Abstract The review of all available contemporary documents, i.e., technical and photographic reports, newspapers, and other archive material, of the 1908, M 7.1, Messina–Reggio Calabria earthquake has allowed to recognize and classify a large number (365) of independent environmental effects of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. The effects have been categorized as slope movement, ground settlement, ground vertical movement and coastal retreat, liquefaction, ground crack, hydrological anomaly, gas emission, light, and rumble. No undisputable evidence of surface faulting has been pointed out. Nevertheless, the widespread and rather homogeneous subsidence of the coastal area of Messina (40–70 cm) might have been caused by slip along a NNE–SSW-trending, east-dipping fault, corresponding to the here proposed Messina Lineament. Likewise, slips along the Reggio Calabria, Armo and Motta San Giovanni faults, suggested by coastal subsidence and slides, ground cracks, and leveling data, cannot be ruled out. A large part of the achieved information has allowed to evaluate the epicentral intensity and local intensities at 74 sites, by applying the environmental seismic intensity scale ESI 2007. This study has led to the most comprehensive picture of the distribution and characteristics of coseismic environmental effects of that earthquake, a crucial knowledge to better estimate the future impact of a similar earthquake on a region that has seen a broad, and often poorly concerned, urban and infrastructural development since then.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Using the STIRPAT model to explore the factors driving regional CO 2
           emissions: a case of Tianjin, China
    • Abstract: Abstract In order to curb anthropogenic carbon emissions and achieve the carbon intensity reduction target in China, it is crucial to shed light on influencing factors of carbon emissions at the city level. This paper selects Tianjin, one of the largest economic centers in northern China, as a study case. An extended stochastic impact by regression on population, affluence, and technology model is conducted to systematically identify the determinant factors driving CO2 emissions in Tianjin during the period 1996–2012. To eliminate multicollinearity problems, partial least squares regression is applied to improve this model. Empirical results show that the rapid process of urbanization has the greatest impact on the increase in carbon emissions, while the industrialization level has the least impact. Affluence level, population size, and FDI also play important roles in CO2 emission growth. The outcome of the FDI–emission nexus supports the pollution haven hypothesis, which shows that the inflow of foreign capital harms the local environment. Improvement in energy intensity is the major inhibitory factor and partially offsets the increase in carbon emissions. Finally, policy recommendations for carbon emission reduction plan in Tianjin have been given. Moreover, the approach developed in this research is transferable and can be utilized to analyze driving factors of CO2 emissions and formulate sustainable development strategies in another region.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Integration of laser scanning and thermal imaging in monitoring
           optimization and assessment of rockfall hazard: a case history in the
           Carnic Alps (Northeastern Italy)
    • Abstract: Abstract Rock cliff monitoring to evaluate related rockfall hazard requires a deep knowledge of the geometry and kinematics of the rock mass and a real-time survey of some key features. If a sedimentary rock system has sloping discontinuity planes, an open joint could become a potential sliding surface and its conditions must be monitored. It is the case of the Passo della Morte landslide (Carnic Alps, Northeastern Italy), where sub-vertical joints exist. Remote sensing techniques such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and infrared thermography (IRT) allow a fast and efficient contactless geometrical and geomechanical examination of a rock mass. Therefore, they can be used to recognize those joints that require monitoring with on-site instrumentation such as extensometers and/or inclinometers, or also acoustic emission sensors, aiding the arrangement of monitoring systems which are generally quite expensive to install. Repeated IRT surveys would provide useful information about the evolution of unstable slopes, thus suggesting how the on-site monitoring system could be improved. Moreover, data gathered by TLS and IRT can be directly used in landslide hazard assessment. In the test site, an open joint was recognized together with a fair joint that could change in the next future. The results were validated by means of extensometer data.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Management of natural disasters in the Brazilian Amazon region
    • Abstract: Abstract We describe and analyze the legal, institutional, and financial dimensions of risk management in the Brazilian Amazon region, principally in the states of Acre, Amazonas, and Para and the factors that contribute to the definition of the challenges for a successful natural disaster management there. The analysis classifies the normative instruments used in sustainable development, territorial zoning, risk management, climate change, and water resources issues and identifies the state government organizations involved with disaster risk management, which are classified according to a proposed thematic–temporal–task responsibilities relationship model. State-level administrators were also interviewed. We found that states are responsible for the provision of protection and assistance to the population, roles conducted by the police and the firefighting corps and that legal instruments can indirectly assist with the reduction of vulnerability factors. Most of the institutional states’ structures have a direct relationship with disaster risk management and show a predominance of post-disasters implementation and control of policies and activities. Monetary resource transfers from the federal government to states are a mixture of voluntary and mandatory. However, by examining the national and state budgets of 2013 and 2014, it is clear that much of the financing of risk management comes from extraordinary resources. The answers given by the managers of state government institutions are categorized as risk management perception and coordination, and financial, institutional, and data challenges, all of which are faced in the Amazon region. Thus, this paper expects to contribute to the understanding of one of the most important forms of disaster risk response capacity and to the reduction of the vulnerability of the states studied.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Which is more hazardous: avalanche, landslide, or mudslide'
    • Abstract: Abstract Gravity erosion is a dominant geomorphic process on the steep loess slopes. Here, we conducted rainfall simulation experiments to monitor occurrence and behavior of the mass failure on steep loess slopes. The results show that the quantity of soil loss caused by avalanche and landslide was much more than that caused by mudslide, and the avalanche was the most violent gravity erosion. As the slopes were eroded with five runs of rainfalls each at an amount of 48 mm, the total volume of avalanche, landslide, and mudslide were 150.9, 82.5, and 3.9 × 103 cm3/m, and their maximum individual amounts were 369.9, 177.6, and 24.6 × 103 cm3, respectively. The amount of avalanche, landslide, and mudslide accounted for 62, 36, and 2 % of the total gravity erosion in a rainfall experiment of the model test. Furthermore, the slope height and gradient had a remarkable impact on the erosion amount. When the slope height was increased from 1.0 to 1.5 m, the total amount of avalanche was increased by 22 %, and the maximum volume of individual avalanche was augmented by 165 %. When the slope gradient was increased from 70° to 80°, the total amount of landslide was enlarged by 52 %, and the maximum amount of individual avalanche was magnified by 65 %. As a result, avalanche and landslide, especially the former, played a crucial role of soil erosion on steep slope compacted by hand with loess.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Estimation of soil erosion in some sections of Lower Jinsha River based on
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil erosion increasingly poses a great threat to human food security and environmental quality. It is necessary to implement the assessment of soil erosion so as to provide precautionary measures and relevant suggestions for soil conservation. In this paper, the soil erosion model, revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE), was used to quantify the soil loss in a large mountainous area of Lower Jinsha River Basin. The analysis of the datasets by means of geographic information systems (GIS) together with RUSLE led to the estimation of soil erosion. Results show that the average annual soil erosion was estimated at 52.1 t ha−1 year−1 and the total annual soil loss was 4.5 × 108 t. The highest erosion was found along the main course of Jinsha River. Soil erosion was serious in the elevation zone between 1,675 and 2,153 m and slope zone with slopes between 15° and 35°. As for land use types, cropland and grassland contributed 84.1 % to total soil loss due to the large areas and higher erosion rates. The results can be used to advice the local government in prioritizing the areas of immediate conservation practices.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Long-term characteristics and extreme parameters of currents and sea
           levels in the Bohai Sea based on 20-year numerical hindcast data
    • Abstract: Abstract The Ocean model POM is used to simulate the currents and sea levels for the whole Bohai Sea continuously from 1985 to 2004. The wind forcing at the sea surface is from the hindcast of high-resolution wind fields by RAMS. Comparisons of currents and sea levels between simulations and station observations show good agreement in general. On this basis, tidal currents and long-term wind-driven currents are discussed. The sea-level characteristics such as highest and lowest astronomical tide are also given. Furthermore, current velocities at surface and bottom layers, high and low sea levels for 100-year return periods are studied in this paper.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Development of an intelligent disaster information-integrated platform for
           radiation monitoring
    • Abstract: Abstract Traditional infrastructures are subjected to disasters that carry the risk of major loss of human life if not responded to properly. Damage and injury can and should be minimized through the provision of adequate situational awareness and decision-making support, and for this reason, the internet of things (IOT) is potentially very useful for managing crisis situations via providing sound disaster management and emergency-response information. This study has developed an IOT-based intelligent disaster information-integrated platform (IDIIP) for disaster monitoring, disaster information management, and emergency-response coordination. A radiation-monitoring scenario has been selected to prove the concept of the IDIIP. However, when numerous sensors and related devices are deployed, great difficulties arise in maintaining, updating, and configuring them. To address these issues, we developed a novel IOT-based data storage and exchange framework in IDIIP. Thanks to this framework, IOT devices can be upgraded effortlessly even if site conditions or users’ requirements change. Our framework also makes it much easier to upgrade sensors without rewriting the sensor drivers. An experiment for radiation measurement was conducted to validate our prototype radiation-sensing node and IOT center node. This and an operational radiation-monitoring scenario for this platform are described in the article. All results indicate that this platform would be beneficial for radiation monitoring and disaster information dissemination to the public.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Recent developments of soil improvement methods for seismic liquefaction
    • Abstract: Abstract Although traditional methods of liquefaction mitigation have been widely applied in engineering practice, some prominent problems remain such as limits on the size of the treated areas, disturbance of existing structures sensitive to deformation or vibration, and environmental impact. In terms of liquefaction mitigation, some relatively new concepts have been proposed such as passive site remediation, microbial geotechnology, and induced partial saturation, and new methods have been developed based on these concepts. In this paper, as a reference to engineers and researchers involved in solving the problems faced by our developing society, we review the recent development of soil improvement methods for liquefaction mitigation. We present methods of liquefaction mitigation and suggest their classification into three types. We review, for the first time, the engineering problems and research trends of liquefaction mitigation and discuss several typical new methods such as colloidal silica grouting, bentonite suspension grouting, biocementation, air injection, biogas, and mitigation using tire chips. Finally, the applicability of these new methods in solving the above problems is discussed, and future research orientations are pointed out.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
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