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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 876 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (77 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (617 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (101 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (29 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Animal Reproduction Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.704
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0378-4320
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Assessment of reproductive performance in F1 sows exposed to the porcine
           epidemic diarrhea virus at different periods of production stage on farms
           with different hygienic environments
    • Authors: Aina Furutani; Tadahiro Kawabata; Masuo Sueyoshi; Yosuke Sasaki
      Pages: 233 - 241
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Aina Furutani, Tadahiro Kawabata, Masuo Sueyoshi, Yosuke Sasaki
      Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) occurred in Japan in 2013 after an interval of 7 years. The present study assessed individual productivity of sows exposed to PED virus at different periods of the production stage. The present study was performed at three commercial farms that had PED outbreak during the month of December 2013. Herd immunization was conducted for all gilts and sows. The production records were obtained for sows that were alive during the PED outbreak at each farm. The sows were categorized into six groups based on the period in which they were exposed to PED virus between days 0–30 (G1), 31–60 (G2), 61–90 (G3), or after 91 days of pregnancy (G4), during lactation (L), and after weaning (W). The control group was assigned based on the records before the period of PED outbreak (uninfected group). The number of sow’s records obtained from farms A, B, and C were 1056, 1137, and 1035, respectively. Compared with the uninfected group, there was no reduction in the number of pigs born alive in the G1–G4 groups. Sows of the G4 and L groups, however, had 4–9 pigs fewer pigs weaned, and a 36%–77% greater pre-weaning mortality than the uninfected group (P < 0.05). There was no difference in farrowing rate and number of pigs born alive at subsequent parities among the sow groups. There were no interactions between sow groups and parity for sow productivity.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2018)
       
  • Optimization of the incubation time and temperature for spermatozoa
           extraction in freshwater crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz,
           1823)
    • Authors: Ardavan Farhadi; Muzaffer Mustafa Harlıoğlu; Seyfettin Gür; Tutku Can Acısu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Ardavan Farhadi, Muzaffer Mustafa Harlıoğlu, Seyfettin Gür, Tutku Can Acısu
      Determination and control of spermatozoa quality in crustacean aquaculture is an important issue for successful and controlled reproduction. Investigation of spermatozoa number in spermatophores is a basic and common parameter for determining the reproductive quality in farmed decapods. In the present study, spermatozoa extraction from spermatophores located in the ductus deferens was conducted in Pontastacus leptodactylus using different incubation times and temperatures. The results indicate that the duration of incubation and temperature affected (P < 0.05) spermatozoa extraction. Greater temperatures (40 and 75 °C) resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in number of extracted spermatozoa. In contrast, more spermatozoa were extracted when the 4 and 23 °C temperatures were imposed. After 4 h of incubation, the number of extracted spermatozoa were greatest in number at 23 °C. In conclusion, the greater numbers of crayfish spermatozoa can be obtained when the ductus deferens containing spermatophores is incubated at 23 °C for 4 h as compared with other temperatures and incubation durations. The results of present study are useful for assessing spermatozoa quality in aquaculture as well as the extraction of spermatozoa for research purposes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.04.063
       
  • Germ cell-specific apoptosis by extracellular clusterin in cryptorchid dog
           testes
    • Authors: Hyunjhung Jhun; Hyun-Jung Park; Ran Lee; Hyuk Song; Tai-Young Hur; Seunghoon Lee; Jin-Ki Park; Won-Young Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Hyunjhung Jhun, Hyun-Jung Park, Ran Lee, Hyuk Song, Tai-Young Hur, Seunghoon Lee, Jin-Ki Park, Won-Young Lee
      Mammalian testes are maintained at a relatively lesser temperature than the abdominal region so that normal spermatogenesis can occur. Germ cell apoptosis has resulted in heat-damaged testes that occurs as a result of cryptorchidism, but the mechanism is not yet fully understood. To elucidate the cause of germ-cell death by cryptorchidism, cryptorchidism was surgically induced in dog testes and histological and molecular analyses were performed. Histological data indicated that the seminiferous tubules of cryptorchid testes and epididymis contained fewer germ cells. Total RNA sequencing was performed to screen for overexpressed genes in cryptorchid dog testes. Clusterin RNA was in greater abundance (approximately 12.8-fold) in cryptorchid testes than in normal testes. In addition, cleaved caspase-3 and -8 were detected in greater abundance in cryptorchid dog testes. Real time RT-PCR and western blotting analysis indicated there was a greater abundance of clusterin in cryptorchid dog testes. Furthermore, clusterin was detected in extracellular regions of cryptorchid dog testes during the 4 weeks after surgery. Thus, germ-cell specific apoptosis and expression of clusterin genes occur with a resulting presence of this protein in extracellular regions of cryptorchid dog testes. This result will facilitate further study of spermatogenesis and the specific mechanisms by which cryptorchidism results in male infertility.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.04.064
       
  • Pregnancy and mid-term abortion rates in farmed red deer in New Zealand
    • Authors: Kandarp Khodidas Patel; Laryssa Howe; Cord Heuer; Geoffery William Asher; Peter Raymond Wilson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Kandarp Khodidas Patel, Laryssa Howe, Cord Heuer, Geoffery William Asher, Peter Raymond Wilson
      This paper describes pregnancy and mid-term abortion rate data from an investigation of sub-optimal reproductive performance in New Zealand farmed red deer. For 2 years, 87 yearling (YL) and 71 mixed-age adult (MA) herds from 85 farms were observed with 15 YL and seven MA herds observed both years. Hinds were pregnancy diagnosed using ultrasonography in the late autumn-early winter (PD1) and again late winter-early spring (PD2) and mid-term daily abortion rates (DAR) were calculated. Overall, 85.8% of 22,130 YL (range, 7.0%-100% between herds) and 93.3% of 36,223 MA hinds (range, 39.8%-100% between herds) were pregnant at PD1. The mean interval between ultrasonic assessments was 90 and 87 days in YL and MA herds, respectively. Mid-term abortions occurred in 305 (2.8%) hinds from 60 (73%) YL herds and 92 (1.2%) hinds from 36 (61%) MA herds. The mean mid-term DAR, was greater (P = 0.009) in YL (mean 0.043%, range 0.005%-0.213%, 95% CI = 0.034-0.053) than MA herds (mean 0.025%, range 0.007%-0.101%, 95% CI = 0.018-0.032). In herds with hinds that aborted, the mean DAR was greater in small than large YL herds (0.055% compared with 0.033%, P = 0.023), but not MA herds. At PD1, 46 YL and 12 MA hinds had ultrasonographic evidence of abortions from 22 herds. This, combined with the 1.2% to 7.1% foetal loss in three herds pregnancy diagnosed earlier than the usual PD1 date as a pilot to test for earlier abortion, supports that abortion can occur prior to normal pregnancy assessment dates, contributing to sub-optimal pregnancy rates. Abortion rates were not consistent within herd between years for either YL or MA herds. Thus, early and mid-term abortion is prevalent in New Zealand farmed deer constituting a significant production cost, warranting further investigation into causation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.04.062
       
  • Seminal plasma proteomes and sperm fertility
    • Authors: Xavier Druart; Simon de Graaf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Xavier Druart, Simon de Graaf
      During ejaculation, the spermatozoa are transported by the seminal plasma, a fluid resulting from secretions originating mainly from the prostate and the seminal vesicles in mammals. The interaction of the seminal plasma with spermatozoa induces binding of seminal proteins onto the sperm surface and membrane remodeling potentially impacting the sperm transport, survival and fertilizing ability in the female genital tract. The seminal plasma also contains peptides and proteins involved in the inflammatory and immune response of the female tract. Therefore the seminal plasma proteome has been investigated in a large range of taxa, including mammals, birds, fishes and insect species. The association of the seminal plasma with semen preservation or fertility identified proteic markers of seminal plasma function in domestic species. This review summarizes the current knowledge in seminal plasma proteomes and proteic markers of sperm preservation in animal species.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.04.061
       
  • Nucleotide variability of protamine genes influencing bull sperm motility
           variables
    • Authors: Yathish H.M.; Subodh Kumar; Rajni Chaudhary; Chinmoy Mishra; Sivakumar A.; Amit Kumar; Anuj Chauhan; S.K. Ghosh; Abhijit Mitra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Yathish H.M., Subodh Kumar, Rajni Chaudhary, Chinmoy Mishra, Sivakumar A., Amit Kumar, Anuj Chauhan, S.K. Ghosh, Abhijit Mitra
      Protamines (PRMs), important proteins of chromatin condensation in spermiogenesis, are promising candidate genes to explore markers of sperm motility. The coding and in-silico predicted promoter regions of these genes were investigated in 102 crossbred and 32 purebred cattle. Also, mRNA quantification was done to explore its possibility as diagnostic tool of infertility. The PCR-SSCP analysis indicated there were two band patterns only in fragment I of the PRM1 and fragment II of the PRM2 gene. The sequence analysis revealed A152G and G179A transitions in the PRM1 gene. Similarly, G35A, A49G and A64G transitions were identified in the PRM2 gene which resulted in altered amino acid sequences from arginine (R) to glutamine (Q), from arginine (R) to glycine (G) and from arginine (R) to glycine (G), respectively. This caused the reduction in molecular weight of PRM2 from 2157.66 to 1931.33 Da due to reduction in the number of basic amino acids. These altered properties of the PRM2 protein led to the reduction in Mass Motility (MM: P < 0.01), Initial Progressive Motility (IPM; P < 0.05) and Post Thaw Motility (PTM; P < 0.05) in crossbred bulls. The least squares analysis of variance indicated there was an effect of PRM2 haplotypes on MM (P = 0.0069), IPM (P = 0.0306) and PTM (P = 0.0500) in crossbred cattle and on PTM (P = 0.0408) in the overall cattle population. Based on the RT-qPCR analysis, however, there was not any significant variation of PRM1 and PRM2 gene expression among sperm of Vrindavani bulls with relatively lesser and greater sperm motility.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.04.060
       
  • Ostrich specific semen diluent and sperm motility characteristics during
           in vitro storage
    • Authors: A.M.J. Smith; M. Bonato; K. Dzama; I.A. Malecki; S.W.P. Cloete
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): A.M.J. Smith, M. Bonato, K. Dzama, I.A. Malecki, S.W.P. Cloete
      The dilution of semen is a very important initial process for semen processing and evaluation, storage and preservation in vitro and efficient artificial insemination. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two synthetic diluents (OS1 and OS2) on ostrich sperm motility parameters during in vitro storage. Formulation of OS1 was based on macro minerals (Na, K, P, Ca, Mg) and OS2 on the further addition of micro minerals (Se and Zn), based on mineral concentration determined in the ostrich seminal plasma (SP). Sperm motility was evaluated at different processing stages (neat, after dilution, during storage and after storage) by measuring several sperm motility variables using the Sperm Class Analyzer® (SCA). Processing (dilution, cooling and storage) of semen for in vitro storage purposes decreased the values for all sperm motility variables measured. The percentage motile (MOT) and progressive motile (PMOT) sperm decreased 20% to 30% during 24 h of storage, independent of diluent type. Quality of sperm swim (LIN, STR and WOB), however, was sustained during the longer storage periods (48 h) with the OS2 diluent modified with Se and Zn additions. Quality of sperm swim with use of OS1 was 6% to 8% less for the LIN, STR, and WOB variables. Male fitted as a fixed effect accounted for >60% of the variation for certain sperm motility variables (PMOT, MOT, VCL, VSL, VAP and ALH) evaluated at different processing stages. Semen from specific males had sustained sperm motility characteristics to a greater extent than that of other males during the 24-h storage period.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.04.005
       
  • Modeling of behavioral responses for successful selection of easy-to-train
           rams for semen collection with an artificial vagina
    • Authors: Claudia Pamela Ambrosi; Natalia Rubio; Gustavo Giménez; Andrés Venturino; Eduardo Gabriel Aisen; María Fernanda López Armengol
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Claudia Pamela Ambrosi, Natalia Rubio, Gustavo Giménez, Andrés Venturino, Eduardo Gabriel Aisen, María Fernanda López Armengol
      The aim of this study was to analyze the reproductive behavioral responses in Australian Merino rams, to identify those related to a faster training for semen collection with an artificial vagina. Eight Australian Merino rams, aged 1.5 years and with no prior sexual experience, were randomly selected from an extensively grazed flock. One immobilized ewe with no hormone stimulation was used for rams to sexually interact and mount. The frequencies of approaching, sniffing, flehmen, pushing, pawing with chin resting, and tongue flicking were recorded during eight training and three post-training assessments periods. In addition, the duration of sniffing and flehmen responses, as well as the time from when the ram started to approach the ewe until the mount with ejaculation (completed mount) were recorded. Descriptive, correlation, and modeling analyses were performed. Amongst the rams, four mounted the ewe and ejaculated for the first time during the training phase, and three mounted and ejaculated for the first time after the training phase. The remaining ram mounted the ewe and ejaculated for the first time during the post-training evaluation in the following year. A great variability in the behavior repertoire was observed among rams. The correlation analysis indicated that the completed mount was associated with the behaviors during the approaching response. The expression of the sniffing response decreased between the training phase and post-training evaluation, while the responses of pushing the ewe and tongue flicking ceased to occur. Pawing the side of the ewe with the chin resting on the back of the ewe and flehmen responses, however, continued between the training and post-training phases. This led to a decrease in the time from when the ram started to approach the ewe until the completed mount. It is concluded that the responses of approaching the ewe, pawing the side of the ewe with chin resting on the ewe, and sniffing of the ewe (the latter occurring only during the training phase) are behavioral indicators that could be used for selection of easy-to-train rams for purposes of semen collection with an artificial vagina.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.04.003
       
  • Mineral profiling of ostrich (Struthio camelus) seminal plasma and its
           relationship with semen traits and collection day
    • Authors: A.M.J. Smith; M. Bonato; K. Dzama; I.A. Malecki; S.W.P. Cloete
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): A.M.J. Smith, M. Bonato, K. Dzama, I.A. Malecki, S.W.P. Cloete
      Successful assisted reproduction techniques, with specific focus on in vitro semen storage for artificial insemination, are dependent on certain key elements which includes the biochemical profiling of semen. The objective of this study was to complete an ostrich seminal plasma (SP) evaluation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) among seven males at different daily intervals (day 1, 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28) for a period of 28 days during spring (August to September) for mineral profiling. The effect of collection day and male on sperm concentration, semen volume and seminal plasma volume, was explored as well as the relationships amongst these specific sperm traits and SP minerals. Variation amongst SP mineral concentrations, accounted for by the fixed effects of sperm concentration, semen volume, seminal plasma volume, collection day and male, ranged from 18% to 77%. Male had the largest effect on variation in SP minerals, namely: phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), boron (B), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), barium (Ba), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se). Sperm concentration instigated fluctuations of P, magnesium (Mg), B, zinc (Zn), Fe, aluminium (Al), Se, manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb). Semen volume had an effect on Na, K, B, Pb and Ba while seminal plasma volume only influenced variation in Na. There were fluctuations among collection days of specific micro minerals, Ni and Mo, with initial Ni concentrations being relatively greater and Mo at lesser concentrations. Semen volume, seminal plasma volume and sperm concentration varied amongst males. Sperm concentrations during the initial collection days, 1 and 3, were less than that for days 7 to 28. Significant variation of SP minerals and sperm characteristics among ejaculates and males suggest an association of these specific elements with sperm function and are, therefore, considered to be of potential importance to success of assisted reproduction technology for the ostrich. The relationship amongst sperm concentration and collection day confirms the need to conduct an initial period of collection to stabilise a greater sperm concentration to optimise sperm numbers for artificial insemination purposes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.04.004
       
  • Dwarf chickens with low monocytes/macrophages phagocytic activity show low
           antibody titers but greater performance
    • Authors: Yitong Yuan; Hai Wang; Hongping Wu; Hui Ma; Ling Lian; Zhengxing Lian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Yitong Yuan, Hai Wang, Hongping Wu, Hui Ma, Ling Lian, Zhengxing Lian
      Monocytes/macrophages phagocytosis has key roles in inflammatory responses. However, systematic research on the effects of monocytes/macrophages phagocytosis on production and reproductive performance in dwarf chickens is lacking. In this study, we developed the HCT-8-MTT method to detect monocytes/macrophages phagocytosis product (PP) which was accuracy, flexible, and saving time. Based on PP in 990 dwarf chickens (890 hens and 100 cocks), chickens were divided into high phagocytosis product group (HPPG) and low phagocytosis product group (LPPG). In production performance, chickens in LPPG have higher laying rate at 24 wk and 71 wk and higher average egg weight at 23 wk and 24 wk than in HPPG (P < 0.05). The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were higher in LPPG than in HPPG at 58 wk (P < 0.01). In the reproductive performance, the fertilization rate in LPPG was higher than that in HPPG at 45 wk, 49 wk, and 53 wk (P < 0.05). Chickens in LPPG have higher hatchability than HPPG at 45 wk and 49 wk (P < 0.05). In LPPG, the mRNA expression levels of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor and CD9 in the follicle were higher than HPPG (P < 0.05). In the immune response, chickens with higher PP levels showed higher antibody titers for the avian influenza virus H9 inactivated vaccine (P < 0.01). Therefore, monocytes/macrophages PP was positively associated with antibody titers and negatively related to production and reproductive performance, and these findings have practical applications for the optimization of production in the poultry industry.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.04.002
       
  • Lunar and climatic effects on boar ejaculate traits
    • Authors: Josué Chinchilla-Vargas; Karl Kerns; Max F. Rothschild
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Josué Chinchilla-Vargas, Karl Kerns, Max F. Rothschild
      There is evidence that phases of the moon affect wild animal behaviors including reproduction. There is, however, little evidence of moon phase effects on domestic livestock reproduction. This study investigated the effects of moon phase and climatic variables on boar ejaculate traits. Records of 4149 semen collections from boars of nine different breeds at one boar stud were used. The response variables were volume of ejaculate, concentration of sperm in the ejaculate, and number of doses obtained per ejaculate. Moon phase, greatest daily temperature (T), least daily T, average daily relative humidity (RH), temperature-humidity index (THI), season and the interaction of moon phase with season were analyzed at the day of collection and 45 days prior to date of collection as a proxy of initiation of spermatogenesis. For both dates analyzed season and the interaction of season with moon had significant effects (P < 0.05) on the volume of the ejaculate. Moon phase had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on volume of ejaculate at the day of collection. Sperm concentration was affected (P < 0.05) by the interaction of moon phase with season, high and low temperature, THI, RH and breed. Season had an effect (P < 0.01) on concentration of sperm at the initiation of spermatogenesis. For doses that could be used for AI that were obtained/ejaculate, there were effects of moon phase, season, the interaction between season and moon phase and breed (P < 0.05) at collection day and at the initiation of spermatogenesis. There was an interaction (P < 0.0001) between season and moon phase for volume of ejaculate, sperm concentration and number of doses obtained per ejaculate at date of collection and at day of initiation of spermatogenesis. The significant interaction of season and moon phase on boar semen traits suggests that to maximize productivity of modern swine production systems determining a collection schedule in some seasons relative to moon phase may be advantageous.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.04.006
       
  • Uteroplacental secretion of progesterone and estradiol-17β in an ovine
           model of intrauterine growth restriction
    • Authors: C.O. Lemley; L.E. Camacho; D.M. Hallford; K.A. Vonnahme
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): C.O. Lemley, L.E. Camacho, D.M. Hallford, K.A. Vonnahme
      Using a mid to late gestation model of intrauterine growth restriction, uteroplacental secretion of progesterone and estradiol-17β were examined. From day 50 to 130 of gestation, 31 ewe lambs were allocated to receive 100% (ADQ) or 60% (RES) of nutrient requirements. At day 130, umbilical and uterine artery blood flows were determined and blood samples were collected from maternal saphenous artery, gravid uterine vein, umbilical vein, and umbilical artery. Uteroplacental secretion of progesterone was increased in RES compared to ADQ fed dams. There was a net secretion and net metabolism of estradiol-17β in RES, and ADQ fed dams, respectively. In relation to steroid synthesis, cotyledonary abundance of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein was greater in RES compared with ADQ fed dams, while abundance of aromatase was not different between dietary treatments. Caruncular aldo-keto reductase 1C abundance was less in RES compared to ADQ fed dams. The increase in progesterone secretion, therefore, is due in part to an increase in synthesis and a decrease in placental catabolism. Caruncular cytochrome P450 3A, which catalyzes the conversion of estrogens to catechol-estrogens, was in lesser abundance in RES compared to ADQ fed dams. Opposite responses in estradiol-17β uteroplacental secretion compared with metabolism may be mediated through placental estrogen metabolism via cytochrome P450 enzymes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.04.001
       
  • Odorant receptor might be related to sperm DNA integrity in Apis cerana
           cerana
    • Authors: Lina Guo; Huiting Zhao; Bing Xu; Yusuo Jiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Lina Guo, Huiting Zhao, Bing Xu, Yusuo Jiang
      Olfactory receptors (ORs) are important for insects to recognize and discriminate odorants in the environment and are mainly expressed in olfactory and gustatory organs. Little is known about the potential OR functions in non-olfactory tissues. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of odorant receptors AcerOr1 and AcerOr2 (AcerOr2 is orthologous to the co-receptor) mediating sperm DNA integrity, and the relationship between sperm DNA integrity and semen parameters in Apis cerana cerana. Based on previous findings in mammals, we speculated that the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling pathway might be involved in the regulation of sperm motility in A. cerana cerana. The results showed that both AcerOr1 and AcerOr2 are expressed in the sperms and testis, that components associated with the putative Ca2+/CaM/CaMKII signaling pathway are present in A. cerana cerana sperms, and that at least CaM and CaMKII are localized in the sperms and testis. The AcerOr2 agonist VUAA1 significantly improved sperm motility parameters and apoptosis of sperm cells effect DNA integrity, whereas the CaM inhibitor W7 decreased sperm motility parameters and apoptosis of sperm cells, which affects DNA integrity. We also found a positive correlation between sperm DNA integrity and semen quality. These results indirectly as well as directly suggest that OR-mediated sperm responses and the Ca2+/CaM/CaMKII signaling pathway might affect semen quality and might be useful in regulating insect reproduction in future.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.029
       
  • A single nucleotide polymorphism in the Zona Pellucida 3 gene is
           associated with the first parity litter size in Hu sheep
    • Authors: Yuqing Chong; Huarong Huang; Guiqiong Liu; Xunping Jiang; Weiheng Rong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Yuqing Chong, Huarong Huang, Guiqiong Liu, Xunping Jiang, Weiheng Rong
      Zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) is a primary sperm receptor and acrosome reaction inducer. As a candidate gene, the ZP3 gene has been widely studied since it has great influence on reproductive traits in farm animals. However, little is known about the association between polymorphisms of the coding region of the ZP3 gene and the first parity litter size in Hu sheep. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ZP3 gene associated with the first parity litter size in Hu sheep. A total of 462 female Hu sheep were sampled to detect SNPs in the coding region of the ZP3 gene. Six SNPs were identified and the reliability of all estimated allele frequencies reached 0.9545 except for one locus (g.2293C > T). SNP (rs401271989) was identified as that involved in amino acid change (Ile→Leu). This amino acid was located at the beginning of a β-strand and outside of the ZP3 protein membrane, and it was most likely to be a ligand-binding site (the possibility was 0.917). At this locus, individuals with AC genotype had a larger litter size than those with CC genotype in the first parity (2.050 vs 1.727, p<0.05). In conclusion, SNP (rs401271989) in the coding region of the ZP3 gene influences the first parity litter size in Hu sheep, and it may affect the function of ZP3 protein by impacting the secondary and tertiary protein structures. The present study demonstrates that SNP (rs401271989) could be used in marker-assisted selection of the first parity litter size in Hu sheep.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.028
       
  • Effects of orexins on 17β-estradiol synthesis and P450 aromatase
           modulation in the testis of alpaca (Vicugna pacos)
    • Authors: Giovanna Liguori; Alessandra Pelagalli; Loredana Assisi; Caterina Squillacioti; Anna Costagliola; Nicola Mirabella
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Giovanna Liguori, Alessandra Pelagalli, Loredana Assisi, Caterina Squillacioti, Anna Costagliola, Nicola Mirabella
      The steroidogenic enzyme P450 aromatase (ARO) has a key role in the conversion of testosterone (T) into estrogens (E), expressed as 17β-estradiol. The presence and localization of this key enzyme have not been described before in the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos). In our previous studies of the expression and biological effects of orexin A (OxA) and OxB on the alpaca testis demonstrated that OxA, via its specific receptor 1 (OX1R), stimulated T synthesis. In order to extend these findings, we presently explored the presence and localization of ARO in the alpaca male gonad, and the possible correlation between ARO and the orexinergic complex. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of ARO in tissue homogenates and its localization in the tubular and interstitial compartments of the alpaca testis, respectively. The addition of OxA to fresh testicular slices decreased the 17β-estradiol E levels. This effect was annulled by the sequential addition of the selective OX1R antagonist, SB-408124. OxB incubation did not have any effect on the biosynthesis of E. Furthermore, the OxA-mediated down-regulation of E secretion could be ascribed to ARO inhibition by exogenous OxA, as indicated by measurement of ARO activity in tissue slices incubated with OxA. Overall, our findings suggest that locally secreted OxA interacting with OX1R could indirectly inhibit ARO activity, disabling the conversion of T to E, and consequently lowering E biosynthesis and increasing the production of T in mammalian testis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.032
       
  • Effect of vibration emissions during shipping of artificial insemination
           doses on boar semen quality
    • Authors: M. Schulze; R. Bortfeldt; J. Schäfer; M. Jung; F. Fuchs-Kittowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): M. Schulze, R. Bortfeldt, J. Schäfer, M. Jung, F. Fuchs-Kittowski
      The shipping of semen doses to sow farms can impair boar semen quality. Unfortunately, there is currently no practice-oriented information available regarding general shipping conditions of boar semen. For this reason, a special mobile sensing app (TransportLog 1.0), utilizing the built-in sensors of smartphones, has been programmed to capture vibration emissions during shipping of semen doses (QuickTip Flexitubes®, Minitüb). Data were analyzed, transformed and used as standards for simulating vibration emissions from an orbital shaker IKA MTS 4 (Laborgeräte München) in a spermatological reference laboratory. Twenty ejaculates were collected randomly and diluted using a one-step isothermal process in a split-sample procedure in Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS, Minitüb). The sperm concentration was adjusted to 24 × 106 sperm/mL. The dose filling volume was 85 ± 1 mL. Samples were stored for seven days at 17 °C. The results showed that circular horizontal vibration emissions with frequencies of 300 rpm for a duration of 6 h led to a significant alkalization of the BTS-extended semen. Semen motility, mitochondrial activity, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity as well as thermo-resistance all demonstrated a frequency-dependent negative response to vibration emissions during long-term storage. This study leads to new insights and recommendations for the shipping of boar semen in the artificial insemination industry. Furthermore, a new monitoring tool for boar semen shipping was established using mobile sensing.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.035
       
  • Proteomics: A valuable approach to elucidate spermatozoa post
           –testicular maturation in the endangered Acipenseridae family
    • Authors: Pietro Boccaletto; Mohammad Abdul Momin Siddique; Jacky Cosson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Pietro Boccaletto, Mohammad Abdul Momin Siddique, Jacky Cosson
      Proteomics techniques, such as two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and differential gel electrophoresis, have been extensively used to describe the protein composition of male gametes in different animals, mainly mammals. They have also provided a deeper understanding of protein functions involved in sperm processes, as in processes that in humans lead to male infertility. However, few studies focus on fish sperm proteomics and even fewer have tried to explore the proteomic profile of Sturgeon spermatozoa. Sturgeon is an endangered, ancient group of fish species exploited mostly for caviar. In this fish group, a part of the process that leads to final functional maturation of spermatozoa so as to have the capability to activate eggs during the fertilization process. This process has a broad similarity to post-testicular maturation in mammals; where spermatozoa leaving the testes must be mixed with seminal fluid along the transit through the Wolffian ducts to modify its surface membrane protein composition, leading to axonemal and acrosomal competence. The aim of this study was to review the current literature on various proteomic techniques, their usefulness in separating, identifying and studying the proteome composition of the fish spermatozoon, as well as their potential applications in studying the post-testicular maturation process in Sturgeon. Such understanding could lead to development of more sophisticated aquaculture techniques, favorable for sturgeon reproduction.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.033
       
  • Cryosurvival of rabbit embryos obtained after superovulation with
           corifollitropin alfa with or without LH
    • Authors: José Salvador Vicente; María Pilar Viudes-de-Castro; José Isaí Cedano-Castro; Francisco Marco-Jiménez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): José Salvador Vicente, María Pilar Viudes-de-Castro, José Isaí Cedano-Castro, Francisco Marco-Jiménez
      The efficiency of an embryo bank depends on provision of optimal conditions for recovery, cryopreservation and transfer to a breed or strain. In this sense, increasing the number of embryos available using superovulation should improve the cryobank efficiency. However, vagueness of response to conventional protocols to control or increase ovarian response and the quality of oocytes and embryos and their cryotolerance remain a challenge. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of corifollitropin alpha (CTP) and a recombinant human FSH (rhFSH), alone or supplemented with rhLH, on embryo cryosurvival by in vitro development and OCT4 and NANOG mRNA abundance at blastocyst stage and offspring rate. In vitro development of vitrified embryos was not significantly affected by superstimulation with or without rhLH supplementation, resulting in similar development rates to those of the control groups (fresh and vitrified embryos from non-superstimulated donor does). Blastocysts developed from vitrified embryos showed higher levels of OCT4 transcript abundance than fresh control, while NANOG transcript abundance was only higher in the blastocysts developed from vitrified embryos after superstimulation treatment in comparison with control groups. The implantation and offspring rates at birth were negatively affected by supplementation with rhLH. Both rhFSH or CTP vitrified embryo groups showed an implantation rate similar to those of the control groups, but an offspring rate lower than control. In conclusion, embryos produced using corifollitropin alpha did not compromise the cryosurvival of vitrified embryos in the rabbit. In addition, this study points out the negative effect of rhLH supplementation in terms of offspring rate on embryo vitrification.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.034
       
  • Sensitivity of spermatogonia to irradiation varies with age in
           pre-pubertal ram lambs
    • Authors: J. Olejnik; N. Suchowerska; M. Herrid; A. Jackson; M. Jackson; N.M. Andronicos; G.N. Hinch; J.R. Hill
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): J. Olejnik, N. Suchowerska, M. Herrid, A. Jackson, M. Jackson, N.M. Andronicos, G.N. Hinch, J.R. Hill
      Although germ cells from donor rams transplanted into irradiated recipient testes have produced donor derived offspring, efficiency is low. Further optimization of recipient irradiation protocols will add precision to the depletion of recipient spermatogonia prior to germ cell transplant. Three irradiation doses (9,12,15 Gy) were administered to ram lambs aged 14 weeks (Group 1) and 20 weeks (Group 2), then testicular biopsies were collected 1, 2 and 3 months after irradiation. At 1 month after irradiation of Group 1, only the largest dose (15 Gy) reduced spermatogonia numbers below 10% of non-irradiated controls, whereas in Group 2 lambs, each irradiation dose reduced spermatogonia below 10% of controls. In both Groups, fewer differentiated germ cells were present in seminiferous tubules compared to controls. At 2 months after irradiation, spermatogonia numbers in both Groups increased more than sixfold to be similar to controls, whereas fewer differentiated germ cells were present in the tubules of both Groups. At 3 months in Group 1, each irradiation dose reduced spermatogonia numbers to <30% of controls and fewer tubules contained differentiated germ cells. Lesser expression of spermatogonial genes, VASA and UCHL-1, was observed in the 15 Gy group. In Group 2, only 12 Gy treated tubules contained fewer spermatogonia. Knowledge of these subtle differences between age groups in the effect of irradiation doses on spermatogonia or differentiated germ cell numbers and the duration of recovery of spermatogonia numbers after irradiation will aid the timing of germ cell transplants into prepubertal recipient lambs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.037
       
  • Impaired insulin signaling pathways affect ovarian steroidogenesis in cows
           with COD
    • Authors: N.C. Gareis; E. Huber; G.J. Hein; F.M. Rodríguez; N.R. Salvetti; E. Angeli; H.H. Ortega; F. Rey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): N.C. Gareis, E. Huber, G.J. Hein, F.M. Rodríguez, N.R. Salvetti, E. Angeli, H.H. Ortega, F. Rey
      Cystic ovarian disease (COD) represents an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle and is associated with multiple physiological disorders. Steroidogenesis, which is necessary to ensure normal ovarian functions, involves multiple enzymatic pathways coordinated by insulin and other proteins. We have previously shown that cows with COD have an altered insulin response. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated further alterations in intermediates downstream of the PI3K pathway and pathways mediated by ERK as critical signals for the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the ovaries of control cows and cows with spontaneous COD. To this end, we evaluated the gene and protein expression of pan-AKT, mTOR, ERK1/2, and steroidogenic enzymes by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Steroid hormone concentrations were assessed at systemic and intrafollicular level. Results showed altered expression of intermediate molecules of the insulin signaling pathway, whose action might modify the synthetic pathway of steroidogenic hormones. Similarly, the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and the concentration of progesterone in serum and follicular fluid were altered. These alterations support the hypothesis that systemic factors contribute to the development and/or maintenance of COD, and that metabolic hormones within follicles such as insulin exert determinant effects on ovarian functionality in cows with COD.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.031
       
  • Simultaneous evaluation of superoxide content and mitochondrial membrane
           potential in stallion semen samples provides additional information about
           sperm quality
    • Authors: A. Johannisson; M.I. Figueiredo; Z. Al-Kass; J.M. Morrell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): A. Johannisson, M.I. Figueiredo, Z. Al-Kass, J.M. Morrell
      An improved fertility prediction for stallions is of importance for equine breeding. Here, we investigate the potential of a combined staining of stallion spermatozoa for superoxide and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) for this purpose. Semen samples were analysed immediately after arrival at the laboratory, as well as after 24 h. Superoxide was measured by MitoSOXRed, while MMP was measured with JC-1. Menadione was used to stimulate superoxide production. In addition, other parameters of sperm quality, namely motility, membrane integrity, chromatin integrity, sperm kinematics and Hoechst 33258 exclusion were measured and correlated to superoxide production and MMP. Both bivariate correlations between measured parameters as well as multivariate analysis were performed. Measured values in the superoxide/MMP assay did not correlate with other parameters. However, there was a strong negative correlation (r = 0.96 after 0 h, r = 0.95 after 24 h) between membrane integrity and chromatin integrity. Moderate positive correlations were found between motility parameters and membrane integrity, as well as moderate negative correlations between motility parameters and chromatin integrity. The multivariate analysis revealed that membrane integrity, chromatin integrity and motility contributed to the first principal component, while the second was influenced by superoxide/MMP parameters as well as sperm kinematics. Storage of samples for 24 h decreased motility, chromatin integrity and membrane integrity. In conclusion, combined measurement of superoxide and MMP provides additional information not obtained by other assays of sperm quality.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.030
       
  • Effect of treatment of Bos indicus heifers with progesterone 0, 3 and 6
           days after follicular aspiration on follicular dynamics and the timing of
           oestrus and ovulation
    • Authors: John Cavalieri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): John Cavalieri
      Synchronisation of wave emergence is used to synchronise oestrus in cattle. The aim of this study was to determine if treatment with high concentrations of progesterone in Bos indicus heifers for 3 days would synchronise new wave emergence when treatment commenced at early, mid and late stages of follicular development. Heifers were treated with a sc silicone implant containing norgestomet from Days -7 to 9 and cloprostenol (IM) on Days -7 and -2. All follicles > 4 mm in diameter were removed by transvaginal follicular aspiration either on Days 0 (Experiment 1), 3 (Experiment 2) or 6 (Experiment 3). From Days 6 to 9 every heifer was treated with two intravaginal progesterone releasing inserts that each contained either no progesterone (Control, n = 8/experiment) or 3.12 g of progesterone (n = 8/experiment). Ovarian follicular development was monitored at least once daily following aspiration until oestrus and ovulation. In each experiment, treatment with progesterone significantly increased concentrations of progesterone in plasma from Days 6 to 9 compared to Control heifers. It also significantly delayed the day of emergence of the ovulatory follicle (1.6 ± 0.6 vs 8.6 ± 0.3; 4.1 ± 0.1 vs 8.6 ± 0.2; 7.0 ± 0.0 vs 9.3 ± 0.4, for Control vs progesterone treated heifers, respectively in Experiments 1 to 3) and the interval from implant removal to oestrus and ovulation. In conclusion, treatment with high concentrations of progesterone can synchronise wave emergence in Bos indicus heifers when administered at early, mid and late stages of follicular development.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.026
       
  • Impact of cryopreservation on sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus sperm motility
           and proteome
    • Authors: Miaomiao Xin; Anna Shaliutina-Kolesova; Jan Sterba; Peter Konik; Sergii Boryshpolets; Marek Rodina; Ping Li; Rui Nian; Otomar Linhart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Miaomiao Xin, Anna Shaliutina-Kolesova, Jan Sterba, Peter Konik, Sergii Boryshpolets, Marek Rodina, Ping Li, Rui Nian, Otomar Linhart
      Fish sperm cryopreservation is a well-established technique allowing for artificial insemination on a commercial scale. The extent of proteome alterations in seminal plasma and sperm due to cryopreservation, however, is not known. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation on motility variables of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus sperm and to detect the differences in protein profiles of fresh and cryopreserved sterlet sperm and seminal plasma. Fresh sperm had 89 ± 3% motility and 160 ± 14 μm/s curvilinear velocity at 15 s post-activation. The motility rate of cryopreserved sperm (37 ± 5%) was less at 15 s post-activation. No difference (ANOVA; P > 0.05) in mean curvilinear velocity of fresh and cryopreserved sperm was detected. The protein profiles of seminal plasma and sperm were characterized using comparative proteomics to determine the influence of cryopreservation. Six altered protein spots in seminal plasma and thirteen altered spots in sperm were detected in fresh and thawed sperm. Subsequent protein characterization suggested that the proteins identified were involved in sperm metabolism, cytoskeleton, and stress response. The results broaden the understanding of the effects of cryopreservation and identify the proteins associated with cryo-injury. These data may help to determine the function of altered proteins and provide new insights into improving sperm cryopreservation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.025
       
  • The sperm mitochondrion: Organelle of many functions
    • Authors: Christa R. Moraes; Stuart Meyers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Christa R. Moraes, Stuart Meyers
      This review summarizes current research in sperm mitochondrial function with specific emphasis on mitochondrial metabolism, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial genomics. This organelle is key in many crucial sperm functions including motility, hyperactivation, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and fertilization, thus its role in male fertility cannot be ignored. Recent studies have further elucidated sperm metabolism, placing greater emphasis on the importance of mitochondrial energy production for some species. Additionally, the dogma of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production is changing and is being described by some as an indicator of increased mitochondrial function, potentially representing the most fertile sperm. Further, the mitochondrial genome, specifically mitochondrial DNA copy number, has been indicated as a potential biomarker for sperm quality and fertility in several species. Methods to study the sperm mitochondria are also evolving, allowing for researchers to learn more about the bioenergetics and status of this important organelle. Because of the importance of mitochondrial function for sperm function in most species, it is crucial to better understand the mechanisms involved in order to improve our knowledge of sperm physiology as well as improve handling and storage techniques for the industry.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.024
       
  • Gonadotropin concentrations associated with variations in diameter
           deviation during follicle selection in Holstein heifers
    • Authors: O.J. Ginther; R.R. Domingues; S.V. Dangudubiyyam; E.R. Araujo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): O.J. Ginther, R.R. Domingues, S.V. Dangudubiyyam, E.R. Araujo
      Diameter deviation or selection of the future dominant follicle (F1) from the future largest subordinate follicle (F2) during a follicular wave occurs when F1 is 8.5 mm (expected deviation, day 0). Deviation has been classified as conventional (F2 ≥ 7.0 mm), F2-undersized (F2 < 7.0 mm), and F1,F2-switched (F2 larger than F1 on day −1 or 0). Concentrations of gonadotropins were compared within and among deviation classifications in waves 1 and 2 in 48 heifers. A three-way (wave 1 compared with 2, classification, day) analysis indicated no effect of wave 1 compared with 2 on F2 or FSH. An interaction of classification by day for F2 diameter (P < 0.001) and FSH concentration (P < 0.005) was primarily from differences on day −1. Rankings on day −1 from greatest to least for F2 diameter were switched, conventional, and undersized and for FSH concentration were undersized, conventional, and switched. Lower FSH concentration in conventional compared with undersized deviations during the decline in the FSH surge was presumed to represent greater output of FSH inhibitors by larger follicles. The incline in FSH surge 2 began significantly later for undersized than for conventional deviation. Switched deviation was associated significantly with emergence of F2 before F1, lower FSH concentration during the decline in the FSH surge, and earlier occurrence of the post-surge FSH nadir. Results supported the hypothesis that diameter differences among deviation classifications are temporally associated with differences in FSH concentration within each classification. These novel findings may complicate studies on the mechanisms of follicle selection.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.023
       
  • Supplementation of ram semen extender to improve seminal quality and
           fertility rate
    • Authors: Larbi Allai; Anass Benmoula; Maia Marciane da Silva; Boubker Nasser; Bouchra El Amiri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Larbi Allai, Anass Benmoula, Maia Marciane da Silva, Boubker Nasser, Bouchra El Amiri
      In sheep, artificial insemination serves as an important technique for breed improvement. In this context, genetic material from a small number of superior sires can be used in a large number of females. During this process, the storage of ram sperm may influence the efficiency of artificial insemination. Two main methods are currently used for ram semen storage: liquid storage and cryopreservation. The oxidative stress during the storage process can injure ram sperm and in some cases this leads to irreversible damage at the cellular level. To reduce such negative effects, different preservation protocols, extenders and protective components have been tested to improve ram sperm quality and to achieve greater fertility rates. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in extender supplementation using antioxidants and other compounds to improve ram semen quality parameters and fertility rates. It will emphasize on enzymes, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, some plant extracts and other compounds such as sugars, seminal plasma and fatty acids that can be used to supplement the extenders to reduce the formation of oxidants in ram semen and maintain its quality and enhance its fertility. It will also stress on how these supplements act, what were the tested levels giving beneficial effects on motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation in liquid, cooled and post-thawing semen'

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.019
       
  • Apelin and apelin receptor at different stages of corpus luteum
           development and effect of apelin on progesterone secretion and
           3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in pigs
    • Authors: Marta Różycka; Patrycja Kurowska; Małgorzata Grzesiak; Małgorzata Kotula-Balak; Wacław Tworzydło; Christelle Rame; Ewa Gregoraszczuk; Joelle Dupont; Agnieszka Rak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Marta Różycka, Patrycja Kurowska, Małgorzata Grzesiak, Małgorzata Kotula-Balak, Wacław Tworzydło, Christelle Rame, Ewa Gregoraszczuk, Joelle Dupont, Agnieszka Rak
      Recent studies have suggested that apelin has a role in controlling female reproduction. The aims of the present study were, firstly, to investigate the gene expression (mRNA and protein) and immunolocalization of apelin and its receptor APJ in corpora lutea (CL) of pigs collected during the early (CL1), middle (CL2) and late (CL3) luteal phase. Using real time PCR and immunoblotting techniques, it was observed that apelin gene expression was similar in CL1 and CL2, and less in CL3, while relative abundance APJ mRNA and abundance of the protein were similar in CL1 and CL3 and greater in CL2. There was apelin staining in the cytoplasm of both small (SC) and large (LC) luteal cells with the greatest intensity in CL2. In the cytoplasm of CL1, only a few SC cells stained for APJ; in CL2, APJ was located in the cell membrane of LC and in the cytoplasm of SC; and in CL3 was located in the membrane with moderate cytoplasmic APJ staining. Intense APJ staining was noted in epithelium of blood vessels of CL2–3. Secondly, there was an effect of apelin on progesterone (P4) secretion in CL2 and on the molecular mechanisms of these cells. Stimulatory effects of apelin on P4 secretion, 3β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activity and protein abundance were observed and this was inhibited in response to APJ and adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) kinase blockers. In conclusion, the presence of apelin/APJ in the CL of pigs and stimulatory effects of apelin on P4 secretion and 3β-HSD levels suggest potential auto/paracrine regulation by apelin in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Moreover, the involvement of APJ and AMPKα kinase in apelin activity in CL was confirmed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.021
       
  • Sephadex filtration as successful alternative to density-gradient
           centrifugation procedures for ram sperm selection with improved kinetics
    • Authors: D.A. Galarza; A. López-Sebastián; H. Woelders; E. Blesbois; J. Santiago-Moreno
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): D.A. Galarza, A. López-Sebastián, H. Woelders, E. Blesbois, J. Santiago-Moreno
      Density-gradients centrifugation (DGC) and filtration columns (FC) are used to separate deformed or dead sperm, debris, and other cells that may negatively affect the fertilizing capacity of sperm in fresh, chilled and frozen/thawed semen. The present study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of DGC (BoviPure®, Percoll® and Accudenz®) and FC (Sephadex G-15®) sperm selection procedures for fresh-extended and cold-stored ram semen by assessment of post-treatment sperm quality variables. Twenty normospermic ejaculates from ten adult Merino rams were used. Sperm concentration of recovered cells was greater (P < 0.001) after BoviPure treatment than other procedures in both fresh and cold semen. With the Sephadex method, there were more desirable values than with use of DGC procedures in several sperm motility variables measured by using the CASA system. In non-refrigerated semen samples, the percentage of progressive sperm motility (%PSM) after Sephadex filtration was greater (P < 0.05) than after BoviPure treatment; the straightline velocity (VSL) value after Sephadex filtration was greater (P < 0.01) than after Accudenz treatment; the amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) after Sephadex and Accudenz treatment was less than non-filtered semen (P < 0.001) and after Percoll (P < 0.01) and BoviPure (P < 0.05) treatments. In cold-stored semen samples, the %PSM after Sephadex filtration was greater than non-filtered (P < 0.05) semen and after BoviPure (P < 0.05), Percoll (P < 0.05) and Accudenz (P < 0.001) treatments. It is concluded that Sephadex column filtration can be used to select ram sperm in non-refrigerated and cooled semen, because percentage progressively motile sperm and some other sperm motility characteristics are greater with use of this techniques as compared with use of DGC methods.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.022
       
  • Expression of genes for enzymes synthesizing lysophosphatidic acid, its
           receptors and follicle developmental factors derived from the
           cumulus-oocyte complex is dependent on the ovarian follicle type in cows
    • Authors: Emilia Sinderewicz; Katarzyna Grycmacher; Dorota Boruszewska; Ilona Kowalczyk-Zięba; Joanna Staszkiewicz-Chodor; Krzysztof Łukaszuk; Izabela Wocławek-Potocka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Emilia Sinderewicz, Katarzyna Grycmacher, Dorota Boruszewska, Ilona Kowalczyk-Zięba, Joanna Staszkiewicz-Chodor, Krzysztof Łukaszuk, Izabela Wocławek-Potocka
      Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) release factors potentially involved in follicular growth and development, such as growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), bone-morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), follistatin (FST) and cathepsins (CTSs). Moreover, the quality of the oocytes and follicles may be related to both the lipid composition of the follicle cells and follicular fluid. One of the lipids, locally regulating the reproductive functions in ovaries of cattle, is lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In this study, the expression was investigated of the genes for LPA and other factors in COCs of follicles at different stages of development and regression. The relative abundances of mRNA were determined by real-time PCR for receptors for LPA (LPARs), enzymes synthesizing LPA (autotaxin (AX) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2)), BMP15, GDF9, CTSZ, CTSB and FST in COCs isolated from healthy, transitional and atretic follicles. The expression of genes for the LPARs, AX, PLA2 and the factors involved in follicular development in cattle COCs is follicle-type dependent. Greater expression of LPAR1-3 and AX genes were detected in the healthy follicles compared to the atretic and transitional follicles (P < 0.05). The relative abundance of GDF9, BMP15, CTSZ and CTSB was also greater in COCs from healthy follicles than from transitional and atretic follicles (P < 0.05). It is postulated that the greater expression of LPARs and AX genes in healthy follicles compared with atretic follicles indicates an enhanced role of LPA in follicular development. Results of the present study also suggest the regulatory role of factors derived from the COCs in the growth and development of follicles.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.018
       
  • Dose-dependent effects of frutalin on in vitro maturation and
           fertilization of pig oocytes
    • Authors: B.R. Silva; C. Maside; L.A. Vieira; J. Cadenas; B.G. Alves; A.C.A. Ferreira; F.L.N. Aguiar; A.L.C. Silva; J.R. Figueiredo; J.R.V. Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): B.R. Silva, C. Maside, L.A. Vieira, J. Cadenas, B.G. Alves, A.C.A. Ferreira, F.L.N. Aguiar, A.L.C. Silva, J.R. Figueiredo, J.R.V. Silva
      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of frutalin (FTL) on in vitro maturation (IVM), and fertilization (IVF) of pig oocytes. In the Experiment 1, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were submitted to IVM in maturation medium alone or supplemented with different FTL concentration (0.6, 6 and 60 μg/mL), or 0.3 μg/mL doxorubicin (DXR). After IVM, some oocytes were evaluated for chromatin configuration, and the remaining oocytes were submitted to in vitro fertilization. In Experiment 2, matured oocytes were fertilized in IVF medium alone (control) or in presence of different FTL concentration (0.6, 6 and 60 μg/mL), or 0.3 μg/mL DXR. After 18 h post fertilization, the endpoints penetration rate, monospermy, spermatozoa per oocyte, and the IVF efficiency were evaluated in both experiments. In Experiment 1, 6 and 60 μg/mL FTL, as well as DXR increased (P < 0.05) the rate of oocytes with abnormal chromatin configuration when compared to oocyte matured in control medium alone or supplemented with 0.6 μg/mL FTL. The percentage of meiotic resumption in oocytes cultured with 60 μg/mL FTL or DXR was less (P < 0.05) than in the other treatments. Moreover, oocytes matured with 6 or 60 μg/mL FTL and DXR had a lesser IVM efficiency when compared to those matured with 0.6 μg/mL FTL or in control medium. Additionally, there was a greater (P < 0.05) with culture in a medium containing 6 μg/mL FTL for the rate of partenogenetically activated oocytes when compared with the other treatments. Culturing of COCs during IVM in a medium containing 6 or 60 FTL resulted in a lesser (P < 0.05) sperm penetration and spermatozoa/oocyte rates when compared to other treatments, and IVF efficiency was less (P < 0.05) than that in control medium alone or with a medium containing 0.6 μg/mL FTL. In Experiment 2, culturing in a medium containing 0.6 μg/mL FTL resulted in greater (P < 0.05) monospermy and IVF efficiency rates when compared to culturing in the control medium. In addition, culturing in a medium with 6 and 60 μg/mL FTL resulted in a lesser (P < 0.05) spermatozoa penetration, sperm/oocyte rates and IVF efficiency, although there were greater (P < 0.05) monospermy rates. In conclusion, culturing in a medium containing 0.6 μg/mL FTL resulted in lesser spermatozoa penetration rates and number of spermatozoa/oocyte increasing the IVF efficiency without harmful effects. Use of a greater concentration of FTL in the medium has toxic effects during oocyte maturation and results in a reduced IVF efficiency.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.015
       
  • Mating induces production of MMP2 in the llama oviduct: Analysis of MMP2
           effect on semen
    • Authors: Renato Zampini; Luciana M. Sari; Martin E. Argañaraz; Fernanda G. Fumuso; Daniela E. Barraza; María I. Carretero; Silvana A. Apichela
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Renato Zampini, Luciana M. Sari, Martin E. Argañaraz, Fernanda G. Fumuso, Daniela E. Barraza, María I. Carretero, Silvana A. Apichela
      Ovulation of South American Camelids is induced by mating. After copulation, sperm are stored into the oviduct to be released near ovulation time. To study whether copulation induces matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) secretion in the oviduct, the occurrence of MMP2 in oviductal tissue and oviductal fluid (OF) from 24 h post-mated was compared with non-mated llama females. There was an incremental increase of MMP2 in the oviductal epithelial cells, and MMP2 activity in OF after copulation. Additionally, MMP2 activator (MMP14), inducer (EMMPRIN) and inhibitor (TIMP2) were present in the oviductal epithelial cells of both non-mated and post-mated females. A post-mating segment-specific regulation occurred because relative abundance of TIMP2 mRNA was greater in the utero tubal-junction which was accompanied with a reduced amount of MMP14 in the ampulla in comparison with the non-mated females. To examine the effect of MMP2 on semen liquefaction and sperm physiology, the effects of addition of recombinant human MMP2 was evaluated. The MMP2 had no effect on semen thread formation and seminal plasma protein profile. Sperm viability and plasma membrane function were not influenced by the enzyme treatment either. In summary, in llamas the oviductal microenvironment changes in response to stimuli induced by copulation, increasing the production and secretion of MMP2.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.016
       
  • Letter from the Guest-Editor
    • Authors: Lizette du Plessis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Lizette du Plessis


      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.014
       
  • Possible mechanisms of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin action on sperm
           during cryopreservation
    • Authors: Shabir Ahmad Lone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Shabir Ahmad Lone
      Artificial insemination (AI) with cryopreserved semen has a pivotal role in wider dissemination of germplasm of elite livestock and also for conservation of various endangered species. Cryopreservation allows storage of semen for a prolonged period of time and facilitates greater exchange of genetic material among distant populations. Cryopreservation, however, leads to certain deleterious effects on sperm including premature induction of the acrosome reaction, reduced sperm motility and viability, and impaired sperm DNA integrity and fertility. During cooling procedures, membrane phase transitions take place, which result in micro-domain formation from aggregation of lipids, leading to impaired functions of the sperm membrane, and gap formation between gel and fluid domains. Cyclodextrins are produced by enzymatic degradation of starch and possess a unique feature, that when added alone to sperm cyclodextrins facilitate the removal of cholesterol from the membrane. When preloaded with cholesterol, however, cyclodextrins stimulate the insertion of cholesterol into the sperm membrane due to presence of a hydrophobic core in addition to an outer hydrophilic face. Treating sperm of various species with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin improves the quality of sperm during cryopreservation. It is still not clearly known how cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin functions at sperm cells to enhance the survival during cryopreservation. The present review, therefore, highlights possible mechanisms of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin action on sperm during cryopreservation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.009
       
  • An update on semen collection, preservation and artificial insemination in
           the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)
    • Authors: Julian A. Skidmore; Clara M. Malo; Elizabeth G. Crichton; Jane M. Morrell; Budhan S. Pukazhenthi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Julian A. Skidmore, Clara M. Malo, Elizabeth G. Crichton, Jane M. Morrell, Budhan S. Pukazhenthi
      Artificial insemination (AI) in domestic animals is an important tool to maximise the use of genetically superior males and thereby insure rapid genetic progress. However, the application of AI in camelids has been hindered by the difficulties involved in collecting, as well as handling the semen due to the viscous nature of the seminal plasma. This review describes the challenges of semen collection and discusses the role of seminal plasma as well as the reasons for the viscosity and how to liquefy it so that ejaculates can be more accurately evaluated. It also reports on the use of various extenders used for liquid storage of fresh and chilled semen and how pregnancy rates are affected by numbers of spermatozoa inseminated, site of insemination and timing of insemination in relation to GnRH injection given to induce ovulation. In addition, this paper reviews the latest research in cryopreservation of camel semen and addresses the various problems involved and possible improvements that can be made so that pregnancy rates can be increased with frozen semen.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.013
       
  • Synchronization of time of ovarian follicular development in llamas (Lama
           glama) using a protocol based on GnRH and PGF2α
    • Authors: C.P. Bianchi; M.A. Benavente; M. Simonetti; M.A. Aba
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): C.P. Bianchi, M.A. Benavente, M. Simonetti, M.A. Aba
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a protocol based on GnRH and PGF2α to synchronize the emergence of a new wave of ovarian follicular development in llamas and, therefore, when a new dominant follicle develops. Llamas (n = 18) were assigned to growing, mature or regressing follicle groups according to the phase of the follicular wave at the beginning of treatment. The protocol was initiated with a GnRH analogue (GnRHa) injection on Day 0 followed 7 days later with a d-cloprostenol injection and a second GnRHa injection on Day 10. Ovulation rate after the first GnRHa treatment, day of new follicle emergence, mean plasma progesterone concentration and percentage of animals with a newly developed dominant follicle ≥ 7 mm on Day 10 were evaluated. Ovulation rate after the first GnRHa was less in the regressing than mature and growing follicle groups and new follicular wave emergence occurred earlier in the regressing follicle group than in the other two groups. Mean plasma progesterone concentration in females that had ovulations after the first GnRHa injection was similar. The percentage of animals that had a new follicle ≥ 7 mm on Day 10 was not different among groups and the overall percentage was 66.6%. The total synchronization rate for development of a new wave of follicular development on Day 10 was greater in females having ovulations after the first GnRHa injection than in those that did not have ovulations. In conclusion, the protocol used in the present study was useful for synchronizing ovarian follicular development in 66% of the llamas regardless of the phase of the follicular wave development at the beginning of treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.011
       
  • Identification of genome regions determining semen quality in
           Holstein-Friesian bulls using information theory
    • Authors: Alicja Borowska; Tomasz Szwaczkowski; Stanisław Kamiński; Dorota M. Hering; Władysław Kordan; Marek Lecewicz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Alicja Borowska, Tomasz Szwaczkowski, Stanisław Kamiński, Dorota M. Hering, Władysław Kordan, Marek Lecewicz
      Use of information theory can be an alternative statistical approach to detect genome regions and candidate genes that are associated with livestock traits. The aim of this study was to verify the validity of the SNPs effects on some semen quality variables of bulls using entropy analysis. Records from 288 Holstein-Friesian bulls from one AI station were included. The following semen quality variables were analyzed: CASA kinematic variables of sperm (total motility, average path velocity, straight line velocity, curvilinear velocity, amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness, linearity), sperm membrane integrity (plazmolema, mitochondrial function), sperm ATP content. Molecular data included 48,192 SNPs. After filtering (call rate = 0.95 and MAF = 0.05), 34,794 SNPs were included in the entropy analysis. The entropy and conditional entropy were estimated for each SNP. Conditional entropy quantifies the remaining uncertainty about values of the variable with the knowledge of SNP. The most informative SNPs for each variable were determined. The computations were performed using the R statistical package. A majority of the loci had relatively small contributions. The most informative SNPs for all variables were mainly located on chromosomes: 3, 4, 5 and 16. The results from the study indicate that important genome regions and candidate genes that determine semen quality variables in bulls are located on a number of chromosomes. Some detected clusters of SNPs were located in RNA (U6 and 5S_rRNA) for all the variables for which analysis occurred. Associations between PARK2 as well GALNT13 genes and some semen characteristics were also detected.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.012
       
  • Sperm characteristics of wild and captive lebranche mullet Mugil liza
           (Valenciennes, 1836), subjected to sperm activation in different pH and
           salinity conditions
    • Authors: C. Magnotti; E. Figueroa; J.G. Farias; O. Merino; I. Valdebenito; R.P.S Oliveira; V. Cerqueira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): C. Magnotti, E. Figueroa, J.G. Farias, O. Merino, I. Valdebenito, R.P.S Oliveira, V. Cerqueira
      In this article we describe basic aspects of the sperm biology of lebranche mullet (Mugil liza) in the wild and in captivity, in particular assessing the effects of salinity (0, 10, 20, 30, 35, 40, 50 and 60 g L−1) and pH (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) on sperm motility. Our results indicate that the highest percentage of motility was recorded with salinity 34.6 g L−1 (95 ± 10%) and the longest motility time was obtained with a salinity of 34.8 g L−1 (189 ± 15 s). Variations in the salinity between 30 and 35 g L−1 did not produce any significant alterations in sperm motility; however salinities of 20 and 50 g L−1 produced a significant loss of sperm motility. The highest percentage of motility was obtained at pH 8.5 (93 ± 12%), and the longest motility period at pH 8.7 (218 ± 13 s), while pH lower than or equal to 7 and equal to 10 both produced a significant loss in sperm motility. A positive correlation was found between pH/salinity and the motility percentage (R2 = 0.94 and R2 = 0.97) and motility time (R2 = 0.86 and R2 = 0.98). In seminal and morphometric parameters, statistically significant differences were observed in semen volume, sperm density, plasma membrane integrity and sperm morphometry between the groups studied, showing that the characteristics of the fish have a direct influence on sperm quality. The information generated in this research will be useful for developing biotechnology tools for the effective management of Mugil liza gametes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.004
       
  • Effect of reduced glutathione supplementation on cryopreservation induced
           sperm cryoinjuries in Murrah bull semen
    • Authors: Chetna Gangwar; Atul Saxena; Akhil Patel; S P Singh; Sarvajeet Yadav; Ravindra Kumar; Vijay Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Chetna Gangwar, Atul Saxena, Akhil Patel, S P Singh, Sarvajeet Yadav, Ravindra Kumar, Vijay Singh
      The experiment was conducted to study cryopreservation induced sperm cryoinjuries and the protective effect of reduced Glutathione supplementation in Murrah bull semen. A total of 20 semen ejaculates were split into two parts after initial examination and were extended in glycerolated egg yolk TRIS diluter (Control group) and glycerolated egg yolk TRIS diluter + 0.5 mM reduced Glutathione (Treatment Group). The diluted semen samples were loaded into 0.25 ml French mini straw and sealing of straws were done. Thereafter, semen straws were kept for equilibration for 4 h at 5 °C and semen was frozen using a standard cryopreservation protocol in automatic biological freezer. Post-thaw analysis was performed after 24 h of semen storage in liquid nitrogen. Fresh and post-thaw sperm assessments included sperm motility, viability (SYBR-14/PI assay), mitochondrial function (JC-1/PI assay) and plasma membrane integrity (HOST). Cryopreservation of semen in liquid nitrogen induced a marked reduction in post-thaw sperm motility, viability, mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity and increased moribund type of sperm (SYBR-14/PI assay) in control group as compared to reduced glutathione treated group. There were significant (P < 0.05) cryo injuries in frozen-thawed spermatozoa following cryopreservation in buffalo bull semen. The supplementation of reduced glutathione in treatment group exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) lower cryoinjuries during cryopreservation and semen storage in liquid nitrogen. From the study it was concluded that, spermatozoa from Murrah bulls are susceptible to injuries due to cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, but these cryo induced damage can be protected significantly (P < 0.05) by the use of reduced Glutathione.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.03.005
       
  • Stallion sperm freezing with sucrose extenders: A strategy to avoid
           permeable cryoprotectants
    • Authors: C. Consuegra; F. Crespo; M. Bottrel; I. Ortiz; J. Dorado; M. Diaz-Jimenez; B. Pereira; M. Hidalgo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): C. Consuegra, F. Crespo, M. Bottrel, I. Ortiz, J. Dorado, M. Diaz-Jimenez, B. Pereira, M. Hidalgo
      The aim of this study was to assess different concentrations of sucrose-based extenders combined with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an alternative to stallion sperm cryopreservation with permeable cryoprotectants. Semen samples (n = 16) were collected from six stallions. Sperm was cooled, filled in 0.5 mL straws and frozen in nitrogen vapor. Post-thaw sperm kinetic parameters, plasma and acrosome membrane integrity were statistically compared among treatments. In Experiment 1, extenders containing 1% of BSA and different concentrations of sucrose (mmol/L, M): 0, 50, 100, 250, 350 and 450 mM were compared. Use of sucrose [100 mM (S2)] resulted in greater values for most of the sperm kinetic parameters assessed (P < 0.001). There were no differences for plasma membrane integrity, except for when sucrose was used at 50 and 250 mM concentrations, and plasma membrane integrity was less (P < 0.05) when these concentrations were used than with the other sucrose concentrations. In Experiment 2, the selected sucrose extender (S2) was compared to an extender containing glycerol as permeable cryoprotectant. Use of the S2 extender resulted in a lesser proportion of sperm with denuded-acrosomes (P < 0.05) in comparison to use of glycerol and values for several kinetic parameters were also greater (P < 0.05) with use of S2. There were no significant differences for the other parameters assessed in this study. In conclusion, stallion sperm can be frozen in the absence of permeable cryoprotectants, using a combination of sucrose 100 mM with BSA-1% as alternative agents.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:57:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.02.013
       
  • Comparison of plant- and egg yolk-based semen diluents on in vitro sperm
           kinematics and in vivo fertility of frozen-thawed bull semen
    • Authors: E.M. Murphy; C. O’Meara; B. Eivers; P. Lonergan; S. Fair
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): E.M. Murphy, C. O’Meara, B. Eivers, P. Lonergan, S. Fair
      Diluents using components of plant origin have been developed as an alternative to animal based extenders for the dilution of bull semen, however, it is unclear if use of these diluents results in in vivo fertility rates similar to those that occur with use of traditional egg yolk-based diluents. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of semen diluent on 60-day non-return rate (NRR) following artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed bull semen. The effect of semen dilution in one of three different commercial diluents (BullXcell – egg yolk-based, OptiXcell – plant-based or AndroMed – plant-based) on post-thaw total and progressive motility as well as kinematic parameters (Experiment 1) and field fertility (Experiment 2, n = 1,480 inseminations) was assessed. Semen stored in OptiXcell had greater post-thaw total and progressive motility than AndroMed (P < 0.05) but did not differ from BullXcell. Semen stored in BullXcell had a greater beat cross frequency and straight line velocity compared to semen stored in AndroMed (P < 0.05) but did not differ when compared with use of OptiXcell; while values for these variables when using OptiXcell and AndroMed did not differ from each other (P > 0.05). There was no difference in any other sperm kinematic parameters (P > 0.05). There was no effect of diluent on 60-day NRR (71.5%, 67.8% and 70.6% for BullXcell, OptiXcell and AndroMed, respectively). In conclusion, while diluent significantly affected post-thaw sperm motility and kinematics, no effect on 60-day NRR was observed. Given that OptiXcell and AndroMed are animal protein-free media these diluents may be a suitable alternative to BullXcell for the storage of frozen-thawed bull semen.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:57:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.02.010
       
  • Epididymal sperm from Spix’s yellow-toothed cavies sperm successfully
           cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk
    • Authors: Andréia M. Silva; Erica C.G. Praxedes; Lívia B. Campos; Luana G.P. Bezerra; Samara S.J. Moreira; Keilla M. Maia; Ana L.P. Souza; Alexandre R. Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Andréia M. Silva, Erica C.G. Praxedes, Lívia B. Campos, Luana G.P. Bezerra, Samara S.J. Moreira, Keilla M. Maia, Ana L.P. Souza, Alexandre R. Silva
      As a non-threatened hystricognath rodent species, Spix’s yellow-toothed cavies can be used as a model for the development of assisted reproductive techniques for the conservation of closely related species. The objective was to establish a functional protocol for cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from these cavies. Twelve sexually mature males, ∼2 y old and weighing ∼300 g, were euthanized. Sperm were recovered by retrograde flushing of the vas deferens and cauda epididymis with Tris extender. Thereafter, sperm were extended in Tris plus 20% egg yolk, with 3%, 6% or 9% glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), placed in 0.25 mL straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Sperm concentration, motility (using computer-assisted sperm analysis; CASA), plasma membrane integrity, osmotic response, morphology and sperm binding-ability were determined in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. For most sperm endpoints, glycerol was a more desirable cryoprotectant than DMSO. Data (mean ± SEM) were similar with use of 3%, 6%, and 9% glycerol (P > 0.05) in osmotic response (40.66 ± 6.3%, 42.5 ± 7.1%, and 39.5 ± 5.0% respectably), and membrane integrity (55.17 ± 5.5%, 68.4 ± 4.1%, and 59.1 ± 4.9% respectably). Among concentrations assessed, the use of 6% glycerol resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) post-thaw values for total motility (60.9 ± 4.4%), rapid subpopulation motility (27.7 ± 3.1%) and sperm-binding capability (227.0 ± 20.2). In conclusion, epididymal sperm from the Spix’s yellow-toothed cavies (G. spixii) are optimally cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:57:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.02.009
       
  • Effects of L-glutamine on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at
           17°C
    • Authors: Shunwei Wang; Meng Sun; Na Wang; Kang Yang; Haitao Guo; Jingran Wang; Yuting Zhang; Shunli Yue; Jiabo Zhou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Shunwei Wang, Meng Sun, Na Wang, Kang Yang, Haitao Guo, Jingran Wang, Yuting Zhang, Shunli Yue, Jiabo Zhou
      The quality of boar spermatozoa is affected by oxidative stress during preservation in vitro. It has been demonstrated that L-Glutamine (Gln) can effectively protect cells from oxidative stress-induced injury. There are, however, no reports to date evaluating the effects of Gln on boar semen liquid preservation at 17 °C. The aims of the present study were to elucidate whether the addition of Gln to the extender BTS could improve the quality of boar spermatozoa when stored at 17 °C and to determine the mechanism underlying Gln protection of spermatozoa against preservation-induced damage. Boar semen samples were collected and diluted with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) containing different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 mM) of Gln. The results indicated the addition of 20 mM Gln to the BTS improved (P < 0.05) the motility, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity of boar sperm during liquid preservation. Interestingly, treatment of spermatozoa with Gln addition to the extender resulted in ROS quenching, while enhancing γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content of spermatozoa. These results suggest that BTS supplemented with Gln can provide greater protective capacity to boar sperm against oxidative stress by enhancing GSH synthesis during liquid preservation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:57:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.02.011
       
  • Cryopreservation and storage of cat epididymal sperm using ‒75 °C
           freezer vs liquid nitrogen
    • Authors: K. Buranaamnuay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): K. Buranaamnuay
      The quality of cat epididymal sperm cryopreserved and stored by four methods was assessed. Epididymal sperm were suspended in Tris-glucose-citrate egg yolk extender, loaded in 0.25 mL straws and then cryopreserved. The samples in a standard protocol (LN) were cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen (LN2). The sperm straws in the LN-Fr-LN group were cryopreserved in LN2 and stored in a −75 °C freezer; the straws were returned to LN2 prior to thawing. The loaded straws in the Fr group were transferred directly from 4 °C to the freezer and maintained in the freezer until thawing. The Fr-LN samples were cryopreserved and stored in the freezer and were introduced into LN2 before thawing. The sperm thawing was conducted on days 30, 60, 90 and 120 of cryopreservation. The sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were evaluated at 15 and 180 min after thawing. The quality of post-thaw sperm in all three modified protocols was comparable (P > 0.05) and did not differ from that in the standard protocol except the membrane integrity of the 60 days stored samples evaluated at 15 min after thawing, which was significantly higher for the LN-Fr-LN than the Fr-LN groups (P = 0.04). The length of cryopreservation time had no effect (P > 0.05) on the sperm parameters assessed at 15 min after thawing. The sperm motility was significantly greater (P = 0.01 to P = 0.02) for the 15 min than the 180 min incubation. In conclusion, cat epididymal sperm could alternatively be cryopreserved and/or stored by using the −75 °C freezer for 120 days. To use, the cryopreserved sperm in the freezer could be thawed immediately or after being transferred to LN2. This was useful for the application of the −75 °C cryopreserved sperm in remote areas.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:57:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.02.008
       
  • Factors affecting differences between birth weight of littermates (BWTD)
           and the effects of BWTD on lamb performance
    • Authors: Jennifer L. Juengel; George H. Davis; Roger Wheeler; Ken G. Dodds; Peter D. Johnstone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Jennifer L. Juengel, George H. Davis, Roger Wheeler, Ken G. Dodds, Peter D. Johnstone
      The objectives of this study were to determine factors affecting lamb birth weight (BWT) and differences between BWT of the largest and smallest littermates (BWTD) and to assess the relative importance of BWT and BWTD on lamb survival and growth to weaning. Records from twin (n = 5369) or triplet (n = 1664) litters born on pasture were utilised. Breeds included Coopworth, Romney, Perendale, composite and Texel. Ewe and sire breed, age and weight of the dam, sex, and number of lambs born (NLB) affected BWT. Neither embryo loss nor ovulation pattern (i.e. all ova released from one ovary or some from each) were associated with BWT. Dam weight and NLB affected BWTD but dam age, sire or dam breed did not. Loss of an embryo reduced BWTD, and BWTD was lower when the ewe ovulated from both ovaries versus only one ovary for twins, but not triplets. Whereas BWT was moderately heritable (h2 = 0.20), BWTD was not heritable (h2 = 0.003). Lamb survival was positively associated with BWT. Lambs with BWTD > 1.3 kg were less likely to survive (73.3%) than those from litters of smaller BWTD (range 82.8–85.7% survival). Growth rate of twin and triplet lambs was positively associated with BWT. Surprisingly, lambs from litters with moderately high BWTD had slightly greater (approximately 3%) growth rate than those from lambs of low to intermediate BWTD. Thus, while large BWTD were negatively associated with survival, BWT itself, which was moderately heritable, appeared to be a stronger driver of lamb survival and average daily gain.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:57:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.02.002
       
  • Selected serum acute-phase proteins in peripartum sows and evaluation of
           their diagnostic usefulness
    • Authors: Karol Wierzchosławski; Krzysztof Kwit; Zygmunt Pejsak; Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Karol Wierzchosławski, Krzysztof Kwit, Zygmunt Pejsak, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól
      Lactation impairment in sows is a frequent and significant clinical problem. Due to a complex aetiopathogenesis, early diagnosis of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) is difficult and so far has usually been based on physical examination performed in the first days after farrowing. To date no data have been provided on the diagnostic usefulness of acute phase proteins (APP) in early diagnosis of peripartum disorders, including lactation disorders in sows. This study aimed at measuring the serum concentration of selected APP (C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP)) in sows with physiological and pathological course of the peripartum period and at evaluating the possibility of utilising the studied markers in the early diagnosis of lactation disorders. Also, the correlation between the studied APP serum concentration and production parameters was assessed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first such performed on sows. The experiment was conducted on 139 sows divided into three experimental groups based on the course of peripartum period: HEALTHY (n = 58) – clinically healthy sows, PDS (n = 45) – sows with milk production disorders, and OTHERS (n = 36) – sows which had experienced difficult parturitions, inflammations not connected with mammary glands (abscesses, hooves infections), or lameness. Thirteen serum samples from each sow were analysed, samples being taken on days -28 (-30 to -25), -14 (-16 to -11), -7 (-8 to -6), -5, -3, -1, 0 (parturition day), +1, +3, +5, +7, +14 and +28 (prior to or post farrowing). In order to measure the level of serum APP, commercial, quantitative ELISA tests were used. The results of the study indicate that the diagnosis made on the basis of the assessment of SAA levels on day 7 before the farrowing was not statistically different from the diagnosis made on the basis of the physical examination in the first days after the farrowing, that is the so-called “gold standard”. The achieved results indicate that SAA may be a useful early marker of lactation impairments in sows, which allows detection of which sows are susceptible to lactation disorders with high probability even as early as one week before parturition.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:57:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.02.003
       
  • Determinants of gestation length in Thoroughbred mares on German stud
           farms
    • Authors: Mareike Ewert; Imke Lüders; Jozsef Böröcz; Hubert Uphaus; Ottmar Distl; Harald Sieme
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Mareike Ewert, Imke Lüders, Jozsef Böröcz, Hubert Uphaus, Ottmar Distl, Harald Sieme
      The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of stallion and mare, their ages, and maternal lineage on the gestation length (GL) in Thoroughbreds. In addition, additive genetic effects of the dam, stallion and fetus were analyzed. Data were taken from 1993 through 2009, and included 16,226 pregnancies from 5959 Th oroughbred mares mated with 290 different stallions. All analyses were performed using linear mixed models. The GL ranged from 306 to 390 days, with a mean length of 347.0 ± 14.4 days. Mating of mares with stallions aged 17 years and older resulted in a significantly longer GL compared to younger stallions. Furthermore, the GL significantly increased with the increasing age of the mares, and the GL was longer with male foals. The month and year of breeding, as well as the mare´s breeding history (parity and reproductive status) also affected GL. The mare and stallion themselves explained 18% and 4% of the variance in GL. Coefficients of inbreeding of mares and foals had no significant effect on GL. The heritability for the GL was 0.17 for the dam and 0.006 for the fetus, whereas an additive genetic paternal effect was not estimable. The relative proportions among the additive genetic and permanent environmental contributions of the dam were 76.5% and 23.5%. A maternal lineage effect was not obvious.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:57:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.02.001
       
  • Effects of parity on productive, reproductive, metabolic and hormonal
           responses of Holstein cows
    • Authors: Jéssica Tatiana Morales Piñeyrúa; Santiago Rafael Fariña; Alejandro Mendoza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Jéssica Tatiana Morales Piñeyrúa, Santiago Rafael Fariña, Alejandro Mendoza
      The objective of this study was to determine the effects that parity may have on production, reproduction and the metabolic status of Holstein cows managed in a production system based on total mixed ration and pasture. Primiparous (n= 22) and multiparous (n= 24) cows from a dairy farm research station in Uruguay were used in a completely randomized design. Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS) and backfat thickness (BFT) were recorded weekly from −30 to 70 days postpartum. Milk production was measured daily, and milk composition was determined weekly. Resumption of postpartum ovarian activity and progesterone profiles were measured three times a week based on milk progesterone. Blood was collected to determine the levels of glucose, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1), insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), albumin, total protein and cholesterol. Milk production and components were lower for primiparous cows (p< 0.01) than multiparous cows. Body weights were also lower in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows (p< 0.05); however, BCS and BFT were greater (p< 0.01) in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows. Primiparous cows had greater levels of glucose, insulin and IGF-1 and lower concentrations of NEFA and BHB (p<0.01) than multiparous cows. The intervals from calving to first ovulation were not affected by parity; however, primiparous cows showed less abnormal cycles (27.2%) than multiparous cows (50.0%) (p< 0.01). The present study found that a feeding system based on TMR and pasture was sufficient to produce over 25 L of milk per day without extending their calving to first ovulation interval in primiparous and multiparous cows. However, multiparous cows showed a greater imbalance in metabolic and hormonal profiles than primiparous cows, causing abnormal ovarian activity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.01.017
       
  • One year daily changes in fecal sexual steroids of two captive female
           cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) in italy
    • Authors: Valentina Vernocchi; Maria Giorgia Morselli; Massimo Faustini; Gianfranco Gabai; Laura Da Dalt; Gaia Cecilia Luvoni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Valentina Vernocchi, Maria Giorgia Morselli, Massimo Faustini, Gianfranco Gabai, Laura Da Dalt, Gaia Cecilia Luvoni
      The present study evaluated changes of fecal sexual steroids in two female cheetahs (Geijsha and Duchessa) in Northern Italy throughout one year. Wet feces were collected daily from two sibling animals of the same age, housed with conspecific males and managed in the same conditions, and estrogens and progestogens concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Evidence of ovarian activity based on regular fluctuation in estrogen excretion was demonstrated in both females. None of the animals was continuously cycling, as follicular activity was interrupted by anestrous periods, during the spring and early winter. No significant increases of progestogens were recorded after the estrogen peaks, indicating that induced or spontaneous ovulations did not occur during the observation period. The wavelet decomposition evidenced the temporal pattern of ovarian activity in the two females, underlying throughout the year a more pronounced rhythmical ovarian estrogenic activity in Geijsha than in Duchessa. However, this statistical approach had a smoothing effect in depicting the hormonal patterns and the number of follicular phases might be lower than that revealed by the iterative method. In this study, RIA on wet feces performed very well to determine sexual steroid concentrations, and an ovarian activity interrupted by anestrous periods along the year in captive cheetahs co-housed in a small group was demonstrated. More information on estrous behavior of captive cheetahs were obtained in this study, but the effects of husbandry and management conditions on natural reproductive physiology of this species remain to elucidate.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.01.016
       
 
 
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