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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 879 journals)
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Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Journal of Animal Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.848
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 13  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0021-8812 - ISSN (Online) 1525-3163
Published by American Society of Animal Science Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Objective evaluation of female feet and leg joint conformation at time of
           selection and post first parity in swine1
    • Authors: Stock J; Calderón Díaz J, Rothschild M, et al.
      Pages: 3549 - 3557
      Abstract: AbstractFeet and legs of replacement females were objectively evaluated at selection, i.e., approximately 150 d of age (n = 319) and post first parity, i.e., any time after weaning of first litter and before second parturition (n = 277) to 1) compare feet and leg joint angle ranges between selection and post first parity; 2) identify feet and leg joint angle differences between selection and first 3 wk of second gestation; 3) identify feet and leg joint angle differences between farms and gestation days during second gestation; and 4) obtain genetic variance components for conformation angles for the two time points measured. Angles for carpal joint (knee), metacarpophalangeal joint (front pastern), metatarsophalangeal joint (rear pastern), tarsal joint (hock), and rear stance were measured using image analysis software. Between selection and post first parity, significant differences were observed for all joints measured (P < 0.05). Knee, front and rear pastern angles were less (more flexion), and hock angles were greater (less flexion) as age progressed (P < 0.05), while the rear stance pattern was less (feet further under center) at selection than post first parity (only including measures during first 3 wk of second gestation). Only using post first parity leg conformation information, farm was a significant source of variation for front and rear pasterns and rear stance angle measurements (P < 0.05). Knee angle was less (more flexion; P < 0.05) as gestation age progressed. Heritability estimates were low to moderate (0.04–0.35) for all traits measured across time points. Genetic correlations between the same joints at different time points were high (>0.8) between the front leg joints and low (<0.2) between the rear leg joints. High genetic correlations between time points indicate that the trait can be considered the same at either time point, and low genetic correlations indicate that the trait at different time points should be considered as two separate traits. Minimal change in the front leg suggests conformation traits that remain between selection and post first parity, while larger changes in rear leg indicate that rear leg conformation traits should be evaluated at multiple time periods.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky227
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Genetic analysis of carcass and meat quality traits in Nelore cattle1
    • Authors: Gordo D; Espigolan R, Bresolin T, et al.
      Pages: 3558 - 3564
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits, as well as their genetic correlations using pedigree and genomic information. A total of 3,716; 3,702; 3,439; 3,705; and 3,714 records of 12th–13th rib LM area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), HCW, marbling score (MARB), and Warner–Bratzler peak shear force (WBSF), respectively, were used. Animals were genotyped with BovineHD BeadChip and GeneSeek Genomic Profiler Indicus HD - GGP75Ki panel. The (co)variance components were estimated by Bayesian inference using a multitrait ssGBLUP analysis. The animal model included fixed effects of contemporary group (defined by the combination of farm and year of birth, and management group at yearling) and age of animal at slaughtering as a covariate (linear). Direct additive genetic and residual effects were fitted as random. The posterior means and SD of heritabilities for LMA, BF, HCW, MARB, and WBSF were 0.28 (0.03), 0.21 (0.04), 0.21 (0.04), 0.12 (0.04), and 0.11 (0.03), respectively. The posterior means for genetic correlations between LMA and meat quality were positive and moderate with MARB (0.38 ± 0.12) and negative with WBSF (−0.47 ± 0.12). Low genetic correlations were estimated between BF and WBSF (−0.03 ± 0.16) and between HCW and MARB (−0.04 ± 0.14), indicating that these traits are not controlled by the same set or linked genes. Carcass traits (LMA, BF, and HCW) presented moderate heritability providing quick response to the selection purpose. The estimates of heritability for meat quality traits (MARB and WBSF) were low and indicate that the rate of genetic improvement for these traits would be slow. Genetic correlations indicated that selection for carcass traits would not be strongly antagonistic for improving meat quality.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky228
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Genetic relationships of antibody response, viremia level, and weight gain
           in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory
           syndrome virus1
    • Authors: Hess A; Trible B, Hess M, et al.
      Pages: 3565 - 3581
      Abstract: AbstractGenetic and antigenic variability between Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) isolates has encumbered vaccine development. Here, the genetic basis of PRRSV antibody response was assessed using data from experimental infection trials of commercial crossbred weaner pigs across with one of two distinct PRRSV isolates, NVSL-97–7895 (~750 pigs) and KS-2006–72109 (~450 pigs). Objectives were to estimate the genetic parameters of antibody response, measured as the sample to positive ratio (S:P) of PRRSV N-protein specific IgG in serum at 42 d post infection (dpi); assess the relationship of S:P at 42 dpi with serum viremia and growth under infection; and identify genomic regions associated with S:P at 42 dpi. Estimates of heritability of S:P at 42 dpi for NVSL and KS06 were 0.31 ± 0.09 and 0.40 ± 0.10 and appeared to be under similar genetic control (genetic correlation 0.73 ± 0.39). Estimates of genetic correlations of S:P were generally weak with viral load (NVSL: −0.20 ± 0.18; KS06: −0.69 ± 0.20), measured as area under the curve of log10 serum viremia from 0 to 21 dpi, and with weight gain (WG) from 0 to 42 dpi (NVSL: −0.38 ± 0.19; KS06: −0.08 ± 0.25). However, genetic correlations of S:P at 42 dpi with daily serum viremia and with 3-d WG revealed dynamic relationships, with S:P at 42 dpi having the strongest negative genetic correlations with daily viremia when IgG production starts (10–20 dpi), and negative genetic correlations with WG early after infection but positive later on. This suggests that animals that placed more emphasis on immune response early in infection reaped benefits of that later in infection by more effectively clearing the virus. The WUR10000125 SNP on SSC4, previously associated with response to PRRSV, did not have a significant effect on S:P at 42 dpi (P > 0.05) but genotype-specific genetic correlations of S:P with daily viremia and 3-d WG suggested that the lower WG of pigs with the unfavorable AA WUR10000125 genotype may be due to their utilization of a more energetically costly host response compared to pigs with the favorable genotype. Genome-wide association studies identified three SNPs in the Major Histocompatibility Complex associated with S:P that explained ~10 (NVSL) and 45% (KS06) of the genetic variance but were not associated with viremia or WG. In conclusion, antibody response to PRRSV infection is a possible biomarker for improved host response to PRRSV infection.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky229
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Genetic correlations between meat quality traits and growth and carcass
           traits in Merino sheep1
    • Authors: Mortimer S; Fogarty N, van der Werf J, et al.
      Pages: 3582 - 3598
      Abstract: AbstractGenetic correlations between 16 meat quality and nutritional value traits and live weight at various ages, live ultrasound fat and muscle depth, carcass measures, and carcass dissection traits were estimated for Merino sheep in the Information Nucleus (IN). Genetic correlations between live weight at various ages and the carcass traits are also reported. The IN comprised 8 genetically linked flocks managed across a range of Australian sheep environments. Meat quality traits included between 1,200 and 1,300 records for progeny from over 170 sires for intramuscular fat (IMF), lean meat yield (LMY), shear force (SF5), pH, meat color, and meat nutritional value traits including iron and zinc levels and long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels. The genetic correlations indicated that selection of Merino sheep to either reduce fat or increase muscle using ultrasound assessments will result in little change in IMF and SF5. Myoglobin levels would tend to be reduced following selection for reduced ultrasound fat depth (0.35 ± 0.21, 0.43 ± 0.14), whereas increases in myoglobin levels would occur due to selection for increased ultrasound muscle depth (0.25 ± 0.24, 0.38 ± 0.15). Selection for increased live weight will result in favorable correlated responses in hot carcass weight (0.76 to 0.97), dressing percentage (0.13 to 0.47), and carcass muscle (0.37 to 0.95), but unfavorable responses of increases in carcass fatness (0.13 to 0.65) and possible small reductions in muscle oxidative activity (−0.13 ± 0.14 to −0.73 ± 0.33) and iron content (−0.14 ± 0.15 to −0.38 ± 0.16), and a possible deterioration of shear force from selection at later ages (0.15 ± 0.26, 0.27 ± 0.24). Negligible changes are generally expected for LMY and meat color traits following selection for increased live weight (most genetic correlations less than 0.20 in size). Selection for increased LMY would tend to result in unfavorable changes in several aspects of meat quality, including reduced IMF (−0.27 ± 0.18), meat tenderness (0.53 ± 0.26), and meat redness (−0.69 ± 0.40), as well as reduced iron levels (−0.25 ± 0.22). These genetic correlations are a first step in assisting the development of breeding values for new traits to be incorporated into genetic evaluation programs to improve meat production from Merino sheep and other dual-purpose sheep breeds.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky232
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Evaluation of moderate to high elevation effects on pulmonary arterial
           pressure measures in Angus cattle1
    • Authors: Pauling R; Speidel S, Thomas M, et al.
      Pages: 3599 - 3605
      Abstract: AbstractAltitude-induced pulmonary hypertension is a disease once thought to only occur at extremely high elevations (>1,600 m), but recently, it has been observed at moderate elevations of 1,200 to 1,600 m. Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) has been used as an indicator of tolerance to high altitude in mountainous beef production systems for over 30 yr. The trait is typically measured on yearling bulls and heifers with values ≤ 41 mmHg being favorable. These observations were historically only considered valid when they were recorded at elevations ≥ 1,600 m; however, if observations from lower (i.e., moderate) elevations were reliable indicators, a greater number of cattle records could be used in genetic improvement programs for high-altitude beef systems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between PAP and elevation, as well as to determine whether PAP measures obtained at moderate elevations (ME) less than 1,600 m have a genetic relationship with PAP observations obtained at high elevations (HE) 1,600 m or greater. Elevation and PAP data from purebred Angus cattle (n = 14,665) from 349 contemporary groups were used in the analyses. Elevation and PAP averaged 1,887 ± 1.8 m and 43.0 ± 0.1 mm Hg, respectively. A univariate model containing the effects of sex, age, elevation category (HE vs. ME), elevation (continuous), and elevation category by elevation interaction along with a random direct genetic effect was utilized to determine the relationship between PAP and elevation. In this model, all main effects were found to be significant contributors of variation in PAP (P < 0.001). The interaction between elevation category and elevation was not a significant contributor to variability of PAP (P > 0.05). A bivariate animal model was then used to evaluate the relationship between PAP observations obtained between HE and ME groups. Heritability estimates for these 2 groups were 0.34 ± 0.03 and 0.29 ± 0.09, respectively, and their genetic correlation was 0.83 ± 0.15. Even though this is a strong genetic relationship, results of this study support the hypothesis that PAP observations collected at HE and ME are not perfectly, genetically related. Results suggest that PAP measures collected from 1,219 to 1,600 m may be useful as a correlated trait in a multitrait genetic evaluation to produce EPD useful for selection of animals with reduced susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky262
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effect of subcutaneous meloxicam on indicators of acute pain and distress
           after castration and branding in 2-mo-old beef calves1,2
    • Authors: Meléndez D; Marti S, Pajor E, et al.
      Pages: 3606 - 3621
      Abstract: AbstractThe aim of this study was to assess knife castration and knife castration + branding in 2-mo-old calves, and the effect of a single dose of s.c. meloxicam at mitigating pain indicators. Seventy-one Angus crossbred bull calves (128 ± 18.5 kg of BW) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial design where main factors included procedure: sham (control calves, CT; n = 23), knife (KN; n = 24) or knife + branding (BK; n = 24), and medication: single s.c. administration of lactated ringer solution (NM; n = 35) or a single dose of 0.5 mg/kg of s.c. meloxicam (M; n = 36). Physiological samples were collected at T0, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min and on days 1, 2, 3, and 7 after procedure, whereas behavioral observations were evaluated at 2 to 4 h and 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after procedure. A procedure × time effect (P < 0.01) was observed for cortisol, where KN and BK calves had greater (P ≤ 0.01) cortisol concentrations than CT calves 60 min after the procedure, whereas BK calves had the greatest (P < 0.05) cortisol concentrations, followed by KN calves and by CT calves 90, 120, and 180 min after the procedure. A procedure × time effect (P = 0.01) was observed for tail flicks, where KN and BK calves had a greater (P < 0.05) number of tail flicks than CT calves on days 1 and 3, whereas BK calves had the greatest number of tail flicks, followed by KN calves, and then by CT calves on day 2. Haptoglobin had a procedure × medication × time interaction (P = 0.05), where BK-NM calves had greater haptoglobin concentrations than BK-M, KN-M, and CT calves on days 1 and 3, whereas BK-NM and KN-NM calves had greater haptoglobin concentrations than BK-M, KN-M, and CT calves on day 2 after the procedure. Lying duration and tail flicks had a medication effect (P = 0.04; P < 0.01) where M calves had greater (P < 0.05) lying duration and lower (P < 0.05) number of tail flicks than NM calves 2 to 4 h after procedure. No medication effects (P > 0.10) were observed for salivary cortisol, substance P, and scrotal temperature minutes after the procedure or for cortisol, substance P, serum amyloid-A, stride length, or behavioral observations days after the procedure. Overall, BK calves presented greater physiological and behavioral indicators of acute pain than KN calves, suggesting that the combination of knife castration + branding was more painful. Meloxicam administered s.c. was effective at reducing physiological and behavioral indicators of acute pain associated with knife castration and knife castration + branding.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky245
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Impact of repeated lipopolysaccharide administration on ovarian signaling
           during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle in post-pubertal pigs
    • Authors: Bidne K; Kvidera S, Ross J, et al.
      Pages: 3622 - 3634
      Abstract: AbstractIncreased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results from heat stress (HS) and bacterial infection, both of which are associated with reduced female fertility. Specific effects of low-level, repeated LPS exposure on the ovary are unclear, as many studies utilize a bolus model and/or high dosage paradigm. To better understand the effects of chronic LPS exposure on ovarian signaling and function, post-pubertal gilts (n = 20) were orally administered altrenogest for 14 d to synchronize the beginning of the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle. For 5 d after synchronization, gilts (163 ± 3 kg) received IV administration of LPS (0.1 µg/kg BW, n = 10) or saline (CT, n = 10) 4× daily. Blood samples were obtained on days 1, 3, and 5 of LPS treatment. Follicular fluid was aspirated from dominant follicles on day 5, and whole ovarian homogenate was used for transcript and protein abundance analysis via quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. There were no treatment differences detected in rectal temperature on any day (P ≥ 0.5). Administering LPS increased plasma insulin (P < 0.01), LPS-binding protein (LBP; P < 0.01), and glucose (P = 0.08) on day 1, but no treatment differences thereafter were observed (P = 0.66). There were no treatment differences in follicular fluid concentration of LBP or 17β-estradiol (P = 0.42). Gilts treated with LPS had increased abundance of ovarian TLR4 protein (P = 0.01), but protein kinase B (AKT) and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) were unchanged and no effect of LPS on components of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) pathway were observed. There was no impact of LPS on ovarian abundance of STAR or CYP19A1, nor ESR1, LDLR, CYP19A1, CYP17A1, or 3BHSD. In conclusion, repeated, low-level LPS administration alters inflammatory but not steroidogenic or PI3K signaling in follicular phase gilt ovaries.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky226
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • The potential of brown adipogenesis and browning in porcine bone
           marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells1
    • Authors: Chen Y; Yu Y.
      Pages: 3635 - 3644
      Abstract: AbstractBrown adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation are under complex regulation. Brown adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Whether porcine bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) possess the potential to differentiate into brown adipocytes remains unclear. In the current study, we evaluated the ability of porcine BM-MSC to differentiate into brown adipocytes and browning of differentiated adipocytes. We found that similar to rodent models, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) was able to trigger the commitment of BM-MSC to the brown adipocyte lineage by elevating expression of marker genes, nrf-1, tfam, zic1, and pgc-1α (P < 0.05). The expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes, prdm16, dio2, and cidea, was significantly induced (P < 0.05) in BMP7-treated porcine BM-MSC after hormonal induction of adipogenesis. The UCP2 and UCP3 protein levels in BMP7-treated porcine BM-MSC were higher than the control group after hormonal induction of adipogenesis, accompanied by increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondria-specific gene expression (P < 0.05). Furthermore, acute norepinephrine stimulation potentiated brown adipocyte-specific mRNA expression (P < 0.05) in differentiated adipocytes. Similarly, UCP2 and UCP3 protein levels were increased in differentiated adipocytes upon acute norepinephrine stimulation. In addition, mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondria-specific gene expression were also significantly increased (P < 0.05) in differentiated adipocytes after acute norepinephrine exposure. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that porcine BM-MSC are able to commit to the brown adipocyte lineage and differentiate into brown adipocytes. Differentiated adipocytes derived from porcine BM-MSC have the developmental potential to transdifferentiate into brown-like adipocytes upon norepinephrine stimulation.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky230
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor acts as a mitogen for equine satellite cells via
           protein kinase C δ–directed signaling
    • Authors: Brandt A; Kania J, Gonzalez M, et al.
      Pages: 3645 - 3656
      Abstract: AbstractHepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signals mediate mouse skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell (SC), reentry into the cell cycle and myoblast proliferation. Because the athletic horse experiences exercise-induced muscle damage, the objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of HGF on equine SC (eqSC) bioactivity. Fresh isolates of adult eqSC were incubated with increasing concentrations of HGF and the initial time to DNA synthesis was measured. Media supplementation with HGF did not shorten (P > 0.05) the duration of G0/G1 transition suggesting the growth factor does not affect activation. Treatment with 25 ng/mL HGF increased (P < 0.05) eqSC proliferation that was coincident with phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1). Chemical inhibition of the upstream effectors of ERK1/2 or AKT1 elicited no effect (P > 0.05) on HGF-mediated 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation. By contrast, treatment of eqSC with 2 µm Gö6983, a pan-protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, blocked (P < 0.05) HGF-initiated mitotic activity. Gene-expression analysis revealed that eqSC express PKCα, PKCδ, and PKCε isoforms. Knockdown of PKCδ with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented (P > 0.05) HGF-mediated EdU incorporation. The siPKCδ was specific to the kinase and did not affect (P > 0.05) expression of either PKCα or PKCε. Treatment of confluent eqSC with 25 ng/mL HGF suppressed (P < 0.05) nuclear myogenin expression during the early stages of differentiation. These results demonstrate that HGF may not affect activation but can act as a mitogen and modest suppressor of differentiation.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky234
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effects of phytogenic feed additives on cellular oxidative stress and
           inflammatory reactions in intestinal porcine epithelial cells1
    • Authors: Kaschubek T; Mayer E, Rzesnik S, et al.
      Pages: 3657 - 3669
      Abstract: AbstractDue to increasing concerns about the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in livestock production and their complete ban in the European Union in 2006, suitable alternatives are urgently needed. Among others, anti-inflammatory activities of AGP are discussed as their putative mode of action. As numerous phytochemicals are known to modulate the cellular antioxidant capacity and immune response, we studied the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of a phytogenic (plant-derived) feed additive (PFA) in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). The effects of the PFA were compared with those of selected phytogenic ingredients (grape seed extract [GRS], licorice extract [LIC], menthol [MENT], methyl salicylate [MES], oak bark extract [OAK], oregano essential oil [ORE], and a plant powder mix [PLA]), and with the effects of the AGP tylosin (TYL). Oxidative or inflammatory stress was induced by stimulating IPEC-J2 with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 0.5 mM) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α; 10 ng/mL), respectively. The antioxidative effects of feed additives were assessed with a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe and by measuring the expression of 6 antioxidative target genes via quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Anti-inflammatory potential was analyzed using a nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) reporter gene assay. Moreover, the expression levels of 6 NF-κB target genes were measured using RT-qPCR analysis, and the release of IL-6 was analyzed via ELISA. Significant decreases in cellular ROS upon H2O2 treatment were observed for the PFA (P < 0.001), LIC (P < 0.001), ORE (P < 0.05), and GRS (P < 0.01). No significant changes in the expression of antioxidative genes were found. NF-κB activation upon TNF-α treatment was significantly inhibited by the PFA (P < 0.05) and by ORE (P < 0.001). Moreover, the PFA and ORE significantly reduced the gene expression of IL-6 (P < 0.001), IL-8 (P < 0.001), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2; P < 0.05), as well as the release of IL-6 (P < 0.05). The other phytogenic compounds as well as the AGP TYL did not significantly affect any of the inflammatory parameters. In summary, we revealed the antioxidative properties of the PFA, LIC, ORE, and GRS, as well as anti-inflammatory properties of the PFA and ORE in IPEC-J2, providing a better understanding of the mode of action of this PFA under our experimental conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky263
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Apparent total-tract macronutrient digestibility, serum chemistry,
           urinalysis, and fecal characteristics, metabolites and microbiota of adult
           dogs fed extruded, mildly cooked, and raw diets1
    • Authors: Algya K; Cross T, Leuck K, et al.
      Pages: 3670 - 3683
      Abstract: AbstractDespite their popularity, little research has been performed on lightly cooked and raw diet formats for pets. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the apparent total-tract macronutrient digestibility (ATTD); fecal characteristics, metabolites, and microbiota; serum chemistry metabolites; urinalysis; and voluntary physical activity levels of adult dogs fed commercial diets differing in processing type. The diets included: 1) extruded dry kibble (EXT) diet; 2) high-moisture roasted refrigerated (RR) diet; 3) high-moisture grain-free roasted refrigerated (GFRR) diet; and 4) raw (RAW) diet. Eight dogs (mean age = 3.6; mean BW = 13.0 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each period consisted of 28 d, with a 14-d adaptation phase followed by a 7-d phase for measuring voluntary physical activity, 1-d adaptation phase to metabolic cages, 5-d phase for fecal and urine collection, and 1 d for blood collection. Except for microbiota, all data were analyzed statistically by mixed models using SAS. Microbiota data were analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) and Statistical Analyses of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP) software. Many differences in digestibility were observed, including greater (P < 0.05) ATTD of CP and fat in dogs fed GFRR and RR than dogs fed EXT. Dogs fed RAW had the lowest fecal pH and DM %, but fecal scores were not affected. Dogs fed RR had higher (P < 0.05) fecal indole and total phenol and indole concentrations than dogs fed the other diets. Dogs fed RAW had a higher (P < 0.05) fecal ammonia concentration than dogs fed the other diets. Fecal microbial diversity was altered by diet, with dogs fed GFRR and RAW having reduced species richness than dogs fed EXT. Dogs fed RR, GFRR, or RAW had lower (P < 0.05) Actinobacteria and higher (P < 0.05) Fusobacteria than dogs fed EXT. Dogs fed RAW or GFRR had higher (P < 0.05) Proteobacteria than dogs fed EXT or RR. Dogs fed RAW had higher (P < 0.05) Bacteroidetes and lower (P < 0.05) Firmicutes than dogs fed EXT. Serum triglycerides were within reference ranges, but greater (P < 0.05) in dogs fed EXT than dogs fed GFRR and RAW. All diets were well tolerated and dogs remained healthy throughout the study. In conclusion, the lightly cooked and raw diets tested were highly palatable, highly digestible, reduced blood triglycerides, maintained fecal quality and serum chemistry, and modified the fecal microbial community of healthy adult dogs.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky235
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effect of dietary fat to starch content on fecal microbiota composition
           and activity in dogs1
    • Authors: Schauf S; de la Fuente G, Newbold C, et al.
      Pages: 3684 - 3698
      Abstract: AbstractDietary fat is known to modulate the hindgut microbiota in rodents; however, there is no clear evidence on the impact of high-fat diets on canine gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding of diets differing in the amount of ME provided by fat and starch on the composition and activity of canine fecal microbiota. Twelve adult (3 to 7 yr of age) spayed Beagle dogs received a low-fat–high-starch diet (LF–HS; approximately 23%, 42%, and 25% ME provided by fat, starch, and CP, respectively) and a high-fat–low-starch diet (HF–LS; approximately 43%, 22%, and 25% ME provided by fat, starch, and CP, respectively) following a 2-period crossover arrangement. The higher amount of fat in the HF–LS diet was provided by lard, whereas the higher amount of starch in the LF–HS diet was provided primarily by maize and broken rice. Each period lasted 7 wk and included 4 wk for diet adaptation. Dogs were fed to meet their daily energy requirements (set at 480 kJ ME/kg BW0.75). Fecal samples were collected on weeks 5 and 6 of each period for the analysis of bacterial richness, diversity, and composition [by Ion-Torrent next-generation sequencing], bile acids, ammonia, and VFA. Additional fecal samples were collected from four dogs per diet and period to use as inocula for in vitro fermentation using xylan and pectin as substrates. Gas production was measured at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h of incubation. On week 7, blood samples were collected at 0- and 180-min postfeeding for the analysis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Feeding the HF–LS diet led to a greater (P < 0.05) fecal bile acid concentration compared with the LF–HS diet. Bacterial richness and diversity did not differ between diets (P > 0.10). However, dogs showed a lower relative abundance of Prevotella (P < 0.01), Solobacterium (P < 0.05), and Coprobacillus (P ˂ 0.05) when fed of the HF–LS diet. Fecal ammonia and VFA contents were not affected by diet (P > 0.10). Relative to the LF–HS diet, in vitro fermentation of xylan using feces of dogs fed the HF–LS diet produced less gas at 6 h (P < 0.01) and 9 h (P < 0.05). Blood LPS did not increase at 180-min postfeeding with either diet (P < 0.10). These findings indicate that feeding a HF–LS diet to dogs does not affect bacterial diversity or fermentative end products in feces, but may have a negative impact on Prevotella and xylan fermentation.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky264
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Nitrous oxide emissions from the urine of beef cattle as regulated by
           dietary crude protein and gallic acid1
    • Authors: Bao Y; Zhou K, Zhao G.
      Pages: 3699 - 3711
      Abstract: AbstractTwo consecutive trials were carried out to study the effects of dietary CP and adding gallic acid (GA) in basal rations on nitrogen (N) metabolism and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the urine of beef cattle. In Trial I, eight Simmental castrated male cattle with initial liveweight of 310.5 ± 21.5 kg were used as experimental animals. Two levels of dietary CP (113.5 and 150.8 g/kg DM) and two levels of GA (0.0 and 15.2 g/kg DM) were used as experimental treatments in a 2 × 2 reversal design. Two cattle received each treatment in each of two experimental periods. Each experimental period lasted 19 d, of which the first 14 d were for adaptation and the last 5 d were for sampling. In Trial II, the urine samples collected from Trial I were used for measuring N2O-N emissions using static incubation technique. Glass jars containing soil were used as the incubation vessels. Three jars were used for each of the urine samples as replicates and two jars without urine samples were used as blanks. The incubation lasted 15 d, and the daily N2O-N emission from each jar was determined using gas chromatography. The results showed that no effects of interactions were found between dietary CP and GA on the N metabolism of beef cattle and the estimated cattle N2O-N emissions (P > 0.05). Increasing dietary CP from 113.5 to 150.8 g/kg DM increased the excretions of total N, urinary N, and urea (P < 0.001), whereas adding GA at 15.2 g/kg DM in ration did not affect these parameters (P > 0.05). Increasing dietary CP from 113.5 to 150.8 g/kg DM increased the estimated cattle urine N2O-N emissions by 36.8% (without adding GA) and 32.3% (adding GA at 15.2 g/kg DM) (P < 0.01), whereas adding GA at 15.2 g/kg DM in ration decreased the estimated cattle urine N2O-N emissions by 28.5% (dietary CP 113.5 g/kg DM) and 30.9% (dietary CP 150.8 g/kg DM) (P < 0.01). The inhibiting effects of GA on decreasing the N2O-N emissions of urine could have been resulted from the effects of GA metabolites including pyrogallol and resorcinol excreted in urine. Feeding cattle with relatively low dietary CP or adding GA in ration is effective to decrease the N2O-N emissions from the urine patches of beef cattle applied to soil.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky252
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Performance-enhancing technologies for steers grazing tall fescue pastures
           with varying levels of toxicity1
    • Authors: Diaz J; Gadberry M, Beck P, et al.
      Pages: 3712 - 3727
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate a combination of best management practices strategy for steer calves grazing tall fescue pastures with a range of toxicity. The experiment was conducted over 2 grazing seasons (fall 2015 for 91 d and spring 2016 for 84 d). Steers (n = 80 within season, body weight [BW] = 197.0 ± 15.43 kg [fall] and 116.9 ± 4.88 [spring]) were stocked at 2.45 and 4.1 calves/ha in fall and spring, respectively, to 16 pastures with varying levels of toxicity based on interim ergovaline (EV) concentration within season. Pastures were assigned to either mineral (MIN, n = 8) only management (MGMT) or a cumulative MGMT (CM, n = 8). The CM treatment included an implant containing 40-mg trenbolone acetate, 8-mg estradiol, and 29-mg tylosin tartrate (Component TE-G with Tylan, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN), 150 mg/calf daily monensin (Elanco Animal Health), and 1% BW of a 50:50 corn gluten feed:soybean hull supplement (as-is basis). Data were analyzed within season using pasture as the experimental unit. For fall and spring, the EV concentration was 1,476 ± 883.2 and 1,173 ± 620.6 ppb, respectively, and ranged from 90 to 2,180 ppb. During the fall, forage allowance did not differ (P = 0.76) between CM and MIN. In the spring, however, forage allowance only differed for the month of June (P ≤ 0.05, 2.55 vs. 3.22 ± 0.177 kg DM/kg BW, for MIN and CM, respectively). In the fall, average daily gain (ADG) responded to the simple effects of EV (P = 0.01) and MGMT (P < 0.001), and ADG for MIN steers was explained by ADG = 0.41 − 0.000064 × EV, whereas ADG for CM was explained by ADG = 1.05 − 0.000064 × EV. In the spring, there was an EV × MGMT interaction (P = 0.03) for ADG. For MIN, ADG = 0.80 − 0.000278 × EV, whereas for CM, ADG = 0.94 + 0.000001835 × EV. In spring, the ADG response to CM relative to MIN increased as EV increased. The CM strategy resulted in lower blood urea nitrogen than MIN in fall and spring (P < 0.01), but prolactin and serum Cu were not affected by MGMT in either season. In conclusion, performance was improved within the fescue belt by implementing feeding strategies using implants, ionophores, and supplementation, but a detailed economic analysis is warranted. Further research is needed to evaluate CM programs under varied stocking rates and in combination with dilution of endophyte-infected fescue pastures with nontoxic grasses or legumes.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky244
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Body size and gastrointestinal morphology of nutria (Myocastor coypus)
           reared on an extensive or intensive feeding regime
    • Authors: Głogowski R; Pérez W, Clauss M.
      Pages: 3728 - 3737
      Abstract: AbstractAlthough plasticity of growth rates is mainly associated with ectotherm species, it does occur in endotherms as well, but has not been documented systematically for many species. We compared the effect of 2 common types of feeding systems, differing in energetic value, on body size and gastrointestinal tract morphology in nutrias (Myocastor coypus). A total of 30 extensively (E) fed and 20 intensively (I) fed animals were used in the study. We noted significant effects of age, sex, and feeding regime on body weight and length, with 1-yr-old females attaining 3.7 ± 0.4 kg and 33.4 ± 1.5 cm on E and 4.9 ± 0.3 kg and 36.1 ± 2.3 cm on I. A significant treatment-sex interaction indicated that treatment had a greater effect on the length growth in males (1-yr-old males attaining 4.0 ± 0.2 kg and 34.7 ± 1.2 cm on E and 5.4 ± 0.4 kg and 41.0 ± 1.4 cm on I). The differences matched individual literature reports of free-ranging or intensively fed nutrias. The majority of gastrointestinal tract measurement results were only related to body weight, without additional effect of the diet regime, except for a higher small intestinal tissue weight on I (79 ± 14 g vs. 61 ± 7 g on E). In contrast, the wet content weight of the stomach, caecum, and the total gastrotinestinal tract was higher on E (196 ± 34 g vs. 164 ± 51 g on I). Overall, we observed strong influence of dietary regime on body development but not on digestive anatomy, indicating a distinct phenotypic flexibility in growth rates in nutrias.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky241
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Alveolar macrophage functions during the transition phase to active
           immunity in calves1
    • Authors: Bertagnon H; Batista C, Santos K, et al.
      Pages: 3738 - 3747
      Abstract: AbstractThe first 3 to 6 mo of the life of calves is the period during which active immunity is established. During this period, greater morbidity and mortality is caused by bronchopneumonia because of the immaturity of the pulmonary immune system or the exaggerated cytotoxic response at subsequent infection. The aim of this study was to examine the maturity of the immune system during this phase of activation of acquired immunity in calves. For this purpose, the functions of phagocytosis and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) of alveolar macrophages CD14+ were evaluated. Further, the classes of immunoglobulins and the cytokines implicated in lymphocyte response patterns Th1 and Th2 in 10 healthy Holstein calves were quantified. Samples were taken from calves every 15 d, from the third to the sixth month of life. The alveolar macrophage CD14+ functions increased progressively until 150 d of age (phagocytosis, P = 0.02, ROS, P = 0.05), IgG1 and IgG2 isotype secretion reached an equilibrium, and the cytokine profiles were compatible with the Th1 response. At 165 d of age, there was a decrease in cellular function (phagocytosis P = 0.02, ROS P = 0.04) and an increase in IgG1 titers (P = 0.005) and IL-10 mRNA expression (P = 0.09). At 180 d of life, we observed an IgG1 and IgG2 secretion balance, a decrease in IL-10 mRNA expression, and an increase in IL-12 mRNA (P = 0.04) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA expressions (P = 0.0003) and alveolar macrophage oxidative metabolism were observed. These results indicate that the calves had an active immune response that was distinctive for the age group. The CD14+ response is more reactive at 150 d. A regulatory and/or humoral response begins at 165 d of life as the equilibrium of Th1 and Th2 profiles is reached at 180 d of life. This may be clinically relevant for the development of specific therapies and prophylactic measures for bronchopneumonia in calves at 135 to 180 d of life.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky261
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Nutritional impact on mammary development in pigs: a review
    • Authors: Farmer C.
      Pages: 3748 - 3756
      Abstract: AbstractMilk yield is a crucial component of a sow operation because it is a limiting factor for piglet growth rate. Stimulating mammary development is one avenue that could be used to improve sow milk production. A number of studies have shown that nutrition of gilts or sows during the periods of rapid mammary accretion occurring during prepuberty, gestation, and lactation can affect mammary development. The present review provides an overview of all the information currently published on the subject. Various nutritional treatments can bring about increases in mammary tissue weight ranging from 27% to 52%. It was clearly established that feed restriction from 90 d of age (but not before 90 d) until puberty has detrimental effects on mammary development in pigs. Ad libitum feeding during that period increased mammary parenchymal weight by 36% to 52%. Body condition is also important because gilts that were obese (36-mm backfat) or too lean (12- to 15-mm backfat) in late gestation had less developed mammary tissue. Furthermore, overfeeding energy in late gestation seems to be detrimental. On the other hand, increasing energy and protein intakes of sows during lactation was beneficial for development of mammary tissue. Feeding certain plant extracts with estrogenic or hyperprolactinemic properties may also prove beneficial in stimulating mammary development at specific physiological periods. For example, feeding genistein to prepubertal gilts increased parenchymal DNA by 44%. Even though research was carried out on the nutritional control of mammogenesis in pigs, it is evident that much remains to be learned before the best nutritional strategy to enhance mammary development can be developed.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky243
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effects of phytogenic additives on meat quality traits in broiler
    • Authors: Orlowski S; Flees J, Greene E, et al.
      Pages: 3757 - 3767
      Abstract: AbstractPhytogenics have been reported to improve growth performances in farm animals and are thereby considered as potential key solutions for antibiotic-free livestock nutrition. Yet, their effects on meat quality are still not well defined; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of 5 experimental phytogenic additives (3 dietary and 2 water supplements) on growth and meat quality in broilers. One-day-old broiler chicks (n = 576) were assigned to 48 floor pens and divided into 6 treatments (Control, AV/HGP/16 premix [AVHGP], Superliv concentrate premix [SCP], bacteriostatic herbal growth promotor [BHGP], AV/SSL/12 [AVSSL], and Superliv Gold [SG]) in a complete randomized design (8 pens/treatment with 12 birds/pen, and 96 birds/group). Feed intake and BW were recorded, and birds were processed at 42 d to evaluate carcass traits. Breast muscle tissues were excised to determine stress- and antioxidant-related genes expression. Both AVSSL- and SG-treated broilers produced heavier (P < 0.05) slaughter weights compared with the control-fed broilers, whereas AVSSL supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) fat pad size and increased (P < 0.05) breast weights compared with the control-fed broilers. Although pH and a* values remained unchanged, L* was decreased (P < 0.05) in all treatment and b* was reduced (P < 0.05) in SG when compared with controls. The trained sensory panelists detected more (P < 0.05) green herb flavor in the breast meat from AVHGP than SCP, SG, and control birds. The expression of superoxide dismutase 2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and JNK gene was upregulated in AVHGP and BHGP compared with the control (P < 0.05). Together, these results indicated that phytogenic additives might improve meat quality of broilers through modulation of stress- and antioxidant-related pathways.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky238
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • The effects of ultimate pH and color on sensory traits of pork loin chops
           cooked to a medium-rare degree of doneness
    • Authors: Richardson E; Fields B, Dilger A, et al.
      Pages: 3768 - 3776
      Abstract: AbstractThe objective was to determine the effects of pH and color on sensory characteristics of boneless pork loin chops cooked to an internal endpoint temperature of 63 °C. Center cut loins (296 total) from barrows and gilts, 5 different sire lines, and a range in pH of 5.36 through 6.23 were used. Previously, ultimate pH was correlated with sensory characteristics of chops cooked to a medium (71 °C) degree of doneness. Additionally, increasing ultimate pH improved sensory tenderness and juiciness of loin chops cooked to a medium degree of doneness. However, in 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service reduced the recommended final internal cooking temperature of pork chops from 71 to 63 °C (followed by a 3-min rest). The effects of ultimate pH on sensory traits of pork chops cooked to a medium-rare (63 °C) degree of doneness are not known. Therefore, loins were categorized using historical categories based on ultimate pH: >5.95, n = 22; 5.80 to 5.95, n = 75; 5.65 to 5.80, n = 102; 5.50 to 5.65, n = 91; <5.50, n= 6. On 1-d postmortem, loins were evaluated for CIE instrumental L*, a*, b*, visual color, marbling, and subjective firmness. Then, loins were aged in vacuum packages at 4 °C until 16-d postmortem. After aging, loins were cut into 2.54-cm thick chops, vacuum-packaged, and frozen until sensory or instrumental tenderness analysis. One chop was also used to determine extractable lipid. Chops were weighed, cooked to 63 °C, cooled to approximately 23 °C, weighed again to determine cook loss, and then evaluated for Warner–Bratzler shear force. Another chop was cooked to 63 °C internal temperature and served warm to trained panelists to determine sensory traits. Coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated to determine the predictability of ultimate pH and instrumental color on sensory tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. A 1-way ANOVA and means separation test were used to determine specific differences among pH categories. Ultimate pH explained less than 5% of the variation in tenderness and less than 1% of the variation in juiciness or flavor. Furthermore, sensory tenderness did not differ (P > 0.05) among pH categories, except for chops with an ultimate pH > 5.95. Chops with a pH > 5.95 were at least 9.1% more tender (P < 0.05) than chops with a pH < 5.95. Visual and instrumental color were not predictive (R2 ≤ 0.03) of any sensory traits. Overall, pH does not influence sensory traits of pork chops cooked to medium-rare degree of doneness unless pH is at least 5.95.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky258
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Analysis of temporal fecal microbiota dynamics in weaner pigs with and
           without exposure to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli1,2
    • Authors: Pollock J; Gally D, Glendinning L, et al.
      Pages: 3777 - 3790
      Abstract: AbstractThe primary aim of this work was to study potential effects of subclinical enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) exposure on porcine fecal microbiota composition, with a secondary aim of profiling temporal shifts in bacterial communities over the weaning transition period. 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to profile the fecal microbiota and quantify ETEC excretion in the feces, respectively. Temporal shifts in fecal microbiota structure and stability were observed across the immediate postweaning period (P < 0.05), including significant shifts in the relative levels of specific bacterial phylotypes (P < 0.05). ETEC exposure did not change the fecal microbiota structure (P > 0.05), but significant variations in fecal community structure and stability were linked to variations in ETEC excretion level at particular time points (P < 0.05). In this study, marked temporal changes in microbiota structure and stability were evident over the short weaning transition period, with a relationship between ETEC excretion level and fecal microbiota composition being observed. This study has provided a detailed analysis of fecal microbiota dynamics in the pig, which should help to inform the development of novel management strategies for enteric disorders based on an improved understanding of microbial populations during the challenging postweaning period.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky260
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effects of dimethylglycine sodium salt supplementation on growth
           performance, hepatic antioxidant capacity, and mitochondria-related gene
           expression in weanling piglets born with low birth weight1
    • Authors: Feng C; Bai K, Wang A, et al.
      Pages: 3791 - 3803
      Abstract: AbstractDimethylglycine sodium salt (DMG-Na) has exhibited excellent advantages in animal experiments and human health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with 0.1% DMG-Na on the growth performance, hepatic antioxidant capacity, and mRNA expression of mitochondria-related genes in low birth weight (LBW) piglets during weaning period. Sixteen piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and 16 LBW piglets were fed either a basal diet or a 0.1% DMG-Na supplemented diet from age of 21 to 49 d. Blood and liver samples were collected at the end of the study. The results showed that compared with NBW piglets, LBW piglets exhibited greater (P < 0.05) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities in the serum. LBW decreased (P < 0.05) the activity of glutathione peroxidase and increased (P < 0.05) the contents of malondialdehyde and H2O2 in liver. DMG-Na supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency, decreased (P < 0.05) ALT and AST activities, and reduced the content of H2O2 in LBW piglets. LBW piglets had downregulated (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of thioredoxin 2, thioredoxin reductases 2, and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (Nrf1) in the liver. However, DMG-Na supplementation increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of Nrf1 in the liver. In conclusion, DMG-Na supplementation has beneficial effects in alleviating LBW-induced hepatic oxidative damage and changed mitochondrial genes expression levels, which is associated with increased antioxidant enzyme activities and up-regulating mRNA gene abundance.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky233
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Pyruvate is an effective substitute for glutamate in regulating porcine
           nitrogen excretion
    • Authors: Li Y; Tang Z, Li T, et al.
      Pages: 3804 - 3814
      Abstract: AbstractThis study was performed to determine if pyruvate, which acts as a critical intermediate in energy metabolism, can substitute the role of glutamate as a metabolic fuel and effectively reduce nitrogen excretion in pigs. First, the experiment in vitro was carried out to investigate the effects of culturing porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line with pyruvate on the oxidation. Then, barrows weighing 40 kg were used in the experiment investigating the changes of nitrogen balance in response to addition of pyruvate to low-protein diets. Last, barrows (40 kg), which were surgically fitted with permanent catheters in the mesenteric vein, portal vein, hepatic vein, and carotid artery, were used to investigate the effects of supplementing low-protein diets with calcium pyruvate on the net portal fluxes of amino acids (AAs) and the consumption of AAs in the liver. The results showed that culturing cells with sodium pyruvate significantly reduced the number of glutamate oxidation (P < 0.05). Addition of calcium pyruvate to low-protein diets significantly reduced urinary nitrogen excretion from 13.2 g/d (18.0% crude protein, CP) to 10.3 g/d (15.0% CP) or 7.80 g/d (13.5% CP) and total nitrogen excretion from 22.5 g/d (18.0% CP) to 17.8 g/d (15.0% CP) or 14.2 g/d (13.5% CP) (P < 0.05), without obviously negative effects on the nitrogen retention (P > 0.05). Addition of calcium pyruvate to low-protein diets significantly decreased essential AA consumption rate in the liver (P < 0.05). This diet modification reduced the net portal fluxes of NH3, glycine, and alanine, as well as urea production rate in the liver (P < 0.05). The results indicated that pyruvate is an effective substitute for glutamate as a supplement in low-protein diets, reducing porcine nitrogen excretion and nitrogen consumption.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky237
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • The effect of creep feed intake and starter diet allowance on piglets’
           gut structure and growth performance after weaning
    • Authors: Muns R; Magowan E.
      Pages: 3815 - 3823
      Abstract: AbstractDiets offered to lactating and weaned piglets are the most expensive diets within pig production; however, the effect of these diets on lifetime pig performance is inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of creep feed consumption during lactation and different starter diet allowances on piglets’ gut structure and lifetime growth performance. In total, 320 pigs and 80 pigs (Landrace × Large White) were used after weaning in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to study growth performance and gut structure, respectively. At weaning, piglets that ate creep feed and piglets that were not offered creep feed during lactation were allocated to 2 kg/pig [low level (LL)] or 6 kg/pig [high level (HL)] of starter 1 diet (16.5 MJ DE/kg, 22.5% CP, and 1.7% total Lys) allowance. At weaning and at 1 and 3 wk after weaning, 8 piglets per treatment were sacrificed, and their small intestine morphology was evaluated (villus height and crypt depth). Piglets that ate creep feed had increased feed intake during the first week after weaning (P < 0.05), but no effect of creep feed intake was observed on piglets growth or gut structure during the postweaning period (both P > 0.05). Piglets that were fed HL after weaning had higher ADG and BW from weaning to 16 wk after weaning (both P < 0.05) and had lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) from weaning to 6 wk after weaning (P < 0.05). Piglets fed HL after weaning also had higher villi height and greater crypt depth than LL piglets at 3 wk after weaning (both P < 0.05). Creep feed consumption during lactation increases feed intake early after weaning, suggesting an improved capacity of piglets to cope with weaning, but did not influence their growth performance. Offering piglets 6 kg of starter diet enhances piglets’ growth performance during the growing and finishing phase, probably by improving gut structure after weaning.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky239
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • The effect of crude protein reduction on performance and nitrogen
           metabolism in piglets (four to nine weeks of age) fed two dietary lysine
    • Authors: Millet S; Aluwé M, De Boever J, et al.
      Pages: 3824 - 3836
      Abstract: AbstractLowering the CP level in piglet diets reduces the risk of postweaning diarrhea and N excretion to the environment. The question remains at what point CP becomes limiting. An experiment was designed with 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys levels (10 and 11 g) and 6 CP levels (140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190 g/kg) in a 2 × 6 factorial design (with 6 pens of 6 animals each per treatment). Linear and quadratic (QP) mixed models of performance in function of CP were fitted to study the effect of SID Lys and CP and their interaction. To determine optima, QP models and broken line models with linear (BLL) or quadratic (BLQ) ascending portions were fitted through the data. It was hypothesized 1) that the response to a decreasing digestible CP level could be described with broken line models and 2) that the break point of these models is dependent on the dietary SID Lys level. Decreasing the CP level decreased ADG (P < 0.001). For G:F, the effect of decreasing CP level depended on the SID Lys level (P of the interaction = 0.028 in the linear model and P = 0.002 in the QP model). According to the BLL model, with 11 g SID Lys in the diet, G:F started to decline with CP levels < 176 g CP [SID Lys:CP = 0.062, SID Lys:apparent total tract digestible (ATTD) CP = 0.077], and with 10 g SID Lys, CP levels < 165 g/kg (SID Lys:CP = 0.061, SID Lys:ATTD CP = 0.075) depressed performance. Serum creatinine levels showed a linear decrease with increasing SID Lys:CP levels (P < 0.001). Across both SID Lys levels, when fitting a BLL model, minimal serum urea levels were reached at an SID Lys:CP ratio of 0.064. This seems to be the point where CP and not Lys limits muscle deposition. The small difference in break point between serum urea level and performance suggests that the composition of nonessential AA may also be at stake. The effect of decreasing CP level depends on SID Lys, and using a maximal SID Lys:CP ratio may be useful for optimizing the AA profile of dietary CP. When the SID Lys:CP ratio exceeds 0.064 (SID Lys:ATTD CP > 0.079), protein and not individual AA limits growth in most piglets between 4 and 9 wk of age.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky254
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effects of grazing management in brachiaria grass-forage peanut pastures
           on canopy structure and forage intake1
    • Authors: Gomes F; Oliveira M, Homem B, et al.
      Pages: 3837 - 3849
      Abstract: AbstractMaintenance of mixed grass–legume pastures for stand longevity and improved animal utilization is a challenge in warm-season climates. The goal of this study was to assess grazing management on stand persistence, forage intake, and N balance of beef heifers grazing mixed pastures of Brachiaria brizantha and Arachis pintoi. A 2-yr experiment was carried out in Brazil, where four grazing management were assessed: rest period interrupted at 90%, 95%, and 100% of light interception (LI) and a fixed rest period of 42 d (90LI, 95LI, 100LI, and 42D, respectively). The LI were taken at 50 points at ground level and at 5 points above the canopy for each paddock using a canopy analyzer. For all treatments, the postgrazing stubble height was 15 cm. Botanical composition and canopy structure characteristics such as canopy height, forage mass, and vertical distribution of the morphological composition were evaluated pre- and post-grazing. Forage chemical composition, intake, and microbial synthesis were also determined. A randomized complete block design was used, considering the season of the year as a repeated measure over time. Grazing management and season were considered fixed, while block and year were considered random effects. In the summer, legume mass accounted for 19% of the canopy at 100LI, which was less than other treatments (a mean of 30%). The 100LI treatment had a greater grass stem mass compared with other treatments. In terms of vertical distribution for 100LI, 38.6% of the stem mass was above the stubble height, greater than the 5.7% for other treatments. The canopy structure limited NDF intake (P = 0.007) at 100LI (1.02% of BW/d), whereas 42D, 90LI, and 95LI treatments had NDF intake close to 1.2% of BW/d. The intake of digestible OM (P = 0.007) and the ratio of CP/digestible OM (P < 0.001) were less at 100LI in relation to the other treatments. The production of microbial N (P < 0.001) and efficiency of microbial synthesis (P = 0.023) were greater at 95LI and 90LI, followed by 42D and less at 100LI. Overall, the range from 90% to 95% of LI is the recommendation to interrupt the rest period, since this strategy enhanced community stability, forage intake, and nutritional value of the diet. Under on-farm conditions, brachiaria grass and forage peanut pastures should be managed at a range height of 24 to 30 cm.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky236
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Jugular infusion of arginine has a positive effect on antioxidant
           mechanisms in lactating dairy cows challenged intravenously with
    • Authors: Zhao F; Wu T, Zhang H, et al.
      Pages: 3850 - 3855
      Abstract: AbstractThe main purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of jugular l-arginine infusion on antioxidant mechanisms in lactating dairy cows challenged intravenously with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Eight multiparous Holstein cows (609 ± 32 kg) at midlactation were randomly assigned to 5-d jugular infusions of Control (saline), Arginine (Arg, 18 g/d), LPS (0.2 μg/kg BW per day), and LPS + Arginine (0.2 μg/kg BW per day of LPS and 18 g/d of Arg) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 infusion periods separated by 10-d. Jugular solutions of saline, Arg, LPS, and LPS + Arg were continuously infused using peristaltic pumps for approximately 6 h/d. Jugular vein serum samples were obtained on the last day of each infusion period before infusion (0 h) and at 3- and 6-h postinfusion. Compared with LPS treatment, Arg infusion increased the total antioxidant capacity and activity of glutathione peroxidase, but decreased malondialdehyde concentration (P < 0.05). The concentration of nitric oxide in serum and the activity of nitric oxide synthase were greater in LPS treatment compared with saline and Arg (P < 0.05). The Arg treatment significantly increased the serum insulin concentration at 3-h postinfusion compared with the saline treatment (P < 0.05), and that of LPS and LPS + Arg treatments were in between Arg and LPS treatments. No treatment effect was observed on the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase (P > 0.05). In conclusion, enhancing the supply of Arg during an inflammatory challenge enhances antioxidant mechanisms in lactating dairy cows.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky250
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Anogenital distance reflects the sex ratio of a gilt’s birth litter and
           predicts her reproductive success1
    • Authors: Seyfang J; Ralph C, Hebart M, et al.
      Pages: 3856 - 3862
      Abstract: AbstractAnogenital distance (AGD) has been used to reflect masculinization in litter-bearing species. As masculinization affects behavior and reproduction, AGD could be measured to assist in selecting gilts with a temperament more suited to commercial production and greater reproductive potential. We hypothesized that gilts from a male-biased litter would have a longer AGD and poorer reproductive performance. In Exp. 1, AGD and weight were measured at day 1, day 21, and week 16 of age for gilts from male-biased litters (≥60% males; n = 51) and female-biased litters (≥60% females; n = 51). Sow AGD was measured 3 d after farrowing. In Exp. 2, AGD was measured at gilt selection at approximately 24 wk of age and gilts followed to second parity. Litter sex ratio affected AGD at 16 wk of age, with gilts from female-biased litters having longer AGD (mean ± SEM, 9.1 ± 0.7 mm vs. 11.0 ± 0.6 mm, P = 0.013). Anogenital distance was not different on day 1 or day 21. There was no effect of sex ratio on weight at any time, and sow AGD was not associated with the sex ratio of her litter. Gilts with an AGD longer than the mean of 11.55 mm were heavier (mean ± SEM, 118.8 ± 0.4 kg vs. 117.7 ± 0.4 kg, P = 0.023), were achieved puberty earlier (179.6 ± 0.6d vs. 182.2 ± 0.6 d, P = 0.001), were mated younger (200.6 ± 0.6 d vs. 203.2 ± 0.6 d, P = 0.001), and were more likely to be mated (91% vs. 83%, P = 0.005) than gilts with an AGD shorter than the mean. Gilts with an AGD greater than 11.55 mm had a greater born alive litter size (11.79 ± 0.20 vs. 11.20 ± 0.19, P = 0.018) compared with gilts with an AGD shorter than 11.55 mm. At 16 wk, AGD was associated with sex bias and could be used as a selection tool to predict reproductive success of the first parity, with a longer AGD being associated with gilts that had been born into a female-biased litter and that had better reproductive performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky248
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effect of humic substances on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility,
           methane emissions, and rumen microbiota in beef heifers1
    • Authors: Terry S; Ribeiro G, Gruninger R, et al.
      Pages: 3863 - 3877
      Abstract: AbstractRuminants play an important role in food security, but there is a growing concern about the impact of cattle on the environment, particularly regarding greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of humic substances (HS) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, methane (CH4) emissions, and the rumen microbiome of beef heifers fed a barley silage-based diet. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using 8 ruminally cannulated Angus × Hereford heifers (758 ± 40.7 kg initial BW). Heifers were offered a basal diet consisting of 60% barley silage and 40% concentrate (DM basis) with either 0- (control), 100-, 200- or 300-mg granulated HS/kg BW. Each period was 28 d with 14 d of adaptation. Rumen samples were taken on day 15 at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding. Total urine and feces were collected from days 18 to 22. Blood samples were taken on day 22 at 0 and 6 h postfeeding. Between days 26 and 28, heifers were placed in open-circuit respiratory chambers to measure CH4. Ruminal pH was recorded continuously during the periods of CH4 measurement using indwelling pH loggers. Intake was similar (P = 0.47) across treatments. Concentration of ammonia-N and counts of rumen protozoa responded quadratically (P = 0.03), where both increased at H100 and then decreased for the H300 treatments. Apparent total tract digestibility of CP (P = 0.04) was linearly increased by HS and total N retention (g/d, % N intake, g/kg BW0.75) was improved (P = 0.04) for HS when compared with the control. There was no effect of HS on CH4 production (g/d; P = 0.83); however, HS decreased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.04) and increased the relative abundance of Synergistetes (P = 0.01) and Euryarchaeota (P = 0.04). Results suggest that HS included at up to 300 mg/kg BW may improve N retention and CP digestibility, but there was no impact on CH4 production.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky265
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effect of alpha-tocopherol acetate and ascorbic acid on performance,
           carcass traits, and incidence and severity of liver abscesses in feedlot
    • Authors: Müller H; van Bibber-Krueger C, Drouillard J.
      Pages: 3878 - 3883
      Abstract: AbstractLiver abscesses (LA) in cattle negatively affect feedlot performance by decreasing ADG, feed intake, and G:F ratio. Abscessed livers are condemned and abdominal adhesions associated with LA can result in extensive carcass trimming during harvest, further compounding adverse economic impact. Given regulatory changes pertaining to the use of in-feed antibiotics in cattle production, there is growing interest in alternatives to antibiotics for LA control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of antioxidants, crystalline ascorbate (AOX), and alpha-tocopherol acetate, for mitigation of LA in feedlot cattle. Yearling crossbred heifers (n = 392; initial BW 481 ± 9.4 kg) were blocked by previous treatment and allocated randomly to 24 dirt-surfaced feedlot pens (10 m × 35 m) with 14 heifers/pen. Heifers were weighed, implanted with Component TE-200 implants, and placed into feeding pens. Finishing diets consisted of 60% steam-flaked corn, 30% wet corn gluten feed, 8% alfalfa, and 2% supplement (DM basis) that provided 300 mg/d monensin, and either 200 IU/d alpha-tocopherol acetate (CTL) or 2,000 IU/d alpha-tocopherol acetate plus 500 mg/d crystalline AOX. Heifers were fed once daily ad libitum for 94 d, then weighed and transported 450 km to a commercial abattoir for harvest. Hot carcass weight and incidence/severity of LA were determined the day of harvest, and carcass traits were evaluated following 36 h of refrigeration. Compared to CTL, feeding AOX tended to decrease DMI (10.66 vs. 10.31 kg/d; P = 0.08) and improve G:F (0.1204 vs. 0.1254; P = 0.12), but did not impact ADG, incidence of LA (25.6 vs. 23.5% for CTL and AOX, respectively), HCW (828.4 vs. 830.5 kg for CTL and AOX, respectively), or other carcass traits (P > 0.20). In conclusion, feeding antioxidants are not a viable alternative to decrease incidence of LA in finishing cattle.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky231
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Expression levels of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes in fat depots of
           vitamin A-restricted fattening cattle1
    • Authors: Chen H; Ihara T, Yoshioka H, et al.
      Pages: 3884 - 3896
      Abstract: AbstractBrown/beige adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. We previously showed that brown/beige adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) of fattening cattle. The present study examined the effect of vitamin A restriction on mRNA expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes. In Japan, fattening cattle are conventionally fed a vitamin A-restricted diet to improve beef marbling. Twelve Japanese Black steers aged 10 mo were fed control feed (n = 6) or vitamin A-restricted feed (n = 6) for 20 mo. Subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and mesenteric WAT (mesWAT) were collected, and mRNA expression levels of molecules related to the function of brown/beige adipocytes (Ucp1, Cidea, Dio2, Cox7a, and Cox8b) as well as transcriptional regulators related to brown/beige adipogenesis (Zfp516, Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α) were evaluated. The vitamin A restriction significantly increased or tended to increase expression levels of Cidea and Pgc-1α in scWAT, and Cidea, Dio2, and Nfia in mesWAT. Previous studies revealed that the bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) pathway was responsible for commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to brown/beige adipocyte-lineage cells. The vitamin A restriction increased expression of Bmp7 and some Bmp receptors in WAT. The interrelationship between gene expression levels indicated that expression levels of Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α were closely related to those of genes related to the function of brown/beige adipocytes in scWAT. Also, expression levels of Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α were highly correlated with those of Alk3 in scWAT. In summary, the present results suggest that the vitamin A restriction increases the number or activity of brown/beige adipocytes through regulatory expression of transcriptional regulators to induce brown/beige adipogenesis, especially in scWAT of fattening cattle, which may be governed by the Bmp pathway.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky240
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in receiving
           diets of newly weaned beef steers. I. Growth performance and antioxidant
    • Authors: Deters E; Stokes R, Genther-Schroeder O, et al.
      Pages: 3897 - 3905
      Abstract: AbstractTo evaluate the effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XPC, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) on growth performance and antioxidant defense of newly weaned beef cattle, 180 single-source steers (278 ± 21 kg; SD) were used in a 56-d receiving study. Seven days after arrival, steers were blocked by body weight (BW) to pens of 6 and randomly assigned to treatments: SCFP at 0 (CON), 14 (SCFP14), or 28 (SCFP28) g·steer−1·d−1. Pen was the experimental unit (n = 10 per treatment). On day 0, steers were boostered against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Type 1 and 2 (Vista Once, Merck, Madison, NJ). Weights were collected on days 1, 0, 14, 27, 42, 55, and 56. One steer per pen was bled on days 0, 14, 27, 42, and 56 for analysis of BVDV antibody titers; blood from days 0, 27, and 56 was analyzed for red blood cell lysate superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (total = tGSH, oxidized = GSSG, and reduced = GSH) concentrations, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and serum lysozyme activity. Performance and blood data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design using Proc Mixed of SAS with fixed effects of treatment and block and random effect of pen. Linear and quadratic contrast statements were used. Antibody titers were log transformed and analyzed as repeated measures. There were no treatment by day interactions (P ≥ 0.16), and no linear or quadratic effects of SCFP on feedlot performance, antibody titers, or lysozyme activity (P > 0.10). Day 27 MDA concentrations tended to linearly increase (P = 0.09). A quadratic effect of SCFP on day 56 SOD activity (P = 0.004) was driven by lesser activity for SCFP14-fed steers. On day 27, a tendency for a quadratic effect of SCFP (P = 0.09) on GSH was driven by greater concentrations for SCFP14-fed steers resulting in a lesser GSSG:GSH ratio (P = 0.05). Greater GSH for SCFP14-fed steers caused a tendency for a quadratic effect on day 56 (P = 0.07); however, this did not result in an effect of SCFP on the GSSG:GSH ratio (P ≥ 0.25). A tendency for a linear effect of SCFP on tGSH was noted on day 56 (P = 0.09). Morbidity data were analyzed using Proc Glimmix of SAS. There was a quadratic effect of SCFP on percentage of respiratory treatments prior to day 14 (P = 0.04). These results could indicate lesser levels of oxidative stress for steers receiving SCFP at 14 vs. 0 or 28 g/d. Under the conditions of this study, no performance benefit of SCFP was noted.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky246
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in receiving
           diets of newly weaned beef steers. II. Digestibility and response to a
           vaccination challenge1
    • Authors: Deters E; Stokes R, Genther-Schroeder O, et al.
      Pages: 3906 - 3915
      Abstract: AbstractThirty-six newly weaned, crossbred beef steers (323 ± 12 kg; SD) from a single-source were used in a 56-d study to examine the effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XPC, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) on total tract nutrient digestibility and response to a vaccination challenge. Twelve days after arrival, steers were blocked by body weight (BW) and randomly assigned to treatments: SCFP at 0 (CON), 14 (SCFP14), or 28 (SCFP28) g·steer−1·d−1. Steers were fed via bunks that measured individual intake and received ear tags (CowManager, Select Sires, Plain City, OH) that recorded rumination and activity. BWs were collected on days 1, 0, 14, 28, 42, 55, and 56. Titanium dioxide was fed as an indigestible marker to all steers from days 12 to 27, followed by consecutive day fecal samples, for determination of total tract nutrient digestibility. On day 34, steers received a Mannheimia haemolytica vaccination (One Shot, Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) to induce an acute phase protein response. Blood was collected from all steers on day 34 (prior to vaccination) and 3, 6, 9, 11, and 14 d post-vaccination. Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed of SAS (experimental unit = steer; n = 12 per treatment); the model included the fixed effect of treatment and block and the random effect of steer. Blood measures, ear tag, and dry matter intake (DMI) data for the 15-d vaccination period were analyzed as repeated measures. Contrast statements (CON vs. SCFP14; SCFP14 vs. SCFP28) were used to compare treatment means. Digestibility of dry matter (DM) and organic matter was greater for SCFP14 vs. SCFP28 (P ≤ 0.03). Steers fed SCFP14 exhibited greater crude protein digestibility compared with CON (P < 0.01). Steers fed SCFP14 exhibited greater DMI for 15 d post-vaccination (P = 0.02) and greater average daily gain from days 28 to 56 (P = 0.05) vs. SCFP28-fed steers. Post-vaccination, steers fed SCFP14 spent less time ruminating per kg of DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and physically effective NDF consumed than CON or SCFP28 (P ≤ 0.07). Serum IL-8 and haptoglobin concentrations tended to be lesser for steers fed SCFP14 vs. SCFP28 (P ≤ 0.08). Ceruloplasmin concentrations were lesser on day 14 post-vaccination for steers fed SCFP14 vs. CON or SCFP28 (treatment × d; P = 0.004); there were no differences on other sampling days due to treatment. Although no overall performance benefit was noted, steers fed SCFP14 responded better to a vaccination challenge vs. SCFP28-fed steers.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky247
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Influence of yeast culture and feed antibiotics on ruminal fermentation
           and site and extent of digestion in beef heifers fed high grain rations1
    • Authors: Shen Y; Wang H, Ran T, et al.
      Pages: 3916 - 3927
      Abstract: AbstractThe study objective was to investigate the effects of site of delivering Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) on ruminal pH and fermentation characteristics, and the site and extent of feed digestion in the digestive tract of beef heifers fed high-grain diets. Examining the ruminal and postruminal effects of SCFP is important for understanding the potential use of SCFP as an alternative for current industry-standard antibiotics used in beef cattle rations. Five beef heifers (initial BW = 561 ± 11.7 kg) equipped with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design with 28-d periods, including 21 d for adaption and 7 d for data collection. Five treatments were as follows: 1) control diet that contained 10% barley silage and 90% barley concentrate mix (DM basis); 2) control diet supplemented with antibiotics (ANT; 330-mg monensin/d and 110-mg tylosin/d per head); 3) ruminal (top dress) delivery of SCFP (rSCFP; NaturSafe, Diamond V, 18-g SCFP/d); 4) duodenal delivery of SCFP (dSCFP; 18-g SCFP/d, via duodenal cannula); and 5) a combination of rSCFP and dSCFP (rdSCFP; 18-g rSCFP and 18-g dSCFP). Intake of DM tended (P < 0.10) to be greater by heifers fed rdSCFP than those fed control, ANT and rSCFP diets. Minimum ruminal pH was greater (P < 0.05) with rSCFP than control and rdSCFP treatments. The duration of ruminal pH < 5.6 tended (P < 0.10) to be less with rSCFP than control and ANT. Heifers fed the rSCFP diet had greater (P < 0.03) protozoa counts and proportion of acetate than the other treatments. Nutrient flows to the duodenum did not differ (P > 0.19), whereas the amount of truly fermented OM was greater (P < 0.03) with rdSCFP than the other treatments. Ruminal OM digestibility was highest with rSCFP and rdSCFP, intermediate with dSCFP and ANT, and lowest with control (P < 0.03). Intestinal digestibility was similar among treatments. As a result, total tract digestibility of OM (P < 0.07) and NDF (P < 0.01) was greater with rSCFP and rdSCFP than control and ANT. Fecal IgA concentration was highest with ANT, intermediate with dSCFP and rdSCFP, and lowest with control and rSCFP (P < 0.03). These results demonstrate that feeding SCFP improved stability of ruminal pH and digestibility of OM and NDF. Delivery of SCFP to the duodenum appeared to have little effect on nutrient digestibility but improved intestinal immune response. Feeding SCFP performed better or at least equal to antibiotics currently used in beef cattle rations and could be a natural alternative for beef cattle production.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky249
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • New recombinant fibrolytic enzymes for improved in vitro ruminal fiber
           degradability of barley straw1
    • Authors: Ribeiro G; Badhan A, Huang J, et al.
      Pages: 3928 - 3942
      Abstract: AbstractThis study used a high-throughput in vitro microassay, in vitro batch culture, and the Rumen Simulation Technique (RUSITEC) to screen recombinant fibrolytic enzymes for their ability to increase the ruminal fiber degradability of barley straw. Eleven different recombinant enzymes in combination with a crude mixture of rumen enzymes (50% recombinant enzyme:50% crude mixture of rumen enzymes) were compared with the crude mixture of rumen enzymes alone. In the microassay, all treatments were applied at 15 mg of protein load per gram barley straw glucan. Based on the microassay results, 1 recombinant endoglucanase [EGL7A, from the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 7], 2 recombinant xylanases (XYL10A and XYL10C, from GH10), and a recombinant enzyme mixture were selected and compared with a crude mixture of fibrolytic enzymes from Aspergillus aculeatus for their ability to hydrolyze barley straw. For batch culture, enzymes were applied to barley straw at 2 dosages (100 and 500 µg of protein/g of substrate DM). All enzymes increased (P < 0.05) DM disappearance and total VFA production, but the mixture of recombinant enzymes was not superior to the use of a single recombinant enzyme. Based on positive results (P < 0.05) for total DM disappearance and VFA production in batch culture, 3 enzymes (EGL7A, XYL10A, and XYL10C) were selected and applied to barley straw at 500 µg of protein per gram for further assessment in RUSITECs fed a concentrate:barley straw diet (300:700 g/kg DM). In RUSITECs, the recombinant enzyme XYL10A increased (P < 0.05) barley straw DM, NDF, and ADF disappearance, whereas EGL7A and XYL10C had no effect. The enzymes selected based on the high-throughput in vitro microassay consistently increased barley straw degradation in ruminal batch culture, but not in the semicontinuous culture RUSITEC system.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky251
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effect of repeated trace mineral injections on beef heifer development and
           reproductive performance
    • Authors: Stokes R; Volk M, Ireland F, et al.
      Pages: 3943 - 3954
      Abstract: AbstractTo determine the effects of repeated trace mineral injections on heifer development and reproductive performance, commercial Angus heifers (n = 290; 199 ± 34.3 kg; 221 ± 22 d of age) were utilized in a completely randomized design. Heifers were stratified by body weight (BW) and were administered an injectable trace mineral (MM; Multimin 90) or saline (CON) given subcutaneously, post-weaning at 221, 319, 401, and 521 ± 22 d of age. Throughout development, heifers grazed endophyte-infected fescue, red clover pastures and were supplemented with corn distillers grains (2.7 kg per heifer per day) and given access to free choice inorganic minerals. Heifer BW and body condition scores (BCS) were collected at trial initiation and 4- to 7-wk intervals thereafter. Hair coat scores (HCS) and respiration rates (n = 30 heifers per treatment) were collected at 269, 310, and 361 ± 22 d of age. Blood and liver samples were collected at trial initiation and estrous synchronization from 30 heifers per treatment to determine trace mineral status. At 319, 372, and 421 ± 22 d of age, antral follicle count and ovarian size were determined via ultrasonography. Two blood samples from all heifers were collected 10 d apart, concurrent with ultrasound dates, for cyclicity determination. Estrous synchronization was initiated, and reproductive tract scores (RTS) were collected at 421 ± 22 d of age, and heifers were bred via artificial insemination (AI) at 430 ± 22 d of age. Heifer BW, BCS, and HCS did not differ (P ≥ 0.12) throughout development, except at 268 ± 22 d of age when BCS was greater (P = 0.03) for MM than CON heifers. Respiratory rates were greater (P = 0.05) for MM than CON heifers at 269 ± 22 d of age but did not differ (P ≥ 0.66) at 310 and 361 ± 22 d of age. Plasma Mn and Zn concentrations did not differ (P ≥ 0.54). However, MM heifers had greater (P ≤ 0.01) plasma and liver concentrations of Cu and Se compared to CON. Interestingly, MM decreased (P = 0.02) liver Zn concentrations compared to CON, and there was no difference (P = 0.60) in liver Mn. Antral follicle count and ovarian size did not differ (P ≥ 0.51) due to treatment. Throughout development, number of heifers cycling was lesser (P < 0.01) for MM than CON heifers. However, there was no difference (P ≥ 0.19) in RTS, AI pregnancy rates, or overall pregnancy rates. Supplementing an injectable trace mineral increased heifer Cu and Se status; however, no effect was noted on ovarian development or pregnancy rates.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky253
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Effect of a hydrolyzed mannan- and glucan-rich yeast fraction on
           performance and health status of newly received feedlot cattle1
    • Authors: Pukrop J; Brennan K, Funnell B, et al.
      Pages: 3955 - 3966
      Abstract: AbstractA 2-part experiment was conducted to determine the effects of a blend of specialized mannan- and glucan-rich fractions of yeast (Select-TC, Alltech Inc.) on the health status and performance of steers during the first 2 mo of the feedlot period. Eighty crossbred steers were acquired from commercial sale barns in Mississippi and Georgia and transported to Purdue University. All animals were fed a corn silage-based receiving diet and were checked and treated daily for respiratory disease as needed following established treatment protocols. In Exp. 1, 64 steers (246.5 ± 4.7 kg initial weight) were blocked by BW and randomly allocated to 2 treatments to determine the impact of supplementation of a hydrolyzed mannan- and glucan-rich yeast fraction for 56 d on BW, ADG, daily DMI, and G:F: hydrolyzed yeast fed at 13 g (as-fed)/steer daily (TC) or nonsupplemented control (CON). Steers in Exp. 1 were housed in bedded pens with 2 animals per pen [n = 16 pens (32 steers)/treatment]. In Exp. 2, 16 steers (247.1 ± 5.4 kg initial BW) were similarly allotted to 2 treatments (CON and TC), individually penned, and subjected to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin challenge on day 62 or 63 after the start of the study to determine the animal’s response to an inflammatory agent. Serum samples and rectal temperatures were taken every half an hour from −2 to 8 h relative to LPS injection from steers in Exp. 2. Data were analyzed as a complete randomized block design using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Morbidity for both experiments did not differ (P ≥ 0.16). Weight, ADG, DMI, and G:F did not differ among treatments (P ≥ 0.32) in Exp. 1. After the LPS infusion in Exp. 2, rectal temperatures (P = 0.03) and serum NEFA concentration (P = 0.04) were decreased in TC compared with CON steers. Concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.31), glucose (P = 0.70), insulin (P = 0.57), and cortisol (P = 0.77) did not differ by treatment after LPS administration. Serum IL-6 concentrations were decreased (P < 0.0001), and interferon-γ concentrations tended to be greater (P = 0.07) in TC compared with CON steers after LPS infusion. Serum cytokine and metabolite results indicate that Select-TC improved health and metabolic status of LPS-challenged cattle, but this did not result in quantifiable improvements in performance in the conditions observed in this study.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky255
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Interaction between feed use efficiency and level of dietary crude protein
           on enteric methane emission and apparent nitrogen use efficiency with
           Norwegian Red dairy cows1
    • Authors: Kidane A; Øverland M, Mydland L, et al.
      Pages: 3967 - 3982
      Abstract: AbstractWe assessed the interactive effects of gross feed use efficiency (FUE, milk yield/kg DMI) background (“high” = HEFF vs. “low” = LEFF) and graded levels of dietary CP (130, 145, 160, and 175 g/kg DM) on milk production, enteric methane (CH4) emission, and apparent nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, g milk protein nitrogen/g nitrogen intake) with Norwegian Red (NRF) dairy cows. Eight early- to mid-lactation cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment (2 efficiency backgrounds, 4 dietary treatments, and 4 periods each lasting 28 d). The diets were designed to be identical in physical nature and energy density, except for the planned changes in CP, which was a contribution of slight changes in other dietary constituents. We hypothesized that HEFF cows would partition more dietary energy and nitrogen into milk components and, as such, partition less energy in the form of methane and excrete less nitrogen in urine and feces compared with their LEFF contemporaries. We observed no interactions between dietary CP level and efficiency background on DMI, other nutrient intake, NUE, CH4 emission, and its intensity (g CH4/kg milk). Gradually decreasing dietary CP from 175 to 130 g/kg DM did not affect DMI, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, and milk component yields and daily CH4 emission. However, decreasing dietary CP increased NUE and reduced urinary nitrogen (UN) excretion both in quantitative terms and as proportion of nitrogen intake. The HEFF cows showed improved NUE and decreased CH4 emission intensity compared with the LEFF cows. In the absence of interaction effects between efficiency background and dietary CP level, our results suggest that CH4 emission intensity and UN excretions can be reduced by selecting dairy cows with higher FUE and reducing dietary CP level, respectively, independent of one another. Furthermore, UN excretion predictions based on milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and cow BW for NRF cows produced very close estimates to recorded values promising an inexpensive and useful tool for estimating UN excretion under the Nordic conditions where ordinary milk analysis comes with MUN estimates.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky256
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • The effect of lactic acid bacteria inoculation, molasses, or wilting on
           the fermentation quality and nutritive value of amaranth (Amaranthus
           hypochondriaus) silage1
    • Authors: Abbasi M; Rouzbehan Y, Rezaei J, et al.
      Pages: 3983 - 3992
      Abstract: AbstractThis study assessed the influence of wilting, lactobacillus (LAB), and/or molasses on the chemical composition, phenolic compounds, in situ degradability, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of amaranth (var. Maria) silage using a randomized complete block design with 6 replicates. Treatments were fresh amaranth forage (FAF), ensiled amaranth without additive (EA), EA inoculated with LAB (EAB), EA + 5% of molasses (EAM), EA inoculated with LAB + 5% of molasses (EABM), and 24-h wilted EA (WEA). The ensiled materials were stored anaerobically for a period of 45 d. Chemical composition, oxalic acid and nitrate levels, silage fermentation characteristics, DM disappearance (DMD), OM disappearance (OMD), in vitro ruminal ammonia-N, volatile fatty acids, cellulolytic bacteria and protozoa counts, and in situ DM and CP degradability were determined. Compared with FAF, EA had lesser values of water-soluble carbohydrates (P = 0.023), nitrate (P = 0.001), total phenolics (P = 0.04), total tannins (P = 0.01), DMD (P = 0.01), ruminal cellulolytic bacteria (P = 0.02), soluble and very rapidly degradable fraction (P = 0.014), and effective degradability (P = 0.01). The EA had lesser OMD and CP degradability compared with FAF (P < 0.05). Adding molasses to EA resulted in increased ash and lactate concentrations and decreased ammonia (P < 0.05), but had no effect on OMD. The WEA had lesser ammonia and greater lactate compared with EA (P < 0.05). Overall, fresh amaranth var. Maria can be preserved as a valuable silage to feed ruminants. Ensiling amaranth var. Maria decreased the antiquality compounds, and molasses addition improved the fermentation quality of the silage.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky257
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Urine volume and nitrogen excretion are altered by feeding birdsfoot
           trefoil compared with alfalfa in lactating dairy cows1
    • Authors: Ghelichkhan M; Eun J, Christensen R, et al.
      Pages: 3993 - 4001
      Abstract: AbstractLegumes that contain condensed tannins may have lower ruminal protein degradation than alfalfa. The present study investigated the effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) hay on lactational performance and N utilization and excretion. Eight multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation (150 ± 22.3 d-in-milk) were randomly assigned to 2 treatments [alfalfa hay-based total mixed ration (AHT) or birdsfoot trefoil hay-based total mixed ration (BHT)] in a crossover design with 2 experimental periods. Each experimental period lasted 17 d (14 d of adaptation and 3 d of sampling and total collection). Hays comprised approximately 50% of DM in experimental diets. There were no treatment effects on dry matter intake (DMI; 21.4 vs. 20.7 kg/d), milk yield (29.4 vs. 28.1 kg/d), milk fat concentration (3.20% vs. 3.21%), and milk protein concentration (3.20% vs. 3.16%) for AHT and BHT, respectively. In addition, dietary treatments did not affect milk yield/DMI or energy-corrected milk yield/DMI. In contrast, apparent crude protein digestion decreased in cows fed BHT compared with those fed AHT (60.7% vs. 69.1%). Concentration of milk urea-N decreased by feeding BHT compared with AHT (11.9 vs. 13.3 mg/100 mL), whereas total N excretion did not differ between AHT and BHT diets. However, cows fed BHT excreted more N in feces (194 vs. 168 g/d), whereas urinary N excretion was lower compared with cows fed AHT. The shift of N to feces resulted in a decrease in urinary N:fecal N ratio in cows fed BHT relative to those fed AHT. Overall results in the current study suggest that feeding birdsfoot trefoil in dairy diets shifts routes of N from urine to feces compared with feeding alfalfa hay, with little effect on lactational performance. Reduction in urinary N and any impact on environment may be attributed to functional effect of condensed tannins in birdsfoot trefoil hay.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky259
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Relationship of weight gain with infrared temperatures in Nelore and F1
           (Nelore × Angus) heifers reared in two forage production systems1
    • Authors: Paim T; Goulart R, da Silva D, et al.
      Pages: 4002 - 4011
      Abstract: AbstractIntensive production systems require high-yield genetics as obtained in Bos taurus × Bos indicus crossbreeding. Generally, high-producing taurine cattle are more susceptible to parasites and heat stress. This study evaluated animal performance, heat-stress measurement (infrared temperatures), and internal parasite infection with daily weight gain in heifers from 2 genetic groups (Nelore and F1—Nelore × Angus) reared in 2 forage production systems (with or without crop-livestock system) during 1 yr. The main objectives were to determine the relationship between infrared measures and animal performance and whether it differs between genetic groups and environments. Thirty-six heifers were randomly assigned to 2 forage production systems, one considered as high-input system with crop-livestock system and other exclusive livestock system considered as low input. At each 28 d, infrared thermography (IR) temperatures, weight, and internal parasite infection (fecal egg count) were measured. The temperatures of the eye, snout, forehead, dewlap, body, ground and squeeze chute were determined. F1 heifers had higher weight gain than Nelore (P < 0.05) and both did not differ in internal parasite infection (P > 0.05). F1 heifers had higher IR than Nelore (P < 0.05). The main body points that differentiate between genetic groups were dewlap, forehead, and eye. Higher dewlap IR temperature (DW) was associated with higher average daily gain (ADG) during dry season (independently of genetic groups) (ADG = −0.755 + 0.032 × DW; R2 = 0.44). Otherwise, the IR temperatures had a negative relationship with ADG during rainy season and low forehead IR temperature was related to higher average daily gain (ADG = 1.81 − 0.033 × forehead; R2 = 0.12 for F1 animals and ADG = 1.46 − 0.025 × forehead; R2 = 0.07 for Nelore). The infrared temperatures were more related to animal performance during the dry season, which had high temperature and low humidity. The infrared temperatures were able to identify the animal response to the environment challenge. Animals with higher temperatures (dewlap and forehead) had higher daily gain during the dry season.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky242
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Erratum: Animal production and soil characteristics from integrated
           crop-livestock systems: toward sustainable intensification
    • Authors: Carvalho P; Peterson C, Nunes P, et al.
      Pages: 4012 - 4012
      Abstract: Erratum to: “Animal production and soil characteristics from integrated crop-livestock systems: toward sustainable intensification” by Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho et al. Journal of Animal Science 2018; doi: 10.1093/jas/sky085.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky269
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Corrigendum: Fecal microbial composition associated with variation in feed
           efficiency in pigs depends on diet and sex
    • Authors: Verschuren L; Calus M, Jansman A, et al.
      Pages: 4013 - 4013
      Abstract: Corrigendum to: “Fecal microbial composition associated with variation in feed efficiency in pigs depends on diet and sex” by Lisanne M.G. Verschuren et al. Journal of Animal Science 2018; doi: 10.1093/jas/sky060.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Jul 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky268
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
  • Erratum: Supplementing goat kids with coconut medium chain fatty acids in
           early life influences growth and rumen papillae development until 4 months
           after supplementation but effects on in vitro methane emissions and the
           rumen microbiota are transient
    • Authors: Debruyne S; Ruiz-González A, Artiles-Ortega E, et al.
      Pages: 4014 - 4014
      Abstract: Erratum to: “Supplementing goat kids with coconut medium chain fatty acids in early life influences growth and rumen papillae development until 4 months after supplementation but effects on in vitro methane emissions and the rumen microbiota are transient” by Sieglinde Debruyne et al. Journal of Animal Science 2018; doi: 10.1093/jas/sky070.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Aug 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky303
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 9 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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