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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 876 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (77 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (617 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (101 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (29 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Journal of Animal Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.848
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 13  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0021-8812 - ISSN (Online) 1525-3163
Published by American Society of Animal Science Homepage  [1 journal]
  • A novel measure of ewe efficiency for breeding and benchmarking purposes1
    • Authors: McHugh N; Pabiou T, McDermott K, et al.
      Pages: 2051 - 2059
      Abstract: Ewe efficiency has traditionally been defined as the ratio of litter weight to ewe weight; given the statistical properties of ratio traits, an alternative strategy is proposed in the present study. The concept of using the deviation in performance of an animal from the population norm has grown in popularity as a measure of animal-level efficiency. The objective of the present study was to define novel measures of efficiency for sheep, which considers the combined weight of a litter of lambs relative to the weight of their dam, and vice versa. Two novel traits, representing the deviation in total litter weight at 40 d (DEV40L) or weaning (DEVweanL), were calculated as the residuals of a statistical model, with litter weight as the dependent variable and with the fixed effects of litter rearing size, contemporary group, and ewe weight. The deviation in ewe weight at 40-d postlambing (DEV40E) or weaning (DEVweanE) was derived using a similar approach but with ewe weight and litter weight interchanged as the dependent variable. Variance components for each trait were estimated by first deriving the litter or ewe weight deviation phenotype and subsequently estimating the variance components. The phenotypic SD in DEV40L and DEVweanL was 8.46 and 15.37 kg, respectively; the mean litter weight at 40 d and weaning was 30.97 and 47.68 kg, respectively. The genetic SD and heritability for DEV40L was 2.65 kg and 0.12, respectively. For DEVweanL, the genetic SD and heritability was 4.94 kg and 0.13, respectively. The average ewe weight at 40-d postlambing and at weaning was 66.43 and 66.87 kg, respectively. The genetic SD and heritability for DEV40E was 4.33 kg and 0.24, respectively. The heritability estimated for DEVweanE was 0.31. The traits derived in the present study may be useful not only for phenotypic benchmarking of ewes within flock on performance but also for benchmarking flocks against each other; furthermore, the extent of genetic variability in all traits, coupled with the fact that the data required to generate these novel phenotypes are usually readily available, signals huge potential within sheep breeding programs.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky143
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Sparse single-step genomic BLUP in crossbreeding schemes1,2
    • Authors: Vandenplas J; Calus M, ten Napel J.
      Pages: 2060 - 2073
      Abstract: The algorithm for proven and young animals (APY) efficiently computes an approximated inverse of the genomic relationship matrix, by dividing genotyped animals in the so-called core and noncore animals. The APY leads to computationally feasible single-step genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (ssGBLUP) with a large number of genotyped animals and was successfully applied to real single-breed or line datasets. This study aimed to assess the quality of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) when using the APY (GEBVAPY), in comparison to GEBV when using the directly inverted genomic relationship matrix (GEBVDIRECT), for situations based on crossbreeding schemes, including F1 and F2 crosses, such as the ones for pigs and chickens. Based on simulations of a 3-way crossbreeding program, we compared different approximated inverses of a genomic relationship matrix, by varying the size and the composition of the core group. We showed that GEBVAPY were accurate approximations of GEBVDIRECT for multivariate ssGBLUP involving different breeds and their crosses. GEBVAPY as accurate as GEBVDIRECT were obtained when the core groups included animals from different breed compositions and when the core groups had a size between the numbers of the largest eigenvalues explaining 98% and 99% of the variation in the raw genomic relationship matrix.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky136
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Characterization of the acute heat stress response in gilts: III.
           Genome-wide association studies of thermotolerance traits in pigs
    • Authors: Kim K; Seibert J, Edea Z, et al.
      Pages: 2074 - 2085
      Abstract: Heat stress is one of the limiting factors negatively affecting pig production, health, and fertility. Characterizing genomic regions responsible for variation in HS tolerance would be useful in identifying important genetic factor(s) regulating physiological responses to HS. In the present study, we performed genome-wide association analyses for respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (TR), and skin temperature (TS) during HS in 214 crossbred gilts genotyped for 68,549 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) using the Porcine SNP 70K BeadChip. Considering the top 0.1% smoothed phenotypic variances explained by SNP windows, we detected 26, 26, 21, and 14 genes that reside within SNPs explaining the largest proportion of variance (top 25 SNP windows) and associated with change in RR (ΔRR) from thermoneutral (TN) conditions to HS environment, as well as the change in prepubertal TR (ΔTR), change in postpubertal ΔTR, and change in TS (ΔTS), respectively. The region between 28.85 Mb and 29.10 Mb on chromosome 16 explained about 0.05% of the observed variation for ΔRR. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene resides in this region and is associated with the HS response. The other important candidate genes associated with ΔRR (PAIP1, NNT, and TEAD4), ΔTR (LIMS2, TTR, and TEAD4), and ΔTS (ERBB4, FKBP1B, NFATC2, and ATP9A) have reported roles in the cellular stress response. The SNP explaining the largest proportion of variance and located within and in the vicinity of genes were related to apoptosis or cellular stress and are potential candidates that underlie the physiological response to HS in pigs.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky131
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Genome-wide association study for feed efficiency traits using SNP and
           haplotype models1
    • Authors: Schweer K; Kachman S, Kuehn L, et al.
      Pages: 2086 - 2098
      Abstract: Feed costs comprise the majority of variable expenses in beef cattle systems making feed efficiency an important economic consideration within the beef industry. Due to the expense of recording individual feed-intake phenotypes, a genomic-enabled approach could be advantageous toward improving this economically relevant trait complex. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using 748 crossbred steers and heifers representing seven sire breeds with phenotypes for ADG and ADFI. Animals were genotyped with the BovineSNP50v2 BeadChip containing approximately 54,000 SNP. Both traits were analyzed using univariate SNP-based (BayesC) and haplotype-based (BayesIM) models and jointly using BayesIM to perform a bivariate GWAS. For BayesIM, a hidden Markov model (HMM) of haplotype segments of variable length was built where haplotypes were mapped to clusters based on local similarity. The estimated HMM was then used to assign haplotype cluster genotypes, instead of SNP genotypes, as latent covariates in a Bayesian mixture model. The number of haplotype clusters at each location was assumed to be either 8 (BayesIM8) or 16 (BayesIM16). A total of three univariate analyses for each trait and two bivariate analyses were performed. Posterior SD (PSD) for ADG were 0.28 (0.08), 0.37 (0.11), 0.37 (0.11), 0.35 (0.11), and 0.35 (0.12) for BayesC, BayesIM8, BayesIM16, BayesIM8 bivariate, and BayesIM16 bivariate, respectively. ADFI PSD were 0.30 (0.07), 0.44 (0.13), 0.42 (0.12), 0.38 (0.10), and 0.38 (0.10) for the same models. The top 1% of 1-Mb windows that explained the largest fraction of genetic variation in common between univariate SNP and haplotype models ranged from 24% to 40% and from 20% to 32% for ADG and ADFI, respectively. Spearmen rank correlations between molecular breeding values from SNP and haplotype-based models in the training data were similar for both traits (>0.96) suggesting that either model would lead to similar rankings of animals, although resolution of potential QTL appeared to be greater for BayesIM.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky119
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Little genetic variability in resilience among cattle exists for a range
           of performance traits across herds in Ireland differing in Fasciola
           hepatica prevalence1
    • Authors: Twomey A; Graham D, Doherty M, et al.
      Pages: 2099 - 2112
      Abstract: It is anticipated that in the future, livestock will be exposed to a greater risk of infection from parasitic diseases. Therefore, future breeding strategies for livestock, which are generally long-term strategies for change, should target animals adaptable to environments with a high parasitic load. Covariance components were estimated in the present study for a selection of dairy and beef performance traits over herd-years differing in Fasciola hepatica load using random regression sire models. Herd-year prevalence of F. hepatica was determined by using F. hepatica-damaged liver phenotypes which were recorded in abattoirs nationally. The data analyzed consisted up to 83,821 lactation records from dairy cows for a range of milk production and fertility traits, as well as 105,054 young animals with carcass-related information obtained at slaughter. Reaction norms for individual sires were derived from the random regression coefficients. The heritability and additive genetic standard deviations for all traits analyzed remained relatively constant as herd-year F. hepatica prevalence gradient increased up to a prevalence level of 0.7; although there was a large increase in heritability and additive genetic standard deviation for milk and fertility traits in the observed F. hepatica prevalence levels >0.7, only 5% of the data existed in herd-year prevalence levels >0.7. Very little rescaling, therefore, exists across differing herd-year F. hepatica prevalence levels. Within-trait genetic correlations among the performance traits across different herd-year F. hepatica prevalence levels were less than unity for all traits. Nevertheless, within-trait genetic correlations for milk production and carcass traits were all >0.8 for F. hepatica prevalence levels between 0.2 and 0.8. The lowest estimate of within-trait genetic correlations for the different fertility traits ranged from −0.03 (SE = 1.09) in age of first calving to 0.54 (SE = 0.22) for calving to first service interval. Therefore, there was reranking of sires for fertility traits across different F. hepatica prevalence levels. In conclusion, there was little or no genetic variability in sensitivity to F. hepatica prevalence levels among cattle for milk production and carcass traits. But, some genetic variability in sensitivity among dairy cows did exist for fertility traits measured across herds differing in F. hepatica prevalence.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky108
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Poor feed efficiency in sheep is associated with several structural
           abnormalities in the community metabolic network of their ruminal
           microbes1
    • Authors: Patil R; Ellison M, Wolff S, et al.
      Pages: 2113 - 2124
      Abstract: Ruminant animals have a symbiotic relationship with the microorganisms in their rumens. In this relationship, rumen microbes efficiently degrade complex plant-derived compounds into smaller digestible compounds, a process that is very likely associated with host animal feed efficiency. The resulting simpler metabolites can then be absorbed by the host and converted into other compounds by host enzymes. We used a microbial community metabolic network inferred from shotgun metagenomics data to assess how this metabolic system differs between animals that are able to turn ingested feedstuffs into body mass with high efficiency and those that are not. We conducted shotgun sequencing of microbial DNA from the rumen contents of 16 sheep that differed in their residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency. Metagenomic reads from each sheep were mapped onto a database-derived microbial metabolic network, which was linked to the sheep metabolic network by interface metabolites (metabolites transferred from microbes to host). No single enzyme was identified as being significantly different in abundance between the low and high RFI animals (P > 0.05, Wilcoxon test). However, when we analyzed the metabolic network as a whole, we found several differences between efficient and inefficient animals. Microbes from low RFI (efficient) animals use a suite of enzymes closer in network space to the host’s reactions than those of the high RFI (inefficient) animals. Similarly, low RFI animals have microbial metabolic networks that, on average, contain reactions using shorter carbon chains than do those of high RFI animals, potentially allowing the host animals to extract metabolites more efficiently. Finally, the efficient animals possess community networks with greater Shannon diversity among their enzymes than do inefficient ones. Thus, our system approach to the ruminal microbiome identified differences attributable to feed efficiency in the structure of the microbes’ community metabolic network that were undetected at the level of individual microbial taxa or reactions.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky096
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Temporal pattern changes in duodenal protein tyrosine nitration events in
           response to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens1
    • Authors: Elsasser T; Miska K, Kahl S, et al.
      Pages: 2125 - 2138
      Abstract: Intracellular generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (SOA) can result in the formation of 3′-nitrotyrosine proteins (NTp). Nitrated proteins usually are associated with significant perturbation in protein function, apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. We undertook the present study to establish the temporal dynamics of NTp generation in cytokeratin-18-positive epithelial cells (ETCs) of broiler chickens in response to infection with Eimeria acervulina. Duodenal tissue was harvested from noninfected (NOI) and infected (INF) broilers on days (d) 1, 3, 6, 7, and 10 postinfection (PI) and fixed, embedded, and sectioned for quantitative image analysis, immunohistochemistry with antibodies specific to NTp and the SOA-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO). The pixel density characteristics for NTp and XO representative of ETCs demonstrated that NTp and XO increased in intestinal villi as early as d1 PI (P < 0.05 vs. NOI). Progressive increases in NTp were evident in ETCs through d6 PI. For XO, increases in cell content increased only through d3. On d6 and d7 PI, high levels of NTp were present in immune infiltrating cells (IIC) where no XO was detected. The increases in ETC NTp occurred in a defined pattern, significant by villus-to-crypt location for day of infection, initiating in the distal villus and progressing down into the crypts. Two NTp patterns were observed for ETCs: a high level associated with ETCs harboring parasites and a low-level increase in ETCs not containing Eimeria but in proximity to such. The data suggest that NTp and XO responses may mediate some of the processes through which ETCs respond to Eimeria to limit the extent of infection by this pathogen.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky140
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Supplementation of fructooligosaccharides to suckling piglets affects
           intestinal microbiota colonization and immune development1
    • Authors: Schokker D; Fledderus J, Jansen R, et al.
      Pages: 2139 - 2153
      Abstract: Emerging knowledge shows the importance of early life events in programming the intestinal mucosal immune system and development of the intestinal barrier function. These processes depend heavily on close interactions between gut microbiota and host cells in the intestinal mucosa. In turn, development of the intestinal microbiota is largely dependent on available nutrients required for the specific microbial community structures to expand. It is currently not known what the specificities are of intestinal microbial community structures in relation to the programming of the intestinal mucosal immune system and development of the intestinal barrier function. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a nutritional intervention on intestinal development of suckling piglets by daily oral administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) over a period of 12 d (days 2–14 of age). At the microbiota community level, a clear “bifidogenic” effect of the FOS administration was observed in the colon digesta at day 14. The former, however, did not translate into significant changes of local gene expression in the colonic mucosa. In the jejunum, significant changes were observed for microbiota composition at day 14, and microbiota diversity at day 25. In addition, significant differentially expressed gene sets in mucosal tissues of the jejunum were identified at both days 14 and 25 of age. At the age of 14 d, a lower activity of cell cycle–related processes and a higher activity of extracellular matrix processes were observed in the jejunal mucosa of piglets supplemented with FOS compared with control piglets. At day 25, the lower activity of immune-related processes in jejunal tissue was seen in piglets supplemented with FOS. Villi height and crypt depth in the jejunum were significantly different at day 25 between the experimental and control groups, where piglets supplemented with FOS had greater villi and deeper crypts. We conclude that oral FOS administration during the early suckling period of piglets had significant bifidogenic effects on the microbiota in the colon and on gene expression in the jejunal mucosa by thus far unknown mechanisms.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky110
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Diagnostic accuracy of post-ACTH challenge salivary cortisol
           concentrations for identifying horses with equine glandular gastric
           disease1
    • Authors: Sauer F; Bruckmaier R, Ramseyer A, et al.
      Pages: 2154 - 2161
      Abstract: The aims of this study were to better characterize the adrenal response to i.v. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in horses with and without gastric disease and to validate and simplify the ACTH stimulation test by determining the diagnostic accuracy of six consecutive sampling time points after ACTH administration for equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) and equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD). Twenty-six endurance and eventing horses without clinical disease [Sport Horse Population (SHP)] and an independent population of 62 horses [General Population (GP)] were grouped by gastroscopic findings (no/mild vs. moderate/severe EGGD, grade 0–1 vs. 2–4 ESGD, respectively) and underwent an ACTH stimulation test. Salivary cortisol (ng/mL) was analyzed before and 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min after i.v. injection of 1 µg/kg BW synthetic ACTH1-24. The association between having moderate or severe EGGD or ESGD and the amount of salivary cortisol was analyzed by means of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The following explanatory variables were considered: cortisol values for every time point, the area under the curve (AUC)—including all time points and corrected for the baseline—and the partial areas under the curve AUC0-90 and AUC90-150. Sampling after 60 min had highest association with moderate/severe EGGD. The diagnostic potential of the ACTH test was higher for the SHP [sensitivity 100% (95% CI 54% to 100%), specificity 75% (95% CI 51% to 91%), ROC-AUC 91% (95% CI 69% to 98%), 1-sided P-value < 0.001] than for the GP [sensitivity 75% (95% CI 48% to 93%), specificity 52% (95% CI 37% to 67%), ROC-AUC 68% (95% CI 51% to 79%), 1-sided P-value = 0.0064]. There were, however, no significant associations with ESGD. The superiority of sampling after 60 min suggests that the initial release of cortisol rather than its peak or the AUC are relevant regarding EGGD. Even though the wide confidence intervals and thus the lack of diagnostic accuracy do not presently support clinical use, characterization of the adrenal response to an ACTH stimulus improves the understanding of EGGD pathophysiology and its relation to stress.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky074
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Impact of heat stress during the follicular phase on porcine ovarian
           steroidogenic and phosphatidylinositol-3 signaling
    • Authors: Dickson M; Hager C, Al-Shaibi A, et al.
      Pages: 2162 - 2174
      Abstract: Environmental conditions that impede heat dissipation and increase body temperature cause heat stress (HS). The study objective was to evaluate impacts of HS on the follicular phase of the estrous cycle. Postpubertal gilts (126.0 ± 21.6 kg) were orally administered altrenogest to synchronize estrus, and subjected to either 5 d of thermal-neutral (TN; 20.3 ± 0.5 °C; n = 6) or cyclical HS (25.4 − 31.9 °C; n = 6) conditions during the follicular phase preceding behavioral estrus. On d 5, blood samples were obtained, gilts were euthanized, and ovaries collected. Fluid from dominant follicles was aspirated and ovarian protein homogenates prepared for protein abundance analysis. HS decreased feed intake (22%; P = 0.03) and while plasma insulin levels did not differ, the insulin:feed intake ratio was increased 3-fold by HS (P = 0.02). Insulin receptor protein abundance was increased (29%; P < 0.01), but insulin receptor substrate 1, total and phosphorylated protein kinase B, superoxide dismutase 1, and acyloxyacyl hydrolase protein abundance were unaffected by HS (P > 0.05). Plasma and follicular fluid 17β-estradiol, progesterone, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein concentrations as well as abundance of steroid acute regulatory protein, cytochrome P450 19A1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 were not affected by HS (P > 0.05). HS increased estrogen sulfotransferase protein abundance (44%; P = 0.02), toll-like receptor 4 (36%; P = 0.05), and phosphorylated REL-associated protein (31%; P = 0.02). Regardless of treatment, toll-like receptor 4 protein was localized to mural granulosa cells in the porcine ovary. In conclusion, HS altered ovarian signaling in postpubertal gilts during their follicular phase in ways that likely contributes to seasonal infertility.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky144
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Determination of the optimum contribution of Brahman genetics in an
           Angus-Brahman multibreed herd for regulation of body temperature during
           hot weather
    • Authors: Dikmen S; Mateescu R, Elzo M, et al.
      Pages: 2175 - 2183
      Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the influence of varying amounts of Brahman genetics on body temperature under pasture conditions during hot weather. Vaginal temperatures were measured at 5-min intervals for 3 to 5 d on four occasions during August and September from a total of 190 pregnant cows that were either Angus, 2/8 Brahman (remainder Angus), Brangus (3/8 Brahman), 4/8 Brahman, 6/8 Brahman or Brahman. Vaginal temperature was higher for the first two replicates than for the second two replicates. In the first two replicates, average vaginal temperature did not differ between genetic groups, but average vaginal temperature from 1500 to 1900 h was lower for Brahman than other groups. In the second two replicates, average vaginal temperature was lower for cows that were 4/8 or higher Brahman than for cows that were 2/8 Brahman or Angus. Average vaginal temperature from 1500 to 1900 h was lower for cows that were 4/8 or higher Brahman than for cows that were 2/8 Brahman or Angus. In addition, Brahman cows had lower vaginal temperatures than cows that were 4/8 Brahman or 3/8 Brahman (i.e., Brangus). In one replicate, a tracking device was used to map cow location. At 1200 to 1300 h, cows that were 6/8 Brahman or Brahman had fewer observations near the tree line (i.e., in shade) than cows that were 4/8 Brahman or less. At 1500 to 1600 h, cows that were 4/8 or higher Brahman experienced fewer observations near the tree line than cows that contained a lower fraction of Brahman genetics. In summary, a minimum of 4/8 Brahman genetics was required to increase the ability to regulate body temperature and at least 6/8 Brahman when heat stress was severe. It is likely, therefore, that using Brahman genetics to optimize adaptation to thermal stress under conditions of severe heat stress requires a preponderance of Brahman genes.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky133
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Determination of net energy content of dietary lipids fed to growing pigs
           using indirect calorimetry1
    • Authors: Li E; Liu H, Li Y, et al.
      Pages: 2184 - 2194
      Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to determine the NE content of different dietary lipids fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry. Thirty-six growing (initial BW: 41.1 ± 3.1 kg) barrows were allotted to 6 diets based on completely randomized design with 6 replicate pigs per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 5 test diets each containing 10% palm oil, poultry fat, fish oil, corn oil, or flaxseed oil at the expense of corn and soybean meal. During each period, pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 14 d, which included 7 d for adaptation to feed, metabolism crates, and environmental conditions. On day 8, pigs were transferred to the open-circuit respiration chambers and fed 1 of the 6 diets at 2.3 MJ ME/kg BW0.6/day. Total feces and urine were collected and daily heat production (HP) was also calculated from day 9 to day 13. On the last day of each period (day 14), pigs were fasted and the fasting heat production (FHP) was measured. The results show that the FHP of pigs averaged 809 kJ/kg BW0.6·day−1 and was not affected by diet characteristics. The DE values were 35.98, 36.84, 37.11, 38.95, and 38.38 MJ/kg DM, the ME values were 35.79, 36.56, 36.92, 37.73, and 38.11 MJ/kg DM, and the NE values were 32.42, 33.21, 33.77, 34.00, and 34.12 MJ/kg DM, for the palm oil, poultry fat, fish oil, corn oil, and flaxseed oil, respectively. Based on our result, we concluded that the DE content of dietary lipid varied from 91% to 98% of its GE content, the ME content of dietary lipid was approximately 99% of its DE content, and the NE content of dietary lipid was approximately 90% of its ME content in growing pigs.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky132
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Sex bias of the birth litter affects surge but not tonic LH secretion in
           gilts1
    • Authors: Seyfang J; Kirkwood R, Tilbrook A, et al.
      Pages: 2195 - 2203
      Abstract: The physiology and behavior of gilts that develop in a male-biased litter can differ from gilts that develop in a female-biased litter. We hypothesized that gilts from male-biased litters will have a delayed and attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, and reduced LH pulse frequency and amplitude compared to gilts from female-biased litters. Gilts were selected at birth from male-biased (>60% males n = 10) or female-biased (>60% females n = 9) litters. From 18 wk of age, detection of puberty using daily boar contact began and their subsequent estrous periods were synchronized with oral progestogen (altrenogest). On day 3 after altrenogest withdrawal, blood samples were obtained from 6 gilts per sex bias group at 10 min intervals from 0900 to 2100 h to determine LH pulse amplitude and frequency. From 0900 on day 4, all 19 gilts were sampled every 4 h until the end of estrus to characterize LH surge dynamics. There were no differences between groups in LH pulse characteristics. Compared to gilts from female-biased litters, the LH surge in gilts from male-biased litters was delayed [56.00 ± 3.32 h vs. 43.11 ± 3.76 h (mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)), P < 0.05], the duration was decreased [29.78 ± 2.12 h vs. 37.71 ± 1.19 h (mean ± SEM), P < 0.05] and the total secretion as measured by area under the curve was decreased (91.42 ± 9.52 ng/mL vs. 120.28 ± 9.48 ng/mL, P < 0.05). Our results indicate that a male-biased uterine environment has different effects on the tonic secretion of LH than the LH surge, with only some elements of the LH surge being affected.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky151
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Effect of yearling steer sequence grazing of perennial and annual forages
           in an integrated crop and livestock system on grazing performance, delayed
           feedlot entry, finishing performance, carcass measurements, and systems
           economics1
    • Authors: Şentürklü S; Landblom D, Maddock R, et al.
      Pages: 2204 - 2218
      Abstract: In a 2-yr study, spring-born yearling steers (n = 144), previously grown to gain <0.454 kg·steer−1·d−1, following weaning in the fall, were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to three retained ownership rearing systems (three replications) in early May. Systems were 1) feedlot (FLT), 2) steers that grazed perennial crested wheatgrass (CWG) and native range (NR) before FLT entry (PST), and 3) steers that grazed perennial CWG and NR, and then field pea–barley (PBLY) mix and unharvested corn (UC) before FLT entry (ANN). The PST and ANN steers grazed 181 d before FLT entry. During grazing, ADG of ANN steers (1.01 ± SE kg/d) and PST steers (0.77 ± SE kg/d) did not differ (P = 0.31). But even though grazing cost per steer was greater (P = 0.002) for ANN vs. PST, grazing cost per kg of gain did not differ (P = 0.82). The ANN forage treatment improved LM area (P = 0.03) and percent i.m. fat (P = 0.001). The length of the finishing period was greatest (P < 0.001) for FLT (142 d), intermediate for PST (91 d), and least for ANN (66 d). Steer starting (P = 0.015) and ending finishing BW (P = 0.022) of ANN and PST were greater than FLT steers. Total FLT BW gain was greater for FLT steers (P = 0.017), but there were no treatment differences for ADG, (P = 0.16), DMI (P = 0.21), G: F (P = 0.82), and feed cost per kg of gain (P = 0.61). However, feed cost per steer was greatest for FLT ($578.30), least for ANN ($276.12), and intermediate for PST ($381.18) (P = 0.043). There was a tendency for FLT steer HCW to be less than ANN and PST, which did not differ (P = 0.076). There was no difference between treatments for LM area (P = 0.094), backfat depth (P = 0.28), marbling score (P = 0.18), USDA yield grade (P = 0.44), and quality grade (P = 0.47). Grazing steer net return ranged from an ANN system high of $9.09/steer to a FLT control system net loss of −$298 and a PST system that was slightly less than the ANN system (−$30.10). Ten-year (2003 to 2012) hedging and net return sensitivity analysis revealed that the FLT treatment underperformed 7 of 10 yr and futures hedging protection against catastrophic losses were profitable 40, 30, and 20% of the time period for ANN, PST, and FLT, respectively. Retained ownership from birth through slaughter coupled with delayed FLT entry grazing perennial and annual forages has the greatest profitability potential.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky150
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Technical note: Comparing 4 techniques for estimating desired grass
           species composition in horse pastures1
    • Authors: Kenny L; Ward D, Robson M, et al.
      Pages: 2219 - 2225
      Abstract: Many methods exist for estimating species composition, but few studies compare those useful in improved horse pastures. The objective of this study was to examine 4 techniques for estimating desirable forage species composition in 2 cool-season horse pastures based on prevalence estimates, repeatability, bias, and practicality, and to select a method for use in a subsequent grazing study. The techniques included Equine Pasture Evaluation Disc (EPED), Line-Point Intercept with 3 transects of 50 observations each (LPI 3–50), LPI with 5 transects of 30 observations each (LPI 5–30), and Step Point (StPt). A generalized linear-mixed effects model procedure of SAS (GLIMMIX) with a logit link was used to test for differences among each species separately. When methods were significantly different (α = 0.05), pairwise comparisons were performed using a paired t-test. The methods did not differ in detecting creeping bentgrass (P = 0.3334) or orchardgrass (P = 0.4207), but there were differences for Kentucky bluegrass (P = 0.0082), tall fescue (P = 0.0314), and other (P = 0.0448). Repeatability plots displayed lower method repeatability as species prevalence increased. Agreement was analyzed between pairs of methods by grass species. Five out of 30 pairs showed significant overall bias (P = 0.0114, 0.0045, 0.0170, 0.0328, and 0.0404), and 3 of them were between LPI 3–50 and EPED. The LPI 3–50 and LPI 5–30 techniques agreed perfectly in prevalence and bias, as did StPt and EPED, meaning they can be used interchangeably. The techniques LPI 3–50 and EPED were the most dissimilar methods. In conclusion, StPt can be used interchangeably with LPI, but StPt was selected due to its thorough representation of the pastures and ease of use.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky111
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Comparative transcriptome analysis of rumen papillae in suckling and
           weaned Japanese Black calves using RNA sequencing
    • Authors: Nishihara K; Kato D, Suzuki Y, et al.
      Pages: 2226 - 2237
      Abstract: The length and density of rumen papillae starts to increase during weaning and growth of ruminants. This significant development increases the intraruminal surface area and the efficiency of VFA (acetate, propionate, butyrate, etc.) uptake. Thus, it is important to investigate the factors controlling the growth and development of rumen papillae during weaning. This study aimed to compare the transcriptomes of rumen papillae in suckling and weaned calves. Total RNA was extracted from the rumen papillae of 10 male Japanese Black calves (5 suckling calves, 5 wk old; 5 weaned calves, 15 wk old) and used in RNA-sequencing. Transcript abundance was estimated and differentially expressed genes were identified and these data were then used in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to predict the major canonical pathways and upstream regulators. Among the 871 differentially expressed genes screened by IPA, 466 genes were upregulated and 405 were downregulated in the weaned group. Canonical pathway analysis showed that “atherosclerosis” was the most significant pathway, and “tretinoin,” a derivative of vitamin A, was predicted as the most active upstream regulator during weaning. Analyses also predicted IgG, lipopolysaccharides, and tumor-necrosis factor-α as regulators of the microbe-epithelium interaction that activates rumen-related immune responses. The functional category and the up-regulators found in this study provide a valuable resource for studying new candidate genes related to the proliferation and development of rumen papillae from suckling to weaning Japanese Black calves.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skx016
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Retail stability of three beef muscles from grass-, legume-, and
           feedlot-finished cattle1
    • Authors: Legako J; Cramer T, Yardley K, et al.
      Pages: 2238 - 2248
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the influence of finishing diet on beef appearance and lipid oxidation of three beef muscles. A total of 18 Angus steers were selected from three diet treatments: grass-finished (USUGrass), legume-finished (USUBFT), and grain-finished (USUGrain). After processing, longissimus thoracis (LT), triceps brachii (TB), and gluteus medius (GM) steaks were evaluated over a 7-d display period. A muscle × diet interaction was observed for instrumental lightness (L*) and redness (a*) (P ≤ 0.001). Within each combination, USUGrass was considered darker with lower (P < 0.05) L* compared with USUGrain. For USUBFT, L* was similar to USUGrain for the TB and LT, while the L* of USUBFT and USUGrain GM differed (P < 0.05). In terms of redness, LT a* values were elevated (P < 0.05) in USUGrass compared with USUBFT and USUGrain. For GM steaks, a* of USUBFT and USUGrass were each greater (P < 0.05) than USUGrain. Surface a* of TB steaks were greatest (P < 0.05) for USUGrass followed by USUBFT, and with USUGrain, being lowest (P < 0.05). An overall increase in L* was observed throughout display dependent on diet (P = 0.013). During display, USUGrain steaks had the greatest (P < 0.05) L* followed by USUBFT and USUGrass. Additionally, a day × muscle interaction was observed for a* (P = 0.009). Initially, TB steaks had the greatest (P < 0.05) a* values. However, at day 3, a* values were similar (P > 0.05) among muscles. Visual color scores were in agreement with loss of redness (a*) during display, dependent on diet and muscle type (P < 0.001). Similarly, a day × diet × muscle interaction was observed for visual discoloration (P < 0.001). Day and diet interacted to influence thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (P < 0.001). Initial values did not differ (P > 0.05) between USUGrain and USUBFT; however, USUGrass had lower initial (P < 0.05) TBARS than both USUGrain and USUBFT. At days 3 and 7, TBARS were greatest (P < 0.05) in USUGrain steaks, followed by USUBFT, which was greater (P < 0.05) than USUGrass. A diet × muscle interaction was observed for 10 volatile compounds originating from lipid degradation (P ≤ 0.013). These compounds were less (P < 0.05) abundant in USUGrass compared to TB or GM of USUGrain. This study determined grass-finished beef to have a darker more red color and less lipid oxidation in multiple muscles. Possible mechanisms for this may include an increase in endogenous antioxidants in grass-finished beef.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky125
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Interactions between metabolically active bacteria and host gene
           expression at the cecal mucosa in pigs of diverging feed efficiency
    • Authors: Metzler-Zebeli B; Lawlor P, Magowan E, et al.
      Pages: 2249 - 2264
      Abstract: Little is known about the role of the gut mucosal microbiota and microbe–host signaling in the variation of pig’s feed efficiency (FE). This study therefore aimed to investigate the FE-related differences in the metabolically active mucosal bacterial microbiota and expression of genes for innate immune response, barrier function, nutrient uptake, and incretins in the cecum of finishing pigs. Pigs (n = 72) were ranked for their residual feed intake (RFI; metric for FE) between days 42 and 91 postweaning and were stratified within litter and sex into high (HRFI; n = 8) and low RFI (LRFI; n = 8). Cecal mucosa and digesta were collected on day 137–141 of life. After isolating total RNA from the mucosa, the RNA was transcribed into cDNA which was used for gene expression analysis, total bacterial quantification, and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) of the hypervariable V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The RFI differed by 2.1 kg between low RFI (LRFI; good FE) and high RFI (HRFI; poor FE) pigs (P < 0.001). The cecal mucosa was mainly colonized by Helicobacteraceae, Campylobacteraceae, Veillonellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Prevotellaceae. Despite the lack of differences in microbial diversity and absolute abundance, RFI-associated compositional differences were found. The predominant genus Campylobacter tended (P < 0.10) to be 0.4-fold more abundant in LRFI pigs, whereas low abundant Escherichia/Shigella (P < 0.05), Ruminobacter (P < 0.05), and Veillonella (P < 0.10) were 3.4-, 6.6-, and 4.4-fold less abundant at the cecal mucosa of LRFI compared to HRFI pigs. Moreover, mucin 2 and zona occludens-1 were less expressed (P < 0.05) in the cecal mucosa of LRFI compared to HRFI pigs. Cecal mucosal expression of monocarboxylate transporter-1, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY further tended (P < 0.10) to be downregulated in LRFI compared to HRFI pigs, indicating an enhanced VFA uptake and signaling in HRFI pigs. Sparse partial least square regression and relevance networking support the hypothesis that certain mucosal bacteria and luminal microbial metabolites were more associated than others with differences in RFI and cecal gene expression. However, present results do not allow the determination of whether mucosal bacterial changes contributed to variation in FE or were rather a consequence of FE-related changes in the pig’s physiology or feeding behavior.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky118
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on the
           apparent total tract digestibility of energy, DM, and nutrients by growing
           pigs1
    • Authors: Navarro D; Bruininx E, de Jong L, et al.
      Pages: 2265 - 2277
      Abstract: Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on DE and ME and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and nutrients were determined in growing pigs using ingredients with different ratios between insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF). Eighty growing barrows (BW: 48.41 ± 1.50 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 10 diets and eight replicate pigs per diet. Dietary treatments included a corn-based diet, a wheat-based diet, a corn–soybean meal (SBM) diet, and seven diets based on a mixture of the corn–SBM diet and canola meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal (CGM), copra expellers, sugar beet pulp (SBP), synthetic cellulose, or pectin. Values for the ATTD of DM and nutrients were also compared with the in vitro digestibility of GE, DM, and nutrients. Results indicated that the ATTD of GE was greater (P < 0.05) in wheat than in canola meal, DDGS, CGM, copra expellers, SBP, and synthetic cellulose, but not different from corn, SBM, or pectin. SBM had greater (P < 0.05) DE and ME (DM basis) compared with all other ingredients. The concentration of ME (DM basis) was greater (P < 0.05) in wheat than in canola meal, DDGS, CGM, copra expellers, SBP, synthetic cellulose, and pectin, but not different from corn. Stronger correlations between total dietary fiber (TDF) and DE and ME than between ADF or NDF and DE and ME were observed, indicating that TDF can be used to more accurately predict DE and ME than values for NDF or ADF. The DE, ME, and the ATTD of DM in ingredients were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with in vitro ATTD of DM, indicating that the in vitro procedure may be used to estimate DE and ME in feed ingredients. Swelling and water-binding capacity were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with the ATTD of IDF, TDF, nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), and insoluble NSP, and viscosity was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with the ATTD of NDF, IDF, and insoluble NSP, indicating that some physical characteristics may influence digestibility of fiber. However, physical characteristics of feed ingredients were not correlated with the concentration of DE and ME, which indicates that these parameters do not influence in vivo energy digestibility in feed ingredients. It is concluded that the DE and ME in feed ingredients may be predicted from some chemical constituents and from in vitro digestibility of DM, but not from physical characteristics.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky149
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Effect of roller mill configuration on growth performance of nursery and
           finishing pigs and milling characteristics1
    • Authors: Gebhardt J; Paulk C, Tokach M, et al.
      Pages: 2278 - 2292
      Abstract: Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of roller mill configuration on growth performance of nursery and finishing pigs, feed preference, and feed mill throughput. The four experimental treatments included corn ground through a roller mill using two, three, four sets of rolls in a fine-grind configuration, or four sets of rolls in a coarse grind configuration. The same roller mill was used for all configurations with the appropriate lower rolls completely open when using the two or three roll pair configurations. Across all studies, mean particle size averaged approximately 540, 435, 270, and 385 µm for the four roller mill configurations, respectively. In Exp. 1, 320 pigs (DNA 400 × 200, initially 10.7 ± 0.27 kg BW) were randomly allotted to treatments with five pigs per pen and 16 pens per treatment in a 21-d growth trial. While there were no evidence of differences observed for ADG or ADFI, pigs fed corn ground using the 4-high coarse configuration had a marginally significant (P = 0.091) improvement in G:F compared with those fed with the 2-high configuration, with others intermediate. In Exp. 2, 90 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050, initially 12.1 ± 0.25 kg BW) were randomly allotted to one of three diet comparisons to determine feed preference between the 2-high, 4-high fine, and 4-high coarse configurations. When given a choice, pigs consumed more (P < 0.05) of the diet containing corn ground through the 2-high roller mill (67%) or 4-high coarse configuration (63%) compared with corn ground through the 4-high fine configuration. In Exp. 3, 922 finishing pigs (PIC TR4 × [FAST Large white × PIC Line 2], initially 40.1 ± 0.36 kg BW) were used in a 97-d experiment with pens of pigs randomly allotted by initial BW to the same experimental treatments used in Exp. 1. There were 21 pigs per pen and 11 pens per treatment. Pigs fed corn ground with the 2-high configuration had greater (P < 0.05) ADG compared with those fed corn ground using the 3-high configuration. Pigs fed corn ground with the 4-high fine configuration had the poorest (P < 0.05) ADG. No differences were observed in G:F. Grinding rate (tonne/h) was greatest (P < 0.05) for the 4-high coarse configuration, while net electricity consumption (kWh/tonne) was lowest (P < 0.05) for the 2-high configuration and greatest for the 4-high fine configuration. In summary, nursery pig G:F tended to be greatest using the 4-high coarse configuration, and finishing pig ADG was maximized using the 2- and 4-high coarse configurations.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky147
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Effects of full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran on growth performance
           and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs1
    • Authors: Casas G; Overholt M, Dilger A, et al.
      Pages: 2293 - 2309
      Abstract: The objective was to test the hypothesis that increasing inclusion levels of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) are not detrimental to growth or carcass characteristics, longissimus muscle (LM) quality, or fat quality when fed to growing-finishing pigs. A total of 224 barrows and gilts were randomly allotted to 7 treatments, with 4 pigs per pen and 8 pen replicates per treatment. Pigs had an average initial BW of 28.2 ± 4.1 kg and a 3-phase feeding program was used. A basal diet containing corn and soybean meal, 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB, and 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were formulated within each phase. Daily feed allotments and pig BW at the start of the experiment and at the conclusion of each phase were recorded. On the last day of the experiment, 1 pig per pen was harvested and carcass characteristics, LM quality, and fat quality were determined. For the overall experimental period, no effects of dietary treatments were observed for average daily gain. However, average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased (linear, P < 0.05) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) increased (linear, P < 0.05) for pigs fed diets with increasing concentrations of FFRB. In contrast, ADFI increased linearly (P < 0.05) and G:F decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as DFRB was included in the diets. There were no effects of dietary treatments on LM quality. The length of the bellies decreased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as the inclusion of FFRB or DFRB increased in the diets. The concentration of crude fat in the adipose tissue of pigs increased linearly (P < 0.05) as the concentration of FFRB or DFRB increased in the diets. The concentration of saturated fatty acids in the adipose tissue of pigs fed diets containing FFRB decreased (linear, P < 0.05), whereas the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (linear, P < 0.05). In contrast, addition of DFRB did not affect the concentration of fatty acids in adipose tissues. In conclusion, 30% FFRB included in diets for growing-finishing pigs may improve G:F without affecting carcass characteristics or LM quality with the exception that PUFA in adipose tissues will increase. However, inclusion of DFRB in diets for growing-finishing pigs will reduce G:F without affecting the LM quality or composition of adipose tissues.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky145
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Dietary D-xylose effects on growth performance, portal nutrient fluxes,
           and energy expenditure in growing pigs1
    • Authors: Agyekum A; Walsh M, Kiarie E, et al.
      Pages: 2310 - 2319
      Abstract: Xylanase is commonly added to pig diets rich in arabinoxylans to promote nutrient utilization and growth. However, high doses of xylanase could release high amounts of xylose in the upper gut, which could have negative nutritional and metabolic implications. However, the amount of xylose to elicit such adverse effects is not clear. Thus, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary xylose on the growth performance and portal-drained viscera (PDV) fluxes of glucose (GLU), urea-N (BUN), insulin production, and O2 consumption in growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 64 pigs (21.4 ± 0.1 kg BW), housed as either two barrows or gilts per pen (eight pens per diet) were used to determine the effects of increasing levels of D-xylose (0, 5, 15, and 25%) in a corn–soybean meal–cornstarch-based diet on pig growth performance in a 28-d trial. Cornstarch was substituted for D-xylose (wt/wt) in the control diet. BW and feed intake were monitored weekly. D-xylose linearly reduced (P < 0.05) final BW, ADG, and G:F but not ADFI. However, final BW, ADG, and G:F of pigs fed 15% D-xylose did not differ from pigs fed 0% D-xylose. Thus, the results suggested that pigs could tolerate up to 15% dietary D-xylose. In Exp. 2, six gilts (22.8 ± 1.6 kg BW), fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, ileal vein, and carotid artery, were fed the 0% and 15% D-xylose diets at 4% of their BW once daily at 0900 h for 7 d in a cross-over design (six pigs per diet). On d 7, pigs were placed in indirect calorimeters to measure whole-animal O2 consumption and sample blood simultaneously for 6 h from the portal vein and carotid artery after feeding to assay GLU, O2, BUN, and insulin concentrations. Net portal nutrients and insulin production were calculated as porto-arterial concentration differences × portal blood flow (PBF) rate, whereas PDV O2 consumption was calculated as arterial-portal O2 differences × PBF. Diet had no effect on postprandial PBF, insulin production, and portal BUN flux and O2 consumption. Pigs fed 0% D-xylose had greater (P < 0.05) postprandial portal and arterial BUN concentrations, and portal GLU concentration and flux than pigs fed 15% D-xylose diet. In conclusion, feeding growing pigs a diet containing 15% D-xylose did not reduce pig performance or affect PDV energetic demand but reduced GLU fluxes.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky142
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Impact of sow energy status during farrowing on farrowing kinetics,
           frequency of stillborn piglets, and farrowing assistance1
    • Authors: Feyera T; Pedersen T, Krogh U, et al.
      Pages: 2320 - 2331
      Abstract: Farrowing duration is rather long in sows most likely due to selection for large litters, and we hypothesized that prolonged farrowings would compromise sow energy status during farrowing and in turn the farrowing process. Two studies were performed as follows: 1) to evaluate whether sow energy status during farrowing compromise the farrowing kinetics (FK, i.e., farrowing duration and birth intervals) and 2) to study the underlying mechanisms potentially affecting stillbirth rate and farrowing assistance. In study-1, parameters affecting FK were characterized based on data from a total of 166 farrowings from 7 feeding trials focused on sow colostrum production. The data were screened for associations with FK using the CORR procedure of SAS. Traits that were correlated with the FK at P < 0.05 were included in a multivariate regression model. Time since last meal until the onset of farrowing greatly affected the farrowing duration (r = 0.76; n = 166; P < 0.001) and a broken-line model was fitted to describe that relationship. According to the model, farrowing duration was constant (3.8 ± 1.5 h) if the farrowing started before the breakpoint (3.13 ± 0.34 h after the last meal), whereas farrowing duration increased to 9.3 h if the farrowing started 8 h after the last meal. Subsequently, sows were divided into 3 categories based on that trait (≤3, 3 to 6, and >6 h) to evaluate the impact on birth intervals, farrowing assistance, and stillbirth rate. Birth intervals (P < 0.001), odds for farrowing assistance (P < 0.001), and odds for stillbirth (P = 0.02) were low, intermediate, and high when time since last meal was ≤3, 3 to 6, and >6 h, respectively. In study-2, blood samples were collected once or twice each week in late gestation and each hour during farrowing to measure arterial concentrations and uterine extractions of plasma metabolites. Time since last meal was strongly negatively correlated with arterial glucose 1 h after the onset of farrowing (r= −0.96; n = 9; P < 0.001). Glucose appeared to be the key energy metabolite for oxidative metabolism of gravid uterus. In conclusion, the present study strongly suggests that a substantial proportion of sows suffer from low-energy status at the onset farrowing and that this negatively affects the farrowing process. Transferring this knowledge into practice, the results suggest that sows should be fed at least 3 daily meals in late gestation.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky141
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid to pig diets: effects on
           performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality
    • Authors: Jayaraman B; La K, La H, et al.
      Pages: 2332 - 2341
      Abstract: Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in pigs from wean to finish (Exp 1) and finishing pigs fed GAA at different time periods before slaughter (Exp 2). In Exp 1, a total of 360 weaned pigs (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire]) with an average initial BW of 7.17 ± 0.03 kg were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments consisting of 10 replicates per treatment and 12 pigs (6 barrows and 6 gilts) per replicate. Dietary treatments were a control (CON; basal diet), a basal diet + 0.08% GAA (0.08% GAA); and a basal diet + 0.12% GAA (0.12% GAA). The duration of the experiment was 150 d. At the end of the experiment, 20 pigs (10 barrows and 10 gilts) from each treatment were slaughtered for measuring carcass characteristics and meat quality. In Exp 2, 1,440 finishing pigs [(Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire)), 56.15 ± 0.10 kg BW)] were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 18 replicates (20 pigs per replicate). Dietary treatments were a control diet (CON; basal), a basal diet + 0.12% GAA fed 60 d before slaughter (T1), a basal diet + 0.12% GAA fed 40 d before slaughter (T2), and a basal diet + 0.12% GAA fed 25 d before slaughter (T3). Body weight was measured at the start (120 d of age) and at the end (180 d of age) of the experiment. At the end of the study, 144 pigs (72 barrows and 72 gilts) from 4 dietary treatments (36 pigs per treatment) were slaughtered for the determination of carcass and meat quality parameters. In Exp 1, 0.12 % GAA increased (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F during starter, grower, finisher, and the overall growth period (30 to 180 d of age). Pigs fed 0.12 % GAA had improved (P < 0.05) lean meat yield in comparison with CON. There was no interaction effect among GAA supplementation and sex of the pigs. Meat quality was not affected by GAA supplementation in pigs. In Exp 2, the final BW, ADG, and lean yield of the pigs fed T1 were higher (P < 0.05) than CON and those fed T3. The carcass back-fat thickness of T1 was lower (P < 0.05) than CON. In conclusion, 0.12% GAA improved the growth performance and lean meat yield in pigs from wean to finish. Finishing pigs fed diets supplemented with 0.12% GAA 60 d before slaughter improved ADG, feed efficiency, and lean meat yield and reduced back-fat thickness compared with those fed GAA unsupplemented diets.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky137
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1 on the growth performance, intestinal
           morphology, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs
    • Authors: Yi H; Wang L, Xiong Y, et al.
      Pages: 2342 - 2351
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1, a new strain isolated from the feces of weaned pigs, on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune responses, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. A total of 144 weaned pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 21 d of age) with an initial BW of 6.49 ± 0.02 kg were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicate pens, each of per treatment and 6 pigs. Pigs were fed a basal diet (CON, controls), the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg olaquindox and 75 mg/kg aureomycin (OA) or the basal diet supplemented with 5 × 1010 cfu/kg L. reuteri LR1 for a 14-d period. At the end of study, the ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated, and 1 randomly selected pig from each pen was euthanized for sample collection. The LR1 increased ADG (22.73%, P < 0.05) compared with CON. The villus height of the ileum was increased (P < 0.05) and crypt depth in duodenum was reduced (P < 0.05), along with increased (P < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio of the jejunum and ileum by LR1 compared with CON and OA. LR1 increased (P < 0.05) ileal mucosal content of IL-22 and transforming growth factor-β compared with OA. Compared with CON, LR1 increased (P < 0.05) and OA decreased (P < 0.05) the ileal content of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and the abundance of transcripts of porcine β-defensin 2 and protegrin 1-5. Compared with CON, LR1 increased (P < 0.05) tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 and occludin transcripts in the mucosa of the jejunum and ileum, and those of mucin-2 in ileal mucosa. The relative expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 were increased (P < 0.05) in ileal mucosa in pigs fed LR1 compared with CON. In conclusion, these data indicated that dietary LR1 supplementation at 5 × 1010 cfu/kg improved growth performance, intestinal morphology, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky129
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Nutritive value of corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles steeped
           without or with exogenous feed enzymes for 24 h and fed to growing pigs1
    • Authors: Rho Y; Kiarie E, de Lange C.
      Pages: 2352 - 2360
      Abstract: The use of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in pig diets is limited due to high fiber concentration. Steeping with exogenous fiber-degrading enzymes (FDE) may improve their feeding value. We evaluated apparent ileal digestibility (AID), standardized ileal digestibility (SID), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of components and DE content in DDGS steeped without or with two commercial FDE (A and B). Mixture of 350 g of DDGS, FDE (none for control), and 1.5 liters of water was incubated at 40 °C for 24 h with 15 min agitation every 40 min. FDE-A (pure combination) supplied 5,500 U of xylanase and 1,050 U of β-glucanase while FDE-B (multienzyme complex) supplied 1,200 U of xylanase, 150 U of β-glucanase, 500 U of cellulase, and 5,000 U of protease per kg of DDGS plus side activities. Samples were taken at time 0, 4, 8, and 24 h for organic acids and pH measurements. Three semi-purified corn starch–based diets were formulated with steeped DDGS as the sole source of CP. The basal mixture contained 0.2% TiO2 as indigestible marker. Six ileal-cannulated pigs (20 kg BW) were fed the three diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to give six replicates per diet. Pigs were fed at 2.8× maintenance energy requirements and had free access to water. In each period, pigs were adjusted to diets for 7 d followed by 2 d for grab fecal and 2 d of 8 h continuous ileal digesta collection. There were no (P > 0.05) treatment and sampling time interaction or treatment effects on pH and lactic concentration. Lactic and acetic acids increased, and pH decreased (P < 0.05) over time points. The AID of CP, NDF, and crude fat and SID of CP were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments. Steeping DDGS with FDE-A had lower (P = 0.01) ATTD of NDF than control but higher (P = 0.001) ATTD of crude fat compared with the control or DDGS steeped with FDE-B. Values for DE content in steeped DDGS were not different (P > 0.05) and amounted to 4,095, 4,039, and 3,974 kcal/kg DM for the control, FDE-A, and FDE-B, respectively. In conclusion, under conditions of the study, steeping DDGS with exogenous enzymes did not improve fiber and energy digestibility.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky115
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Ileal digestibility of amino acids in selected feed ingredients fed to
           young growing pigs1
    • Authors: Casas G; Jaworski N, Htoo J, et al.
      Pages: 2361 - 2370
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in brewers rice, full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), peanut meal, sesame meal, rapeseed meal, rapeseed expellers, soybean expellers, cassava meal, and bakery meal fed to young growing pigs. Twenty-two barrows (initial BW: 14.09 ± 1.48 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 11 × 4 incomplete Latin square design with 11 diets and four 7-d periods in each square. Eleven experimental diets were prepared and test ingredients were the sole source of CP and AA in 10 diets and the eleventh diet was a N-free diet used to measure basal ileal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.4%) was included in all diets as an indigestible marker and ileal digesta were collected on day 6 and 7 of each period. Results indicated that the SID of CP and AA was greatest (P < 0.05) in brewers rice and sesame meal and least (P < 0.05) in cassava meal. The SID of indispensable AA was greater (P < 0.05) in sesame meal compared with all other ingredients except brewers rice. Full-fat rice bran had greater (P < 0.05) SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, and Met compared with DFRB. The SID of CP and most AA was not different among rapeseed meal, rapeseed expellers, and soybean expellers. Bakery meal had the least (P < 0.05) SID of most AA compared with all other ingredients, with the exception of cassava meal. The concentration of standardized ileal digestible CP was greater (P < 0.05) in sesame meal and peanut meal (482.32 and 452.44 g/kg DM, respectively) than in all other ingredients. Soybean expellers had the greatest (P < 0.05) concentration of standardized ileal digestible Lys (22.98 g/kg DM) followed by rapeseed meal (16.11 g/kg DM) and rapeseed expellers (16.17 g/kg DM). Cassava meal and bakery meal had the least (P < 0.05) concentration of standardized ileal digestible CP and most AA compared with the other ingredients. Concentrations of standardized ileal digestible CP and AA in brewers rice, FFRB, and DFRB were less (P < 0.05) than in rapeseed meal, rapeseed expellers, and soybean expellers. In conclusion, peanut meal and sesame meal have greater concentrations of standardized ileal digestible CP and most AA, with the exception of Lys, than other ingredients. Rapeseed meal, rapeseed expellers, and soybean expellers have the greatest concentrations of standardized ileal digestible Lys.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky114
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Nitrogen retention, energy, and amino acid digestibility of wheat bran,
           without or with multicarbohydrase and phytase supplementation, fed to
           broiler chickens1
    • Authors: Gallardo C; Dadalt J, Trindade Neto M.
      Pages: 2371 - 2379
      Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the effects of multicarbohydrase (MC) preparation (700 U α-galactosidase, 2,200 U galactomannanase, 3,000 U xylanase, and 22,000 U β-glucanase per kg of diet) and phytase (Phy, 500 FTU per kg of diet) supplementation on the nutritive value of wheat bran (WB) in broiler chicks. Trial 1 determined retention of nutrients and apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen (AMEn). One reference diet (RD) protein-free (85% corn based) was fortified to determine the WB nutrient retention coefficient. Trial 2 determined standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA, when pancreas and liver were weighed. An additional group of bird was fed with an RD with 5% casein–corn starch diet, fortified with vitamins and minerals to quantify the endogenous fraction and determine SID of AA. For each trial, the test diets were made by mixing RD and WB 7:3 (wt/wt) and fed without or with MC or Phy or combination. Male broilers (Cobb 500), 245 d old, were allocated to five treatments to give seven replicates (seven birds/cage). The birds were fed a commercial diet from day 0 to10 followed by Trial 1 diets from day 11 to 18 and finally Trial 2 diets from day 19 to 21. Excreta samples were collected on days 15–18 and all birds were slaughtered on day 21 for ileal digesta. There was an interaction (P < 0.05) between MC and Phy on retention of DM, N, P, and AMEn. An interaction (P < 0.05) was also observed on SID of Arg, His, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, Val, Asp, Cys, Glu, and Ser. Responses of MC plus Phy supplementation were higher (P < 0.05) on overall SID of AA by 6.05% (75.18 to 94.26%), compared with responses for MC (2.35%; 72.04 to 88.97) or Phy (3.46%; 73.27 to 92.13). Liver and pancreas weights were affected (P < 0.05) by the single MC supplementation. The MC and Phy combination may be an effective strategy to improve AA utilization of WB in broiler chickens.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky062
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Whole-body nitrogen utilization and tissue protein and casein synthesis in
           lactating primiparous sows fed low- and high-protein diets1
    • Authors: Huber L; Rudar M, Trottier N, et al.
      Pages: 2380 - 2391
      Abstract: Twenty-eight lactating Yorkshire and Yorkshire × Landrace primiparous sows were used to test the hypothesis that feeding a diet with reduced CP concentration and supplemented with crystalline AA (CAA) does not decrease milk protein yield and litter growth but improves apparent N utilization for milk protein production. Sows were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: 1) control (CON; 16.2% CP; analyzed content) or 2) low CP with CAA to meet estimated requirements of limiting AA (LCP; 12.7% CP) over a 17-d lactation period. A N balance was conducted for each sow between days 13 and 17 of lactation. On day 17, a 12-h primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-2H5]-Phe was conducted on 12 sows (n = 6) with serial blood and milk sampling to determine plasma AA concentrations and Phe enrichment, and milk casein synthesis, respectively. Thereafter, sows were sacrificed and tissues were collected to determine tissue protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR). Litter growth rate and milk composition did not differ. Sows fed the LCP diet had reduced N intake (122.7 vs. 153.2 g/d; P < 0.001) and maternal N retention (13.5 vs. 24.6 g/d; P < 0.05) and greater apparent efficiency of using dietary N intake for milk production (85.1% vs. 67.5%; P < 0.001). On day 17 of lactation, all plasma essential AA concentrations exhibited a quartic relationship over time relative to consumption of a meal, where peaks occurred at approximately 1- and 4-h postprandial (P < 0.05). Protein FSR in liver, LM, gastrocnemius muscle, mammary gland, and in milk caseins did not differ between treatments. Feeding primiparous sows with a diet containing 12.7% CP and supplemented with CAA to meet the limiting AA requirements did not reduce milk protein yield or piglet growth rate and increased the apparent utilization of dietary N, Arg, Leu, Phe+Tyr, and Trp for milk protein production. The improved apparent utilization of N and AA appears to be related exclusively to a reduction in N and AA intake.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky047
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Adipose tissue proteomic analyses to study puberty in Brahman heifers
    • Authors: Nguyen L; Zacchi L, Schulz B, et al.
      Pages: 2392 - 2398
      Abstract: The adipose tissue has been recognized as an active endocrine organ which can modulate numerous physiological processes such as metabolism, appetite, immunity, and reproduction. The aim of this study was to look for differentially abundant proteins and their biological functions in the abdominal adipose tissue between pre- and postpubertal Brahman heifers. Twelve Brahman heifers were divided into 2 groups and paired on slaughter day. Prepubertal heifers had never ovulated and postpubertal heifers were slaughtered on the luteal phase of their second estrous cycle. After ensuring the occurrence of puberty in postpubertal heifers, abdominal adipose tissue samples were collected. Mass spectrometry proteomic analysis identified 646 proteins and revealed that 171 proteins showed differential abundance in adipose tissue between the pre- and postpuberty groups (adjusted P-value < 0.05). Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD009452. Using a list of 51 highly differentially abundant proteins as the target (adjusted P-value < 10−5), we found 14 enriched pathways. The results indicated that gluconeogenesis was enhanced when puberty approached. The metabolism of glucose, lipids, and AA in the adipose tissue mainly participated in oxidation and energy supply for heifers when puberty occurred. Our study also revealed the differentially abundant proteins were enriched for estrogen signaling and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways, which are known integrators of metabolism and reproduction. These results suggest new candidate proteins that may contribute to a better understanding of the signaling mechanisms that relate adipose tissue function to puberty. Protein–protein interaction network analysis identified 4 hub proteins that had the highest degrees of connection: PGK1, ALDH5A1, EEF2, and LDHB. Highly connected proteins are likely to influence the functions of all differentially abundant proteins identified, directly or indirectly.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky128
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Rapid communication: lipid metabolic gene expression and triacylglycerol
           accumulation in goat mammary epithelial cells are decreased by inhibition
           of SREBP-1
    • Authors: Xu H; Luo J, Tian H, et al.
      Pages: 2399 - 2407
      Abstract: In mammals, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) is the master regulator of fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis. Recent gene silencing studies in mammary cells indicate that SREBP-1 has a central role in milk fat synthesis. However, SREBP-1 knockdown studies in goat mammary cells have not been performed; hence, its direct role in controlling mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes and triacylglycerol synthesis remains unknown. Inhibition of SREBP-1 in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) by small interference RNA (siRNA) markedly reduced the content of cellular triacylglycerol (~50% decrease, P < 0.05) and was partly related to downregulation of AGPAT6, LPIN1, and DGAT2 (−23%, −28% and −19%, respectively. P < 0.05), which are key enzymes involved in triacylglycerol synthesis, cellular triacylglycerol content and lipid droplet accumulation all decreased by SREBP-1 inhibition. The expression of lipid droplet formation and secretion genes was not altered in response to treatment. Although the lack of effect on expression of ACACA and FASN (rate-limiting enzymes for de novo fatty acid synthesis) with SREBP-1 knockdown was unexpected (P > 0.05), the downregulation of genes related to synthesis of acetyl-CoA and acetate activation (ACLY, ACSS2, and IDH1, P < 0.05) suggests that lipogenesis was inhibited. SREBP-1 knockdown also resulted in decreased expression of genes associated with fatty acid desaturation and elongation (SCD1 and ELOVL6, P < 0.05), long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) activation and transport (ACSL1, FABP3, and SLC27A6, P < 0.05). The results underscored the essential role of SREBP-1 not only in fatty acid synthesis but also in desaturation, elongation, and esterification in GMEC. Clearly, the lack of effect on ACACA and FASN, both of which are considered the key lipogenic enzymes, implies that there may be different regulatory mechanisms in goat compared with bovine mammary cells.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky069
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Influence of bull age, ejaculate number, and season of collection on semen
           production and sperm motility parameters in Holstein Friesian bulls in a
           commercial artificial insemination centre
    • Authors: Murphy E; Kelly A, O’Meara C, et al.
      Pages: 2408 - 2418
      Abstract: In the current era of genomic selection, there is an increased demand to collect semen from genomically selected sires at a young age. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of bull age, ejaculate number, and season of collection on semen production (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, and total sperm number; TSN) and sperm motility (prefreeze and post-thaw total and gross motility) parameters in Holstein Friesian bulls in a commercial artificial insemination (AI) center. The study involved the interrogation of a large dataset collected over a 4-yr period, (n = 8,983 ejaculates; n = 176 Holstein Friesian bulls aged between 9 mo and 8 yr). Bulls aged less than 1 yr had the poorest semen production and sperm motility values for all parameters assessed compared with bulls older than 1 yr (P < 0.01). First ejaculates had greater semen production and greater prefreeze motility values than second consecutive ejaculates (P < 0.01), but despite this, there was no difference in post-thaw motility. When subsequent ejaculates were collected from bulls aged less than 1 yr, semen production and sperm motility did not differ compared with mature bulls. Semen collected in winter was poorest in terms of sperm concentration and TSN, but best in terms of post-thaw motility (P < 0.01). In conclusion, second ejaculates can be collected, particularly from bulls aged less than 1 yr, without a significant decrease in post-thaw sperm motility, thus may be a useful strategy to increase semen availability from young genomically selected AI bulls in high demand.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky130
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Characterizing the acute heat stress response in gilts: II. Assessing
           repeatability and association with fertility
    • Authors: Graves K; Seibert J, Keating A, et al.
      Pages: 2419 - 2426
      Abstract: Mitigating heat stress (HS) in swine production is important as it detrimentally affects multiple aspects of overall animal production efficiency. Study objectives were to determine if gilts characterized as tolerant (TOL) or susceptible (SUS) in response to HS maintain that phenotype later in life and if that phenotype influences reproductive ability during HS. Individual gilts identified as TOL (n = 50) or SUS (n = 50) from a prepubertal HS challenge were selected based on their rectal temperature (TR) during acute HS. The study consisted of 4 experimental periods (P). During P0 (2 d), all pigs were exposed to thermoneutral (TN) conditions (21.1 °C). During P1 (14 d), all gilts received Matrix (15 mg altrenogest per day) to synchronize estrus, and were maintained in TN conditions. During P2 (9 d), Matrix supplementation was terminated and gilts were subjected to diurnal HS with ambient temperatures set at 35 °C from 1000 to 2200 h and 21 °C from 2200 to 1000 h. Also during P2 gilts underwent estrus detection and artificial insemination. During P3 gilts were housed in TN conditions for 41 d at which they were sacrificed and reproductive tracts were collected. During the last 2 d of P1 and throughout the entirety of P2, TR and skin temperature (TS) were recorded. During P2, SUS had increased TR relative to TOL pigs during P2 (0.27 °C; P < 0.01). Overall, uterine wet weight, ovarian weight, corpora lutea (CL) count, and embryo survival were 5.6 ± 0.1 kg, 21.6 ± 0.3 g, 17.8 ± 0.3 CLs, and 79 ± 2%, respectively, and not influenced by prepubertal HS tolerance classification (P ≥ 0.37). Tolerant gilts had a longer return-to-estrus (6.1 vs. 5.5 d, respectively; P = 0.01) following altrenogest withdrawal and tended to have larger CL diameters (10.3 vs. 10.1 mm; P = 0.06) compared to SUS gilts. Fetal weight (25.4 vs. 23.6 g; P = 0.01) and fetal crown-rump length (74.8 vs. 72.8 mm; P < 0.01) were higher in gilts previously classified as SUS compared to those previously classified as TOL. Additionally, neither litter size nor the number of fetuses detected as a percentage of ovulations was influenced by classification. In summary, SUS gilts had a shorter return-to-estrus, increased fetus size, and tended to have smaller CL diameters compared to TOL gilts. Additionally, SUS gilts also retained their inability to maintain euthermia postpubertally relative to TOL gilts. In conclusion, there appeared to be little reproductive advantage of maintaining a lower TR during HS.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/skx037
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Glycine treatment enhances developmental potential of porcine oocytes and
           early embryos by inhibiting apoptosis1
    • Authors: Li S; Guo Q, Wang Y, et al.
      Pages: 2427 - 2437
      Abstract: Glycine, a component of glutathione (GSH), plays an important role in protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of glycine on in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes and their developmental competence after parthenogenetic activation (PA). We examined nuclear maturation, ROS levels, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and ATP concentration, as well as the expression of several genes related to oocyte maturation and development. Our studies found that treatment with glycine in IVM culture medium increased nuclear maturation rate, but varying the concentrations of glycine (0.6, 6, or 12 mM) had no significant effect. Furthermore, 6 mM glycine supported greater blastocyst formation rates and lesser apoptosis after PA than the other concentrations (P < 0.05). All the glycine treatment groups had decreased levels of ROS in both matured oocytes and at the 2-cell stage (P < 0.05). At the 2-cell stage, the 6 mM glycine group had ROS levels that were lesser than the other 2 glycine treatment groups (0.6 and 12 mM). From this, we deemed 6 mM to be the optimal condition, and we then investigated the effects of 6 mM glycine on gene expression. The expression of both FGFR2 and Hsf1 were greater than the control group in mature oocytes. The glycine treatment group had greater levels of expression of an antiapoptotic gene (Bcl2) in mature oocytes and cumulus cells and lesser levels of expression of a proapoptotic gene (Bax) in PA blastocysts (P < 0.05). In addition, mitochondrial ΔΨm and ATP concentration were increased in 6 mM glycine group compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that glycine plays an important role in oocyte maturation and later development by reducing ROS levels and increasing mitochondrial function to reduce apoptosis.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky154
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Feed efficiency of tropically adapted cattle when fed in winter or spring
           in a temperate location1
    • Authors: Coleman S; Chase C, Phillips W, et al.
      Pages: 2438 - 2452
      Abstract: Earlier work has shown that young tropically adapted cattle do not gain weight as rapidly as temperately adapted cattle during the winter in Oklahoma. The objective for this study was to determine whether efficiency of gains was also affected in tropically adapted cattle and whether efficiency was consistent over different seasons. Over 3 yr, 240 straightbred and crossbred steers (F1 and 3-way crosses) of Angus, Brahman, or Romosinuano breeding, born in Brooksville, FL, were transported to El Reno, OK in October and fed in 2 phases to determine performance, individual intake, and efficiency. Phase 1 (WIN) began in November after a 28-d recovery from shipping stress and phase 2 (SS) began in March, 28 d following completion of WIN each year. The diet for WIN was a grower diet (14% CP, 1.10 Mcal NEg/kg) and that for the SS was a feedlot diet (12.8% CP; 1.33 Mcal NEg/kg). After a 14-d adjustment to diet and facilities, intake trials were conducted over a period of 56 to 162 d for determination of intake and gain for efficiency. Body weights were recorded at approximately 14-d intervals, and initial BW, median BW, and ADG were determined from individual animal regressions of BW on days on feed. Individual daily DMI was then regressed by phase on median BW and ADG, and residuals of regression were recorded as residual feed intake (RFI). Similarly, daily gain was regressed by phase on median BW and DMI, and errors of regression were recorded as residual gain (RADG). Gain to feed (G:F) was also calculated. The statistical model to evaluate ADG, DMI, and efficiency included fixed effects of dam age (3 to 4, 5, 6 to 10, and >10 yr), harvest group (3 per year), age on test, and a nested term DT (ST × XB), where DT is the proportion tropical breeding of dam (0, 0.5, or 1), ST is the proportion tropical breeding of sire (1 or 0), and XB whether the calf was straightbred or crossbred. Year of record, sire (ST × XB), and pen were random effects. Preweaning ADG and BW increased (P < 0.05) with level of genetic tropical influence, but during the WIN, ADG and efficiency estimated by G:F and RADG declined (P < 0.05). Tropical influence had little effect on RFI during the WIN, or on most traits during SS. In general, during SS, crossbred steers gained faster and were more efficient by G:F and RADG (P < 0.05) than straightbred steers. Simple correlations, both Pearson and Spearman, between RFI in WIN and RFI in SS were 0.51 (P < 0.001), whereas that for RADG was 0.17 (P < 0.01).
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky138
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Dietary protein reduction on microbial protein, amino acids digestibility,
           and body retention in beef cattle. I. Digestibility sites and ruminal
           synthesis estimated by purine bases and 15N as markers1
    • Authors: Mariz L; Amaral P, Valadares Filho S, et al.
      Pages: 2453 - 2467
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of reducing dietary CP contents on 1) total and partial nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance and 2) on microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis and true MCP digestibility in the small intestine obtained with 15N and purine bases (PB) in beef cattle. Eight bulls (4 Nellore and 4 Crossbred Angus × Nellore) cannulated in the rumen and ileum were distributed in duplicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. The diets consisted of increasing CP contents: 100, 120, or 140 g CP/kg DM offered ad libitum, and restricted intake (RI) diet with 120 g CP/kg DM. The experiment lasted four 17-d periods, with 10 d for adaptation to diets and another 7 for data collection. Omasal digesta flow was obtained using Co-EDTA and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as markers, and to estimate ileal digesta flow only iNDF was used. From days 11 to 17 of each experimental period, ruminal infusions of Co-EDTA (5.0 g/d) and 15N (7.03 g of ammonium sulfate enriched with 10% of 15N atoms) were performed. There was no effect of CP contents (linear effect, P = 0.55 and quadratic effect, P = 0.11) on ruminal OM digestibility. Intake of CP linearly increased (P < 0.01) with greater dietary CP. The NH3-N (P < 0.01) and urinary N excretion (P < 0.01) increased in response to dietary CP, whereas retained N increased linearly (P = 0.03). Liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) in the omasum had greater N content (P < 0.05) in relation to the particle-associated bacteria (PAB). There was no difference between LAB and PAB (P = 0.12) for 15N:14N ratio. The 15N:14N ratio was greater (P < 0.01) in RI animals in relation to those fed at voluntary intake. Microbial CP had a quadratic tendency (P = 0.09) in response to CP increase. Microbial efficiency (expressed in relation to apparent ruminally degradable OM and true ruminally degradable OM) had a quadratic tendency (P = 0.07 and P = 0.08, respectively) to CP increasing and was numerically greatest at 120 g CP/kg DM. The adjusted equations for estimating true intestinal digestibility of MCP (Y1) and total CP (Y2) were, respectively, as follows: Y1 =−-16.724(SEM = 40.06) + 0.86X(SEM = 0.05) and Y2 = −43.81(SEM = 49.19) + 0.75X(SEM = 0.05). It was concluded that diets with 120 g/kg of CP optimize the microbial synthesis and efficiency and ruminal ash and protein NDF digestibility, resulting in a better use of N compounds in the rumen. The PB technique can be used as an alternative to the 15N to estimate microbial synthesis.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky134
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infection in
           sheep, goats, and fallow deer farmed on the same area1
    • Authors: Moskwa B; Kornacka A, Cybulska A, et al.
      Pages: 2468 - 2473
      Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are coccidian parasites with a global distribution that cause reproductive failure and production losses in livestock. The seroprevalence of both parasite species in ruminants and Cervidae has been investigated worldwide and found to vary greatly. Studies carried out on mixed flocks with 3 ruminant species (sheep, goats, and fallow deer) living under the same conditions are excellent models for identifying any differences in the rate of infection with the 2 parasites between the animal species. Additionally, the species used in the present study differ in their feeding categories: grazers, browsers, and intermediate feeders. The aim of the study is to identify any variation in the prevalence of the 2 parasites in mixed flocks and to identify any possible relationships with food choice. The seroprevalence against T. gondii and N. caninum in 167 captive fallow deer, 64 sheep, and 39 goats were detected using commercially available ELISA. The seroprevalence for T. gondii achieved 10% in fallow deer, 21% in goats, and 47% in sheep. The seroprevalence for N. caninum achieved 13% in sheep and fallow deer and 21% in goats. Overall, 53% of the sheep, 33% of the goats, and 22% of the fallow deer were seropositive for both infections. Coinfection of T. gondii and N. caninum was detected in 6% of sheep, 8% of goats, and 2% of fallow deer. Statistical analyses of the seroprevalence levels observed between 2 parasites for each animal species revealed that only the results obtained for sheep were significant (P < 0.01). Additionally, the differences in the seroprevalence levels for T. gondii between sheep and goats and between sheep and fallow deer were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The results of the N. caninum seroprevalence levels observed among animal species were not significant. Although the variations in susceptibility to T. gondii and N. caninum infections demonstrated by the examined animals may affect the differences in seropositivity, these appear to be related to the feeding habits of the animal species. Therefore, the risk of infection by agents found close to the ground, such as coccidian oocysts, varies. Sheep as grazers are at a greater risk of infection by T. gondii than goats and fallow deer.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky122
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • An assessment of the effectiveness of virginiamycin on liver abscess
           incidence and growth performance in feedlot cattle: a comprehensive
           statistical analysis
    • Authors: Tedeschi L; Gorocica-Buenfil M.
      Pages: 2474 - 2489
      Abstract: The judicious use of commercial products in livestock operations can be part of a sustainable and environmentally friendly production scenario. This study was designed to gather published data of virginiamycin (VM) used in feedlot conditions of the United States and analyze its effectiveness and optimum dosage in reducing the liver abscess incidence (LAI). The dataset contained 26 studies that evaluated more than 7,156 animals of diverse breeds fed in several regions in the United States under different management. Statistical analyses included contingency tables to assess the nonparametric independence of the LAI, meta regression analysis to remove study effects and to evaluate LAI and animal performance, broken-line analysis to determine thresholds of VM dosage on LAI, and residual-based shading mosaic plots to illustrate the contingency analysis. There were 1,391 of 5,430 animals with LAI scores 1, 2, or 3 (LAI1–3) and 651 of 4,690 animals with LAI A+ (score 3). Our analyses suggested that there was a significant dependency (χ2P-value < 0.001) and significant asymmetry (McNemar’s test P-value < 0.001) between LAI and VM treatment for both LAI1–3 and LAI A+. For the LAI1–3 group, only 22.5% of the treated animals had liver abscesses compared with 31.7% of the control animals. The metaregression analysis indicated that LAI1–3 was linearly reduced (P < 0.001) by about 0.42% per mg/kg of DM of VM. The lower 95% confidence interval of the intercept for LAI1–3 and LAI A+ obtained with a generalized nonlinear mixed regression was 18.7 and 20.3 mg/kg of DM, respectively. The broken-line regression analysis identified 2 thresholds for LAI (23.9 and 12.3 mg/kg of DM) at which the reduction in total LAI1–3 and LAI A+, respectively, would decrease faster as VM dosage increases (from 2.14% to 6% and from 1.91% to 4.33% per mg of VM per kg of DM, respectively). Additionally, our analyses indicated that after accounting for the study effects, VM significantly increased ADG at 2.08 g BW/d per mg/kg DM compared with 0.92 g BW/d per mg/kg DM for monensin (P < 0.001), suggesting that VM was about 2.3 times more effective in increasing ADG for the same dosage and feeding period length. All analyses yielded consistent results that led us to conclude that VM is effective in reducing LAI when fed between approximately 12 and 24 mg/kg of DM, and the maximum reduction might occur at approximately 24 mg/kg of DM or higher.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky121
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Effects of feeding corn silage from short-season hybrids and extending the
           backgrounding period on production performance and carcass traits of beef
           cattle
    • Authors: Chibisa G; Beauchemin K.
      Pages: 2490 - 2503
      Abstract: Corn silage (CS) acreage in western Canada continues to expand with CS being used increasingly in feedlot cattle diets where barley silage (BS) previously was the main forage fed. Our study evaluated the effects of increasing the amounts of CS in backgrounding (BKGN) diets on performance of cattle by 1) replacing BS with early-maturing CS, 2) increasing the proportion of CS in the diet, and 3) extending the BKGN duration. A total of 160 steers (mean BW ± SD; 272 ± 22.4 kg) were used in a completely randomized design. Steers were assigned to 16 pens and fed BKGN diets (4 pens per diet) that contained 60% BS (DM basis; CON), 60% CS (60CS), 75% CS (75CS), or 90% CS (90CS) until reaching a mean pen BW of either 380 (SBKGN) or 430 ± 15 kg (LBKGN) with 2 pens per treatment. All steers were finished (FIN diet; 9% CS, 86% barley grain, and 5% supplement) to an equal-BW end point (700 ± 15 kg LW). During BKGN and FIN phases, DMI, ADG, and G:F were measured for all pens. Carcass data also were collected. No BKGN diet × duration interactions were statistically significant (P ≥ 0.412) for most production measures. As dietary CS content was increased during BKGN, DMI and ADG decreased (quadratic; P ≤ 0.003). There also was a tendency (P = 0.078) for a decrease in G:F at the highest level of CS. As expected, LBKGN steers took longer (105 vs. 71 d; P = 0.001) than SBKGN steers to reach the BKGN target end weight. In addition, as a result of their heavier weight at the beginning of FIN, LBKGN steers also had a higher DMI (11.6 vs. 11.0 kg/d; P = 0.045) than SBKGN steers. However, no carryover effects (P ≥ 0.354) of BKGN diet on DMI, ADG, and G:F were significant during the FIN phase. Similarly, the BKGN diet and duration had no effect (P ≥ 0.219) on carcass traits including HCW, dressing percentage, and quality grade. However, we detected an interaction between BKGN diet and duration on backfat thickness (P = 0.009); SBKGN steers that were fed 75CS during BKGN accumulated more backfat during FIN than LBKGN steers that were fed 75CS during BKGN, and because they were lighter at the beginning of FIN they took longer to reach 700 kg BW, their end point. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of CS (up to 90% of diet DM) in place of BS and extending the BKGN period had marginal effects on FIN performance or carcass traits in our study. Therefore, beef producers can make extensive use of early-maturing CS in growing cattle diets without compromising animal performance or carcass quality.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky099
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Comparison of trace mineral repletion strategies in feedlot steers to
           overcome diets containing high concentrations of sulfur and molybdenum
    • Authors: Hartman S; Genther-Schroeder O, Hansen S.
      Pages: 2504 - 2515
      Abstract: To compare trace mineral (TM) repletion in feedlot steers after depletion by S and Mo, 72 Red Angus steers blocked by BW (253 ± 14 kg) were assigned (6 steers per pen, fed via GrowSafe bunks) to corn silage depletion diets (depletion, DEP) supplemented with NRC (1996) recommended concentrations of Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn (CON) or supplemented with 0.3% S (CaSO4), 2 mg of Mo/kg dry matter (DM), and no added Cu, Mn, Zn, or Se (antagonist, ANT). Three 62 d TM repletion strategies (repletion, REP) were applied within DEP diets on day 89: 1) Multimin90 injection (contains Cu, Mn, Se, Zn) and 100% of recommended Cu, Mn, Zn, and Se from inorganic sources (ITM), 2) saline injection and 150% of recommended TM from inorganic sources (ING), or 3) saline injection and 150% of recommended TM provided as 25% organic and 75% inorganic sources (BLEND). Subcutaneous injections were given at 1 mL/68 kg BW. Inorganic sources were Cu, Mn, and Zn SO4, and sodium selenite, and organic sources were Availa Cu, Mn and Zn, and SelPlex Se. Repletion period liver and blood were collected on day −10, 14, 28, and 42 and data were analyzed as a 2 × 3 factorial (n = 12 steers per treatment) using Proc Glimmix of SAS with plasma and liver analytes analyzed as repeated measures. Liver Cu, Se, and Mn were decreased (P < 0.01) by ANT during DEP. There were no DEP × REP × day interactions in liver TM (P ≥ 0.18). A DEP × day effect was noted for liver Cu (P < 0.01) and Mn (P = 0.07), where ANT Cu increased linearly from day 0 to day 42, CON Cu was slightly increased on day 14 and day 28, and ANT Mn was lesser than CON Mn on all days except day 42. There were REP × day effects on liver Cu (P < 0.01) and Se (P < 0.01) where status was improved by ITM by day 14, increased in BLEND by day 28, and not different by day 42. Liver Se concentrations were lesser (P < 0.01) in ANT vs. CON throughout repletion. Liver Zn was greater (P < 0.01) on day 0 than day 14, 28, and 42, and concentrations were greater on day 42 than day 28. Glutathione peroxidase activity tended to be lesser (P = 0.07) on day 14 relative to other days. Manganese superoxide dismutase activity was lesser (P < 0.01) on day 14 and 28 compared to day 0 and 42, and tended to be lesser (P = 0.06) in ANT than CON during repletion. Final body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.60), and ANT decreased dry matter intake (DMI) (P = 0.04) and improved G:F (P < 0.01) during repletion. All repletion strategies were effective at increasing TM status of steers, and ITM had the most rapid recovery of Cu and Se status, followed by BLEND, and ING.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/jas/sky088
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 6 (2018)
       
 
 
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