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Showing 1 - 54 of 54 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat and Muscle Biology     Open Access  
Media Peternakan     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
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Journal Cover
The Professional Animal Scientist
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.359
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1080-7446
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • ase+Study:+Assessment+of+human-conditioned+sorting+behavior+in+dairy+cows+in+farm+research+trials&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Case Study: Assessment of human-conditioned sorting behavior in dairy cows
           in farm research trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): Diego Manriquez, Liang Chen, Gabriel Albornoz, Juan Velez, Pablo PinedoABSTRACTCow–human interactions influence and modulate group and individual behaviors of dairy cows. The objective was to test the effectiveness of human sorting on separating subgroups of dairy cows in on-farm studies and to assess the level of conditioning to this activity. Three sorting methods were compared: (1) human active sorting at the pen gate (AS); (2) human presence as passive sorting (PS); and (3) nonhuman gate sorting (GS). Holstein cows (n = 176) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 subgroups (A = 91 animals and B = 85 animals) to be sequentially separated by 3 sorting methods. Each method was applied once per day after the morning milking during 5 d, and the proportions of cows correctly allocated in each group were recorded and compared. Additionally, an individual error index rate (number of errors per number of days observed) was calculated for each individual cow. When AS was applied, the total proportion of animals correctly sorted was 99.8%, whereas PS had 94.8% of total sorting accuracy. Cows lost the self-sorting behavior when exposed to nonhuman GS. The daily average of animals correctly placed was greater for AS when compared with PS (175 ± 1.7 vs. 166.6 ± 3.5; P = 0.005). Cows in the group that had longer walking distances to their subpen had greater individual error rate, especially when PS was applied. After a period of training, lactating dairy cows became conditioned to human sorting, which represents an opportunity to perform animal separation without intense human labor or stress for the animals.
  • ase+Study:+Effect+of+exercise+programs+during+receiving+in+a+commercial+feedlot+on+behavior+and+productivity+of+Brahman+crossbred+calves:+Results+from+a+commercial+environment+and+a+comparison+to+the+research+environment&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Case Study: Effect of exercise programs during receiving in a commercial
           feedlot on behavior and productivity of Brahman crossbred calves: Results
           from a commercial environment and a comparison to the research environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): Courtney L. Daigle, Amanda J. Mathias, Emily E. Ridge, Ron Gill, Tryon A. Wickersham, Jason E. SawyerABSTRACTExercising receiving cattle is hypothesized to be a management strategy that could mitigate receiving stress in cattle. Little empirical research has been published on the quantifiable (productivity, health, behavior) effects of this strategy in a commercial feedyard setting. In a single Texas feedyard case study, high-risk Brahman-crossbred receiving calves (n = 688; 184 ± 5 kg) were exercised during the receiving period in the fall. Upon arrival, calves were sorted into single-sex pens (n = 6 pens: n = 3 pens heifers, n = 3 pens steers) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments within sex blocks: (1) programmatic exercise (PRO; cattle moved to drive alley and encouraged to maintain movement for 20 min), (2) free exercise (FRE; cattle moved to drive alley and allowed free movement without access to the pen for 60 min), or (3) no exercise (CON). Treatments were applied (n = 12 sessions; 3 sessions per week) across a 30-d period, between 0800 and 1000 h at least 1 h after feed delivery. Gain-to-feed ratio and mortality rate were similar among treatments. Cattle assigned to CON had greater ADG than did those assigned to FRE or PRO (1.52, 1.39, and 1.44 kg/d). Percentage of calves treated for respiratory disease was greater in FRE and PRO compared with CON. The proportion of the pen lying and resting simultaneously increased and the proportion of the pen feeding, drinking, ruminating, and walking decreased over time. Exercise treatments did not compromise gain efficiency or behavior; however, exercised cattle had smaller ADG. These results suggest that exercise reduces receiving-period gains without improving animal health or altering behaviors.
  • Effects of injectable trace minerals on reproductive performance of beef
           heifers in adequate trace mineral status
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): S.A. Springman, J.G. Maddux, M.E. Drewnoski, R.N. FunstonABSTRACTRed Angus–based, May-born heifers (n = 799) at 2 locations (Maddux Ranches, Wauneta, NE) were used to evaluate an injectable trace mineral on reproductive performance. Following October weaning, heifers were backgrounded in a feedlot until reaching a BW of 295 kg and then moved to native range at location 1 (n = 125) or location 2 (n = 286) in early March. Additional heifers (n = 388) grazed corn residue with cows, weaned in April, and were backgrounded until reaching 295 kg and then transported to locations 1 and 2 by early June. Free-choice mineral was available at both locations. Initial liver mineral status before treatment (n = 22; 307 kg) was adequate and not different (P> 0.26) among winter locations (copper = 146 μg/g, manganese = 9.22 μg/g, selenium = 1.54 μg/g, and zinc = 115 μg/g). Heifers were synchronized with a 14-d controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) timed-AI protocol and injected with a trace mineral (5 mL, Multimin 90; MM, n = 399) or not (CON, n = 400) at CIDR insertion. Bulls were with heifers on range 60 d following AI. The proportion of heifers pregnant within the first 21 d was not different (P = 0.32; 69 vs. 62 ± 3%; CON vs. MM) nor were those pregnant within 33 d (P = 0.57; 86 vs. 77 ± 2%; CON vs. MM) or overall pregnancy rates (P = 0.38; 95 vs. 93 ± 1%; CON vs. MM). Injectable trace mineral 33 d before AI did not influence reproductive performance in heifers with adequate trace mineral status.
  • Dry matter loss, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of wet
           brewers grains ensiled with various amounts of dry ground corn
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): L.F. Ferraretto, T. Fernandes, W.I. Silva Filho, H. Sultana, P. MorielABSTRACTStorage of wet brewers grain (WBG) for longer periods is challenging, and alternative techniques are required. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentation profile, dry matter loss, and aerobic stability of WBG ensiled alone or with various concentrations of dry ground corn (DGC). Samples of DGC and WBG were weighed separately and mixed forming 3 treatments: WBG alone (23% DM), a mixture of 25% DGC and 75% WBG (as-fed basis) to achieve a DM concentration of 35%, and a mixture of 46% DGC and 54% WBG (as-fed basis) to achieve 50% of DM. Samples were allowed to ferment for 0, 14, or 28 d in triplicate laboratory silos (3.78 L per bucket). Concentration (DM basis) of CP decreased (P = 0.001) with both the inclusion and the level of inclusion of DGC in the mixture. Concentration (DM basis) of water-soluble carbohydrates decreased (P = 0.001) with the inclusion of DGC in the mixture. A treatment × storage length interaction was observed (P = 0.001) for pH, but the change in patterns differed among treatments. Both, the inclusion (P = 0.01) and greater amounts of inclusion of DGC to the mixture (P = 0.001) decreased lactic acid concentration. Mixing WBG with DGC increased (P = 0.02) acetic acid concentration. Aerobic stability tended (P = 0.08) to be 12 h longer for both mixtures of WBG and DGC. Under the conditions of the present study, averaged across storage lengths, mixing WBG with DGC did not significantly speed acidification, decrease the final pH, or prolong aerobic stability of WBG.
  • Effects of field pea supplementation on digestibility and rumen volatile
           fatty acid concentrations of beef-cattle diets containing high and low
           quality forages
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): H.L. Greenwell, J.L. Gramkow, M.L. Jolly-Breithaupt, J.C. MacDonald, K.H. JenkinsABSTRACTField peas (Pisum sativum) are increasingly available with limited data on the effects on forage digestibility. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of field pea supplementation in forage-based diets on total-tract digestibility and RUP digestibility in growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 5 ruminally fistulated steers (202 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial. The first factor was high quality forage (50% alfalfa, 50% sorghum silage) or low quality forage (50% bromegrass hay, 50% wheat straw). The second factor was supplement type: a nonsupplemented control (CON), dry-rolled corn (DRC), or ground field peas (FP), supplemented at 0.43% of BW. Each diet was fed for 14 d. There were no interactions between forage quality and supplement type for digestibility estimates (P ≥ 0.25). Intake and digestibility of OM were greater with high quality forage (4.96 kg/d and 64.2%, respectively) than with low quality forage (3.60 kg/d and 50.1%, respectively; P < 0.01). The FP supplement increased DMI and OM digestibility (6.14 ± 0.512 kg/d and 61.6 ± 1.94%, respectively) over DRC (5.33 kg/d and 56.1%, respectively) or CON (4.80 kg/d and 53.8%, respectively; P ≤ 0.03); DRC and CON did not differ in intake or OM digestibility. In Exp. 2, the RUP digestibility of field peas was evaluated using a mobile bag technique. The RUP content of FP was 32.6 ± 4.39% and 35.2 ± 4.39% with a postruminal digestibility of 97.4 and 98.9 ± 1.17% for yr 1 and 2, respectively, for FP grown in 2 growing seasons. Field peas are an acceptable supplement in forage diets.
  • Evaluation of the safety of an algal biomass as an ingredient for
           finishing cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): M.M. Norman, Z.E. Carlson, F.H. Hilscher, G.E. Erickson, B.W. Brodersen, J.D. Loy, J.W. Wilson, C. Rabe, A.K. WatsonABSTRACTCoproducts of n-3 fatty acid production from algae are a potential feed resource for cattle. A study was conducted evaluating feeding algal biomass to cattle. Crossbred cattle (20 steers and 20 heifers, 255 kg initial BW, SD = 14) were individually fed 4 inclusions of condensed algal residue solubles (CARS; 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5% of diet DM) displacing dry-rolled corn in the finishing diet for a minimum of 97 d. Increasing CARS inclusion in the diet quadratically increased DMI and ADG (P ≤ 0.01) and linearly increased G:F (P < 0.01), NEm, and NEg. Out of 27 organs measured, 6 had differences due to treatment in absolute weight and weight as a percentage of BW. Weight of the liver, pancreas, jejunum, and heart linearly increased (P ≤ 0.05) and weight of the thyroid and gall bladder quadratically increased (P ≤ 0.04) as CARS inclusion in the diet increased. However, organ weights were all within expected ranges, and histopathology analysis of organs revealed no differences due to treatment (P ≥ 0.24). Hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations quadratically decreased (P = 0.05) and red blood cell distribution width linearly increased (P = 0.02) as CARS inclusion increased; no other differences were observed for hematology measures (P ≥ 0.11). Out of 21 blood chemistry measures, 8 were affected by treatment (P ≤ 0.02). Inclusion of up to 7.5% of diet DM as CARS had no adverse effect on cattle and improved performance when fed up to 5.0% of the diet DM.
  • Evaluation of solubles syrup from microbially enhanced soy protein
           production as a supplement for growing dairy heifers
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): C.R. Schossow, J.L. Anderson, W.R. GibbonsABSTRACTThe objective of this research was to conduct a preliminary study to determine whether solubles syrup from microbially enhanced soy protein production is viable as a supplement for growing dairy heifers. A 6-wk study with a randomized complete block design was conducted using 14 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss heifers [310 ± 16.4 d of age; BW = 337.6 ± 33 kg]. Treatments were (1) a control TMR (CON) and (2) a TMR with 6.5% microbially enhanced soy protein solubles syrup (DM basis) in partial replacement of soybean meal and corn (SYP). Both diets contained similar inclusion rates of corn silage, grass hay, and mineral mix and were balanced to be comparable in CP and energy. Heifers were fed for ad libitum intakes using a Calan gate feeding system. Frame sizes, BW, and BCS were measured every 2 wk of the feeding period, and coccygeal blood samples and rumen fluid, sampled via esophageal tube, were collected every 2 wk at 4 h after feeding. Fecal grab samples were collected in wk 6. Dry matter intake, BW, and ADG were similar between treatments. Frame measurements and BCS were similar. Rumen fermentation profiles were similar; however, ammonia-nitrogen was greater for CON. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration was greater for CON; all other blood metabolites were similar. The SYP treatment had greater NDF, DM, and OM total-tract digestibility, and there was a tendency for increased CP and ADF digestibility. Results indicate that there is potential for solubles syrup from microbially enhanced soy protein production as a protein replacement in growing heifer diets.
  • 1 1&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Enteric nitrous oxide emissions from beef cattle 1 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): David B. Parker, Beverly Meyer, Tracy Jennings, Jenny Jennings, Holland Dougherty, N. Andy Cole, Ken CaseyABSTRACTNitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a higher global warming potential than carbon dioxide (CO2) or methane (CH4). The objectives of this research were to quantify enteric N2O emissions from beef cattle and determine effects of dietary nitrate (NO3) concentrations. Experiments consisted of one in vitro incubation trial and 2 live animal (LA) trials. During the in vitro trial, gas was collected from 4 forage-based and 5 corn-based diets. During the LA trials, emissions were monitored from steers in respiration chambers. In LA trial 1, 5 measurements of 256 to 720 min were conducted on a single steer within a 48-h period. In LA trial 2, measurements were conducted on 4 steers in the absence of manure. Highest in vitro N2O production was from diets containing added NO3 or alfalfa. In vitro N2O increased with dietary NO3 concentrations (r2 = 0.99), with little correlation to dietary CP (r2 = 0.17). Added NO3 decreased CH4 emissions. Mean N2O emission rates (±SD) from the LA trials were 6.93 ± 2.99 mg of N2O∙kg−1 of DMI in trial 1 and 2.20 ± 0.10 mg of N2O∙kg−1 of DMI in trial 2. Mean enteric N2O emissions accounted for 0.35% (LA trial 1) and 0.12% (LA trial 2) of CO2 equivalents. Enteric N2O emission rates were 6 to 40 times lower than values cited in earlier publications. Enteric N2O emission rates were also 58 to 108 times lower than manure emissions. Therefore, efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle should focus on enteric CH4 and manure N2O as opposed to enteric N2O.
  • 1 1&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Adoption of management practices and breed types by US grass-fed beef
           producers 1 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): I. Sitienei, J. Gillespie, G. ScagliaABSTRACTUsing data from a 2013 survey, adoption rates of 14 farm operations and management practices, as well as frequencies of breed types adopted by US grass-fed beef producers, are provided. The management practices are classified into 3 broad groups or categories: general management (access to shade during summer, castration, animal identification system, vaccination, deworming, and insect control), reproductive (defined breeding season, breeding records, pregnancy checking, bull test, and AI), and technological or informational (searching the internet for grass-fed beef information, keeping individual animal records, and testing the quality of forage). Multivariate probit and joint Poisson models were used to analyze determinants of adoption of the management practices. A summary of breeds used by producers is provided. Results indicate that larger-scale producers who were involved in the cow-calf segment and sold grass-fed beef as meat were the more likely adopters of most of the management practices. The Angus breed and Angus crosses were the most heavily used animals. The results provide insight for research and extension personnel in determining the predominant structure of grass-fed beef farms and the practices used and, hence, in developing research and educational programs to further assist the grass-fed beef segment.
  • Influence of small doses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone following
           controlled internal drug-release insert removal on reproductive parameters
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): Jerica J.J. Rich, Emmalee J. Northrop, Stephanie D. Perkins, George A. PerryABSTRACTHeifers and cows that exhibit estrus before fixed-time AI have increased concentrations of estradiol and greater conception rates compared with those that do not. Our objective was to determine whether small doses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone following controlled internal drug-release insert removal would affect estradiol concentrations, estrus expression, or pregnancy success. Beef cattle (n = 247) were synchronized using the 7-d CO-Synch+CIDR protocol and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (0 μg,10 μg, or 5 + 5 μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone). Animals were observed for estrus, blood samples were collected, and animals were bred by appointment. Concentrations of estradiol were influenced by time (P < 0.0001) but not by treatment (P = 0.52) or a treatment-by-time interaction (P = 0.68). Estrus was not influenced by age (P = 0.36), treatment (P = 0.92), or a treatment-by-age interaction (P = 0.58). Conception rates were influenced by estrus (P < 0.01), treatment (P = 0.04), and a treatment-by-estrus (P < 0.01) interaction but were not influenced by age (P = 0.27), treatment by age (P = 0.84), or treatment by estrus by age (P = 0.94). Animals administered 5 + 5 μg had increased conception rates (P = 0.01; 69 ± 6%) compared with animals administered 10 μg and tended to be increased (P = 0.11) compared with 0 μg, which did not differ from 10 μg (53 ± 6% vs. 42 ± 8%, respectively). In conclusion, 5 + 5 μg did not affect concentrations of estradiol or estrus expression but did improve conception to AI.
  • eview:+Sperm:+Comparative+morphology+and+function+related+to+altered+reproductive+strategies+and+fertility+in+mammals&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Review: Sperm: Comparative morphology and function related to altered
           reproductive strategies and fertility in mammals
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): Shannon Kate Thompson, Naseer A. Kutchy, Samantha Kwok, Zulfi N.A. Rosyada, Ikhide G. Imumorin, Bambang Purwantara, Erdogan MemiliABSTRACTReproduction and development are fascinating processes that exhibit significant differences among mammals. Successful propagation of species depends on male fertility and the ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg and support early development. Remarkably, the specifics of how sperm structure and function have evolved and their crucial roles in fertility remain largely unknown. This synthesis provides a concise review of comparative anatomy and physiology of mammalian sperm structure and how inevitable changes regulate fertility.
  • nvited+Review:+Detection+and+management+of+pregnancy+loss+in+the+cow+herd 1 1&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Invited Review: Detection and management of pregnancy loss in the cow
           herd 1 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): S.L. Speckhart, S.T. Reese, G.A. Franco, T.B. Ault, R.V. Oliveira Filho, A.P. Oliveira, J.A. Green, J.L.M. Vasconcelos, K.G. PohlerABSTRACTVarious methods and tools have been developed to detect and manage pregnancy loss in cattle to maximize reproductive efficiency by increasing pregnancy rates and decreasing pregnancy loss. Embryonic mortality constitutes the majority of pregnancy loss in cattle and can be divided into 2 periods: early embryonic mortality (
  • nvited+Review:+Effect+of+early-life+nutrition+on+the+molecular+and+physiological+regulation+of+puberty+onset+in+the+bull 1 1&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Invited Review: Effect of early-life nutrition on the molecular and
           physiological regulation of puberty onset in the bull 1 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): D.A. Kenny, K. Keogh, C.J. ByrneABSTRACTThe advent of genomic selection has accentuated interest in procuring saleable semen from young genetically elite bulls as early in life as possible. However, the timing of availability of semen for commercial use will be determined by the age at which these young animals reach puberty and subsequent sexual maturity. Enhancing early-life nutrition stimulates the functionality of the hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular axis, mediated through complex biochemical interplay between metabolic and neuroendocrine signals and culminating in enhanced testicular growth, steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and ultimately, earlier onset of sexual maturation. Indeed, recent evidence indicates that the timing of sexual precocity, which is dictated by an early gonadotropin rise (8–20 wk of age) in the bull, is determined by prevailing metabolic status during calfhood and is not compensable even where prior undernutrition is followed by dietary augmentation. However, despite this, the precise neuronal mechanisms regulating these developmental processes remain to be elucidated for the bull. Although early-life nutrition clearly affects the sexual maturation process, there is little evidence for latent effects on postpubertal semen characteristics. Equally, postpubertal fertility, measured as in vitro fertilization and early embryogenesis, is not influenced by nutritional status during early life. Current efforts employing high throughput nucleic acid and proteomic sequencing and targeted immunofluorescence coupled with systems biology–based gene network analyses can provide further insight on how nutrition may mediate the biochemical interaction between neuroendocrine and testicular cellular processes. Such information can be harnessed to identify potential genomic targets as part of genomically assisted breeding programs as well as facilitate development of strategic nutritional regimens to optimize sexual maturation and subsequent semen availability from genetically elite young bulls.
  • nvited+Review:+Focusing+on+bull+management+and+puberty+attainment+in+the+genomic+era 1 1&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Invited Review: Focusing on bull management and puberty attainment in the
           genomic era 1 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 6Author(s): B.R. HarstineABSTRACTAn increased emphasis on decreasing generation intervals due to genomic selection has greatly influenced the management of bulls at AI organizations. Before genomics, the genetic value of an AI sire was determined by examining the phenotype and production traits of his daughters (i.e., proofs), and the minimum age at which sires were debuted to the industry (proven) was approximately 4 to 4.5 yr of age. Currently, one decade after the introduction of genomics to the industry, unproven, genomically tested sires between 1.5 and 4 yr of age account for half or more of AI unit sales for most major AI organizations. Accordingly, bulls destined for AI use receive optimum care and nutrition from birth, and there is a renewed interest in examining endocrine modulation’s role in puberty attainment and testicular development in bulls. In practice, hastening puberty in bulls can be used concurrently with modern techniques of oocyte collection in prepubertal heifers to minimize generation intervals in cattle, thus increasing the rate of genetic advancement. The use of young genomic bulls will likely increase or remain stable in the future, and accordingly, AI organizations will continue to focus on optimizing bull management to ensure top tier genetics are available to the industry.
  • ase+Study:+Effects+of+body+weight+gain+and+bovine+somatotropin+treatment+of+postpartum+beef+cows+on+concentrations+of+IGF-1,+insulin,+and+glucose+in+blood+plasma;+luteal+activity;+and+calf+growth 1 1&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Case Study: Effects of body weight gain and bovine somatotropin treatment
           of postpartum beef cows on concentrations of IGF-1, insulin, and glucose
           in blood plasma; luteal activity; and calf growth 1 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): M.J. Cooper-Prado, I. Rubio, N.M. Long, M.P. Davis, L.J. Spicer, R.P. WettemannABSTRACTAngus × Hereford cows (2 and 3 yr of age, n = 37) were used to evaluate the effects of postpartum BW gain and treatment with bovine somatotropin (bST) on concentrations of IGF-I, glucose, and insulin in plasma during early lactation; luteal activity; and calf growth. Cows (456 ± 52 kg, BCS = 4.6 ± 0.4) were stratified based on calving date and BCS and randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial: weight gain ≤0.4 kg/d (MWG) or>0.4 kg/d (HWG) during 24 to 59 d postpartum, injection with bST or saline (CON) on d 31 and 45 postpartum, and 2 or 3 yr of age. Concentrations of IGF-I in plasma before bST treatment were greater (P = 0.02) for HWG compared with MWG cows, and IGF-I was greater (P < 0.01) after bST in HWG bST cows compared with MWG bST, MWG CON, or HWG CON cows. Concentrations of glucose in plasma were greater (P ≤ 0.01) in HWG bST cows compared with HWG CON, MWG CON, and MWG bST cows after bST treatment. Weight gain and treatment with bST did not influence the percentage of cows with luteal activity by 59 d after calving. Average daily gain of calves to 140 d of age was greater (P < 0.01) for HWG-treated and tended to be greater (P = 0.06) for bST-treated cows compared with MWG and CON cows, respectively. Weight gain of young lactating beef cows increased plasma concentrations of IGF-I and glucose after treatment with bST.
  • ase+Study:+Effects+of+inclusion+of+wet+brewers+grains+on+the+growth+performance,+carcass+characteristics,+and+meat+quality+of+finishing+cattle&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Case Study: Effects of inclusion of wet brewers grains on the growth
           performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): R.T. Parmenter, J.W. Rickard, D.M. JamesABSTRACTWet brewers grains (WBG) are an increasingly available by-product of the growing craft beer industry that may be useful in finishing cattle rations. Therefore, the objective of this pilot study was to determine the effects of including WBG sourced from craft brewing on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing steers and heifers. Twenty-four [n = 24; 12 heifers (303 kg), 12 steers (346 kg)] crossbred calves were blocked by BW within sex to 12 pens (2 calves of the same sex per pen) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 replications per treatment and fed for 140 d. Model factors included calf sex and finishing diet [corn silage and whole shelled corn finishing diet (control) and control + 7.2% WBG]. Primal ribs (Institutional Meat Purchase Specification #103) were obtained and rib eye steaks (Institutional Meat Purchase Specification #1112) were fabricated from the 9th to 11th rib portion for additional analyses. No differences were observed in total gain, ADG, or G:F between diets (P> 0.05). However, there was a diet × sex interaction (P < 0.001) for DMI in which inclusion of WBG increased DMI in heifers compared with steers. There were no differences (P> 0.05) in HCW, YG, or marbling score, but rib fat thickness was less (P = 0.020) in WBG calves than in control calves. Diet did not alter Warner-Bratzler shear force, package purge, or cook loss measurements (P> 0.05). These data indicate low-level inclusion of WBG can maintain performance and quality of finishing cattle similar to conventional finishing diets.
  • ase+Study:+Regional+assessment+of+mineral+element+concentrations+in+Idaho+forage+and+range+grasses&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Case Study: Regional assessment of mineral element concentrations in Idaho
           forage and range grasses
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): J.E. Sprinkle, S.D. Baker, J.A. Church, J.R. Findlay, S.M. Graf, K.S. Jensen, S.K. Williams, C.M. Willmore, J.B. Lamb, D.W. HansenABSTRACTThe objective was to quantify forage mineral concentrations in Idaho and evaluate changes due to seasonality and irrigation. Forage was sampled on rangeland and irrigated pastures in summer and fall from 35 locations in 9 counties and analyzed for Ca, P, K, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo, Co, and Se. Statistical analysis was by pasture type using mixed model repeated measures with fixed effects being county, season, and county × season. Location within county was a random effect. Samples were also analyzed by soil type with type of forage, season, and type × season as fixed effects and location within soil type as the repeated random effect. The macrominerals P, Mg, and Na were deficient in rangeland forage, and Na was deficient in irrigated forage. Potassium was deficient on fall rangeland. Deficient trace minerals for both pasture types were Cu, Se, and Zn. Cobalt was deficient on both types of summer pasture. Antagonistic minerals were Mo and Fe. Forage macromineral concentrations declined (P < 0.05) from summer to fall for P and K on irrigated pasture and for P, K, and S on rangeland. Iron increased (P < 0.0005) from summer to fall on both types of pasture. Clay loam soils had greater (P < 0.05) Fe and Co and less Se than did sandy loam soils. Forage sampling confirmed the importance of obtaining duplicate samples for laboratory analyses, especially for Se. Pairing a customized mineral mix to forage deficits is a plausible management option for beef cattle operations in Idaho.
  • Effects of squared-toe or perimeter-fit horseshoes on quality of movement
           and gait kinematics of the western pleasure horse
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): Laura White, Paeden Underwood, Libby Hirtz, Douglas Hogue, Kelly WalterABSTRACTOur objective was to evaluate gait quality and kinematics of the western pleasure horse shod with a squared-toe aluminum shoe (ST) in comparison with a perimeter-fit aluminum shoe (PF) on the thoracic digit. Nine Quarter horses were used in a repeated-measures study and randomly selected to be shod with either a ST or PF shoe for 6 wk and then reshod with the opposing treatment. Horses were videoed being ridden at the walk, jog, and lope 2 wk after each shoeing cycle. Evaluations of forelimb gait kinematics (stride length, metacarpophalangeal extension, humeroradial and carpal range of motion) were performed by EquineTec gait software analysis (Equine Tec Inc., Monroe, GA), and evaluation of quality of movement was conducted by 10 equine judging professionals. Quality of movement scores were not different (P> 0.45) for the walk, jog, or lope. Kinematic advantages of the PF treatment were revealed, including increased humeroradial extension (P < 0.05), increased (P < 0.02) carpal flexion at most gaits, increased (P < 0.01) carpal extension at most gaits, increased (P < 0.05) metacarpophalangeal extension at the jog and lope, and longer (P = 0.02) stride length at the lope. Results indicate that kinematic evaluation by video analysis software reveals advantages in stride length and thoracic limb extension of western pleasure horses when shod with the PF shoe. However, pragmatic evaluation by professional judges reveals no advantages to either treatment; therefore, the industry has the option to use a PF horseshoe and achieve the same quality of movement as the ST, while potentially amplifying the longevity of the western pleasure horse.
  • Evaluation of current United States swine selection indexes and indexes
           designed for Chinese pork production
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): J. Cheng, D.W. Newcom, M.M. Schutz, Q. Cui, B. Li, H. Zhang, A.P. SchinckelABSTRACTThe objective was to compare selection indexes based on the production costs and economic values from the United States and China. Indexes including terminal sire (TSI), maternal line (MLI), and sow productivity (SPI) were calculated based on the production costs and market prices for the United States and China. Estimated breeding values for days to 113.5 kg, backfat depth, loin muscle area, number born alive, number weaned, litter weight adjusted to 21 d, days from weaning to estrus, and litter birth weight were provided by a Chinese pig breeding company to evaluate alternative TSI and MLI indexes. The Duroc data included 559 dams, 39 sires, 5,079 boars, and 4,809 gilts. The Landrace data included 199 dams, 83 sires, 2,749 boars, and 2,750 gilts. The Yorkshire data included 1,368 dams, 139 sires, 18,481 boars, and 17,962 gilts. The means, SD, and correlations for the estimated breeding values and indexes were calculated. The Chinese TSI values were more highly correlated (r = 0.97 to 0.99) with the US indexes than the MLI values (r = 0.92 to 0.97). Overall, the Chinese indexes had greater SD (TSI, 58 to 87% greater; SPI, 22 to 26% greater; MLI, 43 to 76% greater). The TSI were all highly correlated (r>0.98) with feed conversion. The Chinese MLI values had greater correlations with TSI and lesser correlations with SPI than the US indexes. The Chinese MLI placed greater emphasis on the postweaning traits but less emphasis on sow productivity traits than did the current US MLI.
  • ase+Study:+Intake+and+apparent+digestibility+by+beef+calves+of+Alamo+and+Cave-in-Rock+switchgrass+cultivars+harvested+as+hay+at+3+different+maturities&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&">Case Study: Intake and apparent digestibility by beef calves of Alamo and
           Cave-in-Rock switchgrass cultivars harvested as hay at 3 different
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): D. Davis, G. Aiken, D.A. Llewellyn, K. Lea, S.R. SmithABSTRACTThere has been increased interest in using switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a biomass crop. There are several challenges to developing this industry, and these have led to the potential use of switchgrass as hay for feeding beef cattle in Kentucky. The effect of increasing maturity on concentrations of CP, NDF, ADF, and other nutritive value indicators of switchgrass hay is well documented, but few in vivo intake and digestibility trials have been conducted to assess this effect on beef cattle performance. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of increasing plant maturity on DMI, apparent digestible DMI, and DM digestibility, and to investigate potential challenges for producers when incorporating switchgrass hay into their forage rotation for feeding beef cattle. Two in vivo intake and digestibility trials were conducted in 2011 in which Angus × Hereford beef steers (199.5 to 264.9 kg) were fed ad libitum Alamo and Cave-in-Rock switchgrass harvested as late vegetative, boot, and early flowering hay. Dry matter intake decreased by 1.0 and 0.6% of BW from late vegetative to early flowering stages with Alamo and Cave-in-Rock cultivars, respectively. Similarly, DM digestibility decreased by 15.9 and 18.5% and digestible DMI decreased by 1.0 and 0.6% of BW. Observed decreases in nutritive value, DMI, apparent digestible DMI, and DM digestibility indicate that producers should harvest Alamo and Cave-in-Rock switchgrass before it reaches the boot stage of maturity.
  • Performance of stocker cattle grazing bales in winter and supplemented
           with wheat-based dried distillers grains plus solubles or barley grain in
           western Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): H. A. (Bart) Lardner, K. Larson, D.A. Christensen, J.J. McKinnon, F. Añez-Osuna, D. Damiran, M. Simili da Silva, L.P. ClarkABSTRACTBackgrounding calves during winter months in western Canada requires additional supplementation due to the cold climatic conditions. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of supplementing either wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) or barley grain in an alternative backgrounding program on steer performance and DMI when winter bale grazing in a 2-yr study. Each year, 54 crossbred steers (BW, 219.5 ± 5.3 kg) from a similar annual cohort were stratified by BW and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 replicated (n = 3) supplement treatments [3 kg/d of (1) 100% barley grain (BARL); (2) 100% wheat DDGS (WDDGS); or (3) 50% barley + 50% wheat DDGS (50:50)] during winter grazing of grass–legume bales [CP = 7.1, ADF = 44.6, TDN = 48.0 (% DM)]. Supplement strategy did not affect (P = 0.95) DMI of round bale hay. Crude protein intake was 25 and 67% greater (P = 0.01) for WDDGS steers compared with 50:50 and BARL steers, respectively. Total digestible nutrient intake was similar (P = 0.73; 6.4 kg/d) among supplement strategies. Steers fed WDDGS tended (P = 0.07) to have 5 and 11% greater ADG (0.97 kg/d), and 4 and 10% greater total gain (103 kg), than the 50:50 (99 kg) and BARL (94 kg) steers, respectively. The study results suggest a tendency for greater performance of beef steers supplemented with wheat DDGS compared with barley grain when managed in an extensive winter bale grazing system.
  • Effects of intake of linseed oil or tallow on nutrient digestion and
           nitrogen balance of beef steers consuming diets based on dry-rolled corn
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): E.J. Blom, D.W. BrakeABSTRACTLipids can have detrimental effects on the ruminal microbiota and, subsequently, diet digestibility. We evaluated effects of amount and source of dietary lipid on nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and N balance in cattle consuming diets based on dry-rolled corn. Five steers (BW = 392 ± 15 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 12-d periods. Diets contained no added lipid or 4 or 8% added lipid from either a tallow or linseed oil. Linseed oil tended (P = 0.08) to decrease DMI compared with tallow. Greater amounts of lipid tended to decrease ruminal digestion of DM (P = 0.07), OM (P = 0.14), and NDF (P = 0.05). Microbial efficiency (g of microbial N/kg of OM fermented) tended to increase (P = 0.10) with added lipid, but microbial N flow to the duodenum was not affected (P ≥ 0.19) by amount or source of lipid. Ruminal pH (P ≥ 0.83), ammonia (P ≥ 0.33), and total organic acid content (P ≥ 0.54) were not affected by diet lipid. Added dietary lipid tended (P = 0.10) to decrease ruminal acetate concentrations. Addition of a more unsaturated lipid (linseed oil) decreased (P = 0.05) total-tract NDF digestibility compared with a more saturated lipid (tallow), and addition of lipid tended to decrease digestion of DM (P = 0.13) and NDF (P = 0.08) compared with control. Linseed oil decreased (P < 0.01) fecal N and tended to reduce (P = 0.08) urinary N.
  • Evaluation of whole flaxseed and the use of tannin-containing fava beans
           as an alternative to peas in a co-extruded flaxseed product on ruminal
           fermentation, selected milk fatty acids, and production in dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): J. Moats, T. Mutsvangwa, B. Refat, D.A. ChristensenABSTRACTThis study evaluated the effects of whole versus extruded flaxseed and the use of tannin-containing fava beans as a replacement for peas in an extruded flaxseed-based supplement on rumen fermentation, selected milk fatty acids, and production in dairy cows. Eight Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square consisting of 28-d periods. Cows were fed a control diet (CONT) or 1 of 3 diets that contained a whole flaxseed supplement (FLX), an extruded flaxseed and pea supplement (EXT; linPRO-R, O&T Farms Ltd., Regina, SK, Canada), or an extruded flaxseed and tannin-containing fava bean supplement (EXTT). Dry matter intake was less in cows fed FLX, EXT, and EXTT compared with those fed CONT (P = 0.006). Milk yield was greater in cows fed EXT (44.4 kg/d) compared with those fed FLX (42.3 kg/d; P = 0.023) and tended to be greater in cows fed FLX, EXT, and EXTT (average 43.5 kg/d) compared with those fed CONT (41.9 kg/d; P = 0.073). Milk fat percentage was less in cows fed FLX, EXT, and EXTT compared with those fed CONT (P = 0.033); however, milk fat yield was unaffected. The C18:3n-3 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid fatty acids were greater in milk of cows fed EXT compared with those fed FLX (P = 0.001). No differences in milk fatty acid composition were observed between EXT and EXTT. These results demonstrate that feeding extruded flaxseed supplements containing peas or tannin-containing fava beans effectively improve milk yield and milk fatty acid profile when compared with whole flaxseed.
  • Benchmarking technical and economic performance of beef cow-calf to
           finishing production systems in Ireland
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): R.F. Taylor, P. Crosson, A.K. Kelly, M. McGeeABSTRACTThe objectives of this study were, for cow-calf to finishing production systems, to benchmark animal and financial performance of Irish “national average” farms (AVE) and farms participating in a farm improvement program (IMP) with experimental research farm systems finishing male progeny as steers (RES-S) or bulls (RES-B), and to identify key technical characteristics and financial drivers within these 3 farm categories. Stocking rate, BW output per livestock unit, and carcass weight per day were less on AVE and IMP compared with RES-S/RES-B. Age at first calving was 31.5, 28.9, and 24.0 mo on AVE, IMP, and RES-S/RES-B, respectively. Calving rate and weaning rate were less on AVE than on IMP, and these rates were less on IMP than on RES-S/RES-B. Gross output value and costs per hectare were least on AVE and greatest on RES-S/RES-B. Feed-related costs accounted for 36, 50, 47, and 58% of total costs per hectare on AVE, IMP, RES-S, and RES-B, respectively. Fixed costs accounted for the largest proportion of AVE total costs. Costs of production per kilogram of beef BW equated to $4.73 (€4.04), $2.26 (€1.93), $1.78 (€1.52), and $2.04 (€1.74) on AVE, IMP, RES-S, and RES-B, respectively. A negative net profit per hectare of −$897 (−€767) was achieved by AVE; IMP, RES-S, and RES-B attained net profits per hectare of $208 (€178), $587 (€502), and $405 (€346), respectively. Key performance indicators underpinning profitable beef cow-calf to finishing systems include high individual animal performance (cow reproduction and progeny growth), optimal stocking rates, and low fixed and purchased feed costs.
  • Blood serum mineral element concentrations of weaned Montana ram lambs and
           their relationship with water quality characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 5Author(s): C.M. Page, T.W. Murphy, M.L. Van Emon, J.G.P. Bowman, S.A. Wyffels, W.C. StewartABSTRACTClinical and subclinical trace mineral deficiencies can limit productivity in western sheep production systems. The objective of this research was to determine the proportion of ranches that supplemented with trace minerals and to quantify serum trace mineral concentrations in ram lambs after weaning across Montana with particular emphasis on Se and Zn. Serum samples (n = 214) were collected from ram lambs 8 to 10 mo of age (52.8 ± 16 kg) at 21 ranches throughout Montana and analyzed for Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn. Ranches were classified as deficient, marginally deficient, adequate, or excessive by flock mean serum trace mineral concentrations. Additionally, water samples were analyzed for pertinent characteristics. The median and interquartile range of serum concentrations for each trace mineral across ranches were as follows: Co (0.41 ng/mL; 0.90 ng/mL), Cu (0.79 μg/mL; 0.24 μg/mL), Fe (153 μg/dL; 52 μg/dL), Mn (1.70 ng/mL; 0.80 ng/mL), Mo (15.3 ng/mL; 19.3 ng/mL), Se (115 ng/mL; 97.5 ng/mL), and Zn (0.70 μg/mL, 0.19 μg/mL). Of ranches surveyed, 67% provided a trace mineral supplement. Ranches that provided supplementary trace mineral had greater serum Se concentrations (P < 0.001). The 2 most commonly deficient and marginally deficient minerals across Montana were Se (19% of ranches deficient; 23.8% of ranches marginally deficient) and Zn (9.5% of ranches deficient; 57.1% of ranches marginally deficient). Regionally, Se serum samples classified as deficient were all located in western Montana. Of ranches sampled, 40 and 35% of water samples exceeded upper desired concentrations for Na and sulfates, respectively.
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