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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 876 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (77 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (617 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (101 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (29 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
The Professional Animal Scientist
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.359
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1080-7446
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Review: Cool-season annual grasses or grass–clover management options
           for extending the fall–winter–early spring grazing season for beef
           cattle11Presented at the Forage Systems to Extend the Grazing Season in
           the Southeastern US Symposium at the annual meeting of the American
           Society of Animal Science Southern Section in Franklin, Tennessee, in
           February 2017.
    • Authors: M.K. Mullenix; F.M. Rouquette
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): M.K. Mullenix, F.M. Rouquette
      Cool-season annual forages may supply seasonal forage for grazing and reduce needs for stored forages and concentrate supplements for beef cattle producers in the southeastern United States. Opportunity exists to use small grains that vary in their individual growth distribution to extend grazing during the fall–winter–early spring seasons. Small grains adapted to the region include cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oats (Avena sativa L.), and triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.). These species have a bimodal forage DM production trait during the autumn and early winter months and can be grown in monocultures or mixtures. Fall forage production potential of these species has been primarily dependent on planting method, seeding date, soil fertility or fertilization, and variety selection. Small grain varieties may also be grown in combination with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), clovers, or both to extend the seasons of grazing for fall or winter-calving cows or stockers. Annual ryegrass and legumes in the Southeast include cold-tolerant and rust-resistant diploid and tetraploid varieties of ryegrass, and adapted true clover (Trifolium sp.) varieties. Autumn-planted ryegrass or clovers including crimson (Trifolium incarnatum L.), arrowleaf (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi), ball (Trifolium nigrescens Viv.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) provide minimal to nonexistent forage mass for grazing during the fall. Naturally reseeding ryegrass or clovers may provide earlier forage mass compared with small grains; however, DM is usually not adequate for stocking until late-January to mid-February, and it extends through May. Tetraploid varieties of ryegrass, when seeded into a prepared seedbed, can provide adequate forage mass for fall grazing similar to small grains. Earliness of forage mass for stocking among clovers ranges from crimson (earliest) to arrowleaf and ball (mid to late) to white and red (late to early summer). These cool-season forage systems provide suckling calf ADG that may approach or exceed 1.5 kg/d and stocker cattle ADG of more than 1 kg/d. Management strategies for sustainable cow-calf production include the strategic use of cool-season forages, assessment of fertilization demands and timing, and assessment of stocking rate to optimize forage utilization and desired animal performance.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:25:37Z
       
  • Mineral retention of growing and finishing beef cattle across different
           production systems11A contribution of the University of Nebraska
           Agricultural Research Division, supported in part by funds provided
           through the Hatch Act.
    • Authors: A.K. Watson; K.E. Hales M.J. Hersom G.W. Horn J.J. Wagner
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): A.K. Watson, K.E. Hales, M.J. Hersom, G.W. Horn, J.J. Wagner, C.R. Krehbiel, M.P. McCurdy, G.E. Erickson
      Calcium, P, Mg, K, and S retention in carcass, offal, and viscera were measured in 2 beef cattle experiments. Experiment 1 used 30 steers (245 kg of BW; SE = 4 kg) wintered at 3 levels of gain: grazing wheat pasture at a (1) high or (2) low rate of gain or (3) grazing dormant native range, and all were finished on a common diet (71% corn, 9% cottonseed hulls, 5.35% soybean meal). Experiment 2 used 46 steers (240 kg of BW; SE = 4 kg) fed 3 growing diets with similar rate of gain: (1) sorghum silage, (2) program-fed high-concentrate diet, or (3) wheat-pasture grazing, or placed directly into the feedlot. In Exp. 1, retention of Mg, K, and S (g/100 g of protein gain) during the finishing period was greater for treatments wintered at a low rate of gain during the growing period (P ≤ 0.02). There were no treatment differences for P or Ca retention during the finishing period (P ≥ 0.39). In Exp. 2, no differences were noted due to treatment (P ≥ 0.25) or feeding period (P ≥ 0.37) for Ca, P, Mg, K, and S retention (g/100 g of protein gain). Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Na were greater in offal than carcass tissues in both experiments (P < 0.01). In both experiments, expressing mineral retention on a protein gain basis minimized effects due to BW or rate of gain, allowing for a better comparison of mineral retention across a variety of animals and diets.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:25:37Z
       
  • Effect of protein restriction of Angus cows during late gestation:
           Subsequent reproductive performance and milk yield
    • Authors: Valiente Maresca; A.M. R.A. Palladino I.M. Lacau-Mengido N.M. Long Quintans
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): S. López Valiente, S. Maresca, A.M. Rodríguez, R.A. Palladino, I.M. Lacau-Mengido, N.M. Long, G. Quintans
      The effect of level of CP fed during late gestation on reproductive performance and milk production was studied in multiparous cows. Sixty-eight pregnant Angus cows were used. At 121 d prepartum, cows were blocked by BW (409 ± 57 kg) and expected calving date, randomly assigned to a low-protein (LP = 6% CP) or high-protein diet (HP = 12% CP), and allocated to 12 pens per treatment. After parturition, all cows were managed in a single group until weaning. Body weight and BCS were determined at the start of the experiment, at calving, and at weaning. Nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, IGF-1, and glucose were determined every 24 d prepartum and nonesterified fatty acids and glucose every 38 d postpartum. Progesterone was quantified weekly to indicate luteal activity and estimate interval to first estrus. Milk production was measured until weaning. The HP cows had greater BW gain during the prepartum period (P < 0.01) and tended to gain more BCS (P = 0.06) than LP cows. The prepartum diet did not affect gestation length (P = 0.44) or interval from calving to the onset of luteal activity (P = 0.35). Pregnancy rates, milk quality, and production were not influenced by dietary treatments. Cows in the HP treatment had greater prepartum serum urea concentrations than LP treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, protein level prepartum in multiparous beef cows affected the BW change at calving, without consequences on reproductive performance and milk quality and yield.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:25:37Z
       
  • Effect of supplementation during the breeding season on a May-calving beef
           herd in the Nebraska Sandhills
    • Authors: A.C. Lansford; J.A. Musgrave R.N. Funston
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): A.C. Lansford, J.A. Musgrave, R.N. Funston
      A 4-yr study at the Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory, Whitman, Nebraska, evaluated the effects of supplementation during the breeding season on May-calving heifers and primiparous cows. Beginning mid-July, and throughout a 45-d breeding season, heifers and primiparous cows grazed upland range and received either (1) no supplement (n = 128 heifers, 67 primiparous cows) or (2) 0.45 or 0.91 kg/animal per day for heifers and primiparous cows, respectively, of a 32% CP (DM) supplement (n = 129 heifers, 68 primiparous cows). Cows and heifers were synchronized using a single prostaglandin F2α injection 5 d after bull placement (1:20 bull-to-cow ratio). Pregnancy was diagnosed via transrectal ultrasonography in mid-October or November for heifers and primiparous cows, respectively. Weaning occurred at pregnancy diagnosis. Body weight and BCS were taken at several time points throughout the year. Heifer BW and BCS following supplementation were unaffected by treatment (P ≥ 0.10). Primiparous cow BW and BCS were greater in supplemented cows at the time of pregnancy diagnosis (P < 0.01). Pregnancy rate was similar (P ≥ 0.41) between treatments for both age groups. Treatment did not affect calf BW at birth or dystocia rates for primiparous cows (P ≥ 0.17). Calf BW at weaning was greater (P < 0.01) for supplemented primiparous dams. Supplementation during the breeding season did not affect pregnancy rates in young beef females, despite BW and BCS changes in primiparous cows.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:25:37Z
       
  • Supplementation of encapsulated cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil on pre- and
           postweaning growth performance of beef cattle fed warm-season forages
    • Authors: Moriel G.M.; Silva M.B. Piccolo Ranches J.M.B. Vendramini J.D. Arthington
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): P. Moriel, G.M. Silva, M.B. Piccolo, J. Ranches, J.M.B. Vendramini, J.D. Arthington
      Two experiments evaluated the effects of cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil on performance of grazing (Exp. 1) and drylot beef cattle (Exp. 2). Treatments in both experiments consisted of daily supplement fortification with (CNG) or without (CON) cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil (300 mg/d). In Exp. 1, 24 cow-calf pairs were allocated into limpograss (Hemarthria altissima; n = 4) or bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum; n = 4) pastures, which were randomly assigned to treatments (4 pastures per treatment) until weaning. Thereafter, 24 weaned heifers were allocated into bahiagrass pastures (4 pastures per treatment) for 72 d. In Exp. 2, 20 Brangus steers were fed bahiagrass hay ad libitum and concentrate DM supplementation at 1% of BW for 30 d. Effects of forage type, treatment, and interactions were not detected for growth, fecal egg counts, and plasma glucose and urea nitrogen of heifers and cows (P ≥ 0.11). The fly counts of CNG heifers on limpograss was less at weaning than for CON heifers (P = 0.03) but did not differ between CNG and CON heifers grazing bahiagrass (P = 0.66). Effects of treatment and treatment × day were not detected for postweaning growth, fecal egg counts, and plasma haptoglobin (P ≥ 0.43). In Exp. 2, effects of treatment and treatment × day were not detected for growth and total fly counts (P ≥ 0.34). Hence, daily supplementation of cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil did not affect growth and fecal egg counts of grazing or drylot cattle. Cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil reduced fly counts of heifers grazing limpograss but not heifers grazing bahiagrass.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:25:37Z
       
  • Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on markers of inflammation in
           young horses in training
    • Authors: J.L. Leatherwood; J.A. Coverdale C.E. Arnold B.D. Scott
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): J.L. Leatherwood, J.A. Coverdale, C.E. Arnold, B.D. Scott
      To determine the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of inflammation in young horses in training, 16 Quarter Horses (2 to 4 yr) were used in a randomized complete block design for a 140-d trial. Treatments consisted of a control diet (n = 8) fed at 1% BW or a treatment diet (n = 8) of concentrate fed at 0.75% BW and 700 g of a marine n-3 supplement formulated to provide 15 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 20 g of docosahexaenoic acid. Exercise protocol was divided into 2 phases: phase 1 (d 0 to 110) consisted of early training and phase 2 (d 111 to 140) consisted of advance maneuvers. Synovial fluid was obtained from the carpal joint every 28 d and analyzed for white blood cell count, total protein, and specific gravity. Blood samples were also collected at 28-d intervals for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography, and concentrations of carboxypeptide type II collagen (CPII) and chondroitin sulfate-846 (CS-846) were determined by ELISA. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increased (P ≤ 0.01) in response to supplementation. However, diet did not affect serum CPII or CS-846 nor synovial white blood cell count, total protein, and specific gravity. Levels of CS-846 tended to increase over time (P = 0.09) and CPII concentration increased (P < 0.01) in response to changes in exercise. These results indicate further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of n-3 supplementation as a preventative measure against development of osteoarthritis.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:25:37Z
       
  • Case Study: Mitigation of heat stress in feedlot cattle by applying
           reflective pigments to the dorsal body surface
    • Authors: S.J. Bartle; van der Merwe C.D. Reinhardt E.F. Schwandt D.U.
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): S.J. Bartle, D. van der Merwe, C.D. Reinhardt, E.F. Schwandt, D.U. Thomson
      Heat stress in feedlot cattle has serious animal welfare and economic implications. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether a titanium dioxide coating applied to the dorsal midline of cattle would reflect solar radiation and mitigate heat stress. Feedlot heifers (n = 30; 269 ± 27.6 kg) were randomly assigned to a noncoated (control) or titanium dioxide–coated treatment. Coating was applied to the dorsal midline except for a control area over the dorsal anterior midline. Reflectance was measured with a suspended modified digital camera in a blue band, a green band, and a near-infrared band. Skin surface temperature was measured with a suspended infrared thermal imaging sensor. Vaginal thermometers recorded the internal body temperature of heifers. Reflectance in the blue, green, and red edge to near infrared bands were found to be 5.7, 8.8, and 10.3 times greater (P < 0.001), respectively, for the coated areas compared with the noncoated areas. Dorsal surface temperature averaged 39.1 and 42.4°C for coated and noncoated areas, respectively (P < 0.001). Reflectance values and skin surface temperatures suggest that the coating decreased solar energy absorption. Over a 2- to 3-h period of exposure to natural solar radiation on a day with temperature–humidity index of 86.9, titanium dioxide–coated cattle had stable body temperatures, whereas the body temperatures of control heifers increased 0.8°C. A reflective coating applied to the dorsal midline could be an opportunity to decrease solar radiation energy absorbed by feedlot cattle.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:25:37Z
       
  • Technical Note: Comparison of 4 methods for determining in vitro ruminal
           digestibility of annual ryegrass
    • Authors: Alende G.J.; Lascano T.C. Jenkins L.E. Koch Volpi-Lagreca J.G. Andrae
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): M. Alende, G.J. Lascano, T.C. Jenkins, L.E. Koch, G. Volpi-Lagreca, J.G. Andrae
      Multiple IVDMD methods exist, but information comparing results obtained by different methods is scarce. This study aimed to compare 3 different IVDMD methods [DaisyII (DY), batch culture (BC), and the Ankom Gas Production System (GP)] at 4 incubation times (IT; 12, 24, 36 and 48 h). Additionally, results obtained at 24 h were compared with those obtained from dual-flow, continuous-culture fermentors (CF). Annual ryegrass at vegetative state was clipped from an ungrazed pasture, dried (60°C, 48 h), and ground in a Wiley Mill (1 mm). Three 48-h periods of each method were conducted using rumen inoculum from a cannulated Holstein cow. Ankom F57 acetone prerinsed bags containing 0.5 ± 0.01g of sample were used for DY, BC, and GP. Apparent DM digestibility coefficients in CF were estimated in 3 periods (7 d of adaptation and 3 d of collection) started simultaneously with the other methods. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS in a model including method and IT as fixed factors and period as a random factor, with IT as a repeated measure. Means within each IT were compared by the PDIFF function. Results indicated that DY predicted greater DM digestibility than GP and BC at IT greater than 12 h. Apparent DM digestibility estimated using CF was similar to that obtained with BC and GP at 24 h but less than DY. We conclude that different IVDMD methods yield different results, and caution should be exercised when comparing data obtained by different methods.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:25:37Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Long-term effect of organic trace minerals on growth,
           reproductive performance, and first lactation in dairy heifers” (Prof.
           Anim. Sci. 34:51–58)
    • Authors: Pino N.L.; Urrutia S.L. Gelsinger A.M. Gehman A.J. Heinrichs
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): F. Pino, N.L. Urrutia, S.L. Gelsinger, A.M. Gehman, A.J. Heinrichs


      PubDate: 2018-06-01T00:25:37Z
       
  • Review: The importance of overall body fat content in horses
    • Authors: C.A. Cavinder; E.N. Ferjak C.A. Phillips D.D. Burnett T.T.N. Dinh
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): C.A. Cavinder, E.N. Ferjak, C.A. Phillips, D.D. Burnett, T.T.N. Dinh
      In several livestock species, body condition can positively affect reproductive function. In horses, predictions of body fat (BF, %) are useful in achieving maximum reproductive efficiency, cost-effective nutritional management, and management of obesity-related health conditions. For decades, BF in horses has been predicted by an equation using ultrasonic scans of rump fat thickness, but the most commonly used practice by producers to evaluate energy status is the BCS system. However, the BCS system is subjective and exposed to variation, sometimes to a great extent, among evaluators. Recently, deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution has been validated as an accurate, objective, and minimally invasive method to estimate BF in ponies. Similarly, strong correlations have been observed between D2O estimations of BF and BF determined by near-infrared spectroscopic analysis. Reported in only a few studies, the relationship between BCS and BF is inconclusive. In moderate to obese ponies, BCS was not found to be a sensitive indicator of BF. Conversely, data from 24 stock-type horses in our study indicated that BCS might be useful in estimating BF. In addition, research suggests that physical measurements and peripheral leptin concentrations may be used to assess energy status in horses. More investigation in these areas is warranted because there is currently limited lipid research in the equine industry.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Effects of dietary zinc source and concentration on performance of
           growing-finishing pigs reared with reduced floor space
    • Authors: J.P. Holen; Rambo A.M. Hilbrands L.J. Johnston
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): J.P. Holen, Z. Rambo, A.M. Hilbrands, L.J. Johnston
      The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate effects of dietary zinc source (AA complex vs. inorganic) and increasing zinc concentration on growth performance and carcass composition of growing-finishing pigs housed in crowded conditions. Maternal-line barrows and gilts (636 pigs; initial BW = 28.7 kg) were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly within block to 1 of 5 treatments. Twelve pens were assigned to each treatment over 3 replicate trials. Treatments were (1) control (Con9)—pigs housed in an uncrowded environment (0.73 m2/pig) and fed diets based on corn, soybean meal, and dried distillers grains with solubles containing 60 mg/kg Zn (phases 1, 2, and 3), and 50 mg/kg Zn (phase 4); (2) crowded (Con11)—pigs housed at 0.60 m2/pig and fed the same diets as Con9; (3) ZnAA40—same as Con11 + 40 mg/kg Zn from Zn AA complex (Availa-Zn, Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie, MN); (4) ZnAA80—same as Con11 + 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn AA complex; and (5) inorganic zinc (ZnSO80)—same as Con11 + 80 mg/kg Zn from zinc sulfate monohydrate. Growth characteristics were determined at the end of each dietary phase (28 d). Upon completion of the trial, carcass composition and meat quality were recorded. Overall, crowding decreased ADG (P < 0.05, SE = 0.01) for Con11 compared with Con9 pigs (0.91 vs. 0.97 kg). There were no differences in average daily feed intake (2.74, 2.66, 2.62, 2.59, and 2.65 kg; SE = 0.05) or G:F (0.368, 0.356, 0.369, 0.368, and 0.365; SE = 0.006) among Con9, Con11, ZnAA40, ZnAA80, and ZnSO80, respectively. Neither zinc source nor concentration affected fat-free lean percentage, DP, loin muscle area, or backfat depth. Altogether, these data indicate that neither additional AA complexed zinc nor additional inorganic zinc influenced growth performance, carcass composition, or pork quality of pigs housed under crowded conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Case Study: Documenting grass growth and productivity in a grass-based
           organic dairy in Oregon
    • Authors: Downing
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): T. Downing
      Managing pastures on grazing dairies is a continuous challenge because pasture quality, quantity, and growth rate are changing daily. The objectives of this study were to document weekly pasture growth, forage quality, and performance to understand how to use this information to make management decisions on US dairies. One organic grazing dairy was studied for 3 consecutive years. Pastures were measured and mapped, and total standing DM was estimated weekly in all 22 pastures using a calibrated rising plate meter. Weekly grazing wedges were developed and were used to make grazing decisions that week. Paddocks grazed and residual pasture covers were recorded daily. Paddock grazing and residual heights were also included in the electronic recordkeeping. Dry matter yields ranged from 11,277 to 22,346 kg/ha per year and averaged 15,887 ± 1,919, 17,848 ± 1,966 and 17,956 ± 2,014 for each consecutive year. Daily growth rates ranged from 18 to 100 kg/ha per day throughout the season and averaged as high as 56 ± 20.3 kg/ha per day in yr 3. Pasture quality and productivity in Oregon is comparable to some of the most productive dairy pasture systems reported from around the world.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Sources of variation in corn silage and total mixed rations of commercial
           dairy farms
    • Authors: Paula Turiello; Alejandro Larriestra Fernando Bargo Alejandro Relling William Weiss
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Paula Turiello, Alejandro Larriestra, Fernando Bargo, Alejandro Relling, William Weiss
      Information on sources of variation in feed and diet characteristics is needed to develop appropriate strategies to reduce uncertainty and to separate true variation from that associated with measurements. The objectives were to determine sources of variation in DM content and particle size distribution in corn silage (CS) and TMR. Ten dairy farms in Argentina were visited on 3 consecutive days, samples of CS and TMR were taken, and an audit of feed management was conducted. Corn silage and TMR were sampled in duplicate each day. Variance components were calculated with the Mixed Linear Models of InfoStat for CS and Generalized Linear Mixed Models for TMR. For CS, the model included the effects of farm and day within farm, and for TMR, the model included farm, pen within farm, day within pen, and feed bunk site within pen. Residual effects accounted for sampling and analytical variation. Farm was the greatest source of variation for DM and particle size distribution of CS and TMR, explaining 40 to 92% of total variation. For CS, day within farm variation was greater compared with residual variation in DM (7 and 0.6%, respectively), meaning real changes occurred from one day to the other. For TMR, daily variation in DM content was high and possibly associated with feed management errors. For particle size distribution in TMR, sampling and assaying variation was greater than feed bunk site variation, indicating increased replication and averaging is needed to increase precision.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Use of residual feed intake as a selection criterion on the performance
           and relative development costs of replacement beef heifers
    • Authors: Damiran G.B.; Penner Larson H.A. (Bart) Lardner
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): D. Damiran, G.B. Penner, K. Larson, H.A. (Bart) Lardner
      Two heifers groups differing in residual feed intake (RFI) were compared with a third control (CON; n = 20) group of randomly selected heifers for performance, reproductive efficiency, and system economics to first calving and repeatability of RFI ranking, with all 3 groups selected from the same cohort. Following weaning, 70 Angus heifers (initial BW = 260 ± 3 kg; 6 mo of age) from a single cohort were fed a forage-based diet (10.0% CP; 65.2% TDN) for 93 d (period 1) where BW, DMI, ADG, G:F, and RFI were evaluated. After period 1 RFI testing, 40 heifers were classified into 2 groups [20 efficient heifers (low RFI; RFI = −1.01±0.10 kg/d) and 20 inefficient heifers (high RFI; RFI = 0.77±0.08 kg/d)] and then selected for a second feeding trial (period 2) and compared with the 20 CON heifers. All 60 heifers in period 2 (BW = 322 ± 2.9 kg; 10 mo of age) were fed for 93 d on a similar forage-based diet (11.0% CP; 66.5% TDN). Low-RFI heifers had the lowest (P = 0.01) RFI value of −0.33 kg/d, followed by CON and high-RFI heifers, −0.09 and 0.42 kg/d, respectively. Control heifers tended (P = 0.08) to have lower ADG (0.83 kg/d) compared with low-RFI (0.92 kg/d) or high-RFI heifers (0.91 kg/d), and low-RFI heifers tended (P = 0.08) to have greater G:F (0.10 ± 0.003) than either CON (0.9 ± 0.003) or high-RFI heifers (0.09 ± 0.003). Spearman rank correlation for RFI between period 1 and 2 was 0.58 (P < 0.01); however, 51% of heifers had a different RFI value in period 2 compared with period 1. First-calf pregnancy rates were 80% for low RFI, 93% for CON, and 100% for high RFI (χ2; P = 0.09). Winter feed costs were ~Can$25 per heifer lower for low-RFI heifers compared with high-RFI animals. Heifers with increased feed efficiency may exhibit reduced reproductive performance, suggesting further research is needed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Management characteristics of beef cattle production in Hawaii1
    • Authors: Senorpe Asem-Hiablie; Alan Rotz Dale Sandlin Sandlin Robert Stout
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Senorpe Asem-Hiablie, C. Alan Rotz, J. Dale Sandlin, M’Randa R. Sandlin, Robert C. Stout
      A comprehensive life cycle assessment of the US beef value chain requires the collection of region-specific data for accurate characterization of the country’s diverse production practices. Cattle production in Hawaii is very different from the rest of the country due to its unique ecosystem and geographic location. A survey of cattle producers provided information on herd size and characteristics, grazing management, forage and feed sources, and marketing. Ranch survey responses represented 44% of the state’s beef cows with operation sizes varying from 5 to 10,000 cows. Most cows (79%) were maintained on operations that finished at least some of their cattle, and the majority of those operations finished cattle on forage without concentrate feeds. Cattle were kept on natural pastures ranging in size from 16 to 52,610 ha per ranch with a stocking rate of 2.4 ha/cow on cow-calf operations and 2.0 ha/animal on operations that included older growing animals. Common forage species were Panicum maximum (guinea or green panic grass), Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyugrass), Digitaria eriantha (pangola or digitgrass), and Trifolium repens (white clover). Reported cow and finished cattle BW were 498 ± 52 kg and 493 ± 75 kg, respectively. More ranchers marketed their beef cattle through wholesalers or distributors (34%) rather than directly to consumers (24%), retailers (20%), or other channels (17%). Marketing under grass-fed certification was reported by 39% of ranches. Information obtained is being used to define management characteristics for modeling production systems and performing a comprehensive assessment of the sustainability of beef cattle production.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Effect of heifer development system on subsequent growth and reproduction
           in 2 breeding seasons
    • Authors: S.A. Springman; H.R. Nielson R.N. Funston
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): S.A. Springman, H.R. Nielson, R.N. Funston
      A 4-yr study evaluated the effects of heifer development system on growth and reproductive performance in 2 breeding seasons. March- and May-born, crossbred heifers were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments from mid-January to mid-April: (1) ad libitum meadow hay (7.3% CP; 54.3% TDN) and 1.64 kg/d of a 32% CP supplement (HY) or (2) meadow grazing (10.3% CP; 61.7% TDN) and 0.41 kg/d supplement (MDW). In the March-born heifers, ADG during treatment was greater (P < 0.01) for HY than MDW heifers (0.78 vs. 0.51±0.03 kg; HY, MDW), with similar pregnancy rates (P = 0.92). Calving rate and the proportion of heifers that calved in the first 21 d was also similar (P ≥ 0.33). Similarly, May-born heifers on HY treatment had greater ADG (P < 0.01; 0.59 vs. 0.35±0.05 kg; HY, MDW) during the treatment period, with similar (P = 0.69) pregnancy rates. Calving rate did not differ (P = 0.88) between treatments, although the proportion of heifers that calved in the first 21 d was greater (P = 0.02) for MDW compared with HY. Overall, heifer development system did not affect pregnancy rate in March or May replacement heifers; however, pregnancy rate of March-born heifers was greater (P < 0.01) than May-born (87 vs. 70 ± 3%). The reduced pregnancy rate in May heifers may be due to declining forage quality during the late-summer breeding season and may require additional inputs to equal pregnancy rates of the March-born heifers.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Effects of exercise and roughage source on the health and performance of
           receiving beef calves
    • Authors: M.A. Woolsoncroft; M.E. Youngers L.J. McPhillips C.G. Lockard C.L. Haviland
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): M.A. Woolsoncroft, M.E. Youngers, L.J. McPhillips, C.G. Lockard, C.L. Haviland, E.S. DeSocio, W.R. Ryan, C.J. Richards, B.K. Wilson
      Consumer interest regarding cattle welfare has increased. This experiment evaluated exercise and roughage source on calf performance and health during a 56-d receiving period. Steers (n = 94; BW = 250 ± 12 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included (1) roughage source [30% (DM basis) hay (HY) or 15% cottonseed hulls and 15% soybean hulls (HLS)] and (2) exercise [529 m of exercise (EX) 3 d/wk or no exercise (NEX)]. No differences in BW or ADG existed among treatments (P ≥ 0.24). However, HLS calves had reduced DMI from d 29 to 42, 43 to 56, and 0 to 56 (P ≤ 0.04) compared with HY calves. Overall, HLS and EX calves were more efficient than HY and NEX calves (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). On d 56, there was an interaction for both fecal score (P < 0.01) and fecal pH (P = 0.05) with HY + NEX having reduced fecal score and fecal pH compared with all other treatments. The number of calves that required a second antimicrobial treatment for bovine respiratory disease tended (P = 0.08) to be reduced for HY and NEX calves compared with HLS and EX calves. Calves that were fed HLS or exercised had greater feed conversion efficiency than calves that were fed HY or not exercised. Further investigation is needed to determine the effects of exercise on fecal characteristics and clinical bovine respiratory disease incidence.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Effects of Synovex One Grass, Revalor-G, or Encore implants on performance
           of steers grazing for up to 200 days
    • Authors: R.M. Cleale; D.R. Hilbig T.H. Short S.H. Sweiger Gallery
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): R.M. Cleale, D.R. Hilbig, T.H. Short, S.H. Sweiger, T. Gallery
      Growth rates by cattle (n = 986) grazing for 200 d and treated with Synovex One Grass (SOG; 150 mg of trenbolone acetate, 21 mg of estradiol benzoate), Revalor-G (REVG; 40 mg of trenbolone acetate, 8 mg of estradiol), or Encore (ENC; 43.9 mg of estradiol) were measured under field use conditions in a randomized complete block design. Blocks were defined by study start dates (n = 3). Crossbred beef cattle, which included steers (n = 669) and bulls castrated upon arrival (n = 317), were stratified by sex and pretreatment BW within start date and assigned to treatments within strata (n = 328 to 330 per treatment, initial BW = 191 ± 2.3 kg). Implants were given on d 0 after BW was measured. Blocks were subdivided into pasture management groups with equal numbers from each treatment on each pasture, and animal was the experimental unit. Cattle grazed pastures supplemented with 26% CP concentrate and bermudagrass hay during periods of limited forage. Cattle BW were also measured on d 70 and 200; implant status (present or absent) was documented on d 70. Average BW of SOG cattle (391.2 kg) was greater (P < 0.05) on d 200 than REVG (380.7 kg) or ENC (381.4 kg). Between d 0 and 200, ADG by SOG cattle was 1.00 kg/d, which was greater (P < 0.05) than REVG (0.95 kg/d) or ENC (0.95 kg/d). Economics were assessed based on cattle purchase and sale prices, implant costs, and morbidity; cattle treated with SOG returned $24.35 more than REVG and $26.77 more than ENC (P < 0.05). Over 200 d, grazing cattle implanted with SOG gained more than REVG or ENC, which increased returns.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Evaluating field peas as an energy source for growing and finishing beef
           cattle
    • Authors: H.L. Greenwell; K.H. Jenkins J.C. MacDonald
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): H.L. Greenwell, K.H. Jenkins, J.C. MacDonald
      Field peas were evaluated in beef growing and finishing diets in a 2-yr experiment. A total of 114 steers (initial BW = 348 kg, SD = 22 kg) in yr 1 and 114 heifers (initial BW = 249 kg, SD = 11 kg) in yr 2 were used in a 3 × 2 factorial. The first factor was grazing supplementation (0.5% BW, DM basis) with the following treatments: (1) field pea (FP); (2) blend of 70.8% corn, 24% corn condensed distillers solubles, and 5.2% urea (CB); and (3) no supplement (CON). The second factor was presence or absence of 20% FP in finishing diets. Growing phase ADG was greatest for CB, followed by FP and CON (0.99, 0.87, and 0.69±0.08 kg for CB, FP, and CON, respectively; P < 0.01). There were no interactions between growing and finishing treatment, and presence of FP in the finishing diet did not affect finishing performance or carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.20). However, grazing supplementation influenced finishing performance; CON had the greatest finishing ADG, whereas CB and FP did not differ (1.93, 1.79, and 1.79±0.06 kg for CON, CB, and FP, respectively; P < 0.01). The CON treatment was also most efficient, followed by CB and FP, which were not different (0.145, 0.135, 0.138 ± 0.014, for CON, CB, and FP, respectively; P = 0.01). Field peas may be fed to growing and finishing cattle if appropriately priced. However, reduced ADG during the growing phase may result in compensatory gain in the finishing phase.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Case Study: Effect of injectable castration regimen on beef bull calves
    • Authors: J.J. Ball; E.B. Kegley P.A. Beck J.K. Apple D.R. Cox
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): J.J. Ball, E.B. Kegley, P.A. Beck, J.K. Apple, D.R. Cox, J.G. Powell
      Castration is performed on bull calves to reduce aggressiveness and sexual activity, improve worker safety, prevent unwanted breeding, and improve meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a zinc solution as an injectable castration method to bull calves before weaning. Crossbred bull calves (n = 31; BW = 115 ± 26.4 kg; age = 119 ± 18.4 d) were allocated to treatments by BW and birth date. Twenty-seven bull calves were allocated to 3 injectable castration treatments (n = 9 calves per injectable castration treatment) to reflect 3 dosage levels of the zinc solution (Calviex, Cowboy Animal Health LLC, Plano, TX). On d 0, a single injection of the zinc solution was placed in each testicle. Two bull calves were castrated surgically, and 2 bull calves were left intact until weaning. Calves were weighed on d 0 and on 28-d intervals until they were weaned on d 122. Blood samples and scrotal measurements were obtained on d 0, 28, 56, 83, and 122. There were no effects (P ≥ 0.67) of Zn solution concentration on BW. A main effect of treatment (P = 0.005) showed intact bulls had greater (P < 0.001, orthogonal contrast of intact vs. castrated) serum testosterone concentrations than bulls castrated with any method. At weaning, there were no differences in growth, serum testosterone, or scrotal thickness due to the concentration of Zn solution used, and the injectable castration method resulted in similar serum testosterone concentrations compared with surgical castration, hence, resulting in successful castration.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Case Study: Effects of extended-release eprinomectin on cow-calf
           performance and reproductive success in a fall-calving beef herd
    • Authors: C.E. Andresen; D.D. Loy T.A. Brick P.J. Gunn
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): C.E. Andresen, D.D. Loy, T.A. Brick, P.J. Gunn
      Gastrointestinal parasites cost the US beef industry $3 billion annually. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess performance parameters and reproductive success of fall-calving beef herds treated with extended-release eprinomectin compared with a conventional anthelmintic product. In Exp. 1, 119 fall-calving cows were treated with short-duration injectable ivermectin (n = 53; CONV) or injectable extended-release eprinomectin (n = 66; EPR). Cow and calf performance, pregnancy rates, calving interval, and calving distribution were analyzed. Average daily gain and change in BW were greater in EPR cows (P ≤ 0.01) than CONV. Pregnancy rates tended to be greater for EPR than CONV cows (P = 0.15). Calves from EPR dams were younger at weaning but had greater weaning weights than calves from CONV dams (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, 74 yearling fall replacement heifers were treated with short-duration injectable ivermectin (n = 33; CONV) or injectable extended-release eprinomectin (n = 44; EPR). Performance, conception to AI, overall pregnancy rates, and calving distribution the subsequent year were analyzed. Heifers treated with EPR had heavier BW (P ≤ 0.10), greater weight gain (P ≤ 0.01), and greater ADG (P < 0.01) than CONV heifers. Conception to AI (P = 0.03) and overall pregnancy rates (P = 0.02) were greater for EPR heifers than CONV. Also, a greater proportion of EPR heifers calved in the first 21 d of the subsequent calving season (P = 0.04) than CONV. Results indicate improved performance and reproductive success for fall-calving beef herds treated with extended-release eprinomectin compared with short-duration ivermectin.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:20:40Z
       
  • Injectable trace-mineral supplementation improves sperm motility and
           morphology of young beef bulls11Contribution no. 18-009-J from the Kansas
           Agricultural Experiment Station.
    • Authors: G.W. Preedy; S.L. Hill J.S. Stevenson R.L. Weaber K.C. Olson
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): G.W. Preedy, S.L. Hill, J.S. Stevenson, R.L. Weaber, K.C. Olson
      This experiment evaluated effects of supplemental s.c. trace-mineral injections on growth and breeding soundness of bull calves. Weaned bulls (n = 488; initial BW = 308 ± 45 kg, initial age = 203 ± 17 d) of 2 breeds (Angus and Charolais) and originating from 13 ranches in the Great Plains were transported to a common confinement facility and assigned randomly to 2 treatments: (1) s.c. injections of trace mineral (TM) containing 15 mg/mL Cu, 5 mg/mL Se, 10 mg/mL Mn, and 60 mg/mL Zn or (2) s.c. injections of physiological saline (control). Treatments were administered at arrival (d −2 or −1; 1 mL per 45 kg of BW) and on d 90 ± 1 (1 mL per 68 kg of BW). On d 0, bulls were stratified by treatment, breed, and ranch of origin and assigned randomly to 8 pens in which they were fed a growing diet for 225 d. The diet was formulated to promote a 1.5-kg ADG at a DMI of 2.6% of BW and to meet or exceed NRC (2000) requirements for Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mg, Mn, Na, P, K, Se, and Zn. Initial BW were measured and pretreatment blood plasma samples were collected on d −2 or −1. Breeding soundness examinations (BSE) were conducted and BW were measured at 10 and 12 mo of age (d 90 ± 1 and d 150 ± 1, respectively). Scrotal circumference was measured and semen samples were collected via electro-ejaculation. Motility and morphology of sperm were evaluated via light microscopy. Scrotal circumference, BW, and ADG did not differ (P ≥ 0.16) between treatments at any time. Proportions of control- and TM-treated bulls achieving minimal satisfactory BSE classifications did not differ at 10 mo of age (P = 0.98; 50 ± 3.8% for both TM and control) or at 12 mo of age (P = 0.43; 89 and 86 ± 2.2% for TM and control, respectively). Conversely, improved (P = 0.05) sperm motility was detected in TM-treated bulls compared with control-treated bulls at 12 mo of age; moreover, TM-treated bulls had greater (P ≤ 0.05) improvements in sperm morphology and motility between 10 and 12 mo of age than control-treated bulls. Among bulls that failed BSE at 10 mo of age, more TM-treated bulls tended (P = 0.10) to pass BSE at 12 mo of age than control-treated bulls (98 and 94 ± 1.6% for TM and control, respectively). Under the conditions of this experiment, sperm motility and morphology at 12 mo of age were improved in bulls treated with injectable TM at 7 and 10 mo of age compared with bulls treated with saline.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of camelina meal and
           carinata meal compared with other protein sources
    • Authors: R.D. Lawrence; J.L. Anderson
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): R.D. Lawrence, J.L. Anderson
      Production of reneweable feedstocks for biodiesel have drawn attention to alternative oilseed crops. Our objective was to determine DM and CP ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of camelina meal (CAM) and carinata meal (CAR), compared with canola meal (CAN), linseed meal (LIN), soybean meal (SBM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as controls. In situ degradability measurements were done using 3 multiparous, mid-late lactation ruminally cannulated Holstein cows. Sample bags were ruminally incubated in duplicate for each cow and feedstuff for 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h and in triplicate for 24 and 48 h. Eight bags of each feed were incubated at 12 h for use of the residues in determination of in vitro intestinal digestibility. Ruminal particulate passage rate averaged 6.0%/h. Rate of DM degradation was greatest (P < 0.05) for CAM and LIN and least for DDGS, whereas CAR and SBM were similar. Ruminally degradable DM was greatest (P < 0.01) in CAM, CAR, and SBM. The CAM and CAR had the greatest (P < 0.05) RDP and least RUP. Intestinal digestible protein was similar (P > 0.05) for LIN, CAM, and CAR, which was greater (P < 0.05) than CAN and DDGS. Intestinally absorbable digestible protein was least for CAM and CAR (P < 0.01) compared with the other feeds. Total digestible protein was similar (P > 0.05) for CAM and CAR compared with SBM and LIN. Results indicate that CAM and CAR are highly degradable and comparable to SBM and LIN for protein utilization.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Use of extensive winter feeding systems for backgrounding beef calves and
           the effect on finishing
    • Authors: McMillan G.B.; Penner J.J. McKinnon Larson Damiran H.A. (Bart) Lardner
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): S. McMillan, G.B. Penner, J.J. McKinnon, K. Larson, F. Añez-Osuna, D. Damiran, H.A. (Bart) Lardner
      The introduction of low heat unit corn varieties in western Canada has led to questions on how this crop might fit into an extensive backgrounding program. Therefore, a 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate the effects of grazing standing whole-plant corn (Zea mays L. ‘Pioneer P7443R’) or swathed whole-plant barley (Hordeum vulgare ‘Ranger’) compared with barley hay fed in drylot pens on beef steer performance during backgrounding and feedlot phases. The effect of backgrounding system was also assessed during finishing when steers were fed diets based on barley grain or corn grain. Each yr, 120 Angus steers (BW = 250.5±1.8 kg) were allocated to 1 of 3 replicated (n = 2) backgrounding systems: (1) field grazing swathed whole-plant barley (BSG; 11.2% CP, 60.6% TDN); (2) field grazing standing whole-plant corn (CG; 8.7% CP, 64.6% TDN); or (3) drylot (DL) bunk feeding of processed barley hay (10.9% CP, 57.2% TDN) for an average 78 d (42 to 95 d) trial. All calves received 2.5 kg/d of a range pellet supplement (16% CP, 78% TDN). Treatment groups were similar (P > 0.05) in final BW (295.8±5.0 kg), ADG (0.59±0.03 kg/d), and G:F ratio (0.187±0.03 kg/kg). The cost of gain of DL, BSG, and CG steers was CAN$6.32, CAN$3.14, and CAN$2.96/kg, respectively. Following backgrounding, each replicate group of steers was subdivided and placed in a feedlot for finishing on either a barley- (12.2% CP, 75.4% TDN) or corn grain–based (11.3% CP, 74.7% TDN) diet for an average of 120 d. There were no backgrounding system, finishing, or backgrounding system × finishing interaction effects (P > 0.05) for feedlot DMI, ADG, G:F, or carcass characteristics. Study results suggest that grazing either swathed barley or whole-plant corn for 65 d during backgrounding can reduce (P = 0.05) costs by CAN$60 and CAN$70/steer, respectively, compared with feeding steers barley hay in a drylot.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Controlling herbage allowance and selection of cow genotype improve
           cow-calf productivity in Campos grasslands
    • Authors: Carmo Lynn; Sollenberger Mariana Carriquiry Pablo Soca
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): Martín Do Carmo, Lynn E. Sollenberger, Mariana Carriquiry, Pablo Soca
      An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of herbage allowance and cow genotype on herbage and animal responses. High (Hi) and Low (Lo) herbage allowance (4.9 and 2.9±0.14 kg of DM/kg of cattle BW, respectively) and pure (Pu, Hereford and Angus) and crossbred (Cr, F1 crosses) cow genotypes were compared in terms of herbage traits, stocking rate, cow BCS, energy intake, and calf BW at weaning during 2 cow-calf cycles (−240 to +120 d postpartum). Herbage height (5.5 vs. 3.5±0.18 cm, mean ± SE) and herbage accumulation (15.0 vs. 12.5±1.1 kg of DM/ha per d) were greater (P > 0.01) for Hi than Lo, whereas stocking rate did not differ (P > 0.2) between Hi and Lo (382 vs. 398 ± 7 kg of BW/ha, respectively). Cow BCS was greater (P > 0.05) in Hi than Lo (4.3 vs. 3.9 ± 0.02) and in Cr than Pu cows (4.2 vs. 4.0 ± 0.04). Calf BW at weaning was greater (20 and 10 kg) for Hi than Lo and for Cr than Pu cows, but energy intake (473 vs. 455 ± 4.6 kJ/kg of BW0.75 per d) was greater (P > 0.05), only in Hi compared with Lo cows. Modeling BCS evolution during the cow-calf cycle confirmed that Hi herbage allowance and Cr cows improved energy balance and cow-calf biological efficiency. This information can be used to improve profitability and mitigate weather variability effects on Campos grassland livestock systems.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Effects of oral tilmicosin on health and performance in newly received
           beef heifers
    • Authors: J.D. Rivera; J.T. Johnson G.K. Blue
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): J.D. Rivera, J.T. Johnson, G.K. Blue
      The objective of these studies was to determine the effects of feeding tilmicosin on health and performance of newly received beef cattle. Beef heifers (n = 480) were used in 2 studies to determine effects of oral tilmicosin on health and performance. In Exp. 1, 320 heifers (BW = 196 ± 3.3 kg) were administered antimicrobial metaphylaxis before shipment. At arrival they were monitored for signs of bovine respiratory disease. When 10% of the population was morbid, heifers were assigned to either a control receiving diet (CON) or a diet providing 12.5 mg of tilmicosin/kg of BW (TIL). Treatments were fed for 14 d, and morbid animals were treated with injectable antibiotics. Cattle were weighed individually on d 0, 28, and 56. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block, and morbidity was analyzed as nonparametric data. Feeding TIL resulted in reduced BW at d 28 (P = 0.03). Moreover, TIL decreases DMI during the first 14 d (P = 0.0001) and decreased ADG (P = 0.03) and G:F (P = 0.05) from d 0 to 28. There were no differences in morbidity (P = 0.20), and TIL increased total antibiotic cost (P = 0.004). In Exp. 2, 160 beef heifers (BW = 227 ± 2.3 kg) received no metaphylaxis and were processed at arrival. Feeding TIL did not affect morbidity (P = 0.44); however, TIL decreased the number of animals re-treated (P = 0.03) and increased total antibiotic cost (P = 0.04).

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Long-term effect of organic trace minerals on growth, reproductive
           performance, and first lactation in dairy heifers
    • Authors: Pino N.L.; Urrutia S.L. Gelsinger A.M. Gehman A.J. Heinrichs
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): F. Pino, N.L. Urrutia, S.L. Gelsinger, A.M. Gehman, A.J. Heinrichs
      The effect of trace mineral nutrition in utero and during growth and first lactation was evaluated using 64 multiparous dry cows supplemented with organic (OTM) or inorganic trace minerals (ITM) for 60 d before calving. At calving each calf was alternately assigned to OTM or ITM, to obtain 32 calves in each treatment. Calves received OTM or ITM treatments in colostrum (from treatment mothers), milk replacer, and starter, and then as heifers they received treatment in a TMR until 100 DIM. Growth, reproductive, and lactation performances until 100 DIM were evaluated. Age at calving was compared by treatment. Body weight, hip height, withers height, and heart girth were not affected by the trace mineral form received before calving (P > 0.05) except near calving, when these traits were affected by some heifers leaving the study as they calved. Heifers fed OTM tended to calve earlier than those supplemented with ITM (P = 0.07). Overall milk yield until 100 DIM was greater in OTM supplemented heifers (P = 0.09); however, trace mineral form did not affect milk quality. Overall, in the long term, OTM appeared to improve age at calving and early-lactation milk production of dairy heifers, which may affect their future productive life.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Effects of injectable trace minerals on the immune response to Mannheimia
           haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida following vaccination of dairy
           calves with a commercial attenuated-live bacterin vaccine
    • Authors: J.H.J. Bittar; D.J. Hurley A.R. Woolums N.A. Norton C.E. Barber
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): J.H.J. Bittar, D.J. Hurley, A.R. Woolums, N.A. Norton, C.E. Barber, F. Moliere, L.J. Havenga, R.A. Palomares
      The objective was to evaluate the effects of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing Zn, Mn, Se, and Cu on the humoral and cell mediated immune responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving an attenuated-live bacterin vaccine containing Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Thirty 3-mo-old dairy calves received 2 doses (21 d apart) of an attenuated-live M. haemolytica and P. multocida bacterin vaccine (Once PMH, Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ), and a 5-way modified-live-virus vaccine (Express 5, Boehringer Ingelheim, Vetmedica, St. Joseph, MO). On the day of primary vaccination, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 treatment groups (n = 15 per group): ITM (ITM administration) or control (sterile saline injection). Treatments were administered concurrently with vaccinations. Blood samples were collected for determination of antibody titers against M. haemolytica and P. multocida and of antigen-induced proliferation and interferon-γ secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Serum Se and Mn concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in the ITM group than the control group after ITM use. Serum end-point antibody titers against both bacteria and interferon-γ secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells were not different (P > 0.05) between groups. The use of ITM with bovine respiratory disease vaccines enhanced (P < 0.01) antibody titer fold-change to M. haemolytica. Proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells after P. multocida stimulation was increased (P = 0.03) in the ITM group on d 21 relative to baseline value. In conclusion, ITM administration concurrently with bacterin vaccination improved the immune response to M. haemolytica and P. multocida and might be a valuable tool to enhance dairy calves’ response to bovine respiratory disease vaccination.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Oral administration of Megasphaera elsdenii to Jersey cows during early
           lactation
    • Authors: M.L. Eastridge
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): D. Ye, M.L. Eastridge
      The objective of this study was to determine whether Megasphaera elsdenii orally administered to transition Jersey cows would improve milk yield and reduce the risk for metabolic disease. Thirty primi- and multiparous Jersey cows, blocked according to parity and date of calving, were used in a randomized complete block design until 90 DIM and fed diets with 51% forage and 17.9 to 28.5% starch. Within each block, cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) control (no dose) or (2) 200 mL of Lactipro by oral drenching at 1 to 2 d postpartum (M. elsdenii, 1 × 108 cfu/mL; MSBiotec, Littleton, CO). Cows were housed in tie stalls for 4 wk after calving, in which DMI was measured, and then cows were housed in free stalls for 9 wk. Dry matter intake, BCS, and BW change were similar between treatments, and no treatment by time interactions occurred. There was no difference in milk yield between the treatments. For cows with ≥3 lactations, those dosed with M. elsdenii had greater milk and fat yields than the control cows. No treatment effect or treatment by time interactions were detected for milk fat and protein percentages and feed efficiency. Serum and urine ketones were similar between treatments. Although pre- and postpartum diets fed and management strategies for transition cows may affect whether cows respond to oral administration of M. elsdenii, mature, higher producing cows with ≥3 lactations may respond with increased milk yield when dosed with M. elsdenii.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Evaluation of fodder production systems for organic dairy farms
    • Authors: K.J. Soder; B.J. Heins Chester-Jones A.N. Hafla M.D. Rubano
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): K.J. Soder, B.J. Heins, H. Chester-Jones, A.N. Hafla, M.D. Rubano
      This study evaluated the feasibility and challenges of implementing sprouted fodder on organic dairy farms. In study 1, 5 grains (barley, oats, wheat, rye, and triticale) were sprouted for 7 d and analyzed for yield and nutritional content. In study 2, lactating cows were fed a TMR during winter and supplemented with either no fodder or 1.4 kg (DM) of sprouted barley fodder. In study 3, 3 organic dairies that fed sprouted barley fodder were monitored monthly for 12 mo to collect data on feed nutritional analysis, milk production and composition, and management. Data from studies 1 and 2 were analyzed as separate replicated complete block designs, and study 3 was a case study. Barley and oats had the greatest (P < 0.05) fresh weight in study 1, oats had the greatest (P < 0.05) DM yield, and barley had the least (P < 0.05) mold score. In study 2, milk production, milk fat, BW, and BCS were not affected by supplemental fodder. Cows fed fodder had lesser (P < 0.05) milk protein production but greater (P < 0.05) milk urea N. Income over feed costs favored not feeding fodder except when cracked corn prices increased by 50% over those used in the study. In study 3, labor, cost of production, lack of milk response, barley supply, and mold issues resulted in 2 of the farms discontinuing fodder. Fodder increased milk production slightly on the third farm, probably due to decreased forage quality. Fodder may provide some benefits on small-scale operations, farms with high land values where tillable acreage can produce high-value crops, or for producers experiencing severe, extended drought. Additionally, farms that have an excess of labor may benefit with a sprouted fodder system. However, in many situations, growing high-quality forage would be more economical.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Evaluation of floor cooling on lactating sows under mild and moderate heat
           stress1
    • Authors: Maskal F.A.; A.P. Schinckel J.N. Marchant-Forde J.S. Johnson R.M. Stwalley
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): J. Maskal, F.A. Cabezón, A.P. Schinckel, J.N. Marchant-Forde, J.S. Johnson, R.M. Stwalley
      The effectiveness of sow cooling pads during lactation was evaluated under mild and moderate heat stress conditions. The moderate heat stress room was targeted to achieve 32°C from 0800 to 1600 h and 27°C for the rest of the day. The mild heat stress room was targeted to achieve 27 and 22°C for the same periods, respectively. Sows received a constant cool water flow of 0.00 (CON, n = 9), 0.25 (LWF, n = 12), or 0.50 (HWF, n = 10) L/min. Respiration rates, rectal temperatures, and skin temperatures were recorded every day (0700 and 1500 h) from the second day in the farrowing room to weaning. The respiration rates of CON sows were 23, 56, 41, and 89 breaths/min, of LWF sows were 21, 24, 29, and 41 breaths/min, and of HWF sows were 18, 20, 24, and 27 breaths/min, and respiration rate increased (P < 0.001) as heat stress increased from mild at 0700 h (22°C), to moderate at 0700 h (27°C), to mild at 1500 h (27°C), and to moderate at 1500 h (32°C). The skin temperatures of LWF sows were 1.1, 0.6, 0.8, and 0.4°C less and of HWF sows were 1.7, 0.7, 1.1, and 1.0°C less (P < 0.01) than CON sows for the same heat stress conditions. The rectal temperatures of LWF sows were 0.02, 0.20, 0.11, and 0.58°C less and of HWF sows were 0.04, 0.22, 0.02, and 0.57°C less (P < 0.05) for the same 4 treatments. The sow cooling pads reduced the effect of heat stress.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Superdosing phytase fed to mature boars improves semen concentration and
           reproductive efficiency
    • Authors: K.R. Stewart; C.L. Bradley Wilcock Domingues Kleve-Feld Hundley F.A.
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): K.R. Stewart, C.L. Bradley, P. Wilcock, F. Domingues, M. Kleve-Feld, J. Hundley, F.A. Cabezón
      The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effects of superdosing phytase fed to boars on sperm production, semen quality, and serum mineral concentrations. Thirty boars (9 to 12 mo of age, PIC 280) were enrolled in the study and were fed 2.5 kg/d of a commercial corn–soybean meal diet containing 500 phytase units/kg modified Escherichia coli phytase to release 0.15% available phosphorus and 0.16% Ca. The boars were blocked by age and randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 top-dresses at 0.5 kg/d: (1) control (corn only) or (2) superdosed (corn plus 5,000 phytase units/kg E. coli phytase to equate to 3,000 phytase units/kg in the overall diet). Semen was collected weekly from all 30 boars for 12 wk and motility, mobility, and morphology evaluated at the time of collection. Monthly semen samples were shipped to Purdue University for additional assessment of motility, morphology, viability, and DNA denaturation. Serum mineral concentrations were determined on wk 1, 6, and 12. The concentration of sperm in the ejaculate was greater in the superdosed boars (P = 0.03), resulting in a tendency for an additional 3 doses (2.8 billion cells/dose) extended per ejaculate (P = 0.10) from a 13% increase in semen output. Some significant variations in motility, mobility, and morphology were found, but all semen samples fresh and stored were considered acceptable at industry standards for use in breeding doses. Serum minerals were reduced in boars fed superdosed levels of phytase, possibly due to a shift of minerals being used for reproduction.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Case Study: The effects of photoperiod on feeding behavior of lactating
           dairy cows in tie-stalls
    • Authors: Macmillan O.S.; Espinoza Oba
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): K. Macmillan, O.S. Espinoza, M. Oba
      To determine the effects of photoperiod management on behavior of dairy cows, 30 lactating cows were subjected to a long-day (16 h/d light) or short-day photoperiod (8 h/d light). Feeding behavior was observed and feed refusals were collected before and after a 21-d adaptation to photoperiod treatment. Feeding behavior data were summarized for 4 daily time periods based on light schedule, and no effect of light treatment was observed for DMI, lying time, or overall feeding behavior. However, in time period 4 (1600 to 1900 h), the long-day treatment decreased lying time (28.3 vs. 37.7 min/h) and tended to increase eating time (17.5 vs. 9.03 min/h). There was also a tendency for the long-day treatment to reduce daily feed sorting. Providing supplementary light may reduce sorting and increase distribution of eating activities throughout the day, and the change in feeding pattern may be affected by the time of day the supplementary light is provided.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Case Study: Water budget of a dairy farm with a tie-stall barn for milk
           cows and summer pasturing of heifers and dry cows
    • Authors: A.C. VanderZaag; Burtt Piquette Wright Kroebel Gordon
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): A.C. VanderZaag, S. Burtt, X. Vergé, S. Piquette, T. Wright, R. Kroebel, R. Gordon
      Water use (i.e., pumped water) was measured over a full year on a small dairy farm consisting of ~34 lactating and ~39 nonlactating animals (calves, heifers, and dry cows). Crop production was rain fed and was not included in the analysis. Animals were housed in a tie-stall barn during the winter and cool season (mid-October to mid-May) and outdoors in a yard or pasture during the warm season. Annual average water use was 5,180 L/d, with 82% being drinking water and 18% for milking system cleaning. Distinct diurnal patterns of drinking water intake were observed for each animal group, which differed when cows were located indoors or outdoors. Seasonal changes in water intake were significant. Nonlactating animals accounted for 27% of whole-farm water intake in the summer (July–September). In the warm season, herd-scale milk production declined while water consumption increased. As a result, the whole-farm water used per liter of milk had a strong positive correlation with monthly average temperature humidity index (THI) and could have been additionally influenced by other factors such as herd composition, precipitation, feed intake, forage quality and availability, and day length. When THI was below 50, water use ranged from 4.3 to 4.8 L/kg of milk, and it increased to a maximum of 6.7 L/kg at a THI of 68. The annual average water use was 5.35 L/kg of milk. This study demonstrates that the water used per kilogram of milk produced was affected not only by changes in water use but also by changes in herd-scale milk production.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
  • Case Study: Control of respiratory disease in male Holstein calves with
           tildipirosin and effect on health and growth from 0 to 4 months of age
    • Authors: T.M. Hill; J.D. Quigley F.X. Suarez-Mena T.S. Dennis R.L. Schlotterbeck
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): T.M. Hill, J.D. Quigley, F.X. Suarez-Mena, T.S. Dennis, R.L. Schlotterbeck
      In trial 1, phase 1, 48 male Holstein calves initially 2 to 4 d of age were transported 3.5 h to the research facility. Calves were randomly selected to either receive a s.c. injection of Zuprevo (Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ; 4 mg of tildipirosin/kg of BW; TIL) the day after arrival (d 0) and again at weaning (d 42) or receive no injections (CON). Calves were fed 0.66 kg of milk replacer DM daily for 39 d and then 0.33 kg daily for 3 d. A starter was fed free choice for the 56 d of phase 1. In trial 1, phase 2, the same calves from phase 1 grouped by CON and TIL were moved to group pens (4 pens per treatment, 4 calves per pen) for the next 56 d. The starter was blended with 5% chopped grass hay and fed free choice. Trial 2 was similar to trial 1, phase 2 and used 48 two-month-old male Holstein calves. Calves were randomly selected to receive either a s.c. injection of Zuprevo (4 mg of tildipirosin/kg of BW; TIL) on d 0 or no injections (CON). In trial 1, phase 1, preweaning ADG and BCS change; postweaning starter intake and hip width change; overall starter intake, ADG, and hip width change; final hip width; and final BCS were greater for TIL than CON. During phase 2 of trial 1 and trial 2, calf ADG and hip width change were greater for TIL than CON. Overall, in transported Holstein calves, TIL improved ADG and structural growth by approximately 13%.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
       
 
 
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