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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 878 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (77 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (621 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (99 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (29 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
The Professional Animal Scientist
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.359
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1080-7446
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • Corrigendum to “Long-term effect of organic trace minerals on growth,
           reproductive performance, and first lactation in dairy heifers” (Prof.
           Anim. Sci. 34:51–58)
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3Author(s): F. Pino, N.L. Urrutia, S.L. Gelsinger, A.M. Gehman, A.J. Heinrichs
       
  • echnical+Note:+Comparison+of+4+methods+for+determining+in+vitro+ruminal+digestibility+of+annual+ryegrass&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Technical Note: Comparison of 4 methods for determining in vitro ruminal
           digestibility of annual ryegrass
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3Author(s): M. Alende, G.J. Lascano, T.C. Jenkins, L.E. Koch, G. Volpi-Lagreca, J.G. AndraeABSTRACTMultiple IVDMD methods exist, but information comparing results obtained by different methods is scarce. This study aimed to compare 3 different IVDMD methods [DaisyII (DY), batch culture (BC), and the Ankom Gas Production System (GP)] at 4 incubation times (IT; 12, 24, 36 and 48 h). Additionally, results obtained at 24 h were compared with those obtained from dual-flow, continuous-culture fermentors (CF). Annual ryegrass at vegetative state was clipped from an ungrazed pasture, dried (60°C, 48 h), and ground in a Wiley Mill (1 mm). Three 48-h periods of each method were conducted using rumen inoculum from a cannulated Holstein cow. Ankom F57 acetone prerinsed bags containing 0.5 ± 0.01 g of sample were used for DY, BC, and GP. Apparent DM digestibility coefficients in CF were estimated in 3 periods (7 d of adaptation and 3 d of collection) started simultaneously with the other methods. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS in a model including method and IT as fixed factors and period as a random factor, with IT as a repeated measure. Means within each IT were compared by the PDIFF function. Results indicated that DY predicted greater DM digestibility than GP and BC at IT greater than 12 h. Apparent DM digestibility estimated using CF was similar to that obtained with BC and GP at 24 h but less than DY. We conclude that different IVDMD methods yield different results, and caution should be exercised when comparing data obtained by different methods.
       
  • ase+Study:+Mitigation+of+heat+stress+in+feedlot+cattle+by+applying+reflective+pigments+to+the+dorsal+body+surface&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Case Study: Mitigation of heat stress in feedlot cattle by applying
           reflective pigments to the dorsal body surface
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3Author(s): S.J. Bartle, D. van der Merwe, C.D. Reinhardt, E.F. Schwandt, D.U. ThomsonABSTRACTHeat stress in feedlot cattle has serious animal welfare and economic implications. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether a titanium dioxide coating applied to the dorsal midline of cattle would reflect solar radiation and mitigate heat stress. Feedlot heifers (n = 30; 269 ± 27.6 kg) were randomly assigned to a noncoated (control) or titanium dioxide–coated treatment. Coating was applied to the dorsal midline except for a control area over the dorsal anterior midline. Reflectance was measured with a suspended modified digital camera in a blue band, a green band, and a near-infrared band. Skin surface temperature was measured with a suspended infrared thermal imaging sensor. Vaginal thermometers recorded the internal body temperature of heifers. Reflectance in the blue, green, and red edge to near infrared bands were found to be 5.7, 8.8, and 10.3 times greater (P < 0.001), respectively, for the coated areas compared with the noncoated areas. Dorsal surface temperature averaged 39.1 and 42.4°C for coated and noncoated areas, respectively (P < 0.001). Reflectance values and skin surface temperatures suggest that the coating decreased solar energy absorption. Over a 2- to 3-h period of exposure to natural solar radiation on a day with temperature–humidity index of 86.9, titanium dioxide–coated cattle had stable body temperatures, whereas the body temperatures of control heifers increased 0.8°C. A reflective coating applied to the dorsal midline could be an opportunity to decrease solar radiation energy absorbed by feedlot cattle.
       
  • Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on markers of inflammation in
           young horses in training
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3Author(s): J.L. Leatherwood, J.A. Coverdale, C.E. Arnold, B.D. ScottABSTRACTTo determine the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of inflammation in young horses in training, 16 Quarter Horses (2 to 4 yr) were used in a randomized complete block design for a 140-d trial. Treatments consisted of a control diet (n = 8) fed at 1% BW or a treatment diet (n = 8) of concentrate fed at 0.75% BW and 700 g of a marine n-3 supplement formulated to provide 15 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 20 g of docosahexaenoic acid. Exercise protocol was divided into 2 phases: phase 1 (d 0 to 110) consisted of early training and phase 2 (d 111 to 140) consisted of advance maneuvers. Synovial fluid was obtained from the carpal joint every 28 d and analyzed for white blood cell count, total protein, and specific gravity. Blood samples were also collected at 28-d intervals for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography, and concentrations of carboxypeptide type II collagen (CPII) and chondroitin sulfate-846 (CS-846) were determined by ELISA. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increased (P ≤ 0.01) in response to supplementation. However, diet did not affect serum CPII or CS-846 nor synovial white blood cell count, total protein, and specific gravity. Levels of CS-846 tended to increase over time (P = 0.09) and CPII concentration increased (P < 0.01) in response to changes in exercise. These results indicate further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of n-3 supplementation as a preventative measure against development of osteoarthritis.
       
  • Supplementation of encapsulated cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil on pre- and
           postweaning growth performance of beef cattle fed warm-season forages
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3Author(s): P. Moriel, G.M. Silva, M.B. Piccolo, J. Ranches, J.M.B. Vendramini, J.D. ArthingtonABSTRACTTwo experiments evaluated the effects of cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil on performance of grazing (Exp. 1) and drylot beef cattle (Exp. 2). Treatments in both experiments consisted of daily supplement fortification with (CNG) or without (CON) cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil (300 mg/d). In Exp. 1, 24 cow-calf pairs were allocated into limpograss (Hemarthria altissima; n = 4) or bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum; n = 4) pastures, which were randomly assigned to treatments (4 pastures per treatment) until weaning. Thereafter, 24 weaned heifers were allocated into bahiagrass pastures (4 pastures per treatment) for 72 d. In Exp. 2, 20 Brangus steers were fed bahiagrass hay ad libitum and concentrate DM supplementation at 1% of BW for 30 d. Effects of forage type, treatment, and interactions were not detected for growth, fecal egg counts, and plasma glucose and urea nitrogen of heifers and cows (P ≥ 0.11). The fly counts of CNG heifers on limpograss was less at weaning than for CON heifers (P = 0.03) but did not differ between CNG and CON heifers grazing bahiagrass (P = 0.66). Effects of treatment and treatment × day were not detected for postweaning growth, fecal egg counts, and plasma haptoglobin (P ≥ 0.43). In Exp. 2, effects of treatment and treatment × day were not detected for growth and total fly counts (P ≥ 0.34). Hence, daily supplementation of cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil did not affect growth and fecal egg counts of grazing or drylot cattle. Cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil reduced fly counts of heifers grazing limpograss but not heifers grazing bahiagrass.
       
  • Effect of supplementation during the breeding season on a May-calving beef
           herd in the Nebraska Sandhills
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3Author(s): A.C. Lansford, J.A. Musgrave, R.N. FunstonABSTRACTA 4-yr study at the Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory, Whitman, Nebraska, evaluated the effects of supplementation during the breeding season on May-calving heifers and primiparous cows. Beginning mid-July, and throughout a 45-d breeding season, heifers and primiparous cows grazed upland range and received either (1) no supplement (n = 128 heifers, 67 primiparous cows) or (2) 0.45 or 0.91 kg/animal per day for heifers and primiparous cows, respectively, of a 32% CP (DM) supplement (n = 129 heifers, 68 primiparous cows). Cows and heifers were synchronized using a single prostaglandin F2α injection 5 d after bull placement (1:20 bull-to-cow ratio). Pregnancy was diagnosed via transrectal ultrasonography in mid-October or November for heifers and primiparous cows, respectively. Weaning occurred at pregnancy diagnosis. Body weight and BCS were taken at several time points throughout the year. Heifer BW and BCS following supplementation were unaffected by treatment (P ≥ 0.10). Primiparous cow BW and BCS were greater in supplemented cows at the time of pregnancy diagnosis (P < 0.01). Pregnancy rate was similar (P ≥ 0.41) between treatments for both age groups. Treatment did not affect calf BW at birth or dystocia rates for primiparous cows (P ≥ 0.17). Calf BW at weaning was greater (P < 0.01) for supplemented primiparous dams. Supplementation during the breeding season did not affect pregnancy rates in young beef females, despite BW and BCS changes in primiparous cows.
       
  • Effect of protein restriction of Angus cows during late gestation:
           Subsequent reproductive performance and milk yield
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3Author(s): S. López Valiente, S. Maresca, A.M. Rodríguez, R.A. Palladino, I.M. Lacau-Mengido, N.M. Long, G. QuintansABSTRACTThe effect of level of CP fed during late gestation on reproductive performance and milk production was studied in multiparous cows. Sixty-eight pregnant Angus cows were used. At 121 d prepartum, cows were blocked by BW (409 ± 57 kg) and expected calving date, randomly assigned to a low-protein (LP = 6% CP) or high-protein diet (HP = 12% CP), and allocated to 12 pens per treatment. After parturition, all cows were managed in a single group until weaning. Body weight and BCS were determined at the start of the experiment, at calving, and at weaning. Nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, IGF-1, and glucose were determined every 24 d prepartum and nonesterified fatty acids and glucose every 38 d postpartum. Progesterone was quantified weekly to indicate luteal activity and estimate interval to first estrus. Milk production was measured until weaning. The HP cows had greater BW gain during the prepartum period (P < 0.01) and tended to gain more BCS (P = 0.06) than LP cows. The prepartum diet did not affect gestation length (P = 0.44) or interval from calving to the onset of luteal activity (P = 0.35). Pregnancy rates, milk quality, and production were not influenced by dietary treatments. Cows in the HP treatment had greater prepartum serum urea concentrations than LP treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, protein level prepartum in multiparous beef cows affected the BW change at calving, without consequences on reproductive performance and milk quality and yield.
       
  • 1 &rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Mineral retention of growing and finishing beef cattle across different
           production systems 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3Author(s): A.K. Watson, K.E. Hales, M.J. Hersom, G.W. Horn, J.J. Wagner, C.R. Krehbiel, M.P. McCurdy, G.E. EricksonABSTRACTCalcium, P, Mg, K, and S retention in carcass, offal, and viscera were measured in 2 beef cattle experiments. Experiment 1 used 30 steers (245 kg of BW; SE = 4 kg) wintered at 3 levels of gain: grazing wheat pasture at a (1) high or (2) low rate of gain or (3) grazing dormant native range, and all were finished on a common diet (71% corn, 9% cottonseed hulls, 5.35% soybean meal). Experiment 2 used 46 steers (240 kg of BW; SE = 4 kg) fed 3 growing diets with similar rate of gain: (1) sorghum silage, (2) program-fed high-concentrate diet, or (3) wheat-pasture grazing, or placed directly into the feedlot. In Exp. 1, retention of Mg, K, and S (g/100 g of protein gain) during the finishing period was greater for treatments wintered at a low rate of gain during the growing period (P ≤ 0.02). There were no treatment differences for P or Ca retention during the finishing period (P ≥ 0.39). In Exp. 2, no differences were noted due to treatment (P ≥ 0.25) or feeding period (P ≥ 0.37) for Ca, P, Mg, K, and S retention (g/100 g of protein gain). Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Na were greater in offal than carcass tissues in both experiments (P < 0.01). In both experiments, expressing mineral retention on a protein gain basis minimized effects due to BW or rate of gain, allowing for a better comparison of mineral retention across a variety of animals and diets.
       
  • eview:+Cool-season+annual+grasses+or+grass–clover+management+options+for+extending+the+fall–winter–early+spring+grazing+season+for+beef+cattle 1 &rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Review: Cool-season annual grasses or grass–clover management options
           for extending the fall–winter–early spring grazing season for beef
           cattle 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 3Author(s): M.K. Mullenix, F.M. RouquetteABSTRACTCool-season annual forages may supply seasonal forage for grazing and reduce needs for stored forages and concentrate supplements for beef cattle producers in the southeastern United States. Opportunity exists to use small grains that vary in their individual growth distribution to extend grazing during the fall–winter–early spring seasons. Small grains adapted to the region include cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oats (Avena sativa L.), and triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.). These species have a bimodal forage DM production trait during the autumn and early winter months and can be grown in monocultures or mixtures. Fall forage production potential of these species has been primarily dependent on planting method, seeding date, soil fertility or fertilization, and variety selection. Small grain varieties may also be grown in combination with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), clovers, or both to extend the seasons of grazing for fall or winter-calving cows or stockers. Annual ryegrass and legumes in the Southeast include cold-tolerant and rust-resistant diploid and tetraploid varieties of ryegrass, and adapted true clover (Trifolium sp.) varieties. Autumn-planted ryegrass or clovers including crimson (Trifolium incarnatum L.), arrowleaf (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi), ball (Trifolium nigrescens Viv.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) provide minimal to nonexistent forage mass for grazing during the fall. Naturally reseeding ryegrass or clovers may provide earlier forage mass compared with small grains; however, DM is usually not adequate for stocking until late-January to mid-February, and it extends through May. Tetraploid varieties of ryegrass, when seeded into a prepared seedbed, can provide adequate forage mass for fall grazing similar to small grains. Earliness of forage mass for stocking among clovers ranges from crimson (earliest) to arrowleaf and ball (mid to late) to white and red (late to early summer). These cool-season forage systems provide suckling calf ADG that may approach or exceed 1.5 kg/d and stocker cattle ADG of more than 1 kg/d. Management strategies for sustainable cow-calf production include the strategic use of cool-season forages, assessment of fertilization demands and timing, and assessment of stocking rate to optimize forage utilization and desired animal performance.
       
  • ase+Study:+Effects+of+extended-release+eprinomectin+on+cow-calf+performance+and+reproductive+success+in+a+fall-calving+beef+herd&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Case Study: Effects of extended-release eprinomectin on cow-calf
           performance and reproductive success in a fall-calving beef herd
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): C.E. Andresen, D.D. Loy, T.A. Brick, P.J. GunnABSTRACTGastrointestinal parasites cost the US beef industry $3 billion annually. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess performance parameters and reproductive success of fall-calving beef herds treated with extended-release eprinomectin compared with a conventional anthelmintic product. In Exp. 1, 119 fall-calving cows were treated with short-duration injectable ivermectin (n = 53; CONV) or injectable extended-release eprinomectin (n = 66; EPR). Cow and calf performance, pregnancy rates, calving interval, and calving distribution were analyzed. Average daily gain and change in BW were greater in EPR cows (P ≤ 0.01) than CONV. Pregnancy rates tended to be greater for EPR than CONV cows (P = 0.15). Calves from EPR dams were younger at weaning but had greater weaning weights than calves from CONV dams (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, 74 yearling fall replacement heifers were treated with short-duration injectable ivermectin (n = 33; CONV) or injectable extended-release eprinomectin (n = 44; EPR). Performance, conception to AI, overall pregnancy rates, and calving distribution the subsequent year were analyzed. Heifers treated with EPR had heavier BW (P ≤ 0.10), greater weight gain (P ≤ 0.01), and greater ADG (P < 0.01) than CONV heifers. Conception to AI (P = 0.03) and overall pregnancy rates (P = 0.02) were greater for EPR heifers than CONV. Also, a greater proportion of EPR heifers calved in the first 21 d of the subsequent calving season (P = 0.04) than CONV. Results indicate improved performance and reproductive success for fall-calving beef herds treated with extended-release eprinomectin compared with short-duration ivermectin.
       
  • ase+Study:+Effect+of+injectable+castration+regimen+on+beef+bull+calves&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Case Study: Effect of injectable castration regimen on beef bull calves
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): J.J. Ball, E.B. Kegley, P.A. Beck, J.K. Apple, D.R. Cox, J.G. PowellABSTRACTCastration is performed on bull calves to reduce aggressiveness and sexual activity, improve worker safety, prevent unwanted breeding, and improve meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a zinc solution as an injectable castration method to bull calves before weaning. Crossbred bull calves (n = 31; BW = 115 ± 26.4 kg; age = 119 ± 18.4 d) were allocated to treatments by BW and birth date. Twenty-seven bull calves were allocated to 3 injectable castration treatments (n = 9 calves per injectable castration treatment) to reflect 3 dosage levels of the zinc solution (Calviex, Cowboy Animal Health LLC, Plano, TX). On d 0, a single injection of the zinc solution was placed in each testicle. Two bull calves were castrated surgically, and 2 bull calves were left intact until weaning. Calves were weighed on d 0 and on 28-d intervals until they were weaned on d 122. Blood samples and scrotal measurements were obtained on d 0, 28, 56, 83, and 122. There were no effects (P ≥ 0.67) of Zn solution concentration on BW. A main effect of treatment (P = 0.005) showed intact bulls had greater (P < 0.001, orthogonal contrast of intact vs. castrated) serum testosterone concentrations than bulls castrated with any method. At weaning, there were no differences in growth, serum testosterone, or scrotal thickness due to the concentration of Zn solution used, and the injectable castration method resulted in similar serum testosterone concentrations compared with surgical castration, hence, resulting in successful castration.
       
  • Evaluating field peas as an energy source for growing and finishing beef
           cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): H.L. Greenwell, K.H. Jenkins, J.C. MacDonaldABSTRACTField peas were evaluated in beef growing and finishing diets in a 2-yr experiment. A total of 114 steers (initial BW = 348 kg, SD = 22 kg) in yr 1 and 114 heifers (initial BW = 249 kg, SD = 11 kg) in yr 2 were used in a 3 × 2 factorial. The first factor was grazing supplementation (0.5% BW, DM basis) with the following treatments: (1) field pea (FP); (2) blend of 70.8% corn, 24% corn condensed distillers solubles, and 5.2% urea (CB); and (3) no supplement (CON). The second factor was presence or absence of 20% FP in finishing diets. Growing phase ADG was greatest for CB, followed by FP and CON (0.99, 0.87, and 0.69 ± 0.08 kg for CB, FP, and CON, respectively; P < 0.01). There were no interactions between growing and finishing treatment, and presence of FP in the finishing diet did not affect finishing performance or carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.20). However, grazing supplementation influenced finishing performance; CON had the greatest finishing ADG, whereas CB and FP did not differ (1.93, 1.79, and 1.79 ± 0.06 kg for CON, CB, and FP, respectively; P < 0.01). The CON treatment was also most efficient, followed by CB and FP, which were not different (0.145, 0.135, 0.138 ± 0.014, for CON, CB, and FP, respectively; P = 0.01). Field peas may be fed to growing and finishing cattle if appropriately priced. However, reduced ADG during the growing phase may result in compensatory gain in the finishing phase.
       
  • Effects of Synovex One Grass, Revalor-G, or Encore implants on performance
           of steers grazing for up to 200 days
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): R.M. Cleale, D.R. Hilbig, T.H. Short, S.H. Sweiger, T. GalleryABSTRACTGrowth rates by cattle (n = 986) grazing for 200 d and treated with Synovex One Grass (SOG; 150 mg of trenbolone acetate, 21 mg of estradiol benzoate), Revalor-G (REVG; 40 mg of trenbolone acetate, 8 mg of estradiol), or Encore (ENC; 43.9 mg of estradiol) were measured under field use conditions in a randomized complete block design. Blocks were defined by study start dates (n = 3). Crossbred beef cattle, which included steers (n = 669) and bulls castrated upon arrival (n = 317), were stratified by sex and pretreatment BW within start date and assigned to treatments within strata (n = 328 to 330 per treatment, initial BW = 191 ± 2.3 kg). Implants were given on d 0 after BW was measured. Blocks were subdivided into pasture management groups with equal numbers from each treatment on each pasture, and animal was the experimental unit. Cattle grazed pastures supplemented with 26% CP concentrate and bermudagrass hay during periods of limited forage. Cattle BW were also measured on d 70 and 200; implant status (present or absent) was documented on d 70. Average BW of SOG cattle (391.2 kg) was greater (P < 0.05) on d 200 than REVG (380.7 kg) or ENC (381.4 kg). Between d 0 and 200, ADG by SOG cattle was 1.00 kg/d, which was greater (P < 0.05) than REVG (0.95 kg/d) or ENC (0.95 kg/d). Economics were assessed based on cattle purchase and sale prices, implant costs, and morbidity; cattle treated with SOG returned $24.35 more than REVG and $26.77 more than ENC (P < 0.05). Over 200 d, grazing cattle implanted with SOG gained more than REVG or ENC, which increased returns.
       
  • Effects of exercise and roughage source on the health and performance of
           receiving beef calves
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): M.A. Woolsoncroft, M.E. Youngers, L.J. McPhillips, C.G. Lockard, C.L. Haviland, E.S. DeSocio, W.R. Ryan, C.J. Richards, B.K. WilsonABSTRACTConsumer interest regarding cattle welfare has increased. This experiment evaluated exercise and roughage source on calf performance and health during a 56-d receiving period. Steers (n = 94; BW = 250 ± 12 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included (1) roughage source [30% (DM basis) hay (HY) or 15% cottonseed hulls and 15% soybean hulls (HLS)] and (2) exercise [529 m of exercise (EX) 3 d/wk or no exercise (NEX)]. No differences in BW or ADG existed among treatments (P ≥ 0.24). However, HLS calves had reduced DMI from d 29 to 42, 43 to 56, and 0 to 56 (P ≤ 0.04) compared with HY calves. Overall, HLS and EX calves were more efficient than HY and NEX calves (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). On d 56, there was an interaction for both fecal score (P < 0.01) and fecal pH (P = 0.05) with HY + NEX having reduced fecal score and fecal pH compared with all other treatments. The number of calves that required a second antimicrobial treatment for bovine respiratory disease tended (P = 0.08) to be reduced for HY and NEX calves compared with HLS and EX calves. Calves that were fed HLS or exercised had greater feed conversion efficiency than calves that were fed HY or not exercised. Further investigation is needed to determine the effects of exercise on fecal characteristics and clinical bovine respiratory disease incidence.
       
  • Effect of heifer development system on subsequent growth and reproduction
           in 2 breeding seasons
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): S.A. Springman, H.R. Nielson, R.N. FunstonABSTRACTA 4-yr study evaluated the effects of heifer development system on growth and reproductive performance in 2 breeding seasons. March- and May-born, crossbred heifers were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments from mid-January to mid-April: (1) ad libitum meadow hay (7.3% CP; 54.3% TDN) and 1.64 kg/d of a 32% CP supplement (HY) or (2) meadow grazing (10.3% CP; 61.7% TDN) and 0.41 kg/d supplement (MDW). In the March-born heifers, ADG during treatment was greater (P < 0.01) for HY than MDW heifers (0.78 vs. 0.51 ± 0.03 kg; HY, MDW), with similar pregnancy rates (P = 0.92). Calving rate and the proportion of heifers that calved in the first 21 d was also similar (P ≥ 0.33). Similarly, May-born heifers on HY treatment had greater ADG (P < 0.01; 0.59 vs. 0.35 ± 0.05 kg; HY, MDW) during the treatment period, with similar (P = 0.69) pregnancy rates. Calving rate did not differ (P = 0.88) between treatments, although the proportion of heifers that calved in the first 21 d was greater (P = 0.02) for MDW compared with HY. Overall, heifer development system did not affect pregnancy rate in March or May replacement heifers; however, pregnancy rate of March-born heifers was greater (P < 0.01) than May-born (87 vs. 70 ± 3%). The reduced pregnancy rate in May heifers may be due to declining forage quality during the late-summer breeding season and may require additional inputs to equal pregnancy rates of the March-born heifers.
       
  • 1 &rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Management characteristics of beef cattle production in Hawaii 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): Senorpe Asem-Hiablie, C. Alan Rotz, J. Dale Sandlin, M’Randa R. Sandlin, Robert C. StoutABSTRACTA comprehensive life cycle assessment of the US beef value chain requires the collection of region-specific data for accurate characterization of the country’s diverse production practices. Cattle production in Hawaii is very different from the rest of the country due to its unique ecosystem and geographic location. A survey of cattle producers provided information on herd size and characteristics, grazing management, forage and feed sources, and marketing. Ranch survey responses represented 44% of the state’s beef cows with operation sizes varying from 5 to 10,000 cows. Most cows (79%) were maintained on operations that finished at least some of their cattle, and the majority of those operations finished cattle on forage without concentrate feeds. Cattle were kept on natural pastures ranging in size from 16 to 52,610 ha per ranch with a stocking rate of 2.4 ha/cow on cow-calf operations and 2.0 ha/animal on operations that included older growing animals. Common forage species were Panicum maximum (guinea or green panic grass), Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyugrass), Digitaria eriantha (pangola or digitgrass), and Trifolium repens (white clover). Reported cow and finished cattle BW were 498 ± 52 kg and 493 ± 75 kg, respectively. More ranchers marketed their beef cattle through wholesalers or distributors (34%) rather than directly to consumers (24%), retailers (20%), or other channels (17%). Marketing under grass-fed certification was reported by 39% of ranches. Information obtained is being used to define management characteristics for modeling production systems and performing a comprehensive assessment of the sustainability of beef cattle production.
       
  • Use of residual feed intake as a selection criterion on the performance
           and relative development costs of replacement beef heifers
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): D. Damiran, G.B. Penner, K. Larson, H.A. (Bart) LardnerABSTRACTTwo heifers groups differing in residual feed intake (RFI) were compared with a third control (CON; n = 20) group of randomly selected heifers for performance, reproductive efficiency, and system economics to first calving and repeatability of RFI ranking, with all 3 groups selected from the same cohort. Following weaning, 70 Angus heifers (initial BW = 260 ± 3 kg; 6 mo of age) from a single cohort were fed a forage-based diet (10.0% CP; 65.2% TDN) for 93 d (period 1) where BW, DMI, ADG, G:F, and RFI were evaluated. After period 1 RFI testing, 40 heifers were classified into 2 groups [20 efficient heifers (low RFI; RFI = −1.01 ± 0.10 kg/d) and 20 inefficient heifers (high RFI; RFI = 0.77 ± 0.08 kg/d)] and then selected for a second feeding trial (period 2) and compared with the 20 CON heifers. All 60 heifers in period 2 (BW = 322 ± 2.9 kg; 10 mo of age) were fed for 93 d on a similar forage-based diet (11.0% CP; 66.5% TDN). Low-RFI heifers had the lowest (P = 0.01) RFI value of −0.33 kg/d, followed by CON and high-RFI heifers, −0.09 and 0.42 kg/d, respectively. Control heifers tended (P = 0.08) to have lower ADG (0.83 kg/d) compared with low-RFI (0.92 kg/d) or high-RFI heifers (0.91 kg/d), and low-RFI heifers tended (P = 0.08) to have greater G:F (0.10 ± 0.003) than either CON (0.9 ± 0.003) or high-RFI heifers (0.09 ± 0.003). Spearman rank correlation for RFI between period 1 and 2 was 0.58 (P < 0.01); however, 51% of heifers had a different RFI value in period 2 compared with period 1. First-calf pregnancy rates were 80% for low RFI, 93% for CON, and 100% for high RFI (χ2; P = 0.09). Winter feed costs were ~Can$25 per heifer lower for low-RFI heifers compared with high-RFI animals. Heifers with increased feed efficiency may exhibit reduced reproductive performance, suggesting further research is needed.
       
  • Sources of variation in corn silage and total mixed rations of commercial
           dairy farms
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): Paula Turiello, Alejandro Larriestra, Fernando Bargo, Alejandro Relling, William WeissABSTRACTInformation on sources of variation in feed and diet characteristics is needed to develop appropriate strategies to reduce uncertainty and to separate true variation from that associated with measurements. The objectives were to determine sources of variation in DM content and particle size distribution in corn silage (CS) and TMR. Ten dairy farms in Argentina were visited on 3 consecutive days, samples of CS and TMR were taken, and an audit of feed management was conducted. Corn silage and TMR were sampled in duplicate each day. Variance components were calculated with the Mixed Linear Models of InfoStat for CS and Generalized Linear Mixed Models for TMR. For CS, the model included the effects of farm and day within farm, and for TMR, the model included farm, pen within farm, day within pen, and feed bunk site within pen. Residual effects accounted for sampling and analytical variation. Farm was the greatest source of variation for DM and particle size distribution of CS and TMR, explaining 40 to 92% of total variation. For CS, day within farm variation was greater compared with residual variation in DM (7 and 0.6%, respectively), meaning real changes occurred from one day to the other. For TMR, daily variation in DM content was high and possibly associated with feed management errors. For particle size distribution in TMR, sampling and assaying variation was greater than feed bunk site variation, indicating increased replication and averaging is needed to increase precision.
       
  • ase+Study:+Documenting+grass+growth+and+productivity+in+a+grass-based+organic+dairy+in+Oregon&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Case Study: Documenting grass growth and productivity in a grass-based
           organic dairy in Oregon
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): T. DowningABSTRACTManaging pastures on grazing dairies is a continuous challenge because pasture quality, quantity, and growth rate are changing daily. The objectives of this study were to document weekly pasture growth, forage quality, and performance to understand how to use this information to make management decisions on US dairies. One organic grazing dairy was studied for 3 consecutive years. Pastures were measured and mapped, and total standing DM was estimated weekly in all 22 pastures using a calibrated rising plate meter. Weekly grazing wedges were developed and were used to make grazing decisions that week. Paddocks grazed and residual pasture covers were recorded daily. Paddock grazing and residual heights were also included in the electronic recordkeeping. Dry matter yields ranged from 11,277 to 22,346 kg/ha per year and averaged 15,887 ± 1,919, 17,848 ± 1,966 and 17,956 ± 2,014 for each consecutive year. Daily growth rates ranged from 18 to 100 kg/ha per day throughout the season and averaged as high as 56 ± 20.3 kg/ha per day in yr 3. Pasture quality and productivity in Oregon is comparable to some of the most productive dairy pasture systems reported from around the world.
       
  • Effects of dietary zinc source and concentration on performance of
           growing-finishing pigs reared with reduced floor space
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): J.P. Holen, Z. Rambo, A.M. Hilbrands, L.J. JohnstonABSTRACTThe objectives of this experiment were to evaluate effects of dietary zinc source (AA complex vs. inorganic) and increasing zinc concentration on growth performance and carcass composition of growing-finishing pigs housed in crowded conditions. Maternal-line barrows and gilts (636 pigs; initial BW = 28.7 kg) were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly within block to 1 of 5 treatments. Twelve pens were assigned to each treatment over 3 replicate trials. Treatments were (1) control (Con9)—pigs housed in an uncrowded environment (0.73 m2/pig) and fed diets based on corn, soybean meal, and dried distillers grains with solubles containing 60 mg/kg Zn (phases 1, 2, and 3), and 50 mg/kg Zn (phase 4); (2) crowded (Con11)—pigs housed at 0.60 m2/pig and fed the same diets as Con9; (3) ZnAA40—same as Con11 + 40 mg/kg Zn from Zn AA complex (Availa-Zn, Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie, MN); (4) ZnAA80—same as Con11 + 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn AA complex; and (5) inorganic zinc (ZnSO80)—same as Con11 + 80 mg/kg Zn from zinc sulfate monohydrate. Growth characteristics were determined at the end of each dietary phase (28 d). Upon completion of the trial, carcass composition and meat quality were recorded. Overall, crowding decreased ADG (P < 0.05, SE = 0.01) for Con11 compared with Con9 pigs (0.91 vs. 0.97 kg). There were no differences in average daily feed intake (2.74, 2.66, 2.62, 2.59, and 2.65 kg; SE = 0.05) or G:F (0.368, 0.356, 0.369, 0.368, and 0.365; SE = 0.006) among Con9, Con11, ZnAA40, ZnAA80, and ZnSO80, respectively. Neither zinc source nor concentration affected fat-free lean percentage, DP, loin muscle area, or backfat depth. Altogether, these data indicate that neither additional AA complexed zinc nor additional inorganic zinc influenced growth performance, carcass composition, or pork quality of pigs housed under crowded conditions.
       
  • eview:+The+importance+of+overall+body+fat+content+in+horses&rft.title=The+Professional+Animal+Scientist&rft.issn=1080-7446&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Review: The importance of overall body fat
           content in horses
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 2Author(s): C.A. Cavinder, E.N. Ferjak, C.A. Phillips, D.D. Burnett, T.T.N. DinhABSTRACTIn several livestock species, body condition can positively affect reproductive function. In horses, predictions of body fat (BF, %) are useful in achieving maximum reproductive efficiency, cost-effective nutritional management, and management of obesity-related health conditions. For decades, BF in horses has been predicted by an equation using ultrasonic scans of rump fat thickness, but the most commonly used practice by producers to evaluate energy status is the BCS system. However, the BCS system is subjective and exposed to variation, sometimes to a great extent, among evaluators. Recently, deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution has been validated as an accurate, objective, and minimally invasive method to estimate BF in ponies. Similarly, strong correlations have been observed between D2O estimations of BF and BF determined by near-infrared spectroscopic analysis. Reported in only a few studies, the relationship between BCS and BF is inconclusive. In moderate to obese ponies, BCS was not found to be a sensitive indicator of BF. Conversely, data from 24 stock-type horses in our study indicated that BCS might be useful in estimating BF. In addition, research suggests that physical measurements and peripheral leptin concentrations may be used to assess energy status in horses. More investigation in these areas is warranted because there is currently limited lipid research in the equine industry.
       
 
 
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