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Showing 1 - 48 of 48 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover The Professional Animal Scientist
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   ISSN (Print) 1080-7446
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Injectable trace-mineral supplementation improves sperm motility and
           morphology of young beef bulls11Contribution no. 18-009-J from the Kansas
           Agricultural Experiment Station.
    • Authors: G.W. Preedy; S.L. Hill J.S. Stevenson R.L. Weaber K.C. Olson
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): G.W. Preedy, S.L. Hill, J.S. Stevenson, R.L. Weaber, K.C. Olson
      This experiment evaluated effects of supplemental s.c. trace-mineral injections on growth and breeding soundness of bull calves. Weaned bulls (n = 488; initial BW = 308 ± 45 kg, initial age = 203 ± 17 d) of 2 breeds (Angus and Charolais) and originating from 13 ranches in the Great Plains were transported to a common confinement facility and assigned randomly to 2 treatments: (1) s.c. injections of trace mineral (TM) containing 15 mg/mL Cu, 5 mg/mL Se, 10 mg/mL Mn, and 60 mg/mL Zn or (2) s.c. injections of physiological saline (control). Treatments were administered at arrival (d −2 or −1; 1 mL per 45 kg of BW) and on d 90 ± 1 (1 mL per 68 kg of BW). On d 0, bulls were stratified by treatment, breed, and ranch of origin and assigned randomly to 8 pens in which they were fed a growing diet for 225 d. The diet was formulated to promote a 1.5-kg ADG at a DMI of 2.6% of BW and to meet or exceed NRC (2000) requirements for Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mg, Mn, Na, P, K, Se, and Zn. Initial BW were measured and pretreatment blood plasma samples were collected on d −2 or −1. Breeding soundness examinations (BSE) were conducted and BW were measured at 10 and 12 mo of age (d 90 ± 1 and d 150 ± 1, respectively). Scrotal circumference was measured and semen samples were collected via electro-ejaculation. Motility and morphology of sperm were evaluated via light microscopy. Scrotal circumference, BW, and ADG did not differ (P ≥ 0.16) between treatments at any time. Proportions of control- and TM-treated bulls achieving minimal satisfactory BSE classifications did not differ at 10 mo of age (P = 0.98; 50 ± 3.8% for both TM and control) or at 12 mo of age (P = 0.43; 89 and 86 ± 2.2% for TM and control, respectively). Conversely, improved (P = 0.05) sperm motility was detected in TM-treated bulls compared with control-treated bulls at 12 mo of age; moreover, TM-treated bulls had greater (P ≤ 0.05) improvements in sperm morphology and motility between 10 and 12 mo of age than control-treated bulls. Among bulls that failed BSE at 10 mo of age, more TM-treated bulls tended (P = 0.10) to pass BSE at 12 mo of age than control-treated bulls (98 and 94 ± 1.6% for TM and control, respectively). Under the conditions of this experiment, sperm motility and morphology at 12 mo of age were improved in bulls treated with injectable TM at 7 and 10 mo of age compared with bulls treated with saline.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of camelina meal and
           carinata meal compared with other protein sources
    • Authors: R.D. Lawrence; J.L. Anderson
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): R.D. Lawrence, J.L. Anderson
      Production of reneweable feedstocks for biodiesel have drawn attention to alternative oilseed crops. Our objective was to determine DM and CP ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of camelina meal (CAM) and carinata meal (CAR), compared with canola meal (CAN), linseed meal (LIN), soybean meal (SBM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as controls. In situ degradability measurements were done using 3 multiparous, mid-late lactation ruminally cannulated Holstein cows. Sample bags were ruminally incubated in duplicate for each cow and feedstuff for 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h and in triplicate for 24 and 48 h. Eight bags of each feed were incubated at 12 h for use of the residues in determination of in vitro intestinal digestibility. Ruminal particulate passage rate averaged 6.0%/h. Rate of DM degradation was greatest (P < 0.05) for CAM and LIN and least for DDGS, whereas CAR and SBM were similar. Ruminally degradable DM was greatest (P < 0.01) in CAM, CAR, and SBM. The CAM and CAR had the greatest (P < 0.05) RDP and least RUP. Intestinal digestible protein was similar (P > 0.05) for LIN, CAM, and CAR, which was greater (P < 0.05) than CAN and DDGS. Intestinally absorbable digestible protein was least for CAM and CAR (P < 0.01) compared with the other feeds. Total digestible protein was similar (P > 0.05) for CAM and CAR compared with SBM and LIN. Results indicate that CAM and CAR are highly degradable and comparable to SBM and LIN for protein utilization.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Use of extensive winter feeding systems for backgrounding beef calves and
           the effect on finishing
    • Authors: McMillan G.B.; Penner J.J. McKinnon Larson Damiran H.A. (Bart) Lardner
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): S. McMillan, G.B. Penner, J.J. McKinnon, K. Larson, F. Añez-Osuna, D. Damiran, H.A. (Bart) Lardner
      The introduction of low heat unit corn varieties in western Canada has led to questions on how this crop might fit into an extensive backgrounding program. Therefore, a 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate the effects of grazing standing whole-plant corn (Zea mays L. ‘Pioneer P7443R’) or swathed whole-plant barley (Hordeum vulgare ‘Ranger’) compared with barley hay fed in drylot pens on beef steer performance during backgrounding and feedlot phases. The effect of backgrounding system was also assessed during finishing when steers were fed diets based on barley grain or corn grain. Each yr, 120 Angus steers (BW = 250.5±1.8 kg) were allocated to 1 of 3 replicated (n = 2) backgrounding systems: (1) field grazing swathed whole-plant barley (BSG; 11.2% CP, 60.6% TDN); (2) field grazing standing whole-plant corn (CG; 8.7% CP, 64.6% TDN); or (3) drylot (DL) bunk feeding of processed barley hay (10.9% CP, 57.2% TDN) for an average 78 d (42 to 95 d) trial. All calves received 2.5 kg/d of a range pellet supplement (16% CP, 78% TDN). Treatment groups were similar (P > 0.05) in final BW (295.8±5.0 kg), ADG (0.59±0.03 kg/d), and G:F ratio (0.187±0.03 kg/kg). The cost of gain of DL, BSG, and CG steers was CAN$6.32, CAN$3.14, and CAN$2.96/kg, respectively. Following backgrounding, each replicate group of steers was subdivided and placed in a feedlot for finishing on either a barley- (12.2% CP, 75.4% TDN) or corn grain–based (11.3% CP, 74.7% TDN) diet for an average of 120 d. There were no backgrounding system, finishing, or backgrounding system × finishing interaction effects (P > 0.05) for feedlot DMI, ADG, G:F, or carcass characteristics. Study results suggest that grazing either swathed barley or whole-plant corn for 65 d during backgrounding can reduce (P = 0.05) costs by CAN$60 and CAN$70/steer, respectively, compared with feeding steers barley hay in a drylot.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Controlling herbage allowance and selection of cow genotype improve
           cow-calf productivity in Campos grasslands
    • Authors: Carmo Lynn; Sollenberger Mariana Carriquiry Pablo Soca
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): Martín Do Carmo, Lynn E. Sollenberger, Mariana Carriquiry, Pablo Soca
      An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of herbage allowance and cow genotype on herbage and animal responses. High (Hi) and Low (Lo) herbage allowance (4.9 and 2.9±0.14 kg of DM/kg of cattle BW, respectively) and pure (Pu, Hereford and Angus) and crossbred (Cr, F1 crosses) cow genotypes were compared in terms of herbage traits, stocking rate, cow BCS, energy intake, and calf BW at weaning during 2 cow-calf cycles (−240 to +120 d postpartum). Herbage height (5.5 vs. 3.5±0.18 cm, mean ± SE) and herbage accumulation (15.0 vs. 12.5±1.1 kg of DM/ha per d) were greater (P > 0.01) for Hi than Lo, whereas stocking rate did not differ (P > 0.2) between Hi and Lo (382 vs. 398 ± 7 kg of BW/ha, respectively). Cow BCS was greater (P > 0.05) in Hi than Lo (4.3 vs. 3.9 ± 0.02) and in Cr than Pu cows (4.2 vs. 4.0 ± 0.04). Calf BW at weaning was greater (20 and 10 kg) for Hi than Lo and for Cr than Pu cows, but energy intake (473 vs. 455 ± 4.6 kJ/kg of BW0.75 per d) was greater (P > 0.05), only in Hi compared with Lo cows. Modeling BCS evolution during the cow-calf cycle confirmed that Hi herbage allowance and Cr cows improved energy balance and cow-calf biological efficiency. This information can be used to improve profitability and mitigate weather variability effects on Campos grassland livestock systems.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Effects of oral tilmicosin on health and performance in newly received
           beef heifers
    • Authors: J.D. Rivera; J.T. Johnson G.K. Blue
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): J.D. Rivera, J.T. Johnson, G.K. Blue
      The objective of these studies was to determine the effects of feeding tilmicosin on health and performance of newly received beef cattle. Beef heifers (n = 480) were used in 2 studies to determine effects of oral tilmicosin on health and performance. In Exp. 1, 320 heifers (BW = 196 ± 3.3 kg) were administered antimicrobial metaphylaxis before shipment. At arrival they were monitored for signs of bovine respiratory disease. When 10% of the population was morbid, heifers were assigned to either a control receiving diet (CON) or a diet providing 12.5 mg of tilmicosin/kg of BW (TIL). Treatments were fed for 14 d, and morbid animals were treated with injectable antibiotics. Cattle were weighed individually on d 0, 28, and 56. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block, and morbidity was analyzed as nonparametric data. Feeding TIL resulted in reduced BW at d 28 (P = 0.03). Moreover, TIL decreases DMI during the first 14 d (P = 0.0001) and decreased ADG (P = 0.03) and G:F (P = 0.05) from d 0 to 28. There were no differences in morbidity (P = 0.20), and TIL increased total antibiotic cost (P = 0.004). In Exp. 2, 160 beef heifers (BW = 227 ± 2.3 kg) received no metaphylaxis and were processed at arrival. Feeding TIL did not affect morbidity (P = 0.44); however, TIL decreased the number of animals re-treated (P = 0.03) and increased total antibiotic cost (P = 0.04).

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Long-term effect of organic trace minerals on growth, reproductive
           performance, and first lactation in dairy heifers
    • Authors: Pino N.L.; Urrutia S.L. Gelsinger A.M. Gehman A.J. Heinrichs
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): F. Pino, N.L. Urrutia, S.L. Gelsinger, A.M. Gehman, A.J. Heinrichs
      The effect of trace mineral nutrition in utero and during growth and first lactation was evaluated using 64 multiparous dry cows supplemented with organic (OTM) or inorganic trace minerals (ITM) for 60 d before calving. At calving each calf was alternately assigned to OTM or ITM, to obtain 32 calves in each treatment. Calves received OTM or ITM treatments in colostrum (from treatment mothers), milk replacer, and starter, and then as heifers they received treatment in a TMR until 100 DIM. Growth, reproductive, and lactation performances until 100 DIM were evaluated. Age at calving was compared by treatment. Body weight, hip height, withers height, and heart girth were not affected by the trace mineral form received before calving (P > 0.05) except near calving, when these traits were affected by some heifers leaving the study as they calved. Heifers fed OTM tended to calve earlier than those supplemented with ITM (P = 0.07). Overall milk yield until 100 DIM was greater in OTM supplemented heifers (P = 0.09); however, trace mineral form did not affect milk quality. Overall, in the long term, OTM appeared to improve age at calving and early-lactation milk production of dairy heifers, which may affect their future productive life.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Effects of injectable trace minerals on the immune response to Mannheimia
           haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida following vaccination of dairy
           calves with a commercial attenuated-live bacterin vaccine
    • Authors: J.H.J. Bittar; D.J. Hurley A.R. Woolums N.A. Norton C.E. Barber
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): J.H.J. Bittar, D.J. Hurley, A.R. Woolums, N.A. Norton, C.E. Barber, F. Moliere, L.J. Havenga, R.A. Palomares
      The objective was to evaluate the effects of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing Zn, Mn, Se, and Cu on the humoral and cell mediated immune responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving an attenuated-live bacterin vaccine containing Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Thirty 3-mo-old dairy calves received 2 doses (21 d apart) of an attenuated-live M. haemolytica and P. multocida bacterin vaccine (Once PMH, Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ), and a 5-way modified-live-virus vaccine (Express 5, Boehringer Ingelheim, Vetmedica, St. Joseph, MO). On the day of primary vaccination, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 treatment groups (n = 15 per group): ITM (ITM administration) or control (sterile saline injection). Treatments were administered concurrently with vaccinations. Blood samples were collected for determination of antibody titers against M. haemolytica and P. multocida and of antigen-induced proliferation and interferon-γ secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Serum Se and Mn concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in the ITM group than the control group after ITM use. Serum end-point antibody titers against both bacteria and interferon-γ secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells were not different (P > 0.05) between groups. The use of ITM with bovine respiratory disease vaccines enhanced (P < 0.01) antibody titer fold-change to M. haemolytica. Proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells after P. multocida stimulation was increased (P = 0.03) in the ITM group on d 21 relative to baseline value. In conclusion, ITM administration concurrently with bacterin vaccination improved the immune response to M. haemolytica and P. multocida and might be a valuable tool to enhance dairy calves’ response to bovine respiratory disease vaccination.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Oral administration of Megasphaera elsdenii to Jersey cows during early
    • Authors: M.L. Eastridge
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): D. Ye, M.L. Eastridge
      The objective of this study was to determine whether Megasphaera elsdenii orally administered to transition Jersey cows would improve milk yield and reduce the risk for metabolic disease. Thirty primi- and multiparous Jersey cows, blocked according to parity and date of calving, were used in a randomized complete block design until 90 DIM and fed diets with 51% forage and 17.9 to 28.5% starch. Within each block, cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) control (no dose) or (2) 200 mL of Lactipro by oral drenching at 1 to 2 d postpartum (M. elsdenii, 1 × 108 cfu/mL; MSBiotec, Littleton, CO). Cows were housed in tie stalls for 4 wk after calving, in which DMI was measured, and then cows were housed in free stalls for 9 wk. Dry matter intake, BCS, and BW change were similar between treatments, and no treatment by time interactions occurred. There was no difference in milk yield between the treatments. For cows with ≥3 lactations, those dosed with M. elsdenii had greater milk and fat yields than the control cows. No treatment effect or treatment by time interactions were detected for milk fat and protein percentages and feed efficiency. Serum and urine ketones were similar between treatments. Although pre- and postpartum diets fed and management strategies for transition cows may affect whether cows respond to oral administration of M. elsdenii, mature, higher producing cows with ≥3 lactations may respond with increased milk yield when dosed with M. elsdenii.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Evaluation of fodder production systems for organic dairy farms
    • Authors: K.J. Soder; B.J. Heins Chester-Jones A.N. Hafla M.D. Rubano
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): K.J. Soder, B.J. Heins, H. Chester-Jones, A.N. Hafla, M.D. Rubano
      This study evaluated the feasibility and challenges of implementing sprouted fodder on organic dairy farms. In study 1, 5 grains (barley, oats, wheat, rye, and triticale) were sprouted for 7 d and analyzed for yield and nutritional content. In study 2, lactating cows were fed a TMR during winter and supplemented with either no fodder or 1.4 kg (DM) of sprouted barley fodder. In study 3, 3 organic dairies that fed sprouted barley fodder were monitored monthly for 12 mo to collect data on feed nutritional analysis, milk production and composition, and management. Data from studies 1 and 2 were analyzed as separate replicated complete block designs, and study 3 was a case study. Barley and oats had the greatest (P < 0.05) fresh weight in study 1, oats had the greatest (P < 0.05) DM yield, and barley had the least (P < 0.05) mold score. In study 2, milk production, milk fat, BW, and BCS were not affected by supplemental fodder. Cows fed fodder had lesser (P < 0.05) milk protein production but greater (P < 0.05) milk urea N. Income over feed costs favored not feeding fodder except when cracked corn prices increased by 50% over those used in the study. In study 3, labor, cost of production, lack of milk response, barley supply, and mold issues resulted in 2 of the farms discontinuing fodder. Fodder increased milk production slightly on the third farm, probably due to decreased forage quality. Fodder may provide some benefits on small-scale operations, farms with high land values where tillable acreage can produce high-value crops, or for producers experiencing severe, extended drought. Additionally, farms that have an excess of labor may benefit with a sprouted fodder system. However, in many situations, growing high-quality forage would be more economical.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Evaluation of floor cooling on lactating sows under mild and moderate heat
    • Authors: Maskal F.A.; A.P. Schinckel J.N. Marchant-Forde J.S. Johnson R.M. Stwalley
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): J. Maskal, F.A. Cabezón, A.P. Schinckel, J.N. Marchant-Forde, J.S. Johnson, R.M. Stwalley
      The effectiveness of sow cooling pads during lactation was evaluated under mild and moderate heat stress conditions. The moderate heat stress room was targeted to achieve 32°C from 0800 to 1600 h and 27°C for the rest of the day. The mild heat stress room was targeted to achieve 27 and 22°C for the same periods, respectively. Sows received a constant cool water flow of 0.00 (CON, n = 9), 0.25 (LWF, n = 12), or 0.50 (HWF, n = 10) L/min. Respiration rates, rectal temperatures, and skin temperatures were recorded every day (0700 and 1500 h) from the second day in the farrowing room to weaning. The respiration rates of CON sows were 23, 56, 41, and 89 breaths/min, of LWF sows were 21, 24, 29, and 41 breaths/min, and of HWF sows were 18, 20, 24, and 27 breaths/min, and respiration rate increased (P < 0.001) as heat stress increased from mild at 0700 h (22°C), to moderate at 0700 h (27°C), to mild at 1500 h (27°C), and to moderate at 1500 h (32°C). The skin temperatures of LWF sows were 1.1, 0.6, 0.8, and 0.4°C less and of HWF sows were 1.7, 0.7, 1.1, and 1.0°C less (P < 0.01) than CON sows for the same heat stress conditions. The rectal temperatures of LWF sows were 0.02, 0.20, 0.11, and 0.58°C less and of HWF sows were 0.04, 0.22, 0.02, and 0.57°C less (P < 0.05) for the same 4 treatments. The sow cooling pads reduced the effect of heat stress.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Superdosing phytase fed to mature boars improves semen concentration and
           reproductive efficiency
    • Authors: K.R. Stewart; C.L. Bradley Wilcock Domingues Kleve-Feld Hundley F.A.
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): K.R. Stewart, C.L. Bradley, P. Wilcock, F. Domingues, M. Kleve-Feld, J. Hundley, F.A. Cabezón
      The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effects of superdosing phytase fed to boars on sperm production, semen quality, and serum mineral concentrations. Thirty boars (9 to 12 mo of age, PIC 280) were enrolled in the study and were fed 2.5 kg/d of a commercial corn–soybean meal diet containing 500 phytase units/kg modified Escherichia coli phytase to release 0.15% available phosphorus and 0.16% Ca. The boars were blocked by age and randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 top-dresses at 0.5 kg/d: (1) control (corn only) or (2) superdosed (corn plus 5,000 phytase units/kg E. coli phytase to equate to 3,000 phytase units/kg in the overall diet). Semen was collected weekly from all 30 boars for 12 wk and motility, mobility, and morphology evaluated at the time of collection. Monthly semen samples were shipped to Purdue University for additional assessment of motility, morphology, viability, and DNA denaturation. Serum mineral concentrations were determined on wk 1, 6, and 12. The concentration of sperm in the ejaculate was greater in the superdosed boars (P = 0.03), resulting in a tendency for an additional 3 doses (2.8 billion cells/dose) extended per ejaculate (P = 0.10) from a 13% increase in semen output. Some significant variations in motility, mobility, and morphology were found, but all semen samples fresh and stored were considered acceptable at industry standards for use in breeding doses. Serum minerals were reduced in boars fed superdosed levels of phytase, possibly due to a shift of minerals being used for reproduction.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Case Study: The effects of photoperiod on feeding behavior of lactating
           dairy cows in tie-stalls
    • Authors: Macmillan O.S.; Espinoza Oba
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): K. Macmillan, O.S. Espinoza, M. Oba
      To determine the effects of photoperiod management on behavior of dairy cows, 30 lactating cows were subjected to a long-day (16 h/d light) or short-day photoperiod (8 h/d light). Feeding behavior was observed and feed refusals were collected before and after a 21-d adaptation to photoperiod treatment. Feeding behavior data were summarized for 4 daily time periods based on light schedule, and no effect of light treatment was observed for DMI, lying time, or overall feeding behavior. However, in time period 4 (1600 to 1900 h), the long-day treatment decreased lying time (28.3 vs. 37.7 min/h) and tended to increase eating time (17.5 vs. 9.03 min/h). There was also a tendency for the long-day treatment to reduce daily feed sorting. Providing supplementary light may reduce sorting and increase distribution of eating activities throughout the day, and the change in feeding pattern may be affected by the time of day the supplementary light is provided.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Case Study: Water budget of a dairy farm with a tie-stall barn for milk
           cows and summer pasturing of heifers and dry cows
    • Authors: A.C. VanderZaag; Burtt Piquette Wright Kroebel Gordon
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): A.C. VanderZaag, S. Burtt, X. Vergé, S. Piquette, T. Wright, R. Kroebel, R. Gordon
      Water use (i.e., pumped water) was measured over a full year on a small dairy farm consisting of ~34 lactating and ~39 nonlactating animals (calves, heifers, and dry cows). Crop production was rain fed and was not included in the analysis. Animals were housed in a tie-stall barn during the winter and cool season (mid-October to mid-May) and outdoors in a yard or pasture during the warm season. Annual average water use was 5,180 L/d, with 82% being drinking water and 18% for milking system cleaning. Distinct diurnal patterns of drinking water intake were observed for each animal group, which differed when cows were located indoors or outdoors. Seasonal changes in water intake were significant. Nonlactating animals accounted for 27% of whole-farm water intake in the summer (July–September). In the warm season, herd-scale milk production declined while water consumption increased. As a result, the whole-farm water used per liter of milk had a strong positive correlation with monthly average temperature humidity index (THI) and could have been additionally influenced by other factors such as herd composition, precipitation, feed intake, forage quality and availability, and day length. When THI was below 50, water use ranged from 4.3 to 4.8 L/kg of milk, and it increased to a maximum of 6.7 L/kg at a THI of 68. The annual average water use was 5.35 L/kg of milk. This study demonstrates that the water used per kilogram of milk produced was affected not only by changes in water use but also by changes in herd-scale milk production.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Case Study: Control of respiratory disease in male Holstein calves with
           tildipirosin and effect on health and growth from 0 to 4 months of age
    • Authors: T.M. Hill; J.D. Quigley F.X. Suarez-Mena T.S. Dennis R.L. Schlotterbeck
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): T.M. Hill, J.D. Quigley, F.X. Suarez-Mena, T.S. Dennis, R.L. Schlotterbeck
      In trial 1, phase 1, 48 male Holstein calves initially 2 to 4 d of age were transported 3.5 h to the research facility. Calves were randomly selected to either receive a s.c. injection of Zuprevo (Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ; 4 mg of tildipirosin/kg of BW; TIL) the day after arrival (d 0) and again at weaning (d 42) or receive no injections (CON). Calves were fed 0.66 kg of milk replacer DM daily for 39 d and then 0.33 kg daily for 3 d. A starter was fed free choice for the 56 d of phase 1. In trial 1, phase 2, the same calves from phase 1 grouped by CON and TIL were moved to group pens (4 pens per treatment, 4 calves per pen) for the next 56 d. The starter was blended with 5% chopped grass hay and fed free choice. Trial 2 was similar to trial 1, phase 2 and used 48 two-month-old male Holstein calves. Calves were randomly selected to receive either a s.c. injection of Zuprevo (4 mg of tildipirosin/kg of BW; TIL) on d 0 or no injections (CON). In trial 1, phase 1, preweaning ADG and BCS change; postweaning starter intake and hip width change; overall starter intake, ADG, and hip width change; final hip width; and final BCS were greater for TIL than CON. During phase 2 of trial 1 and trial 2, calf ADG and hip width change were greater for TIL than CON. Overall, in transported Holstein calves, TIL improved ADG and structural growth by approximately 13%.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Invited Review: Ruminal microbes, microbial products, and systemic
           inflammation1,21Presented as a part of the ARPAS Symposium: Understanding
           Inflammation and Inflammatory Biomarkers to Improve Animal Performance at
           the ADSA–ASAS Joint Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, Utah, July 2016.
           Funding was provided by the ARPAS Foundation.2Contribution no. 17-366-J
           from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.
    • Authors: Garcia B.J.; Bradford T.G. Nagaraja
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): M. Garcia, B.J. Bradford, T.G. Nagaraja
      The ruminal ecosystem is inhabited by complex communities of microbes that include bacteria, protozoa, archaea, fungi, and viruses. The immune system of the animal has evolved to maintain tolerance to innocuous gut commensals and allow the induction of protective responses to pathogens. However, ruminal microbes can also promote local and systemic inflammation. The ruminal epithelium–vascular interface allows absorption of fermentation products and also serves as a selective barrier to prevent translocation and systemic dissemination of bacteria, bacterial toxins, and immunogenic factors. Ruminal dysbiosis that increases ruminal acidity and osmolarity may increase permeability and even induce a breach in the integrity of the epithelial and vascular endothelial barriers, thus facilitating entry of bacteria or bacterial antigens into the portal vein. Upon reaching the liver, bacteria and their products can cause local inflammation and alter function of the organ; if they manage to bypass the liver, they can cause systemic inflammation and affect other organs. Shifts in microbial populations associated with dysbiosis result in increases in concentrations of potentially toxic and inflammatory substances that include lipopolysaccharides, lipoteichoic acids, and leukotoxins, among others. Lipopolysaccharides are constituents of all gram-negative bacteria, which are the dominant ruminal microbes. The entry of lipopolysaccharides into the systemic circulation, either from the rumen or lower gut, could trigger the release of proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, and bioactive lipids. An activated immune system drastically increases its demand for nutrients; however, the nutritional requirements of an activated immune system in the context of systemic physiology are still unknown. In conclusion, ruminal microbes and their products generate many complex interactions with the host immune system, and dysbiosis has the potential to induce systemic inflammation. Although inflammation is generally a protective reaction, the persistence of inflammatory mediators could have negative consequences for the host.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Influence of level and form of supplemental zinc on feedlot growth
           performance and carcass characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers
    • Authors: M.F. Montano; Plascencia Salinas-Chavira Torrentera R.A. Zinn
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): M.F. Montano, A. Plascencia, J. Salinas-Chavira, N. Torrentera, R.A. Zinn
      The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of level and source of supplemental Zn on growth performance and dietary energetics in calf-fed Holstein steers. A total of 168 steers (BW = 133 ± 7 kg) were used in a 336-d study. Treatments consisted of diets based on steam-flaked corn supplemented with (DM basis) (1) 20 mg of Zn/kg of DM as ZnSO4; (2) 10 mg of Zn/kg of DM as ZnSO4 plus 10 mg of Zn/kg of DM as Zn betaine; (3) 20 mg of Zn/kg of DM as Zn betaine; or (4) 40 mg of Zn/kg of DM as ZnSO4. Overall (d 1 to 336) there were no treatment effects (P > 0.10) on carcass-adjusted ADG, gain efficiency, and estimated dietary NE. At the 20 mg/kg level of Zn supplementation, the proportion of supplemental Zn provided as chelate did not influence overall ADG, gain efficiency, or dietary NE (P > 0.10). The proportion of Zn supplemented as chelate did not affect (P > 0.10) carcass weight, KPH, LM area, or marbling score. However, DP was greater (quadratic effect, P = 0.01) for steers receiving the 50:50 blend of ZnSO4 and Zn betaine. Carcass yield grade improved (linear component, P = 0.03) with proportion of supplemental Zn as chelate. We conclude that at a 20 mg/kg (DM basis) level of supplementation, Zn source does not affect growth performance of calf-fed Holstein steers. Increasing level of Zn supplementation (as ZnSO4) from 20 to 40 mg/kg will not further enhance overall performance responses.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Effects of feeding corn plant residues during the growing phase on steer
           growth performance and feedlot economics
    • Authors: P.H.V. Carvalho; W.T. Meteer A.R. Schroeder DiCostanzo T.L. Felix
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): P.H.V. Carvalho, W.T. Meteer, A.R. Schroeder, A. DiCostanzo, T.L. Felix
      Feeding harvested corn crop residues (CCR) to cattle has become increasingly common; however, the poor quality of mature CCR presents nutritional challenges. Therefore, the objectives of these studies were to evaluate the effects of feeding CCR harvested at 2 maturities and the effects of 2 silage additives, Silage SAVOR Plus (propionic acid-based additive) or Silo-King (lactobacillus-based additive), on in situ fiber disappearance, cattle growth performance and carcass characteristics, and economic traits of growing cattle. A total of 128 Angus × Simmental steers (initial BW = 327 ± 40 kg) were allotted to 20 pens and fed 4 treatments in diets that contained 25% forage: (1) corn stover, wetted to 40% DM and ensiled; (2) corn stalklage, harvested at 40% DM and ensiled (STK); (3) STK plus Silo-King; or (4) STK plus Silage SAVOR Plus. Corn stover was harvested 186 d after planting after harvesting dry corn. Corn stalklage was harvested 158 d after planting after harvesting high moisture corn. Growing diets contained CCR at 25% inclusion (DM basis) and were fed from d 0 to 85. From d 86 to 186, steers were fed a common finishing diet. Corn crop residue samples were incubated in 2 ruminally fistulated steers to determine in situ DM disappearance and NDF disappearance. There were no effects of treatment on in situ DM disappearance (P = 0.40) or in situ NDF disappearance (P = 0.34). There were no treatment effects (P ≥ 0.19) on steer growth performance from d 0 to 85 and from d 86 to 186; thus, there were no effects (P ≥ 0.14) of treatment on overall steer performance, carcass characteristics, and economic traits for the entire 186 d. Feeding mature CCR resulted in similar ruminal fiber degradation, steer growth, carcass performance, and economic traits when compared with immature CCR in diets fed to growing steers, and there was no benefit of additive inclusion.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Effect of source of supplemental fat in early lactation on productive
           performance and milk composition
    • Authors: Guiling Merrill; Kung T.F. Gressley J.H. Harrison Block
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Ma Guiling, C. Merrill, L. Kung, T.F. Gressley, J.H. Harrison, E. Block
      The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of diets supplemented with rumen inert fat sources on early-lactation performance of dairy cows. Two studies were conducted that varied in total dietary fat level (3.4% of DM for study 1 and 5.1% of DM for study 2). Calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) rich in oleic acid versus SFA rich in palmitic acid diets were supplemented to provide 0.9% (study 1) and 1.2% (study 2) of total dietary fatty acids (DM basis). Compared with cows fed the CSFA diet in study 1, cows fed the SFA diet had 0.06 kg/d greater protein yield (P = 0.01) and 0.02 unit greater protein efficiency (P = 0.01) expressed as milk CP/CP intake. In study 2, cows fed the CSFA diet had 0.2 kg/d greater fat yield (P = 0.04), 0.1 unit greater fat efficiency (P = 0.02) expressed as milk fat/fat intake, 3.6 kg/d greater 3.5% FCM (P = 0.04), and 3.3 kg/d greater energy-corrected milk yield (P < 0.05). In conclusion, when cows started at 45 DIM and with a diet fat level of 5.1% (DM), the CSFA diet rich in oleic acid improved milk fat yield, milk fat efficiency, 3.5% FCM, and energy-corrected milk (P < 0.05). However, when cows started at greater than 70 DIM and with a diet fat level of 3.4% (DM), the SFA diet rich in palmitic acid improved lactation performance by improving milk protein yield and protein efficiency (P < 0.05). This study suggests that dietary fatty acids are potentially absorbed and partitioned differently depending on the level of dietary fat and DIM.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Comparative effects of multiple sources of rumen-protected methionine on
           milk production and serum amino acid levels in mid-lactation dairy cows
    • Authors: Zang Saed; Samii Z.C. Phipps L.R. Tager J.W. McFadden K.M.
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Y. Zang, S. Saed Samii, Z.C. Phipps, L.R. Tager, J.W. McFadden, K.M. Krause
      The dairy industry demand for rumen-protected methionine (RP-Met) supplements has been competitive because of the constant emergence of new products. To evaluate performances, our study was designed to characterize the production response of 3 RP-Met supplements in mid-lactation dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d treatment period. Treatments included control [(basal) diet based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage, supplemented with 0.025% of ration DM of lysine (Lys; Ajipro)] or 1 of 3 RP-Met supplements [Smartamine M (SMM), Mepron M85 (MM85), or Novimet (NVM)]. For RP-Met groups, Met and Lys were supplemented to the basal diet at 0.03 and 0.20% of ration DM, respectively. Treatments had no effect on DMI or milk yield. Treatment did not modify milk fat or lactose concentration; however, milk protein content was elevated with SMM, relative to control or NVM (3.30% vs. 3.24 or 3.24%, respectively; P < 0.05). Milk fat, protein, and lactose yield were not modified by treatments. Treatments tended (P = 0.12) to affect milk urea nitrogen. Serum Met concentration increased for SMM compared with control, MM85, or NVM (27.3 μM vs. 21.2, 23.3, or 22.7 μM, respectively; P < 0.001). Similarly, supplementation of SMM reduced the serum Lys:Met ratio (4.5:1) compared with control (5.2:1), MM85 (5.1:1), or NVM (5.2:1) (P < 0.05). Treatment did not modify the serum levels of all other EAA. We conclude that SMM increased circulating Met and milk protein content more effectively than NVM or MM85.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Effect of increased dietary sugar on dairy cow performance as influenced
           by diet nutrient components and level of milk production
    • Authors: M.B. Ondarza; S.M. Emanuele C.J. Sniffen
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): M.B. de Ondarza, S.M. Emanuele, C.J. Sniffen
      Interactions among diet nutrient parameters can influence dairy cattle response to added dietary sugar. With the objective to evaluate the effect of dietary sugar, 2 data sets with dietary information and production responses were compiled from published research that tested the effect of additional dietary sugar on dairy cattle performance. The first data set included 24 scientific papers (97 observations) with dietary forage NDF content ranging from 14.61 to 38.48% of diet DM. To evaluate the effect of dietary sugar in diets with a more narrow range in dietary forage NDF (17.37 to 29.51% of diet DM), the second data set omitted 3 of the scientific papers in the first data set, resulting in 85 observations. Mixed model linear regression analysis included treatment category [control, 1.5–3%, 3–5%, vs. 5–7% added dietary sugar (% of diet DM)], DIM category within treatment, control milk yield category within treatment, and several continuous nutrient variables. In cows producing >33 kg of milk/d, added dietary sugar had a greater response (2.14 kg of 3.5% FCM/d; P < 0.0001) than in cows producing <33 kg of milk (0.77 kg of 3.5% FCM/d). Additional dietary sugar did not affect milk fat or protein percentage (P > 0.15). Nutrient variables with a positive effect on 3.5% FCM yield included added starch and protein B2 (insoluble in boiling neutral detergent but soluble in boiling acid detergent solution). Nonlinear statistical analysis predicted the optimal total dietary sugar to be 6.75% of diet DM. To optimize 3.5% FCM yield response when feeding additional dietary sugars, a low to moderate starch diet should be fed (22 to 27% of diet DM) in combination with a moderate to high soluble fiber content (6.0 to 8.5% of diet DM).

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Survey of mean particle length in whole-plant corn silage
    • Authors: G.G.S. Salvati; L.F. Ferraretto G.S. Dias F.L. Drago R.D. Shaver
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): G.G.S. Salvati, L.F. Ferraretto, G.S. Dias Júnior, F.L. Drago, R.D. Shaver
      Theoretical length of cut (TLOC) settings on forage harvesters vary as dairy farmers attempt to increase the mean particle length (MPL) of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). Our objective was to evaluate the MPL of WPCS using 2 methods of determination in whole-plant and stover-fraction samples. Eighty WPCS survey samples were collected and represented varied TLOC settings and processor types and settings. Particle size distributions for determining MPL were measured using either the Penn State Particle Size Separator (PSPS) or the Wisconsin Oscillating Particle Separator (WIOS). The MPL of WPCS samples determined by PSPS and WIOS, respectively, were 12.0 versus 11.8mm and for the stover-fraction samples were 11.8 versus 8.1 mm. The TLOC, indicated verbally by surveyed dairy farmers or their custom operator, was unrelated to MPL regardless of particle-separation method (P > 0.10) for both whole-plant and stover-fraction samples. However, MPL measured by PSPS and WIOS were positively related in both as-fed whole-plant (R2 = 0.62, P = 0.001) and dried stover-fraction samples (R2 = 0.60, P = 0.001). The elimination of kernels through hydrodynamic separation did not improve the relationship between verbal TLOC and MPL. A relationship between MPL of as-fed whole-sample and MPL of the stover fraction was observed (PSPS, P = 0.001; WIOS, P = 0.001) but with poor R2 values (PSPS, 0.25; WIOS, 0.18). The strong relationship between the 2 methods used to determine MPL in WPCS suggests that MPL may be measured adequately on farm by consultants using the PSPS.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • A survey of recommended practices made by veterinary practitioners to
           cow-calf operations in the United States and Canada
    • Authors: G.D. Fike; J.C. Simroth D.U. Thomson E.F. Schwandt Spare A.J.
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): G.D. Fike, J.C. Simroth, D.U. Thomson, E.F. Schwandt, R. Spare, A.J. Tarpoff
      Practicing veterinarians (n = 148) who service commercial beef cow-calf herds responded to a survey describing general recommendations made to their clients in terms of vaccine protocol, health, and production practices. Responding veterinarians represented 35 states in the United States and 3 provinces in Canada. More than 50% of responding veterinarians devote over 50% of their practice to service commercial cow-calf producers. The largest group (33%) of veterinarians have been in practice for over 30 yr. Thirty-nine percent of responding veterinarians serviced more than 10,000 cows. Genetic advice is provided by 54% of practicing veterinarians. When vaccinating at branding, the most common recommended vaccines are clostridial (96%), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR; 94%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV; 91%), parainfluenza-3 (PI-3; 90%), and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) Types 1 and 2 (78 and 77%, respectively). When vaccinating before weaning, the most common recommended vaccines are IBR (99%), BRSV (98%), BVD Types 1 and 2 (96%), PI-3 (93%), clostridial (77%), and Mannheimia haemolytica (77%). When vaccinating after weaning, the most common recommended vaccines are BVD Type 2 (97%), IBR (97%), BVD Type 1 (96%), BRSV (96%), and PI-3 (91%). Over 60% of responding veterinarians recommended that the last preventative vaccine should be administered to cattle 7 to 21 d before shipping. The largest number of respondents (38%) recommended that the earliest age their clients should wean their calves is 90 to 120 d. Castrating bull calves at an age of 0 to 7 d was recommended by 34% of respondents. Calf nutrition is considered as extremely important during a preconditioning program by 82% of responding veterinarians.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Effect of various levels of dietary starch on glycogen replenishment in
           the light working horse
    • Authors: C.A. Phillips; C.A. Cavinder D.H. Sigler J.D. Fluckey
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): C.A. Phillips, C.A. Cavinder, D.H. Sigler, J.D. Fluckey
      Nine Quarter Horses were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square with replication to determine the effect of various levels of dietary starch on glycogen replenishment in the light working horse. Horses were fed Coastal bermudagrass hay at 1% BW/d with remaining calories met by a high (HS), medium (MDS), or low starch (LS) concentrate. Horses were transitioned to 1 of 3 diets over 7 d for a 14-d treatment period where they were then worked to fatigue in a standardized exercise test. Total diets provided an average of 1,206.67, 844.61, and 263.13g of starch/d in HS, MDS, and LS, respectively. Horses were lightly exercised for 30 min 3 d/wk. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken from the biceps femoris at rest, immediately after the standardized exercise test, and 24 and 48 h after exercise. Venous blood samples were taken at rest, immediately after exercise, 10 min after recovery, and 24 h after exercise. There was a greater resting muscle glycogen concentration (P = 0.009) when comparing HS with MDS (10.25 vs. 8.28 μg/mg wet weight). There was a greater concentration of glycogen 24 h after exercise (P = 0.04) when comparing LS with HS (9.52 vs. 7.68 μg/mg wet weight). High starch used more glycogen than MDS or LS. A slight reduction in glycogen after exercise for MDS and LS indicated that fat or protein may have been used as substrate for exercise. Results indicated that feeding 1,206.67g of starch/d did not yield an advantage in recovery time over a MDS or LS diet.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Effect of magnetized water on productive traits of laying chickens
    • Authors: El-Sabrout Hanafy
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): K. El-Sabrout, M. Hanafy
      This study examined the effect of using magnetized water on productive traits of Lohmann Brown hens during the egg production period (1 mo). A total of 400 hens were randomly distributed into 2 treatment groups with 10 replicates for each group. Hens were kept in 4 lines of 400 cages with the same environmental conditions. The first group (control) of hens in 2 lines of cages were provided tap water, and the second group (in 2 lines of cages) was provided magnetized water. The physical and chemical properties of water were determined using a pH meter, ion chromatography, and a spectrophotometer. Data of egg yield, egg weight, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight, and mortality rate were recorded. Blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations (mg/dL) were also evaluated in hens at the end of the experiment. Compared with tap water (control), the magnetized water was more (P < 0.05) alkaline and had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of salinity, total hardness, Na+, K−, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl−, and HCO3 −. The results of egg yield and egg weight generally exhibited no significant (P < 0.05) differences between the 2 groups. Also, there was no significant (P < 0.05) effect of treatment on mortality rate. However, the magnetized water group had significantly (P < 0.05) thicker and heavier eggshells compared with hens receiving tap water. The concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in blood were greater (P < 0.05) for hens in the magnetized water group compared with hens in the control group. In the conditions of this experiment, magnetized water enhanced eggshell quality by increasing eggshell thickness and weight.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Technical Note: Evaluation of an ear-attached movement sensor to record
           rumination, eating, and activity behaviors in 1-month-old calves
    • Authors: T.M. Hill; F.X. Suarez-Mena T.S. Dennis R.L. Schlotterbeck L.L. Timms
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): T.M. Hill, F.X. Suarez-Mena, W. Hu, T.S. Dennis, R.L. Schlotterbeck, L.L. Timms, L.E. Hulbert
      Sixteen male Holstein calves were fitted with ear-attached motion sensors to evaluate the sensor’s (3-dimensional accelerometer with algorithms to process the collected data, CowManager SensOor, Agis, Harmelen, the Netherlands) ability to record rumination, eating, and activity behavior compared with scan sampling by trained observers. Before and after weaning, Holstein calves were in individual pens fed milk replacer with free-choice textured starter and water. Three trained observers used live observation to evaluate individual calf behaviors (Table 1). Instantaneous recording was applied at 1-min intervals (5 to 10 s/calf each min) for 12 h/d on 4 different days. Observation periods included after the morning milk replacer feeding; midday; and just before, during, and after the evening milk replacer feeding. Data were analyzed with regression and ANOVA methods, with significance declared if P ≤ 0.05. Behavior scoring did not differ among the 3 individuals. Relationships of sensor versus observed times were not significant (R2 <0.3) in 4-wk-old calves; however, changes were made to sensor placement in ear, and face fly irritation of calves for reevaluation. In wk 6 around the time of weaning, simple regression analysis of sensor versus observed rumination (R2 = 0.91), eating (R2 = 0.75), and not active (R2 = 0.97) times had y-intercepts that did not differ from zero and significant slopes. Sensors were a valid measurement tool for rumination, eating, and inactivity times in 6-wk-old calves, but ear placement and environmental conditions discussed are critical for success.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Case Study: Yield and quality of traditional senescent and stay-green
           sorghum and in situ ruminal disappearance of respective crop residues
    • Authors: J.D. Sugg; P.B. Campanili J.O. Sarturi M.A. Ballou S.J. Trojan
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): J.D. Sugg, P.B. Campanili, J.O. Sarturi, M.A. Ballou, S.J. Trojan
      Nutritional composition of sorghum before grain harvest and ruminal disappearance of crop residues were evaluated in traditional senescent and stay-green sorghum hybrids grown under restricted water conditions. Hybrids were seeded in a randomized complete block design (experimental unit = 2.63-ha plots; n = 12, 6 plots per treatment) in limited water conditions (330 mm/season). Plants were sampled 129 d after seeding and botanically fractioned for yield and nutrient composition (Exp. 1) and in vitro true digestibility (Exp. 2). Crop residues were baled and in situ ruminal disappearance was evaluated using a crossover design (Exp. 3). Ruminally cannulated steers (n = 6; BW = 722 ± 65 kg) were randomly assigned to treatments: hybrid (traditional senescent vs. stay-green) and supplement (0 or 0.68 kg/animal daily; cottonseed meal). Experimental periods (n = 4) included a 10-d adaptation phase before incubations of 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 3, 48, and 72 h. Data were analyzed using GLIMMIX procedures of SAS. Greater (P ≤ 0.05) whole-plant, grain, and stalk DM yields were observed with stay-green hybrid. Stay-green stalks contained less ash (P = 0.04) and greater fiber (P ≤ 0.03) than the traditional senescent cultivar. Projected whole-plant, grain, and stalk digestible OM yield was greater (P ≤ 0.05) with stay-green than the traditional senescent cultivar. Ruminal residue OM disappearance of both hybrids was increased (P < 0.01) with supplementation beyond 12 h of incubation. Under restricted water conditions, stay-green sorghum cultivar appears to better attend agronomic parameters for forage production compared with the traditional senescent cultivar.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Case Study: Recovery from ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction for
           steers conditioned to grazing seedhead-suppressed and unsuppressed
           pastures of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue11Mention of trade names
           or commercial products in the article is solely for the purpose of
           providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or
           endorsement by the USDA.
    • Authors: J.A. Williamson; G.E. Aiken
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): J.A. Williamson, G.E. Aiken
      Chemical seedhead suppression of toxic endophyte–infected (E+) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can enhance steer performance and mitigate the adverse effects of ergot alkaloids on cattle physiology; however, it is not known if seedhead suppression can mitigate alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and improve postgraze performance. A 2-yr experiment was conducted with Angus crossbred steers using a pasture phase to precondition steers to grazing seedhead-suppressed E+ tall fescue; unsuppressed E+ fescue; or a bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), white clover (Trifolium repens), and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) control. A pen phase followed to monitor luminal areas of the caudal artery for assessing alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and BW to compare the E+ treatments with the nontoxic treatment. During the pen phase, luminal areas of caudal arteries in steers preconditioned on suppressed E+ were comparable (P > 0.10) with those for nontoxic preconditioning on and after 28 and 13 d on the nontoxic diets (DNTD) in the first and second years, respectively. Caudal arteries in steers preconditioned on unsuppressed E+ were constricted compared (P > 0.10) with the nontoxic preconditioned steers over all DNTD and from 0 to 34 DNTD in the first and second years, respectively. Body weights of steers preconditioned on suppressed pastures were similar (P > 0.10) to the nontoxic steers, except for 0 and 8 DNTD in the first year and 6 DNTD in the second year. Body weights for steers on unsuppressed pastures were less (P < 0.10) than those of nontoxic steers over all DNTD in each year. Results indicated that chemical seedhead suppression of E+ fescue can relieve alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and improve postgraze performance.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Case Study: Supplementation of cow-calf pairs grazing smooth bromegrass
           pastures with ethanol by-products and low-quality forages
    • Authors: J.M. Warner; A.J. Doerr G.E. Erickson J.A. Guretzky R.J. Rasby
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): J.M. Warner, A.J. Doerr, G.E. Erickson, J.A. Guretzky, R.J. Rasby, A.K. Watson, T.J. Klopfenstein
      Multiparous, lactating, crossbred (Simmental × Angus) beef cows with spring-born calves at side (n = 16 per year; 4 per pasture) were used each of 3 yr to evaluate supplementing modified distillers grains plus solubles mixed with low-quality forage on cow and calf performance while grazing. Cow-calf pairs were assigned randomly to treatment with 2 replications (pasture) per year for 3 yr. Treatments were (1) recommended stocking rate of 9.46 animal-unit month/ha with no supplementation (CON) or (2) double the recommended stocking rate (18.9 animal-unit month/ha) and supplemented with a 30:70 modified distillers grains plus solubles:cornstalks (DM) mixture (SUPP). To replace 50% of grazed forage DMI, SUPP pairs were fed an average of 1.13% of BW (DM) over the grazing season. Pairs grazed adjacent smooth bromegrass pastures for 130 d during the summer. Gain was not different (P = 0.19) between SUPP and CON cows (0.28 vs. 0.19 kg/d, respectively). Ending cow BW was not affected (P = 0.46) by treatment. Similarly, calf gain was not affected (P = 0.31) by supplementation. In studies where confined cow-calf pairs were fed average-quality (IVDMD = 52.9%) forage, DMI was 2.58% of pair BW. Based on these data, CON and SUPP pairs consumed 18.6 and 19.1 kg of DM, respectively, of total feed per pair daily. The SUPP pairs consumed 7.1 kg of DM/pair daily of the supplement, replacing approximately 35% of grazed forage intake. These data suggest mixtures of ethanol co-products and low-quality forages can be supplemented to replace grazed forage intake of cattle, allowing for increased stocking rate without affecting animal performance.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Case Study: Economic viability of producing animal bedding from low
           quality and small diameter trees using a wood shaving machine
    • Authors: Matthew Smith; John Aber Theodore Howard
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Matthew M. Smith, John D. Aber, Theodore E. Howard
      This study explores the feasibility of producing animal bedding using a wood shaving machine fed with low quality and small diameter trees. An economic decision model was created, allowing individuals to input site and machine-specific parameters into the model. Model output provides data for 2 scenarios. Scenario 1 explores whether a farmer could support this venture by producing bedding for on-farm consumption only. Scenario 2 explores the profit an individual (farmer or nonfarmer) could gain if operating the wood shaving machine for 8 to 40 h/wk throughout the year. Model output for scenario 1 found that the average-sized organic and conventional dairy farm in New England would not be able to support this type of venture. Instead, the breakeven volume of bedding corresponded to farms with greater than 170 cows, indicating that larger farms, or a cooperative of locally clustered small farms using the machine collectively, would have a more favorable payback period. For scenario 2, the payback period was >15 yr if operating 8 h/wk to 561 d if operating 40 h/wk throughout the year. The 15-yr net present value was $159,884 to $1,777,435 and the discounted benefit-cost ratio was 0.8 to 9.3 when operating 8 to 40 h/wk throughout the year. However, if operating 40 h/wk, supply may outweigh demand, as enough bedding could be produced for 30 organic or 25 conventional dairies of average size in the New England region.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Corrigendum to “Feeding vitamin E may reverse sarcoplasmic reticulum
           membrane instability caused by feeding wet distillers grains plus solubles
           to cattle” (Prof. Anim. Sci. 33:12–23)
    • Authors: M.D. Chao; K.I. C.R. Calkins
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): M.D. Chao, K.I. Domenech-Pérez, C.R. Calkins

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Review: Transportation of commercial finished cattle and animal welfare
    • Authors: Sarah Schuetze; Erin Schwandt Ronaldo Maghirang Daniel Thomson
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Sarah J. Schuetze, Erin F. Schwandt, Ronaldo G. Maghirang, Daniel U. Thomson
      The purpose of the following report was to review and present the literature focused on the topic of current industry practices of land transport of finished cattle, primarily within the United States and Canada. This review was broken down into 5 areas: (1) microclimate, (2) loading density, (3) duration of transport, (4) quality of transport, and (5) animal behavior. All of these factors play a role in animal welfare and have been shown to influence post-transport animal health and carcass quality. Certain stressors such as loading density and duration are more understood than others and are easier to manipulate, whereas other stressors, such as microclimate and human factors, require more research to fully understand the magnitude and interactions of the stressors and how to address them. Improving the overall transport process ensures the safety and well-being of the animal and the quality of the carcass, providing both an ethical and economic benefit.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Review: The link between feeding dairy cows and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese
           production area
    • Authors: Attilio Luigi; Mordenti Nico Brogna Andrea Formigoni
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Attilio Luigi Mordenti, Nico Brogna, Andrea Formigoni
      The aim of the authors is to make a summary of indissoluble relationships between Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese and its production area: how to improve the quality of hay and then that of milk destined for the making of cheese, as well as the yield of cheese. The quality of a cheese product with a designation of origin is the result of close links among production territory, dairy cow nutrition, and human knowledge. The evolution of production processes involving the daily agricultural and zootechnical world and the continuous progress of acquisitions in this area require continuous updates of required operational techniques that are the basis of correct cattle feeding. The focus will be on nutrition and feed characteristics, especially forages; the techniques of production, conservation, and administration to animals have been widely described as being able to positively influence the native lactic microflora of an area, which is essential to cheese-making and ripening.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Review: Subjective pork quality evaluation may not be indicative of
           instrumental pork quality measurements on a study-to-study basis
    • Authors: B.M. Bohrer; D.D. Boler
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): B.M. Bohrer, D.D. Boler
      Since adoption of National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) subjective pork quality standards almost 20 yr ago, there have been limited investigation of the correlation and relationship between subjective pork quality and instrumental measurement. The objective of this review was to investigate the correlation between subjective evaluation of color and marbling with the instrumental measurement of color and i.m. lipid composition. A database of 454 population or treatment group means from 101 peer-reviewed studies representing 30 affiliations (by corresponding author of publication) was used. This database was used to calculate summary statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients, as well as create prediction equations using simple linear regression and multiple linear regression modeling. Subjective color determined with NPPC (NPPC, 1999) color standards was weakly correlated (r ≤ 0.35 ; P < 0.01) with instrumental L*, a*, and b* when measured with a Minolta colorimeter. Marbling evaluated using NPPC (1999) marbling standards was moderately correlated (r = 0.48; P < 0.0001) with i.m. lipid percentage. The results of this review indicate the need for the meat science research community to acknowledge that NPPC color and marbling scores may differ significantly on a study-to-study basis when attempting to standardize with Minolta colorimeter readings and i.m. lipid percentage with various extraction procedures. In conclusion, this review focused on the correlations of subjective pork evaluation with instrumental pork measurements since the creation of the NPPC standards for subjective evaluation. This review emphasizes the need to better understand and interpret methodology when making study-to-study comparisons in regard to evaluation of pork quality.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Patch burning on tall-grass native prairie does not negatively affect
           stocker performance or pasture composition
    • Authors: J.K. Farney; C.B. Rensink W.H. Fick Shoup G.A. Miliken
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): J.K. Farney, C.B. Rensink, W.H. Fick, D. Shoup, G.A. Miliken
      The purpose of this study was to determine stocker BW gain on patch-burned native tall-grass prairie while also determining plant species influenced by fire. The study was conducted in a split-block experimental design where treatments consisted of a yearly spring burn on the pastures (CON) or patch burning of one-third pasture per year (PB). Stocker steers grazed the pastures using a three-quarter-season (~114 d) grazing period from about mid-April to mid-August from 2006 to 2012. Steer ADG, final weight, and total BW gain were not different by treatment (P > 0.35). However, when comparing treatment effects with precipitation classification (high, average, low), cattle on PB had a greater ADG (P = 0.02; 0.10 kg/d), final weight (P = 0.07; 12 kg), and total BW gain (P = 0.02; 11.8 kg) in low precipitation years (2011 and 2012). Overall, patch burning provides similar BW gains as yearly burning on native tall-grass prairie, while providing a BW gain advantage in low precipitation years. The switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) population declined (P < 0.05) on CON treatment, whereas the population of other perennial grasses increased. The amount of annual grasses, including hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) and yellow foxtail (Setaria pumila), increased (P < 0.05) under PB. Botanical composition shifts were similar on patch-burn pastures and full-burn pastures, with the exception of increasing annual grasses with patch burning.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Effect of feeding distillers grains during different phases of production
           and addition of postmortem antioxidants on shelf life of ground beef11A
           contribution of the University of Nebraska Agriculture Research Division
           supported in part by funds provided through the Hatch Act and from the
           Beef Checkoff.
    • Authors: B.D. Cleveland; J.O. Buntyn A.L. Gronli J.C. MacDonald G.A. Sullivan
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): B.D. Cleveland, J.O. Buntyn, A.L. Gronli, J.C. MacDonald, G.A. Sullivan
      Feeding distillers grains (DGS) to cattle can increase PUFA concentration, increase lipid oxidation, and decrease color stability of beef. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding DGS and the postmortem addition of antioxidants on the shelf life of ground beef products. Crossbred heifers (n = 64; initial BW = 225 kg) were supplemented with different amounts of modified DGS (MDGS; 0.91 or 2.27 kg daily, DM basis) during backgrounding and finished on diets containing corn gluten feed or MDGS. Four beef shoulder clods from each dietary group were ground independently. Fatty acid composition was analyzed in lean tissue, s.c. fat, and composite samples. Raw patties in retail display were analyzed for lipid oxidation, percent discoloration, and objective color. Cooked beef links were manufactured with salt, phosphate, and varying quantities of an antioxidant (rosemary and green tea extract), and lipid oxidation was measured throughout storage. Finishing cattle fed MDGS had greater C18:2 and PUFA (P ≤ 0.028) content in all locations, whereas cattle supplemented with greater amounts of MDGS during backgrounding had more C18:0 (P = 0.005) and less C16:1 (P = 0.020) in s.c. fat. Raw ground beef from heifers finished with MDGS discolored at a greater rate (P < 0.001), but lipid oxidation was not different (P = 0.47). Greater lipid oxidation in cooked beef links occurred when cattle were fed greater amounts of MDGS during backgrounding or MDGS during finishing, but adding the rosemary and green tea extract decreased lipid oxidation regardless of dietary treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Lactational performance of Holstein dairy cows fed 3 concentrations of
           full-fat corn dried distillers grains with solubles
    • Authors: Eric Testroet; Stephanie Clark Donald Beitz
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Eric D. Testroet, Stephanie Clark, Donald C. Beitz
      Our objective was to evaluate production performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows fed 3 different dietary concentrations of full-fat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 13.6% fat, DM basis). Thirty cows were fed 0, 10, and 20% DDGS DM as a TMR in a 3 × 3 crossover. Cows were stratified into groups of 10 by parity and DIM and fed each of 3 diets in three 28-d periods. Based on our prior research, we hypothesized that feeding 20% DDGS (DM basis) would negatively influence production and feed efficiency of dairy cattle. Effect of DDGS on DMI was inconsistent; the control and 20% DDGS diets were equivalent and the DMI of cows fed 10% DDGS was lower than both. Milk yield was not affected by treatment, but there was a linear depression in milk fat percentage, milk yield, and yield of 3.5% FCM and energy-corrected milk (ECM) with increasing DDGS in the diet. Both protein and lactose percentages increased when cows were fed DDGS; neither protein nor lactose yield, however, was affected. Protein efficiency, a measure of the use of dietary protein for milk protein synthesis, decreased for cows fed 20% DDGS, possibly resulting from differing amounts of metabolizable lysine. All 3 measures of energetic efficiency [ECM/DMI, kg of ECM/NEl intake (Mcal), and GE of milk produced (Mcal)/NEl caloric intake (Mcal)] decreased when cows were fed 20% DDGS but not when cows were fed 10% DDGS. These results indicate that, with the exception of an approximate loss of milk fat by 0.5 percentage points, full-fat DDGS used in this study can be effectively fed at 10% without a loss in production performance when compared with a control diet not containing DDGS. Feeding the full-fat DDGS at 20%, however, is not advisable.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Evaluation of the effect of errors in the sorting of pigs for market on
           financial loss at a range of marketing ages
    • Authors: Que Cabezon; N.M. Thompson A.P. Schinckel
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Y. Que, F. Cabezon, N.M. Thompson, A.P. Schinckel
      The BW growth curves for twenty-five 4,000-head finishing barns were simulated to evaluate the effect of 2 types of market pig sorting errors on the sort loss at different mean carcass weights (CW). Two types of errors were evaluated: BW estimation error (BWEE) and percentage of pigs not visually evaluated (PNVE). Four levels of BWEE with SD of 0, 4, 6, and 8% of BW and 4 levels of PNVE (0, 8, 16, and 24%) were simulated. Sort loss was calculated using a market value system for a United States pork processor. Pigs were initially marketed in 3 marketing cuts, 25% at 169, 25% at 179, and the remaining 50% at 193 d of age. Then the marketing ages for the pigs were shifted in weekly intervals with mean ages of 155.5 to 211.5 d. The number of pigs with sort loss and mean sort loss per pig were fitted to a model including the fixed effects of level of marketing age (AGE), BWEE, PNVE, and their interactions and random effect of replicate barn. The effects of AGE, BWEE, and PNVE, and AGE × PNVE, AGE × BWEE, and AGE × BWEE × PNVE interactions affected both variables (P < 0.001). Sort loss increased more rapidly with increased CW at higher levels of BWEE and PNVE (P < 0.001). The effect of sorting accuracy on financial loss is dependent on the CW. The effects of sorting accuracy and interactions with CW must be considered in the evaluation of alternative marketing strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Evaluation of the effect of the magnitude of errors in the sorting of pigs
           for market on the optimal market weight
    • Authors: Cheng Cabezon; Que N.M. Thompson A.P. Schinckel
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): J. Cheng, F. Cabezon, Y. Que, N.M. Thompson, A.P. Schinckel
      The objective was to estimate the effect that sorting accuracy at marketing has on the optimal market carcass weight (CW) and economic returns. Two types of errors were evaluated: BW estimation error (BWEE) and percentage of pigs not visually evaluated (PNVE). Four levels of BWEE with SD of 0, 4, 6, and 8% of BW and 4 levels of PNVE (0, 8, 16, and 24%) were simulated. Initially, pigs were marketed in 3 marketing cuts: 25% at 169, 25% at 179, and the remaining 50% at 193 d of age. The timing of marketing was shifted in 7-d intervals. Sort loss was calculated using a market system for a United States pork processor. Sort loss ($/pig) values were fitted to a polynomial function of mean CW for each combination of BWEE and PNVE. The increase in mean sort loss for each unit increase in CW above 93 kg increased as BWEE and PNVE increased (P < 0.001). With accurate sorting (BWEE = 0%, PNVE = 0%), the optimal mean age for the 3-marketing-cut strategy was 190.5 d at a mean CW of 97.0 kg and profit of $3.35/pig. With less accurate sorting (BWEE = 8%, PNVE = 24%), the mean age decreased to 184.5 d with mean CW of 93.4 kg and profit of $2.00/pig. The optimal market ages and CW decreased as BWEE and PNVE increased (P < 0.001). Current marketing systems direct pork producers with less accurate sorting of pigs to market their pigs at lighter CW.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • How important is farm profitability to meat goat farmers'11The views
           expressed are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the
           Economic Research Service or USDA.
    • Authors: Narayan Nyaupane; Jeffrey Gillespie Kenneth McMillin
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Narayan P. Nyaupane, Jeffrey M. Gillespie, Kenneth W. McMillin
      This study investigates United States meat goat producers’ goal structure and examines whether these goals are consistent with farm profitability. Data were collected using a nationwide mail survey, and 7 potential goals of meat goat farmers were analyzed. Results showed that “maximize profit” and “have family involved in agriculture” were the 2 most important goals, whereas “control weeds/vegetation” and “increase farm size” were the least-ranked goals. Regression results showed that farmer demographics, farm characteristics, economic indicators, and regional variables affected farmer goal structure. Results did not support a correlation between farm profitability and profit-maximizing goals such as “maximize profit” and “avoid years of loss/low profit.”

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Case Study: An assessment of anthelmintic resistance through in vivo fecal
           egg count reduction test and in vitro egg hatch test on small ruminant
           farms in the southcentral United States11Mention of trade names or
           commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for
           use by the authors or the American Institute for Goat Research, Langston
    • Authors: Tsukahara Wang; T.A. Gipson S.P. Hart L.J. Dawson Puchala Sahlu
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Y. Tsukahara, Z. Wang, T.A. Gipson, S.P. Hart, L.J. Dawson, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, A.L. Goetsch
      An in vivo fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was conducted on 5 farms in the southcentral United States participating in an animal resistance selection project to assess internal parasite resistance to anthelmintics. Seventy-six Kiko does on farm G1, 54 Spanish does (G2), 37 Katahdin sheep (S1), 61 Dorper ewes (S2), and 80 St. Croix sheep (S3) were randomly allocated within farm to control and 3 classes of anthelmintics. After determining initial fecal egg count, recommended doses of anthelmintics were given and fecal egg count was assessed 7 to 8 d later. Resistance to eprinomectin was detected on all farms, with FECR <63%. There was no levamisole resistance on sheep farms (FECR >95%). There was resistance to albendazole on 4 farms (FECR <95%). An egg hatch test was conducted to evaluate resistance to albendazole using composite fecal samples from untreated animals of G1, S1, S2, and S3 farms as well as control eggs from susceptible larvae. Final concentrations of albendazole were 0.00005, 0.0005, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 2.0 μg/mL. After 48 h of incubation at 25°C, numbers of unhatched eggs and larvae per well were counted. The hatched percentage of susceptible larvae was 96% in the control wells. Drug concentration affected (P < 0.01) the percentage of unhatched eggs for S2 and S3, whereas values were similar (P > 0.10) for G1 and S1. In conclusion, resistance to common anthelmintics varied considerably among farms and products, suggesting a need for such testing rather than general treatment recommendations.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Review: Advantages and limitations of dairy efficiency measures and the
           effects of nutrition and feeding management interventions
    • Authors: M.B. Ondarza; J.M. Tricarico
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 4
      Author(s): M.B. de Ondarza, J.M. Tricarico
      Economists, nutritionists, and geneticists have attempted to describe dairy cattle efficiency in simple, quantifiable terms. On-farm measures of dairy efficiency include physical feed efficiency, efficiency of nutrient usage, economic feed efficiency, total dairy enterprise efficiency, and lifetime efficiency. Each calculated measure of dairy efficiency has its own advantages and limitations. Each measure has merit for describing a segment of dairy efficiency, yet no one measure can sufficiently describe dairy efficiency or be applicable across all farms. Use of multiple dairy efficiency metrics, each with a moving target specific to the individual dairy enterprise, should be considered. Nutrition and nutrient management interventions can improve the use of dairy resources, increasing both economic and environmental sustainability. With greater DMI and milk yield, a smaller proportion of dietary nutrients are used for maintenance functions, improving productive efficiency and reducing the environmental impact of the dairy cow. Nutritional factors independent of cow genetic merit affect energetic losses in the form of feces, heat of digestion and metabolism, or methane. Improvements in nutrient retention can occur with increases in rate of digestion and decreases in rate of passage of feed ingredients. Forage and grain losses, feed ingredient options, and forage and feed ingredient targeting according to cow potential need to be considered. Consistency of delivery and consumption of the formulated ration without high feed refusal rates typically improves dairy efficiency. Cow grouping affects social behavior, cow well-being, nutrient wastage, milk yield, and expenses, with optimum strategies being farm specific.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Total mixed ration recipe preparation and feeding times for
           high-milk-yield cows on California dairies
    • Authors: Trillo Lago
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 4
      Author(s): Y. Trillo, A. Lago, N. Silva-del-Río
      The time to prepare and feed a TMR recipe and how consistently these tasks are performed on commercial operations have not been described. The objective of this study was to provide baseline data by describing within and across dairies the time to prepare and feed the high-producing-cow ration and the time elapsed between ingredient loads during recipe preparation. Twenty-six dairies in California housing 1,100 to 6,900 cows were enrolled. Records from a 12-mo period were extracted from the feeding management software (FeedWatch 7). Interquartile range (IQR: Q3–Q1) was used as a measurement of variability. Median recipe load preparation time ranged from 9 min 18 s to 27 min 0 s. Recipe preparation time was relatively consistent (IQR <3 min) on 4 dairies but inconsistent (IQR >6 min) on 3 dairies. Time from recipe preparation to start feeding ranged from 1 min 54 s to 9 min 0 s, with a within-dairy variation (IQR) ranging from 50 s to 10 min 50 s. The median recipe load feeding time ranged from 90 s to 10 min 48 s. Six dairies were relatively consistent (IQR <1 min), but 2 were not (IQR >5 min). The median time elapsed between ingredient loads ranged across dairies from 40 to 84 s. On 8 dairies often (15 to 49%) there were <30 s between ingredient loads; likely, leftover ingredients were not returned to the commodity barn. Consultants and owners can evaluate feed management software records to identify short, lengthy, or variable recipe preparation times relative to our baseline data.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected
           calves in auction markets from the southeastern United States; association
           between body weight and BVDV-positive diagnosis
    • Authors: Melynda Stephenson; Roberto Palomares Brad White Terry Engelken Kenny Brock
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 4
      Author(s): Melynda K. Stephenson, Roberto A. Palomares, Brad J. White, Terry J. Engelken, Kenny V. Brock
      Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a ubiquitous infectious agent affecting cattle worldwide. Animals that are born persistently infected (PI) with BVDV are considered the primary viral reservoirs in cattle herds and are capable of shedding copious amounts of virus into the environment. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of BVDV PI among stocker calves in the southeastern United States and evaluate whether lighter BW cattle would have a greater prevalence of BVDV persistent infection than heavier BW cattle. Stocker calves from auction markets in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee were sampled from March to December 2005. Following purchase, they were transported to a central holding facility where the calves were processed, sorted, and assembled into truckload lots based on their average BW. Skin biopsies (ear notches) were collected in zinc buffered formalin for the detection of BVDV persistent infection using immunohistochemistry. Twenty-four BVDV-positive calves were detected in a sampling of 7,544 calves. The overall BVDV PI prevalence in stocker calves sampled was measured at 0.318%. This prevalence agreed closely with the BVDV PI prevalence reported previously in other regions of the United States. In this study, calves weighing less than 180 kg had greater BVDV PI prevalence with 2.78 times greater probability of being PI animals compared with calves over 180 kg.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
  • Effects of multiple oral administrations of fenbendazole on growth and
           fecal nematodes infection of early-weaned beef calves grazing perennial,
           warm-season or annual, cool-season grasses
    • Authors: P.G.M.A. Martins; Moriel G.P. Caputti J.M.B. Vendramini John Arthington
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 33, Issue 4
      Author(s): P.G.M.A. Martins, P. Moriel, G.P. Caputti, J.M.B. Vendramini, John D. Arthington
      Two experiments evaluated growth and total fecal egg count (FEC) of early-weaned calves receiving multiple or a single oral drench of fenbendazole while grazing warm- or cool-season grasses. On d 0, Brangus crossbred calves (n = 64 and 56 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were allocated into bahiagrass or ryegrass pastures (6 to 8 pastures per forage system; 4 calves per pasture). Thereafter, 2 of 4 calves within each pasture (Exp. 1) or all calves in each pasture (Exp. 2) received oral administration of fenbendazole (5 mg/kg of BW) every 28 d from d 0 to 84 (MULT) or once on d 56 (CTRL). Overall ADG from d 0 to 84 increased (P = 0.01; Exp. 1) or tended to increase (P = 0.11; Exp. 2) for MULT versus CTRL calves. In Exp. 1, FEC on d 28 and 56 was less (P ≤ 0.05) for MULT versus CTRL, but the reduction on FEC was greater for MULT calves grazing ryegrass versus bahiagrass (P < 0.001). Fenbendazole treatment on d 56 reduced FEC on d 84 versus 56, but FEC remained greater for CTRL calves grazing bahiagrass than all calves grazing ryegrass (P ≤ 0.03; Exp. 1). In Exp. 2, FEC of MULT calves decreased on d 28 and 56 (P ≤ 0.10) and achieved similar values in d 84 than CTRL calves (P = 0.93). Therefore, monthly oral administrations of fenbendazole improved ADG of early-weaned calves, regardless of forage system, compared with a single, strategic administration on d 56 after weaning.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T10:24:55Z
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