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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 898 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (78 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (636 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (101 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (31 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Animal Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.442
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 18  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2405-6545
Published by Ke Ai Homepage  [15 journals]
  • Effect of different exogenous fatty acids on the cytosolic triacylglycerol
           content in bovine mammary cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Juan J. Loor, Philip C. Garnsworthy The objective of this study was to determine how cytosolic triacylglycerols (TAG) are stored in mammary cells and whether this depends on the individual chemical configuration of fatty acids (FA). This objective was accomplished by addition of different FA to a FA-free medium used to culture mammary alveolar cells-large T antigen cells (MAC-T). Treatments consisted of adding FA (palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate, rumenic acid [CLA], elaidate and vaccinate) solutions to the medium at 100, 200, 300 and 400 mmol/L concentrations for a 24-h incubation period. At the end of each incubation period, cytosolic TAG, DNA and protein contents were measured. Palmitate, vaccenate, linoleate and CLA increased (P < 0.05) cytosolic TAG (μg/mg protein). Palmitate and CLA increased (P < 0.05) cytosolic TAG adjusted for DNA content. Overall, effects on cytosolic TAG accumulation depended on individual FA structure (chain length, degree of saturation, and number and orientation of FA double bonds). In addition, the long-chain FA used in this study did not have a detrimental effect on MAC-T cells as indicated by cytosolic protein and DNA contents reflecting their biological role in lipid accumulation.
       
  • Performance Effects of Feed-borne Fusarium Mycotoxins on Broiler Chickens:
           Influences of Timing and Duration of Exposure

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Anhao Wang, Natacha S. Hogan In commercial practice, broiler chickens may be exposed to Fusarium mycotoxins either during specific growth stages or throughout the entire production cycle. A 34-day feeding trial was conducted to identify sensitive periods for mycotoxin effects during the growth cycle of broiler chickens. A total of 420 newly-hatched Ross 308 male broilers were randomly assigned to 60 cages with 7 birds/cage. Sources of clean wheat (
       
  • Isolation of a β-glucosidase-producing M-2 strain from cow dung and
           fermentation parameter optimization for flaxseed cake

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Chenhui Li, Junshu Wei, Yaping Jing, Baoxia Teng, Pingrong Yang, Xinjun Chen, Haiying Huang, Tang Zhao, Tuanjie Che, Chunjiang Zhang Flaxseed cake contains cyanogenic glucosides, which can be metabolized to hydrocyanic acid in the animal body, leading to asphyxia poisoning in the cells. The β-glucosidase is highly efficient in degrading cyanogenic glucosides. The cattle’s intestinal tract may contain β-glucosidase-producing strains after eating small amounts of flaxseed cake for a long time. This study aimed to report the isolation of a strain from cow dung that produced β-glucosidase with high activity and could significantly reduce the amount of cyanogenic glucosides. Cow dung was used in this study as the flora source and esculin agar as the selective medium. After screening with 0.05% esculin and 0.01% ferric citrate, 5 strains producing high amounts of β-glucosidase were isolated. In vitro flaxseed meal fermentation was fermented by these 5 strains, in which the strain M-2 exerted the best effect (P < 0.05). The strain M-2 was identified as Lichtheimia ramosa and used as the fermentation strain to optimize the fermentation parameters by a single factor analysis and orthogonal experimental design. The optimum conditions were as follows: inoculum size 3%; water content 60%; time 144 h; temperature 32 °C. Under these conditions, the removal rate of cyanogen glycoside reached 89%, and crude protein increment reached 40% to 44%. These results provide a theoretical basis for the removal of cyanogen glycoside in flaxseed and the comprehensive utilization of flaxseed meal.
       
  • Effect of dietary organic acid and fiber type on performance, intestinal
           morphology, immune responses and gut microflora in broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Sakineh Sabour, Sayed Ali Tabeidian, Ghorbanali Sadeghi This experiment was designed to investigate effects of dietary an organic acid (OA) mixture and 2 fiber sources on performance, intestinal morphology, immune responses and gut microflora in broiler chickens. A total of 390 day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to 6 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens and 13 chicks each based on a factorial arrangement (2 × 3) in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were considered as a basal diet supplemented with or without 1 g/kg an OA and 2 fiber sources (0 or 30 g/kg of either sugar beet pulp or rice hull) as well as their interaction. Dietary supplementation of OA increased growth performance of broilers compared with those did not receive OA across the entire rearing period (P < 0.05). Performance of broilers was not affected by dietary fibrous materials. Antibody titer against influenza disease virus was higher in birds fed diets containing rice hull than those in the other experimental groups (P < 0.05). The greater population of Lactobacillus bacteria observed in birds fed OA added diets without or with 30 g/kg rice hull supplementation than those fed other dietary treatments (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplemental OA improved performance of broiler chickens and also enhanced humoral immune responses when broiler chickens received diets containing an insoluble fiber source.
       
  • Review on docosahexaenoic acid in poultry and swine nutrition: Consequence
           of enriched animal products on performance and health characteristics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Sophie A. Lee, Natasha Whenham, Michael R. Bedford Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are linked to a variety of health benefits against human disorders and disease. However, the typical western diet is generally low in n-3 PUFA and high in n-6 PUFA, suggesting that the recommended intake of these essential fatty acids is seldom achieved. Therefore, dietary enrichment of animal meat and eggs with n-3 PUFA could help increase consumption of these fatty acids. Fish oils and microalgae (MA) are rich sources of long chain n-3 PUFA, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Feeding these marine products has been shown to increase DHA content of tissues and yolk, however, this may also lead to an increased requirement for anti-oxidants to prevent oxidative deterioration and associated negative sensory attributes. Nonetheless, increased DHA has been linked to promising results in animal growth, fertility, immunity and bone strength in both pigs and poultry. These findings suggest that feeding DHA-rich ingredients to mono-gastric can enrich human diets as well as providing additional benefits to the animal.
       
  • L-leucine stimulates glutamate dehydrogenase activity and glutamate
           synthesis by regulating mTORC1/SIRT4 pathway in pig liver

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 3Author(s): Tongxin Wang, Weilei Yao, Qiongyu He, Yafei Shao, Ruilong Zheng, Feiruo Huang The liver is the most essential organ for the metabolism of ammonia, in where most of ammonia is removed by urea and glutamine synthesis. Regulated by leucine, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible inter-conversion of glutamate to ammonia. To determine the mechanism of leucine regulating GDH, pigs weighing 20 ± 1 kg were infused for 80 min with ammonium chloride or alanine in the presence or absence of leucine. Primary pig hepatocytes were incubated with or without leucine. In the in vivo experiments with either ammonium or alanine as the nitrogen source, addition of leucine significantly inhibited ureagenesis and promoted the production of glutamate and glutamine in the perfused pig liver (P 
       
  • Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of 16 sources of corn
           distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Eui-Cheol Shin, Gerald C. Shurson, Daniel D. Gallaher Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of the fuel ethanol industry that is an excellent source of energy, digestible amino acids, and digestible phosphorus. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of DDGS and how it is influenced by production parameters is unknown. Therefore, 16 DDGS samples obtained from different ethanol production plants in the U.S. were characterized for antioxidant capacity, vitamin E, xanthophylls, and ferulic acid content and compared with corn. The antioxidant capacity of DDGS samples, measured using the 2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, varied almost 2 folds among samples, but in all cases was more than 3 times that of corn. All DDGS samples had a considerably greater concentration of tocopherols and tocotrienols (lipid-soluble antioxidants) than corn. However, the relative concentrations among the tocopherols and tocotrienols tended to be similar to corn. The xanthophyll lutein was present in all DDGS samples and in all cases exceeded the content in corn. Zeaxanthin was detected in most samples. The total ferulic acid content of the DDGS samples was almost 3-fold greater than corn, but, as in corn, almost all was present in a bound form. However, the concentration of unbound (free) ferulic acid was more than 3 times the concentration found in the corn sample. Thus, DDGS is a rich source of phytochemical compounds and may provide antioxidant and health benefits beyond its macronutrient composition. However, differences in processing can greatly influence the phytochemical content and quality of DDGS. In particular, thermal abuse due to excessive heat used in drying may lead to lipid oxidation products that may have deleterious effects when incorporated into feeds.
       
  • The impact of xylanases on gut microbiota of growing pigs fed with corn-
           or wheat-based diets

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Zhengxiao Zhang, Hein M. Tun, Ru Li, Beatriz J.M. Gonzalez, Hannah C. Keenes, Martin Nyachoti, Elijah Kiarie, Ehsan Khafipour This study investigated the effects of xylanase supplementations with cereal-based diets on nutrient digestibility and gut microbiota of growing pigs. A total of 96 individually penned pigs (initial BW = 22.7 ± 0.65 kg) were allotted to 12 treatments and subjected to a completely randomized block design experiment. Pigs in each treatment were fed an isocaloric wheat-based or corn-based diet with or without 1 of 5 types of xylanase supplements (XA, XB, XC, XD, XE). On d 42, all piglets were euthanized to obtain ileal and cecal digesta for microbial analysis, which involved high-throughput sequencing of the V1 – V3 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Corn- and wheat-based diets differed (P < 0.05) in digestion characteristics. Dietary treatments affected the alpha- and beta-diversities of microbiota in the cecum but not in the ileum. The wheat-based diet increased (P < 0.05) alpha-diversity and clustered separately (P < 0.05) compared with the corn-based diet. Wheat-based diet also promoted the relative abundance of genus (g.) Succinivibrio while corn-based diet promoted the proportion of family (f.) Veillonellaceae in the community. Among xylanases, only XC within the wheat-based diet altered (P < 0.05) the beta-diversity of the cecal microbiota compared with control. For each cereal-based diet and compared with the controls, xylanase treatments affected (P < 0.05) the proportions of 5 bacterial taxa in the ileum (f. Peptostreptococcaceae, order [o.] Streptophyta, f. Clostridiaceae, g. Clostridium and g. Streptococcus) and 8 in the cecum (g. Lactobacillus, g. Streptococcus, class [c.] Clostridia, f. Clostridiaceae, g. Megasphaera, g. Prevotella, g. Roseburia and f. Ruminococcaceae). Network analysis showed that across diets under control treatments, Bacteroidetes was the most influential phylum promoting cooperative relationships among members of the ileum and cecum microbiota. Xylanase treatment, however, reduced the influence of Bacteroidetes and promoted a large number of hub taxa majority of which belonged to the Firmicutes phylum. To maximize the efficiency of xylanase supplementation, our data suggest that xylanase C originated from Bacillus subtilis was more effective when applied to wheat-based diets, while xylanase A originated from Fusarium verticillioides was more beneficial when applied to corn-based diets.
       
  • Effect of supplementing layer hen diet with phytogenic feed additives on
           laying performance, egg quality, egg lipid peroxidation and blood
           biochemical constituents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Reham Abou-Elkhair, Shaimaa Selim, Eman Hussein This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing laying hen diet with phytogenic additives on laying performance, egg quality, blood constituents and egg lipid peroxidation. Two hundred Lohmann Brown Lite laying hens were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: control (without phytogenic additive), fennel seeds (5 g/kg), black cumin seeds (5 g/kg) and hot red pepper (5 g/kg). Each of the 4 diets was fed to 5 replicates of 10 hens for 8 weeks. No significant differences were observed in body weight or feed intake between the groups. Dietary inclusion of fennel, followed by red pepper improved (P < 0.05) egg weight, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio compared with control. Higher yolk shape index, shell and albumen weight percentages and Haugh unit (P < 0.05) were recorded in the fennel supplemented group compared with control. The egg yolk color score increased by the addition of fennel or hot red pepper in laying hen diets compared with control. The inclusion of black cumin or hot red pepper decreased serum and egg yolk cholesterol and malondialdehyde concentrations (P < 0.05) compared with control. Serum aspartate aminotransferase concentration was lower in black cumin group (P < 0.05) than other treatments. In conclusion, the best laying performance and egg quality were obtained by dietary inclusion of fennel, followed by hot red pepper and black cumin. Dietary supplementation of black cumin or red pepper may lead to the development of low-cholesterol concentration and better antioxidant capacity of eggs.
       
  • Laying hens performance, egg quality improved and yolk
           5-methyltetrahydrofolate content increased by dietary supplementation of
           folic acid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Sattar Bagheri, Hossein Janmohmmadi, Ramin Maleki, Alireza ostadrahimi, Ruhollah Kianfar This study was performed to evaluate the effect of folic acid (FA) on performance, egg quality and yolk 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) content. A total of 384 Hy-line W36 strain hens from 52 to 58 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 4 groups, and each group received one of following dietary treatments: 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg FA/kg diet. A completely randomized design was used. Egg production percentage, egg mass and egg weight were increased significantly (P < 0.05) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by increasing FA content in diets. No significant differences were detected among treatments on egg quality except for shell thickness. The dietary supplementations of laying hens diets with FA significantly increased yolk 5-MTHF content (P = 0.02). Overall, these data demonstrate that dietary supplementation with FA raised 5-MTHF content of yolk and productivity of egg production in laying hens.
       
  • Ultrastructure of the gastro intestinal tract of healthy Japanese quail
           (Coturnix japonica) using light and scanning electron microscopy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Ngare Wilkinson, Ivan Dinev, William J. Aspden, Robert J. Hughes, Ingrid Christiansen, James Chapman, Sheeana Gangadoo, Robert J. Moore, Dragana Stanley The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) are popular both as an alternative protein source and as a model of choice for scientific research in several disciplines. There is limited published information on the histological features of the intestinal tract of Japanese quail. The only comprehensive reference is a book published in 1969. This study aims to fill that niche by providing a reference of general histological features of the Japanese quail, covering all the main sections of the intestinal tract. Both light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images are presented. Results showed that the Japanese quail intestinal tract is very similar to that of the chicken with the exception of the luminal koilin membrane of the gizzard. Scanning electron microscopic photomicrographs show that in the Japanese quail koilin vertical rods are tightly packed together in a uniform manner making a carpet-like appearance. This differs in chicken where the conformations of vertical rods are arranged in clusters.
       
  • Processing techniques of selected oilseed by-products of potential use in
           animal feed: Effects on proximate nutrient composition, amino acid profile
           and antinutrients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Collins Prah Duodu, Daniel Adjei-Boateng, Regina Esi Edziyie, Nelson Winston Agbo, Godfred Owusu-Boateng, Bodil Katrine Larsen, Peter Vilhelm Skov The effects of processing by autoclaving (AC), soaking (SK), short-term fermentation (S-TF, 4 d) and long-term fermentation (L-TF, 14 d) on the nutritional composition, amino acid profile and some antinutrients were determined for cottonseed meal (CSM), groundnut meal (GNM) and groundnut husk (GH) in this study. After processing, crude protein content improved by 11% after L-TF, and crude lipid content 25% after SK for CSM; crude protein content improved by 27% after S-TF and L-TF, and crude lipid content 13% after SK for GNM. Soaking and fermentation were shown to significantly increase essential amino acid contents by 44% (SK, methionine) in CSM and 46% in GNM (L-TF, histidine). Phosphorus content was reduced by 59% in CSM and 57% in GNM by L-TF. All processing techniques, with the exception of AC, reduced phytic acid and gossypol contents in CSM and GNM. It was concluded that SK and fermentation were simple, cost-effective, and efficient ways to improve the nutritional value of the selected oilseed by-products.
       
  • Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and slaughter traits of male
           fattening lambs under different feeding standards

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): T. Ma, F. Wan, D. Yang, K.-D. Deng, K.-L. Yang, Q.-Y. Diao This study compared the growth performance, nutrient utilization, and slaughter traits of Dorper crossbred male lambs fed as per the established nutrition recommendations for sheep, with an aim to verify the efficacy of different feeding standards. A total of 576 lambs (four months of age, 28.3 ± 0.86 kg BW) were randomly allotted to three treatments with twelve replicates per treatment (sixteen lambs per replicate). The lambs were fed diets formulated according to the following three nutritional systems: the nutrient requirements of Dorper crossbred lambs established by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), NRC (2007), and AFRC (1993). The experiment lasted for 81 d. Feed intake was recorded every three days, and lambs were weighed every twenty days. Digestibility trials were conducted with 6 lambs each group from d 42 to 53 and d 70 to 81. At the end of the experiment, ten lambs randomly chosen from each group were sacrificed to determine the carcass traits and meat quality. The results indicated that the lambs in the NRC group had the highest dry matter intake (DMI), followed by those in the AFRC and CAAS groups (P < 0.05). The average daily gain, carcass weight, and dressing percentage were higher for lambs in the CAAS group than those in the NRC group (P < 0.05). The lambs in the CAAS group had the lowest feed conversion ratio, followed by those in the AFRC and NRC groups (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility of DM was higher for the lambs in the CAAS group than those in the NRC group (P < 0.05). Water losing rates, as well as the lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) values of the longissimus thoracis were not different among groups (P> 0.05). In conclusion, Dorper crossbred lambs fed diets formulated according to the CAAS recommendations exhibited superior growth performance than those fed diets formulated according to the American or British feeding standards.
       
  • Influence of fibre and betaine on development of the gastrointestinal
           tract of broilers between 0 and 14 d of age

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Tiago T. dos Santos, Sthéfanie C. Dassi, Celia R.C. Franco, Cleber R.V. da Costa, Sophie A. Lee, Ana V.F. da Silva An experiment was designed to determine the influence of fibre and betaine on the development of the intestine, liver and pancreas of broilers from 0 to 14 d of age. A total of 250 day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were allocated to 16 cages with 15 broilers each. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial design, consisting of 2 feed formulations (low and high fibre diets) and 4 levels of betaine (0, 1, 3 or 5 kg/t). At d 0, 10 birds in total were euthanised, and samples of the liver, pancreas, yolk sac and intestine were collected for reference of the analysed parameters before the start of the trial. On d 4, 9 and 14, 5 birds per cage (10 birds per treatment) were selected, euthanised and treated as the same as the birds on d 0. Villus height and width and crypt depth were determined on the duodenum samples, and absorptive area was calculated. The number of enterocytes in mitosis at the villus was determined by a positive reaction to antibody for Ki67 protein, and fused villus was evaluated visually. The relative weight of the yolk sac reduced (P
       
  • The effects of Angelica sinensis extracts on lipid oxidation in fish feeds
           and growth performance in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Huatao Li, Dandan Yang, Zhihao Li, Mingquan He, Fengyi Li, Jun Jiang, Siyi Tang, Peiyuan Peng, Wenhao Du, Yuting Ma, Ying Liu The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of the extracts of Angelica sinensis (EAs) on lipid oxidation in fish feeds compared with ethoxyquin (EQ) and of dietary EAs on growth performance in carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Firstly, fish feeds were incubated with EQ and ethyl ether extract, ethyl acetate extract (EAE), acetone extract, ethanol extract and aqueous extract of Angelica sinensis, except for the control. The results showed that EAs and EQ inhibited lipid oxidation in fish feeds (P
       
  • Enzyme activity and phosphate uptake in the small intestine of Sprague
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Shuiyue Zhou, Yuanxin Hang, Jianwu Wang, Rejun Fang This study was to identify the effects of prebiotics supplemented in infant formula on enzyme activity and phosphate uptake in the small intestine of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Forty eight healthy SD rats, 15 days old (a week before weaning) with similar weight, were randomly divided into 3 groups: A (control group), B, C, with16 rats per group. Rats in groups A, B, C were fed a standard infant formula, the standard infant formula supplemented with oligosaccharides, and the standard infant formula with supplemented polysaccharides, respectively. The feeding test was conducted for 28 days. Compared with group A, the results showed the following: 1) the activities of sucrose and lactase in the small intestine were significantly increased in SD rats of group C (P
       
  • Analysis of oral microorganism diversity of healthy people before and
           after chewing areca-nuts by PCR-DGGE

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Xiong Xiong, Shu-han Yi, Yi-chen Guo, Zi-wei Zhao, Zhong-kun Wu, Huan Cheng, Ke Li, Zong-jun Li, Yuan-liang Wang To analyze oral microbial diversity in the saliva of eight healthy individuals before and after chewing areca nuts. Saliva samples were collected before chewing areca nuts, after chewing areca nuts for 5 min and after chewing areca nuts for 30 min. DNA was extracted, and microbial diversity was examined using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). When examining DGGE profiles collectively, the bands associated with Streptococcus and Veillonella were the most intense, making them the most prevalent bacteria. Furthermore, the band intensities did not decrease after chewing areca nuts for 5 or 30 min; thus, these bacteria were unaffected. However, when examining some individuals, the band intensities for Streptococcus and Veillonella became more intense after 5 min of chewing and then returned to the pre-chewing level. This difference may be attributed to the mechanical movements of the oral cavity or individual differences. Other bacteria, such as Neisseria, Actinomycetes, and Rothia dentocariosa, were also found to have an increased or decreased prevalence following areca nut-chewing. Since the predominant species that are present following areca nut-chewing include Streptococcus and Veillonella, it would seem likely that these bacteria play an important role in the periodontal diseases associated with areca chewing.
       
  • Comparison of fatty acid profile of three adipose tissues in
           Ningxiang pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Qianming Jiang, Chenyan Li, Yuannian Yu, Yueteng Xing, Dingfu Xiao, Bin Zhang The present study is conducted to determinate fatty acids (FA) composition in 3 adipose tissues and to make some comparisons. Subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues were prepared from 24 Ningxiang castrated boars and 24 castrated gilts fattened by a traditional diet for 56 d, respectively. The results showed that the FA profile in the 3 adipose tissues (dorsal subcutaneous adipose [DSA], abdominal subcutaneous adipose [ASA], and perirenal adipose [PA]) differed greatly. In boars, the proportions of oleic acid (c18:1n9c) (P < 0.05), cis-11-20c acid (c20:1) (P < 0.05), and α-linolenic acid (c18:3n3) (P < 0.05) were the highest in DSA among 3 adipose tissues, whereas palmitic acid (c16:0) (P < 0.05) and stearic acid (c18:0) (P < 0.05) in DSA were the lowest; in gilts, cis-11-20c acid (c20:1) (P < 0.05) was the highest in DSA, while stearic acid (c18:0) (P < 0.05) in subcutaneous adipose was the lowest among these deposits. Overall, the results indicate that from external to inner carcass of boars, the sum of saturated fatty acids (SFA) increase, but the sum of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) decrease conversely; while ASA of gilts have the greatest proportion of MUFA and the lowest SFA. Sex and locations as significant effects on the FA profile are interaction.
       
  • 1 &rft.title=Animal+Nutrition&rft.issn=2405-6545&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Oral administration of dibutyryl adenosine cyclophosphate improved growth
           performance in weaning piglets by enhancing lipid fatty acids metabolism 1
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Guanya Li, Ling Chang, Guanglei Zhang, Zehe Song, Dan Wan, Chunyan Xie, Hong Wang, Zhiyong Fan Dibutyryl adenosine cyclophosphate (dbcAMP-Ca), an analog of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), plays greater roles in regulating physiological activities and energy metabolism than cAMP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of dbcAMP-Ca on growth performance and lipid fatty acids metabolism in weaning piglets. A total of 14 early weaning piglets (7 ± 1 d of age, 3.31 ± 0.09 kg, Landrace × Large White × Duroc) were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group and dbcAMP-Ca group, and the piglets received 7 mL of 0.9% NaCl or 1.5 mg dbcAMP-Ca dissolved in 7 mL of 0.9% NaCl per day for 10 days, respectively. The results showed that the average daily gain (ADG) increased by 109.17% (P < 0.05) in thedbcAMP-Ca group compared to the control group. Besides, dbcAMP-Ca significantly decreased blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) concentration (P < 0.05), while significantly increased blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) concentration (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Further, liver C18:2n6t content significantly increased in dbcAMP-Ca group (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. With the increase of C18:2n6t content, the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and hormone sensitive glycerol three lipase (HSL), of which genes are related to lipid metabolism, were also significantly increased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). All of the results indicated that dbcAMP-Ca improved the ADG, which was probably done by regulating fatty acids metabolism in the liver of weaning piglets.
       
  • Inhibitory effect of blue honeysuckle extract on high-fat-diet-induced
           fatty liver in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Ming Liu, Jijun Tan, Ziyu He, Xi He, De-Xing Hou, Jianhua He, Shusong Wu Blue honeysuckle is rich in polyphenols, and recently receiving attention because of its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease that develops hepatic inflammation and metabolic syndrome. The present study aims to study the effect of blue honeysuckle extract (BHE) on fat deposition and hepatic lipid peroxidation in a high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced mouse model. Mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or a HFD containing 0.5% or 1% of BHE or not for 45 days. Liver sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Serum lipids were measured by clinical analyzer. Insulin was examined by ELISA, and hepatic proteins were detected by Western blotting. Dietary supplementation of BHE dose-dependently suppressed HFD-induced obesity and hepatic fat deposition. Moreover, BHE improved glucose metabolism by increasing insulin sensitivity and attenuated oxidative stress potentially by up-regulating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated pathway.
       
  • Extraction, identification and antioxidant property evaluation of limonin
           from pummelo seeds

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Si Qin, Chenghao Lv, Qingshan Wang, Zhibing Zheng, Xi Sun, Fangming Deng Limonin, the main bioactive phytochemical constituent of limonoids with multi-functions, is enriched in citrus fruits and often found at a high concentration in citrus seeds. The present study was attempted to introduce a new and efficient extraction method to isolate limonoids from pummelo seeds, and to evaluate the antioxidant property of the main constituent limonin in HepG2 cells. Three key single factors were identified for the extraction of limonoids from pummelo seeds using the Box-Behnken experiment design of response surface methodology (RSM), and the optimized extraction parameters were: treatment with 89.68 mL of anhydrous acetone for 4.62 h at 78.94 °C, while the yield of limonoids was 11.52 mg/g. The structure of isolated main constituent of the limonoids was further identified as limonin by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum. Moreover, the molecular data in HepG2 cells revealed that limonin exerted its anti-oxidant property mainly by the activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)- antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in the form of transcriptional regulation of Nrf2 mRNA and posttranscriptional regulation of Nrf2/Keap1 system. These results demonstrate that pummelo seeds are an ideal source of limonoids, and limonin is proved to exert its anti-oxidant property by the activation of Nrf2/Keap1 pathway.
       
  • Effects of dietary 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol in calcium- and
           phosphorous-deficient diets on growth performance, tibia related indices
           and immune responses in broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Parham Ghasemi, Majid Toghyani, Nasir Landy This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-OH-D3) in calcium- and phosphorous-deficient (Ca-P deficient) diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, tibia related parameters, and immune responses of broiler chicks. A total of 280 day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to 20 floor pens and 4 dietary treatments of 5 replicates. Dietary treatments consisted of starter diets (A: 1% Ca, 0.73% total phosphorus [tP]; B: 0.85% Ca, 0.64% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; C: 0.85% Ca, 0.59% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; D: 0.85% Ca, 0.54% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3), grower diets (A: 0.86% Ca, 0.68% tP; B: 0.73% Ca, 0.59% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; C: 0.73% Ca, 0.55% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; D: 0.73% Ca, 0.50% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3) and finisher diets (A: 0.81% Ca, 0.64% tP; B: 0.68% Ca, 0.56% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; C: 0.68% Ca, 0.52% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; D: 0.68% Ca, 0.48% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3). Results showed that body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) of broilers in treatment B were similar to those of broilers in treatment A at the end of the trial (P < 0.05). Broilers in treatments C and D during the whole trial had lower BWG and FI than those in treatment A (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio, carcass traits and relative weight of lymphoid organs were not affected by dietary treatments (P> 0.05). Dietary treatments had no significant effect on antibody titer against Newcastle and Influenza disease viruses as well as sheep red blood cells. Dietary treatments had no any significant effect on tibia ash and tibial dyschondroplasia score. Broilers fed Ca-P deficient diets had lower tibia Ca and P than those in treatment A (P < 0.05). In conclusion, results indicated that broilers fed Ca-P deficient diets supplemented with 5 μg/kg 1α-OH-D3 failed to achieve the same tibia Ca and P values as broilers fed nonphytate phosphorus adequate diets.
       
  • Potential antioxidant bioactive peptides from camel milk proteins

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Hisham R. Ibrahim, Hiroki Isono, Takeshi Miyata Camel milk is traditionally considered to have medicinal characteristics that it has potential health benefits and could help to treat several illnesses. Particularly, it is closest to human breast milk and has high levels of nutrients and bioactive components. The aim of this study was to explore the antioxidant peptides derived from protein fractions of camel milk. Camel milk proteins (CMP) were fractionated into camel casein protein (CCP) and camel whey protein (CWP), which were hydrolyzed with pepsin to produce peptic digests, i.e., pepsin digested CCP (P-CCP) and P-CWP, respectively. Reversed phase HPLC was used for fractionation of the peptides from the P-CCP and P-CWP. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using superoxide anion generating system of xanthine oxidase (OXD) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. Active peptides were analyzed using MALDI-TOF-MS whereas a number of antioxidant peptides, with masses ranging from 913 to 2,951 daltons, derived mainly from alpha-casein, lactophorin and lactoferrin, were identified. When yeast cells are used as a system for modeling mitochondrial disease, the peptides in caseins and whey fractions significantly enhanced the tolerance of yeast cells against peroxide-induced oxidative stress. The results show that both caseins and whey proteins of camel milk possess bioactive peptides with significant radical-scavenging activities and thus herald a fascinating opportunity for their potential as nutraceuticals or therapeutic peptides for prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated diseases.
       
  • Potential of essential oils for poultry and pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Hengxiao Zhai, Hong Liu, Shikui Wang, Jinlong Wu, Anna-Maria Kluenter The increasing pressure of abolishing and/or decreasing the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters for livestock calls for alternative solutions to sustain the efficiency of current livestock production. Among the alternatives, essential oils have a great potential and are generally considered natural, less toxic, and free from residues. Essential oils have been proven in numerous in vitro studies to exert antimicrobial effects on various pathogens. The current review touched on the basics of essential oils, and the in vivo effects of essential oils on growth, intestinal microflora, anti-oxidation, immune functionality, meat qualities as well as the possible modes of action in poultry and pigs, and the future research areas were proposed.
       
  • Use of antibiotics in broiler production: Global impacts and alternatives

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Youcef Mehdi, Marie-Pierre Létourneau-Montminy, Marie-Lou Gaucher, Younes Chorfi, Gayatri Suresh, Tarek Rouissi, Satinder Kaur Brar, Caroline Côté, Antonio Avalos Ramirez, Stéphane Godbout Antibiotics are used to fight bacterial infections. However, a selective pressure gave rise to bacteria resistant to antibiotics. This leaves scientists worried about the danger to human and animal health. Some strategies can be borrowed to reduce the use of antibiotics in chicken farms. Much research has been carried out to look for natural agents with similar beneficial effects of growth promoters. The aim of these alternatives is to maintain a low mortality rate, a good level of animal yield while preserving environment and consumer health. Among these, the most popular are probiotics, prebiotics, enzymes, organic acids, immunostimulants, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, phytogenic feed additives, phytoncides, nanoparticles and essential oils.
       
  • Implications of butyrate and its derivatives for gut health and animal
           production

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Andrea Bedford, Joshua Gong Butyrate is produced by microbial fermentation in the large intestine of humans and animals. It serves as not only a primary nutrient that provides energy to colonocytes, but also a cellular mediator regulating multiple functions of gut cells and beyond, including gene expression, cell differentiation, gut tissue development, immune modulation, oxidative stress reduction, and diarrhea control. Although there are a large number of studies in human medicine using butyrate to treat intestinal disease, the importance of butyrate in maintaining gut health has also attracted significant research attention to its application for animal production, particularly as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. Due to the difficulties of using butyrate in practice (i.e., offensive odor and absorption in the upper gut), different forms of butyrate, such as sodium butyrate and butyrate glycerides, have been developed and examined for their effects on gut health and growth performance across different species. Butyrate and its derivatives generally demonstrate positive effects on animal production, including enhancement of gut development, control of enteric pathogens, reduction of inflammation, improvement of growth performance (including carcass composition), and modulation of gut microbiota. These benefits are more evident in young animals, and variations in the results have been reported. The present article has critically reviewed recent findings in animal research on butyrate and its derivatives in regard to their effects and mechanisms behind and discussed the implications of these findings for improving animal gut health and production. In addition, significant findings of medical research in humans that are relevant to animal production have been cited.
       
  • Potential and challenges of tannins as an alternative to in-feed
           antibiotics for farm animal production

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Qianqian Huang, Xiuli Liu, Guoqi Zhao, Tianming Hu, Yuxi Wang Naturally occurring plant compounds including tannins, saponins and essential oils are extensively assessed as natural alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Tannins are a group of polyphenolic compounds that are widely present in plant region and possess various biological activities including antimicrobial, anti-parasitic, anti-viral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, etc. Therefore, tannins are the major research subject in developing natural alternative to in-feed antibiotics. Strong protein affinity is the well-recognized property of plant tannins, which has successfully been applied to ruminant nutrition to decrease protein degradation in the rumen, and thereby improve protein utilization and animal production efficiency. Incorporations of tannin-containing forage in ruminant diets to control animal pasture bloat, intestinal parasite and pathogenic bacteria load are another 3 important applications of tannins in ruminant animals. Tannins have traditionally been regarded as “anti-nutritional factor” for monogastric animals and poultry, but recent researches have revealed some of them, when applied in appropriate manner, improved intestinal microbial ecosystem, enhanced gut health and hence increased productive performance. The applicability of plant tannins as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics depends on many factors that contribute to the great variability in their observed efficacies.
       
  • Essential oils as alternatives to antibiotics in swine production

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Faith A. Omonijo, Liju Ni, Joshua Gong, Qi Wang, Ludovic Lahaye, Chengbo Yang This review article summarizes the efficacy, feasibility and potential mechanisms of the application of essential oils as antibiotic alternatives in swine production. Although there are numerous studies demonstrating that essential oils have several properties, such as antimicrobial, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, feed palatability enhancement and improvement in gut growth and health, there is still a need of further investigations to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their functions. In the past, the results has been inconsistent in both laboratory and field studies because of the varied product compositions, dosages, purities and growing stages and conditions of animals. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils needed for killing enteric pathogens may not ensure the optimal feed intake and the essential oils inclusion cost may be too high in swine production. With the lipophilic and volatile nature of essential oils, there is a challenge in effective delivery of essential oils within pig gut and this challenge can partially be resolved by microencapsulation and nanotechnology. The effects of essential oils on inflammation, oxidative stress, microbiome, gut chemosensing and bacterial quorum sensing (QS) have led to better production performance of animals fed essential oils in a number of studies. It has been demonstrated that essential oils have good potential as antibiotic alternatives in feeds for swine production. The combination of different essential oils and other compounds (synergistic effect) such as organic acids seems to be a promising approach to improve the efficacy and safety of essential oils in applications. High-throughput systems technologies have been developed recently, which will allow us to dissect the mechanisms underlying the functions of essential oils and facilitate the use of essential oils in swine production.
       
  • Non-antibiotic feed additives in diets for pigs: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Yanhong Liu, Charmaine D. Espinosa, Jerubella J. Abelilla, Gloria A. Casas, L. Vanessa Lagos, Su A. Lee, Woong B. Kwon, John K. Mathai, Diego M.D.L. Navarro, Neil W. Jaworski, Hans H. Stein A number of feed additives are marketed to assist in boosting the pigs' immune system, regulate gut microbiota, and reduce negative impacts of weaning and other environmental challenges. The most commonly used feed additives include acidifiers, zinc and copper, prebiotics, direct-fed microbials, yeast products, nucleotides, and plant extracts. Inclusion of pharmacological levels of zinc and copper, certain acidifiers, and several plant extracts have been reported to result in improved pig performance or improved immune function of pigs. It is also possible that use of prebiotics, direct-fed microbials, yeast, and nucleotides may have positive impacts on pig performance, but results have been less consistent and there is a need for more research in this area.
       
  • Cloning, expression, and characterization of a porcine pancreatic
           α-amylase in Pichia pastoris

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Lv-hui Sun, Tao Qin, Yan Liu, Hua Zhao, Xinjie Xia, Xingen Lei Pancreatic α-amylase (α-1, 4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, EC.3.2.1.1) plays a primary role in the intestinal digestion of feed starch and is often deficient in weanling pigs. The objective of this study was to clone, express, and characterize porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). The full-length cDNA encoding the PPA was isolated from pig pancreas by RT-PCR and cloned into the pPICZαA vector. After the resultant pPICZαΑ-PPA plasmid was transferred into Pichia pastoris, Ni Sepharose affinity column was used to purify the over-expressed extracellular recombinant PPA protein (rePPA) that contains a His-tag to the C terminus and was characterized against the natural enzyme (α-amylase from porcine pancreas). The rePPA exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 58 kDa and showed optimal temperature (50 °C), optimal pH (7.5), Km (47.8 mg/mL), and Vmax (2,783 U/mg) similar to those of the natural enzyme. The recombinant enzyme was stable at 40 °C but lost 60% to 90% (P 
       
  • Effects of supplementation of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piatá and Napier
           grass with Desmodium distortum on feed intake, digesta kinetics and milk
           production in crossbred dairy cows

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Mupenzi Mutimura, Cyprian Ebong, Idupulapati M. Rao, Ignatius V. Nsahlai This study was planned to analyse the basis that make Brachiaria species with greater feeding value than Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for lactating dairy cows. Forty lactating crossbred cows were stall-fed on Brachiariabrizantha cv. Piatá or Napier grass cv. French Cameroon supplemented (mixed on fresh matter basis) or unsupplemented with Desmodium distortum, a forage legume. All cows were fed on fresh matter basis under small-holder farming conditions. Results showed that B. brizantha cv. Piatá had higher contents of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and organic matter (OM), but lower contents of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) than Napier grass (P 
       
  • Growth performance, and enteric and manure greenhouse gas emissions from
           Murrah calves fed diets with different forage to concentrate ratios

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Vinu M. Nampoothiri, Madhu Mohini, Bilal A. Malla, Goutam Mondal, Sujata Pandita The present study investigated the effects of different dietary forage to concentrate ratios on animal performance, and enteric and manure greenhouse gas emissions in growing calves. Fifteen male Murrah calves (153.5 ± 18.17 kg; 6 to 12 months) were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments and fed corn fodder, wheat straw and concentrate in 3 different proportions: 20:60:20 (C20); 20:40:40 (C40) and 10:30:60 (C60), for a period of 120 days. Increasing dietary concentrate proportion had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on dry matter intake (DMI) but increased crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrient intake (P 
       
  • Supplementation of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera) in broiler diets and its
           effect on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility of
           nutrients, blood profile, and meat quality

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Siska Aditya, Sang-Jip Ohh, Musabbir Ahammed, Jayant Lohakare This experiment was conducted to explore the efficacy of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients, blood profile, and meat quality in commercial broilers. Four hundred broiler chicks (3-d-old) were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments for 28 d. Each treatment had 5 replicates with 20 birds per replicate. The dietary treatments were 1) control, 2) 5 g/kg grape pomace (GP), 3) 7.5 g/kg GP, and 4) 10 g/kg GP supplemented in diets after drying. Supplementation of GP did not show linear effects (P > 0.05) on body weight (BW) gain, however, quadratic effects (P  0.05) any effect due to GP supplementation, except a quadratic trend (P = 0.07) for digestibility of ash was observed. Serum levels of glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not affected (P > 0.05), however, total cholesterol and serum immunoglobulin G levels showed quadratic effects (P 
       
  • Dietary lecithin improves feed efficiency without impacting meat quality
           in immunocastrated male pigs and gilts fed a summer ration containing
           added fat

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Henny Akit, Cherie Collins, Fahri Fahri, Alex Hung, Darryl D'Souza, Brian Leury, Frank Dunshea The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sex and dietary lecithin on growth performance, meat quality, muscle collagen content and gene expression of key genes involved in collagen synthesis in finisher pigs. A total of 256 pigs (Large White × Landrace) were allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement involving sex (gilt or immunocastrated [IC] male) and dietary treatment (0 or 5 g/kg of dietary lecithin). All diets were formulated to contain 4.6% tallow with relatively high total fat of 6.3%. After 5 weeks of dietary treatment, pigs were slaughtered and Longissimus dorsi muscle was obtained for evaluation of meat quality and collagen content. Rectus abdominis muscle was analysed for gene expression of key genes involved in collagen synthesis namely, type I (α1) procollagen (COL1A1), type III (α1) procollagen (COL3A1), α-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H), lysyl oxidase and metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). The results showed that lecithin improved feed efficiency of all pigs (P  0.05). Lecithin also had no effect on meat compression, shear force, collagen content and gene expression (P > 0.05). Immunocastrated male had higher growth rate and increased COL1A1 expression than gilts. However, sex had no effect on fat depth at the P2 site (65 mm from the midline over the last rib), collagen content and expression of other genes (P > 0.05). In conclusion, lecithin improved feed efficiency in finishing pigs without impacting pork quality. Thus, inclusion of lecithin in diets containing high amount of tallow during the summer period could be beneficial.
       
  • Effect of different sources and levels of iron in the diet of sows on iron
           status in neonatal pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Yan Li, Weiren Yang, Donghua Dong, Shuzhen Jiang, Zaibin Yang, Yuxi Wang This study was conducted to determine the effects of maternal dietary supplementation of ferrous glycine chelate (Fe-Gly) and ferrous sulfate monohydrate (FeSO4·H2O) on the relative organ weight, tissue iron contents, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) in blood, as well as ferritin (Fn), serum iron (SI), and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) in serum of newborn piglets. Forty-five sows (Landrace × Large white, mean parity 3 to 4, no significant differences in BW) were randomly allotted to 9 treatments (n = 5 sows/treatment): control (basal diet with no Fe supplementation), the basal diet supplemented with 50, 80, 110 or 140 mg Fe/kg as Fe-Gly, and the basal diet supplemented with 50, 80, 110 or 140 mg Fe/kg as FeSO4·H2O. The neonatal piglets (n = 45) were used to determine the relative organ weight, tissue iron contents and blood biochemical indices. Compared with the control, the relative weight of spleen and kidney were significantly increased (P 
       
  • Digestible energy and metabolizable energy contents of konjac flour
           residues and ramie in growing pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): Enkai Li, Jinbiao Zhao, Ling Liu, Shuai Zhang The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) the effects of konjac flour residues and ramie on digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in diets fed to growing pigs, 2) the DE and ME contents of konjac flour residues and ramie. Thirty barrows were allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. The 5 diets include a corn-soybean meal basal diet (CTL), konjac flour residues diets containing 15% konjac flour residues (LK) or 30% konjac flour residues (HK), and ramie diets containing 15% ramie (LR) or 30% ramie (HR). The experiment lasted 19 days, including 7 days for cage adaptation, 7 days for diet adaptation, and 5 days for total feces and urine collection. The energy values and ATTD of nutrients in each diet were determined, and DE and ME contents of konjac flour residues and ramie were calculated. The results showed that consumption of konjac flour residues significantly increased (P 
       
  • Gastrointestinal tract (gut) health in the young pig

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2Author(s): John R. Pluske, Diana L. Turpin, Jae-Cheol Kim An optimally functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT) clearly is of importance to the overall metabolism, physiology, disease status and performance of pigs of all stages of growth and development. Recently, the ‘health’ of the GIT (‘gut health’) has attracted much attention despite the lack of a clear definition to the term or its aetiology, although in broad terms, ‘gut health’ encompasses a number of physiological and functional features including nutrient digestion and absorption, host metabolism and energy generation, a stable and appropriate microbiota/microbiome, defence mechanisms including barrier function and mucosal immune mechanisms, and the interactions between these components. ‘Gut health’ in the newly-weaned (young) pig is of obvious interest due to changes in GIT structure and function associated with the post-weaning transition, and more recently to the upsurge in interest in different feed additives as dietary alternatives/replacements caused by bans/reductions in certain antimicrobial compounds being available in some parts of the world. In the presence of enteric disease(s) after weaning, a deterioration in ‘gut health’ may be synonymous to the overall health of the pig, and although some direct relationships can be drawn between pig performance and efficiency and a ‘healthy’ GIT, sometimes this connection is subtler and less obvious, especially in the absence of overt enteric disease(s). The factors and conditions involved in ‘gut health’ are multifactorial, complex, often poorly described and sometimes incorrectly interpreted, although it is evident that perturbations of the GIT can cause an imbalance and disturb the generalized homeostasis. In addition to any enteric diseases or conditions that might arise as a result of these disturbances, other influences will also impact such as the responses occurring in the GIT in the period immediately after weaning, any changes that might occur after a change in diet, and (or) disruptions to meal patterns and hence the flow of nutrients. Ultimately, ‘gut health’ represents the outcome of the GIT in response to its capacity and ability to respond and adapt to the insults and challenges it encounters.
       
  • Feed particle selection and nutrient intake altered by pecking stone
           consumption in free-range laying hens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Zafar Iqbal, Kelly Drake, Robert A. Swick, Rider A. Perez-Maldonado, Isabelle Ruhnke The present study investigated the effects of pecking stones on feeding behavior of hens from 16 to 46 wk of age. A total of 18 flocks of Hy-Line Brown hens were housed in 2 commercial free-range housing systems. Farm A housed 10 flocks of beak trimmed (infrared beak treatment) hens in fixed sheds. Farm B housed 8 flocks of hens with intact beaks in mobile sheds. On each farm, flocks were equally assigned to control groups (no access to pecking stones) and treatment groups (access to pecking stones). Data were evaluated every 10 wk. At each time point, 10 hens per flock were housed in individual pens, and each hen was provided with 250 g of mash diet and ad libitum water for 24 h. After 24 h, feed samples were collected and used to determine 24-hour feed intake. Nutrient and particle selection was measured by subtracting nutrients and particles offered in feed from that present in leftover feed and expressed as Δ. In addition, pecking stone consumption was recorded for each flock. Data were analysed separately for each farm using fixed effects of pecking stone availability and hen age. Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients and linear regression models were constructed to evaluate the relationship of beak length and pecking stone usage, discrete mean particle size (dMEAN) consumption (Δ dMEAN), and Δ nutrient intake. Hens with access to pecking stones significantly consumed lower quantities of large feed particles (>2.8 mm) on farm A (P = 0.029) and significantly selected more fine particles resulting in lower consumption of dMEAN on farm B (P = 0.013). Overall a positive relationship (P = 0.001) between beak length and pecking stone consumption, Δ dMEAN, and Δ phosphorus consumption were observed. In conclusion, pecking stone consumption resulted in lower large feed particle selection and consumption in hens housed on both farms. Further research is warranted to investigate the effect of pecking stones on sensory innervation of the beak rather than only blunting of the beak.
       
  • 1 &rft.title=Animal+Nutrition&rft.issn=2405-6545&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Dietary L-theanine alleviated lipopolysaccharide-induced immunological
           stress in yellow-feathered broilers 1

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Rui Li, Zehe Song, Jianfei Zhao, Dongxiao Huo, Zhiyong Fan, De-Xing Hou, Xi He L-theanine, a natural nonprotein amino acid with high biological activity, is reported to exert anti-stress properties. An experiment with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary L-theanine on growth performance and immune function in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged broilers. A total of 432 one-day-old male yellow-feathered broilers were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments (control, antibiotic and L-theaine diets) with 2 subgroups of each (6 replicate cages; 12 birds/cage). Birds from each subgroup of the 3 dietary treatments were intra-abdominally injected with the same amount of LPS or saline at 24, 25, 26 d of age. Both dietary L-theanine and antibiotic improved (P < 0.05) the growth performance of birds before LPS injection (d 1 to 21). The effect of dietary L-theanine was better (P < 0.05) than antibiotic. Lipopolysaccharide decreased feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) from d 22 to 28 (P < 0.05), BWG and feed to gain ratio (F:G) from d 29 to 56 (P < 0.05), increased mortality in different growth periods (P < 0.05), elevated the levels of serum cortisol, α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) on d 24 and 25 (P < 0.05), reduced immune organ indexes and contents of jejunal mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) on d 28 (P < 0.05). The decreased FI and BWG, as well as increased F:G and mortality in LPS-challenged birds, were alleviated by dietary L-theanine or antibiotic from d 29 to 56 and from d 1 to 56. Dietary L-theanine mitigated the elevated serum α1-AGP level on d 25, serum IL-6 concentration on d 24 and 26, and the decreased jejunal mucosal sIgA content on d 28 of the LPS-challenged birds. The results indicated that L-theanine had potential to alleviate LPS-induced immune stress in broilers.
       
  • Use of probiotics and botanical extracts to improve ruminant production in
           the tropics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Muhammed A. Arowolo, Jianhua He Ruminant production, especially in the tropics and developing countries suffers a setback when compared to the temperate and developed countries, which is attributable to the kinds of available feed resources in the region of production. In the tropics, ruminants are restricted to grazing on low-quality forages, crop residues and agro-industrial by-products with very little or no concentrate diets, which adversely affect the animals in exhibiting their full production potential. Considering this fact, there is an increasing interest in improving the digestibility of these feed resources. In recent years, researchers have explored several methods to enhance the functions of rumen microflora, improve digestion and fermentation processes, as well as increase bioavailability and utilization of nutrients through feed supplementation. This review aims to explore the positive effects of supplementation of ruminant diets with probiotics or botanical extracts and their metabolites on the productivity of the animals. Moreover, the functions of these non-pathogenic and non-toxic live microorganisms (probiotics) and plant biologically active compounds (botanical extract) are explored because of the ban on non-therapeutic use of antibiotics as growth promoters coupled with the critical preference of consumers to high quality and safe animal products. It has been reported that these alternative supplemental products have a beneficial impact on both animal health and productivity, which is affecting stabilization of rumen environment, inhibition of pathogenic bacteria proliferation in gastro-intestinal tract, modulation of immune response, increase in fibre degradation and fermentation, nutrients availability and utilization, animal growth performance and milk production, among others. However, long-term in vivo studies are still required to determine the synergetic effects of these two safe supplemental products.
       
  • Effect of arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides and arabinoxylans on net energy and
           nutrient utilization in broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Natalie K. Morgan, Chake Keerqin, Andrew Wallace, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct Arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans (AX) that can be fermented by the gut microbiota, thus potentially displaying prebiotic properties. This study examined the effects of AX and AXOS on net energy and nutrient utilization in broilers. Ross 308 broilers (n = 90, 30 birds per treatment) were fed wheat-soybean diets supplemented with pure AX, AXOS produced by exposing the AX to xylanase in vitro (AXOS), or AX with xylanase (AX + E) from d 10 to 21. Performance parameters were measured from d 10 to 21. On d 15, 10 birds per treatment were allocated to closed-circuit net energy chambers to assess the impact of AX and AXOS on dietary energy utilization, through assessment of both metabolisable energy (ME) and net energy (NE). Ileal and caecal digesta samples were collected on d 21 to determine the effect of AX and AXOS on ileal and total tract dry matter digestibility, ileal digestible energy, digesta pH and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbiota concentration. Feed conversion ratio was numerically the lowest in birds fed the diet supplemented with AXOS, which is 1.26 compared to 1.37 and 1.30 for AX and AX + E, respectively. Ileal dry matter digestibility was higher in birds fed AXOS than those fed AX (P = 0.047). Ileal digestible energy and total tract dry matter digestibility were higher in birds fed AXOS than those fed AX or AX + E (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001, respectively). Birds fed AXOS had higher ME intake (P = 0.049) and nitrogen retention (P = 0.001) and a strong trend of higher NE (P = 0.056), NE intake (P = 0.057) and retained energy (P = 0.054) compared to those fed AX. Total ileal SCFA concentration, including lactic and formic acid, was higher in birds fed AXOS than those fed AX (P = 0.011, P = 0.012 and P = 0.023, respectively). Birds fed AXOS or AX + E had higher caecal total SCFA concentration, including acetic, butyric and isovaleric acid, compared to those fed AX (P = 0.001, P = 0.004, P = 0.016 and P = 0.008, respectively), and caecal propionic acid concentration was higher in birds fed AX + E than those fed AX (P = 0.050). Ileal and caecal microbiota concentrations were numerically higher and pH was lower in birds fed AXOS and AX + E than those fed AX. Results from this study indicate that feeding AXOS directly is more efficient than AXOS generation in the gastrointestinal tract, and suggest that AXOS has a potential to be an efficacious prebiotic in broiler diets.
       
  • Lentil straw: An alternative and nutritious feed resource for kids

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Vishal Mudgal, Mukesh K. Mehta, Ashok S. Rane The scarcity of feed resources with the continuously increasing cost of usual animal feeds urgently demands searching some alternate feeds for ruminants. In this study, Barberi male kids were divided into 4 groups of 5 kids (body weight 17.5 ± 1.8 kg) in each group, and ad libitum fed lentil straw (Lens culinaris; LS), LS based total mixed ration (LSTMR), urea ammoniated LS (ALS) or ALS based total mixed ration (ALSTMR) for a period of 28 days. Results showed LS was a superior feed (CP, 9.2%) for kids, but having quite high crude fibre (CF; 39.6%) and Ca:P ratio (10:1). Urea ammoniation of LS was helpful for increasing the digestible crude protein (DCP) (P < 0.01), nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) with reduction of CF content. Urea mmoniation also improved the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fibre (P < 0.01), but its effect on CP digestibility was negative (P < 0.05). Dry matter (DM), DCP and TDN intakes (per kgW0.75) were also improved (P < 0.01) in the kids fed ALS. Negative growth rate and nitrogen (N) balance (-33.8 and -1.4 g/day, respectively) in kids fed LS became positive (46.9 and 2.0 g/day, respectively) when ALS was used in the diets of kids. Feeding of ALS also increased (P < 0.01) the total N and ammonia N content of strained rumen liquor (SRL). Use of straw (LS or ALS) in TMR increased the digestibility of DM, organic matter and NFE (P < 0.01), intake of energy, as well as total volatile fatty acids concentration (P < 0.01) in the SRL. The present study suggested that optimum performance of kids may be achieved using either ALS alone or TMR with LS or ALS.
       
  • Productive performance, egg quality, hematological parameters and serum
           chemistry of laying hens fed diets supplemented with certain fat-soluble
           vitamins individually or combined during summer season

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mahmoud Alagawany, Khalid M. Mahrose, Muhammad Arif, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad A. Arain, Rab N. Soomro, Farman A. Siyal, Sarfraz A. Fazlani, Justin Fowler This present study aimed to determine the efficacy of supplementing layer diets with vitamins A and E either individually or in combination on egg production and quality, and blood hematology and chemistry of birds reared under summer conditions. The experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 factorial design with 3 levels of vitamin A (0, 8,000 and 16,000 IU/kg diet) and 3 levels of vitamin E (0, 250 and 500 mg/kg diet). A total of 135 Brown Bovans laying hens were distributed into 9 treatment groups, with 5 replicates (3 hens per pen). A significant improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed as supplementary vitamin A or E increased (P> 0.05). Hens fed diets supplemented with 16,000 IU vitamin A plus 500 mg vitamin E/kg diet had the best FCR among all groups. Egg quality criteria were not significantly affected by the interaction of vitamins A and E levels. There was a significant (P> 0.01) increase in monocytes and decrease (P> 0.05) in basophils counts in response to vitamin E. Significant decreases were observed in packed cell volume (PCV), thyroxine (T4), alanine transferase (ALT), albumin, total cholesterol and total lipids, and increases in serum levels of globulin and calcium due to vitamin A (P> 0.05). The combination of 0 IU vitamin A and 500 mg vitamin E/kg diet had the highest value of PCV (40.09%) and hemoglobin (Hb) (10.33 mg/100 mL) among all groups. Vitamin E raised (P> 0.01) serum values of total protein, total cholesterol and total lipids. Feed intake, FCR, PCV, Hb, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, T4, ALT and total protein were significantly affected by the interaction of vitamins A and E. The interaction of vitamins A and E was only significant (P ˂ 0.05) with respect to serum total protein values. It can be concluded that layer diets supplemented with vitamins A and E had good results in alleviating the harmful impacts of high ambient temperature. The combination of 16,000 IU vitamin A and 500 mg vitamin E/kg diet is preferable for obtaining better production of laying hens reared under hot summer conditions.
       
  • Development of an in vitro protein digestibility assay mimicking the
           chicken digestive tract

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Dervan D.S.L. Bryan, Dawn A. Abbott, Henry L. Classen It is difficult to obtain in vivo digestion kinetics data of high protein ingredients using chickens. Collecting kinetics data requires repeated sampling of digesta from the small intestine during the digestion process, which is not easily accomplished due to the anatomical structure of chicken digestive tract. An in vitro technique is proposed for measuring the digestion kinetics of protein sources fed to chickens. The method has a 30 min gastric and 3 h intestinal phase. Five hundred milligram crude protein (CP) equivalent of each meal sample (CP = % N × 6.25) was digested with pepsin (28,260 units) in 50 mL polyethylene centrifuge tubes for 30 min in a shaking water bath (150 strokes/min; 30 mm stroke length) at 41 °C. The 6.5 mL pancreatin was selected as the enzyme concentration for the intestinal phase, during which time 500 μL aliquots were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 240 min. Samples were diluted 1:820 with HCl and sodium acetate buffer, and then mixed with ninhydrin reagent (2:1) at 100 ± 2 °C for 15 min and spectrometric readings taken at 568 nm. To validate the assay, 5 replications of soybean meal (SBM), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn distillers dried grains with solubles (CDDGS), porcine meal (PCM), fish meal (FM) and casein (CA) were digested. The digestion data were modeled with PROC NLIN procedure, and the intra coefficient of variation (CV) assessed using PROC MEANS of SAS 9.4. The digestion values at 180 min were SBM 95 ± 4, FM 93 ± 3, PCM 68 ± 4, CGM 82 ± 3 and CDDGS 70 ± 2. Intra CV for SBM, CGM, CDDGS, PCM and FM were 5%, 5%, 12%, 10% and 2%, respectively. The estimated fractional digestion rates for SBM, CGM, CDDGS, FM and PCM were 0.023, 0.013, 0.009, 0.024 and 0.013, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed in vitro technique estimated the rate and extent of the digestion of CP for the meals with low intra CV.
       
  • Animals as sources of food-borne pathogens: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Norma Heredia, Santos García Food-producing animals are the major reservoirs for many foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter species, non-Typhi serotypes of Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. The zoonotic potential of foodborne pathogens and their ability to produce toxins causing diseases or even death are sufficient to recognize the seriousness of the situation. This manuscript reviews the evidence that links animals as vehicles of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxigenic E. coli, and L. monocytogenes, their impact, and their current status. We conclude that these pathogenic bacteria will continue causing outbreaks and deaths throughout the world, because no effective interventions have eliminated them from animals and food.
       
  • Impact of essential oils and organic acids on the growth performance,
           digestive functions and immunity of broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Xin Yang, Fangyu Long, Hongliang Xin, Chengbo Yang, Xiaojun Yang The aim of the experiment was to study the effects of feeding blends of sorbic acid, fumaric acid, and thymol (EOA) on growth performance, digestive functions, and immunity of broiler chickens. A total of 640 one-day-old male Cobb 500 chicks with similar BW (41.8 ± 0.6 g) were randomly divided into 4 treatments groups consisting of 10 replicates with 16 birds per replicate and fed a basal diet until d 42 (CON) or diets with 0.15 g/kg enramycin during the grower period (AG), 0.30 g/kg EOA during the grower period (EG), or 0.30 g/kg EOA during the finisher period (EF). At d 42, the feed conversion ratio was reduced (P < 0.05) for birds in EG group compared with other groups. Birds in EG group showed a higher villus height of the duodenum and jejunum and muscular layers of the duodenum and ileum than birds in CON group (P < 0.05). Compared with other groups, crypt depth of the jejunum and ileum was markedly increased (P < 0.05) by EOA supplementation during the finisher period at d 42. The EOA supplementation during grower period increased significantly lipase, trypsin and chymotrypsin activity of the duodenum at d 21 and 42, as well as lipase and trypsin at d 21, and trypsin and chymotrypsin at d 42 in the jejunum, and trypsin and chymotrypsin activity of the ileum at d 21 compared to the control diet (P < 0.05). Birds of EG and EF groups showed a higher (P < 0.05) spleen index than birds of CON groups. The level of secretory immunoglobulin A in duodenal and ileal mucosa was increased (P < 0.05) in EF group at d 42 compared with other groups. In conclusion, the results indicate that EOA can be effectively applied in broiler diets, especially during the grower phase by improving intestinal morphology and increasing digestive enzyme activity.
       
  • Effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, blood T lymphocyte subsets, and cardiac antioxidant status
           of broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Wenying Huo, Min Li, Jianping Wang, Zhixiang Wang, Yanqun Huang, Wen Chen Different lipid sources differ in their fatty acid profiles and consequently affect growth performance as well as immune function of broilers differently. The influences of different dietary lipid sources on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood T lymphocyte population, and cardiac antioxidant status were investigated in broilers. A total of 360 one-day-old male broilers with an average body weights of 44 ± 3 g were randomized into 3 treatment groups, consisting of 6 replicates of 20 birds in each group. Broilers received standard diets supplemented with 5% (wt/wt) of lard (LD, as a control diet), sesame oil (SO), or flaxseed oil (FO), respectively. Broilers in both SO and FO treatment groups had lower (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratios during 22 to 42 d and during the overall phase compared to those in LD treatment group. Meanwhile, the apparent total tract nutrient digestibility of crude fat in SO and FO treatment groups was higher than that in LD treatment group. Both FO and SO treatments decreased (P < 0.05) abdominal fat percentage compared to LD treatment. Total triglycerides and total cholesterol in chicken blood were decreased (P < 0.05) by SO and FO treatments compared to LD treatment. Feeding broilers with FO and SO led to a decrease (P < 0.05) in blood CD4+ T lymphocyte count and in CD4+:CD8+ ratio compared to LD treatment. Sesame oil and FO treatments increased cardiac glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05) compared to LD treatment. It is concluded that addition of 5% SO and FO to the standard corn-soybean meal diet improved feed efficiency, increased the activities of cardiac glutathione peroxidase, and affected the T lymphocytes ratio of fast growing broilers.
       
  • Diet supplementation with an organic acids-based formulation affects gut
           microbiota and expression of gut barrier genes in broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Irida Palamidi, Konstantinos C. Mountzouris This study was designed to study the effect of diet supplementation with an organic acids- based formulation (OABF) on luminal- and mucosa-associated bacteria, concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA), microbial glycolytic enzyme activity and expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and tight junction protein, i.e., zonula occludens-1 (ZO1), zonula occludens-2 (ZO2), claudin-1 (CLDN1), claudin-5 (CLDN5) and occludin (OCLN), genes at the ileal and cecal level. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used having OABF inclusion and avilamycin as main factors. Subsequently, 544 day-old male Cobb broilers were allocated in the following 4 treatments, each with 8 replicates: no additions (CON), 1 g OABF/kg diet (OA), 2.5 mg avilamycin/kg diet (AV) and combination of OA and AV (OAAV). The trial lasted for 42 days. In the ileum, OAAV resulted in lower mucosa-associated total bacteria levels (PO × A = 0.028) compared with AV. In addition, ileal digesta levels of Clostridium perfringens subgroup were decreased by avilamycin (PA = 0.045). Inclusion of OABF stimulated the activity of microbial glycolytic enzymes, whereas avilamycin resulted in lower acetate (PA = 0.021) and higher butyrate (PA = 0.010) molar ratios. Expression of ZO1 and CLDN5 was down-regulated by both OABF (PO = 0.016 and PO = 0.003, respectively) and avilamycin (PA = 0.016 and PA = 0.001, respectively). In addition, CLDN1 was down-regulated in AV compared with CON (PO × A = 0.012). Furthermore, OABF down-regulated MUC2 (PO = 0.027), whereas avilamycin down-regulated nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKB1) (PA = 0.024), toll-like receptor 2 family member B (TLR2B) (PA = 0.011) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) (PA = 0.014) expression. In the ceca, OABF inclusion increased digesta levels of Clostridium coccoides (PO = 0.018) and Clostridium leptum (PO = 0.040) subgroups, while it up-regulated MUC2 expression (PO = 0.014). Avilamycin (PA = 0.044) and interaction (PO × A 
       
  • Role of D-aspartate on biosynthesis, racemization, and potential
           functions-a mini-review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Yuying Li, Hui Han, Jie Yin, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin D-aspartate, a natural and endogenous amino acid, widely exists in animal tissues and can be synthesized through aspartate racemase and transformed by D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). D-aspartate mainly serves as a neurotransmitter and has been demonstrated to exhibit various physiological functions, including nutritional potential, regulation on reproduction and hormone biology, and neuron protection. This article mainly reviews the synthesis, racemization, and physiological functions of D-aspartate with emphasis on the potential in diseases.
       
  • Application of resistant starch in swine and poultry diets with particular
           reference to gut health and function

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Alemu Regassa, Charles M. Nyachoti The immediate post-weaning period poses a major challenge on the survival of piglets. Similarly, newly hatched chicks face life threatening challenges due to enteric infections. In the past several years, in-feed antibiotics have been used to reduce these production problems and improve growth. However, in-feed antibiotics have been banned in many jurisdictions and therefore the most effective alternatives to in-feed antibiotics must be developed. To date, several studies have been conducted to develop alternatives to antibiotics. One of the potential candidates as alternatives to in-feed antibiotics is resistant starch (RS). Resistance starch is a type of starch that resists enzymatic digestion in the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract and therefore passes to hindgut where it can be fermented by resident microorganisms. Microbial fermentation of RS in the hindgut results in the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Production of SCFA in turn results in growth and proliferation of colonic and cecal cells, increased expression of genes involved in gut development, and creation of an acidic environment. The acidic environment suppresses the growth of pathogenic microorganisms while selectively promoting the growth of beneficial microbes. Thus, RS has the potential to improve gut health and function by modifying and stabilising gut microbial community and by improving the immunological status of the host. In this review, we discussed the roles of RS in modifying and stabilising gut microbiota, gut health and function, carcass quality, and energy metabolism and growth performance in pigs and poultry.
       
  • Feeding of processed vegetable wastes to bulls and its potential
           environmental benefit

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Nani G. Das, Khan S. Huque, Sardar M. Amanullah, Harinder P.S. Makkar The study was conducted with the objectives to quantify year round availability of different vegetables waste (VW) in a wholesale market and to determine the inclusion level of a processed VW (VWP) in the diets of bulls. The daily VW biomass availability at Kawran bazaar, Dhaka, Bangladesh was quantified by weighing the vegetable supply and their wastes by visiting 2 days in a week. Concurrently, VW of cucumber, bitter gourd, spotted gourd, brinjal, pumpkin, potato, tomato, ladies finger, and snake gourd representing 0.21, 0.18, 0.17, 0.16, 0.09, 0.07, 0.06, 0.03, and 0.02 as fresh fractions, respectively were blended, dried and stored while adding rice polish and common salt at 200 and 20 g/kg DM, respectively; it was tested in bulls as an ingredient of concentrate mixture. Four dietary groups, each of 6 bulls, with initial average live weight (LW) of 85.47 ± 17 kg, were fed fresh German grass (Echinochloa polystachya) ad libitum supplemented with 4 different concentrates containing 0, 10%, 20% and 30% VWP at the rate of 1% of LW for 89 days. The availability of VW biomass of the market was 42.51 t/d and recycling of them as feed, instead of using landfills, might reduce annual methane emission by 0.43 Gg. The inclusion of VWP in the diet up to 9.7% of DM, or 0.30% of LW of bulls showed no significant effect on the DM intake, digestibility, growth performance and health status of bulls. The dietary DM intake represented 3.10%, 3.09%, 3.20% and 3.14% of LW resulting in daily gain of 302, 300, 312 and 344 g, respectively. The digestibility of DM of diets was 56.9%, 62.8%, 62.8% and 63.4%, respectively. It was concluded that VWP may be included at a level of 9.7% of the diet (DM basis) or 0.30% of LW of bulls.
       
  • Nutritional value of detoxified Jatropha curcas seed cake protein isolates
           using rats as an animal model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Yinuo Zhao, Yubao Wang, Haifeng Wang, Yueming Wu, Harinder P. Makkar, Jianxin Liu A bioassay study was conducted to investigate the effects of substituting casein with graded levels of detoxified Jatropha curcas seed cake protein isolates (JPI) as a protein source on the growth performance, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and its protein values using rats as an animal model. Thirty 21-day-old male Sprague–Dawley weaned rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, each group with 6 replications (n = 1). Each group consumed one of the following diets: protein-free, casein (CAS) and JPI diets (JPI20, JPI40 and JPI60; different levels of JPI to replace the casein at concentrations of 20%, 40% and 60% on crude protein basis). Feed intake and protein intake showed no difference among the rats fed JPI20, JPI40 and CAS diets (P > 0.05). However, these parameters were lower in the rats fed JPI60 than in rats fed CAS (P 
       
  • Leucine modulates the IPEC-J2 cell proteome associated with cell
           proliferation, metabolism and phagocytosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Xiangbing Mao, Man Ren, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Lianqiang Che, Jun He, Junqiu Luo, Yuheng Luo, Jianping Wang, Hui Sun Leucine can affect intestinal protein expressions, and improve mucosal immune function. However, little study has been conducted to determine the change of protein component by leucine treatment in intestine epithelial cells. The present study was to cover the key proteins and cell pathways that could be regulated by leucine treatment in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) cells with the approach of proteome analysis. A total number of 3,211 proteins were identified in our approach by searching the database of Uniprot sus scrofa. Among identified proteins, there were 101 proteins expressed differently between control group and leucine group. Compared with the control group, there were 50 up-regulated proteins and 51 down-regulated proteins in leucine group. In these proteins, leucine treatment decreased the expression of some proteins including pyruvate kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, E3 ubiquitin ligase, cathepsin D, caspase 3 and caspase 6, and increased the levels of some proteins, such as some eukaryotic translation initiation factors, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, DNA-related RNA polymerase II, urokinase plasminogen activator, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2b, MutL homolog 1, 5-methylcytosine binding domain 4, polymerase δ, α-tubulin, syntaxin 18, Ras homolog D, actin related protein 2/3 complex and cofilin. Via the analysis of Gene Ontology and pathways, these proteins in IPEC-J2 cells were related with some physiological functions, such as protein metabolism, glycolysis, cell proliferation, apoptosis and phagocytosis. Thus, these results suggest that leucine affects gut barrier function possibly via regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis, metabolism and phagocytosis.
       
  • Impact of on-range choice feeding with black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia
           illucens) on flock performance, egg quality, and range use of free-range
           laying hens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Isabelle Ruhnke, Camille Normant, Dana L.M. Campbell, Zafar Iqbal, Caroline Lee, Geoff N. Hinch, Julie Roberts Semi-intensive free-range farm systems are common in Australia, and these systems frequently practise on-range feeding. The objective of this study was to investigate the benefit of on-range choice feeding on flock performance, egg quality, and range use of free-range laying hens using black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens, BSF). A total of 160 mature ISA brown laying hens, previously determined to range daily, were allocated to a control group (control) or a treatment group (BSF) with various replicates depending on the parameter investigated. All hens were fed ad libitum indoors with a wheat-soy based diet formulated according to breed requirements. Black soldier fly hens were offered dried BSF larvae ad libitum on the range. Body weight, feed intake, BSF intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio, internal and external egg quality parameters, and individual range use using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology was evaluated. Black soldier fly hens consumed on average 15 ± 1.7 g BSF larvae/hen per day. There were no differences between BSF and control hens for any of the performance parameters obtained (P > 0.05). Egg weight, shell weight, and shell thickness of eggs from BSF hens were significantly lower (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P = 0.004, respectively) than those of eggs from control hens. Egg yolk colour was significantly paler in eggs from BSF hens (P  0.05) except for BSF hens showing longer total maximum time for a single visit to the range (P = 0.011). In conclusion, the average intake of BSF larvae indicated a good level of acceptance. Feed formulation should be adjusted for the intake of the choice fed source. The impact of choice-feeding on range use was minor.
       
  • Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 on gut
           microbiota modulation in broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Chubin Qin, Li Gong, Xiaoping Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Yibin Wang, Baikui Wang, Yali Li, Weifen Li The gut microbiota plays important roles in animal overall health and productiveness. Balancing host gut microbiota by probiotics has been documented. Our previous study showed that Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) significantly improve growth performance and modulate the intestinal histomorphology in broilers. To increase the knowledge regarding Sb and Bs, this study investigated the effects of these 2 probiotic strains on the gut microbiota in broilers. Three hundred 1-day-old Sanhuang broilers (Chinese cross breed) were randomly divided into 3 groups, each group with 5 replications (n = 20). The control group (CK) was fed a basal diet containing an antibiotic (virginiamycin, 20 mg/kg) and the other 2 groups received Sb and Bs (1 × 108 cfu/kg of feed) in addition to the basal diet. After 72 d of treatment, pyrosequencing revealed that the bacterial communities varied along the section of intestinal tract in the control and Bs groups, but not in the Sb group. No difference in microbial diversity was observed among 3 groups. The major phyla observed along the GI tract of broilers (particularly in the duodenum and cecum) were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia, which were considered potentially growth performance-related. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were observed at a much higher abundance in the jejunums and ileums of the Sb group (P 
       
  • Influence of drying technique on chemical composition and ruminal
           degradability of subtropical Cajanus cajan L.

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Lindokuhle S. Buthelezi, John F. Mupangwa, Voster Muchenje, Florence V. Nherera-Chokuda The experiment investigated the influence of forage drying methods on the dry-matter digestibility of foliage from Cajanus cajan varieties (ICEAP 00557, ICEAP 01514 and CIMMYT100/01). These leaves were harvested at week 20 of growth and either oven- or shade-dried and analysed for chemical components and rumen degradability. Three rumen fistulated lactating Holstein cows (430 ± 18 kg live weight) were used to evaluate ruminal degradation kinetics using in vitro and in sacco procedures. Samples were incubated for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 30 and 48 h in vitro (IV DaisyII) procedure. In the in sacco procedure, samples were incubated for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 30 and 48 h in the rumen of cows. Dry matter disappearance (DMD) data for both measures were fitted to the equation Y = a + b (1 – e–ct), where b is the slowly degradable fraction and c is the degradation rate constant, to approximate rumen degradability characteristics of varieties. Shade dried leaves contained higher crude protein (CP) (P  0.05) calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentration in the forage dry matter. Drying method had no effect (P > 0.05) on b and c of all varieties during in vitro procedure. However, shade-drying method increased (P 
       
  • Thyme oil inclusion levels in a rabbit ration: Evaluation of productive
           performance, carcass criteria and meat quality under hot environmental
           conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Ahmed A.A. Abdel-Wareth, Eman M.M. Taha, Karl-Heinz Südekum, Jayant Lohakare The aim of this study was to determine the impact of thyme essential oil supplementation in rabbit rations on performance, carcass criteria, and meat quality under hot environmental conditions. A total of 75, 4-week-old Californian male rabbits were assigned to 5 dietary treatments until 12 weeks of age. The rabbits were reared in an open house system (38 °C average ambient temperature and 26% to 35% relative humidity). Treatments were as follows: unsupplemented standard ration, negative control (CON); standard ration supplemented with 1.50 g/kg olive oil as carrier, positive control (POS); POS + 50 mg/kg thyme oil (TO1); POS + 100 mg/kg thyme oil (TO2); and POS + 150 mg/kg thyme oil (TO3). Dietary thyme oil up to 150 mg/kg improved (P 
       
  • Roles of dietary supplementation with arginine or N-carbamylglutamate in
           modulating the inflammation, antioxidant property, and mRNA expression of
           antioxidant-relative signaling molecules in the spleen of rats under
           oxidative stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Weiwei Mo, Xianjian Wu, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Jiayong Tang, Caimei Wu, Jingyi Cai, Gang Tian, Jing Wang, Gangmang Liu This study evaluated the effects of arginine (Arg) or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on inflammation, antioxidant property, and antioxidant-related gene expression in rat spleen under oxidative stress. A total of 52 rats were randomly distributed into 4 treatment groups with 13 replicates per group. Rats were fed a basal diet (BD) or BD supplemented with Arg or NCG for 30 days. On day 28, half of the BD-fed rats were intraperitoneally injected with sterile saline (control group), and the other half with 12 mg/kg body weight of diquat (DT; DT group). The other 2 diet groups were intraperitoneally injected with 12 mg/kg body weight of DT with either Arg (1%) (DT + Arg) or NCG (0.1%) (DT + NCG). Rat spleen samples were collected for analysis at 48 h after DT injection. Results showed that DT damaged the antioxidant defense in rats compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the DT group, the DT + Arg and DT + NCG groups manifested improved anti-hydroxyl radical, catalase, and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities, increased glutathione content (P < 0.05), and decreased malondialdehyde content (P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with the DT group, the DT + Arg and DT + NCG groups enhanced mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), glutathione reductase (GR), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap-1), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (P < 0.05). Both NCG and Arg significantly increased anti-inflammatory cytokine mRNA level but suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression under oxidative stress (P < 0.05). In summary, NCG and Arg effectively alleviated oxidative stress, improved the antioxidant capacity and regulated the antioxidant-related signaling molecular expression in rat spleen. N-carbamylglutamate and Arg reduced the inflammation in the spleen by mediating the gene expression of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β).
       
  • Productive performance of commercial growing and finishing pigs
           supplemented with a Buttiauxella phytase as a total replacement of
           inorganic phosphate

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Yueming Dersjant-Li, Peter Plumstead, Ajay Awati, Janet Remus The objective of this study was to test if a novel phytase from Buttiauxella sp. can replace all added inorganic phosphate in a diet with reduced Ca and metabolizable energy (ME) fed to commercial pigs from 12 kg body weight (BW) until slaughter, whilst maintaining performance and carcass quality parameters. Four dietary treatments were tested in a completely randomized design with 9 replicate pens, each containing 31 mixed sex Newsham Choice pigs. Diets included a positive control (PC) based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middling and bakery meal, meeting all nutrient requirement of pigs; a negative control (NC) excluded inorganic phosphate and with reduced Ca (−0.13%) and ME (−0.15 MJ/kg); and NC supplemented with Buttiauxella phytase at 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg feed. Diets were fed ad libitum in mash form in 5 phases: starter (12 to 25 kg BW), grower 1 (25 to 50 kg BW) and 2 (50 to 75 kg BW), and finisher 1 (75 to 100 kg BW) and 2 (100 kg BW to slaughter). The NC group showed lower (P 
       
  • Increased dietary intake of tyrosine upregulates melanin deposition in the
           hair of adult black-coated dogs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Adrian Watson, Jamie Wayman, Russell Kelley, Alexandre Feugier, Vincent Biourge The principle determinant of melanin derived hair colour and patterning in mammals is genetic, but environmental factors are now thought to play a role. It has been shown that the concentration of melanins in cat hair is influenced by the amino acid composition of their diets. Also, puppies were found to require tyrosine (Tyr) intake significantly greater than that recommended for normal growth and development in order to optimize melanin expression in their coats. Much of the work to date has been conducted in growing animals. Less is known about the relationship between nutrition and hair melanin deposition in healthy adult animals. In this study, we fed 2 groups of adult black Labrador retrievers (12 dogs/group) different concentrations of Phe + Tyr (5.6 vs. 3.5 g/Mcal) for 24 weeks and used spectrophotometric measurements every 8 weeks to detect any associated changes in the dogs’ hair colour. The higher intake dogs showed reduced dilution of their black coat pigment compared with the lower intake dogs. Specifically, following 16 weeks at the higher intake, the dogs showed less yellow pigmentation to their coats (P = 0.0032), and after 24 weeks at the higher intake, the dogs showed less red (P 
       
 
 
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