for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 876 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (77 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (617 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (101 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (29 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Animal Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.442
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 17  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2405-6545
Published by Ke Ai Homepage  [15 journals]
  • Extraction, identification and antioxidant property evaluation of limonin
           from pummelo seeds

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Si Qin, Chenghao Lv, Qingshan Wang, Zhibing Zheng, Xi Sun, Fangming Deng
      Limonin, the main bioactive phytochemical constituent of limonoids with multi-functions, is enriched in citrus fruits and often found at a high concentration in citrus seeds. The present study was attempted to introduce a new and efficient extraction method to isolate limonoids from pummelo seeds, and to evaluate the antioxidant property of the main constituent limonin in HepG2 cells. Three key single factors were identified for the extraction of limonoids from pummelo seeds using the Box-Behnken experiment design of response surface methodology (RSM), and the optimized extraction parameters were: treatment with 89.68 mL of anhydrous acetone for 4.62 h at 78.94 °C, while the yield of limonoids was 11.52 mg/g. The structure of isolated main constituent of the limonoids was further identified as limonin by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum. Moreover, the molecular data in HepG2 cells revealed that limonin exerted its anti-oxidant property mainly by the activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)- antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in the form of transcriptional regulation of Nrf2 mRNA and posttranscriptional regulation of Nrf2/Keap1 system. These results demonstrate that pummelo seeds are an ideal source of limonoids, and limonin is proved to exert its anti-oxidant property by the activation of Nrf2/Keap1 pathway.

      PubDate: 2018-06-21T14:26:33Z
       
  • Effects of dietary 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol in calcium- and
           phosphorous-deficient diets on growth performance, tibia related indices
           and immune responses in broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Parham Ghasemi, Majid Toghyani, Nasir Landy
      This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-OH-D3) in calcium- and phosphorous-deficient (Ca-P deficient) diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, tibia related parameters, and immune responses of broiler chicks. A total of 280 day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to 20 floor pens and 4 dietary treatments of 5 replicates. Dietary treatments consisted of starter diets (A: 1% Ca, 0.73% total phosphorus [tP]; B: 0.85% Ca, 0.64% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; C: 0.85% Ca, 0.59% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; D: 0.85% Ca, 0.54% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3), grower diets (A: 0.86% Ca, 0.68% tP; B: 0.73% Ca, 0.59% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; C: 0.73% Ca, 0.55% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; D: 0.73% Ca, 0.50% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3) and finisher diets (A: 0.81% Ca, 0.64% tP; B: 0.68% Ca, 0.56% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; C: 0.68% Ca, 0.52% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; D: 0.68% Ca, 0.48% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3). Results showed that body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) of broilers in treatment B were similar to those of broilers in treatment A at the end of the trial (P < 0.05). Broilers in treatments C and D during the whole trial had lower BWG and FI than those in treatment A (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio, carcass traits and relative weight of lymphoid organs were not affected by dietary treatments (P > 0.05). Dietary treatments had no significant effect on antibody titer against Newcastle and Influenza disease viruses as well as sheep red blood cells. Dietary treatments had no any significant effect on tibia ash and tibial dyschondroplasia score. Broilers fed Ca-P deficient diets had lower tibia Ca and P than those in treatment A (P < 0.05). In conclusion, results indicated that broilers fed Ca-P deficient diets supplemented with 5 μg/kg 1α-OH-D3 failed to achieve the same tibia Ca and P values as broilers fed nonphytate phosphorus adequate diets.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T14:24:31Z
       
  • Potential antioxidant bioactive peptides from camel milk proteins

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Hisham R. Ibrahim, Hiroki Isono, Takeshi Miyata
      Camel milk is traditionally considered to have medicinal characteristics that it has potential health benefits and could help to treat several illnesses. Particularly, it is closest to human breast milk and has high levels of nutrients and bioactive components. The aim of this study was to explore the antioxidant peptides derived from protein fractions of camel milk. Camel milk proteins (CMP) were fractionated into camel casein protein (CCP) and camel whey protein (CWP), which were hydrolyzed with pepsin to produce peptic digests, i.e., pepsin digested CCP (P-CCP) and P-CWP, respectively. Reversed phase HPLC was used for fractionation of the peptides from the P-CCP and P-CWP. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using superoxide anion generating system of xanthine oxidase (OXD) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. Active peptides were analyzed using MALDI-TOF-MS whereas a number of antioxidant peptides, with masses ranging from 913 to 2,951 daltons, derived mainly from alpha-casein, lactophorin and lactoferrin, were identified. When yeast cells are used as a system for modeling mitochondrial disease, the peptides in caseins and whey fractions significantly enhanced the tolerance of yeast cells against peroxide-induced oxidative stress. The results show that both caseins and whey proteins of camel milk possess bioactive peptides with significant radical-scavenging activities and thus herald a fascinating opportunity for their potential as nutraceuticals or therapeutic peptides for prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

      PubDate: 2018-06-07T02:42:34Z
       
  • Feed particle selection and nutrient intake altered by pecking stone
           consumption in free-range laying hens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Zafar Iqbal, Kelly Drake, Robert A. Swick, Rider A. Perez-Maldonado, Isabelle Ruhnke
      The present study investigated the effects of pecking stones on feeding behavior of hens from 16 to 46 wk of age. A total of 18 flocks of Hy-Line Brown hens were housed in 2 commercial free-range housing systems. Farm A housed 10 flocks of beak trimmed (infrared beak treatment) hens in fixed sheds. Farm B housed 8 flocks of hens with intact beaks in mobile sheds. On each farm, flocks were equally assigned to control groups (no access to pecking stones) and treatment groups (access to pecking stones). Data were evaluated every 10 wk. At each time point, 10 hens per flock were housed in individual pens, and each hen was provided with 250 g of mash diet and ad libitum water for 24 h. After 24 h, feed samples were collected and used to determine 24-hour feed intake. Nutrient and particle selection was measured by subtracting nutrients and particles offered in feed from that present in leftover feed and expressed as Δ. In addition, pecking stone consumption was recorded for each flock. Data were analysed separately for each farm using fixed effects of pecking stone availability and hen age. Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients and linear regression models were constructed to evaluate the relationship of beak length and pecking stone usage, discrete mean particle size (dMEAN) consumption (Δ dMEAN), and Δ nutrient intake. Hens with access to pecking stones significantly consumed lower quantities of large feed particles (>2.8 mm) on farm A (P = 0.029) and significantly selected more fine particles resulting in lower consumption of dMEAN on farm B (P = 0.013). Overall a positive relationship (P = 0.001) between beak length and pecking stone consumption, Δ dMEAN, and Δ phosphorus consumption were observed. In conclusion, pecking stone consumption resulted in lower large feed particle selection and consumption in hens housed on both farms. Further research is warranted to investigate the effect of pecking stones on sensory innervation of the beak rather than only blunting of the beak.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T02:13:59Z
       
  • Use of probiotics and botanical extracts to improve ruminant production in
           the tropics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Muhammed A. Arowolo, Jianhua He
      Ruminant production, especially in the tropics and developing countries suffers a setback when compared to the temperate and developed countries, which is attributable to the kinds of available feed resources in the region of production. In the tropics, ruminants are restricted to grazing on low-quality forages, crop residues and agro-industrial by-products with very little or no concentrate diets, which adversely affect the animals in exhibiting their full production potential. Considering this fact, there is an increasing interest in improving the digestibility of these feed resources. In recent years, researchers have explored several methods to enhance the functions of rumen microflora, improve digestion and fermentation processes, as well as increase bioavailability and utilization of nutrients through feed supplementation. This review aims to explore the positive effects of supplementation of ruminant diets with probiotics or botanical extracts and their metabolites on the productivity of the animals. Moreover, the functions of these non-pathogenic and non-toxic live microorganisms (probiotics) and plant biologically active compounds (botanical extract) are explored because of the ban on non-therapeutic use of antibiotics as growth promoters coupled with the critical preference of consumers to high quality and safe animal products. It has been reported that these alternative supplemental products have a beneficial impact on both animal health and productivity, which is affecting stabilization of rumen environment, inhibition of pathogenic bacteria proliferation in gastro-intestinal tract, modulation of immune response, increase in fibre degradation and fermentation, nutrients availability and utilization, animal growth performance and milk production, among others. However, long-term in vivo studies are still required to determine the synergetic effects of these two safe supplemental products.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Dietary L-theanine alleviated lipopolysaccharide-induced immunological
           stress in yellow-feathered broilers1

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Rui Li, Zehe Song, Jianfei Zhao, Dongxiao Huo, Zhiyong Fan, De-Xing Hou, Xi He
      L-theanine, a natural nonprotein amino acid with high biological activity, is reported to exert anti-stress properties. An experiment with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary L-theanine on growth performance and immune function in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged broilers. A total of 432 one-day-old male yellow-feathered broilers were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments (control, antibiotic and L-theaine diets) with 2 subgroups of each (6 replicate cages; 12 birds/cage). Birds from each subgroup of the 3 dietary treatments were intra-abdominally injected with the same amount of LPS or saline at 24, 25, 26 d of age. Both dietary L-theanine and antibiotic improved (P < 0.05) the growth performance of birds before LPS injection (d 1 to 21). The effect of dietary L-theanine was better (P < 0.05) than antibiotic. Lipopolysaccharide decreased feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) from d 22 to 28 (P < 0.05), BWG and feed to gain ratio (F:G) from d 29 to 56 (P < 0.05), increased mortality in different growth periods (P < 0.05), elevated the levels of serum cortisol, α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) on d 24 and 25 (P < 0.05), reduced immune organ indexes and contents of jejunal mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) on d 28 (P < 0.05). The decreased FI and BWG, as well as increased F:G and mortality in LPS-challenged birds, were alleviated by dietary L-theanine or antibiotic from d 29 to 56 and from d 1 to 56. Dietary L-theanine mitigated the elevated serum α1-AGP level on d 25, serum IL-6 concentration on d 24 and 26, and the decreased jejunal mucosal sIgA content on d 28 of the LPS-challenged birds. The results indicated that L-theanine had potential to alleviate LPS-induced immune stress in broilers.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Effect of arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides and arabinoxylans on net energy and
           nutrient utilization in broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Natalie K. Morgan, Chake Keerqin, Andrew Wallace, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct
      Arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans (AX) that can be fermented by the gut microbiota, thus potentially displaying prebiotic properties. This study examined the effects of AX and AXOS on net energy and nutrient utilization in broilers. Ross 308 broilers (n = 90, 30 birds per treatment) were fed wheat-soybean diets supplemented with pure AX, AXOS produced by exposing the AX to xylanase in vitro (AXOS), or AX with xylanase (AX + E) from d 10 to 21. Performance parameters were measured from d 10 to 21. On d 15, 10 birds per treatment were allocated to closed-circuit net energy chambers to assess the impact of AX and AXOS on dietary energy utilization, through assessment of both metabolisable energy (ME) and net energy (NE). Ileal and caecal digesta samples were collected on d 21 to determine the effect of AX and AXOS on ileal and total tract dry matter digestibility, ileal digestible energy, digesta pH and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbiota concentration. Feed conversion ratio was numerically the lowest in birds fed the diet supplemented with AXOS, which is 1.26 compared to 1.37 and 1.30 for AX and AX + E, respectively. Ileal dry matter digestibility was higher in birds fed AXOS than those fed AX (P = 0.047). Ileal digestible energy and total tract dry matter digestibility were higher in birds fed AXOS than those fed AX or AX + E (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001, respectively). Birds fed AXOS had higher ME intake (P = 0.049) and nitrogen retention (P = 0.001) and a strong trend of higher NE (P = 0.056), NE intake (P = 0.057) and retained energy (P = 0.054) compared to those fed AX. Total ileal SCFA concentration, including lactic and formic acid, was higher in birds fed AXOS than those fed AX (P = 0.011, P = 0.012 and P = 0.023, respectively). Birds fed AXOS or AX + E had higher caecal total SCFA concentration, including acetic, butyric and isovaleric acid, compared to those fed AX (P = 0.001, P = 0.004, P = 0.016 and P = 0.008, respectively), and caecal propionic acid concentration was higher in birds fed AX + E than those fed AX (P = 0.050). Ileal and caecal microbiota concentrations were numerically higher and pH was lower in birds fed AXOS and AX + E than those fed AX. Results from this study indicate that feeding AXOS directly is more efficient than AXOS generation in the gastrointestinal tract, and suggest that AXOS has a potential to be an efficacious prebiotic in broiler diets.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Productive performance, egg quality, hematological parameters and serum
           chemistry of laying hens fed diets supplemented with certain fat-soluble
           vitamins individually or combined during summer season

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mahmoud Alagawany, Khalid M. Mahrose, Muhammad Arif, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad A. Arain, Rab N. Soomro, Farman A. Siyal, Sarfraz A. Fazlani, Justin Fowler
      This present study aimed to determine the efficacy of supplementing layer diets with vitamins A and E either individually or in combination on egg production and quality, and blood hematology and chemistry of birds reared under summer conditions. The experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 factorial design with 3 levels of vitamin A (0, 8,000 and 16,000 IU/kg diet) and 3 levels of vitamin E (0, 250 and 500 mg/kg diet). A total of 135 Brown Bovans laying hens were distributed into 9 treatment groups, with 5 replicates (3 hens per pen). A significant improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed as supplementary vitamin A or E increased (P > 0.05). Hens fed diets supplemented with 16,000 IU vitamin A plus 500 mg vitamin E/kg diet had the best FCR among all groups. Egg quality criteria were not significantly affected by the interaction of vitamins A and E levels. There was a significant (P > 0.01) increase in monocytes and decrease (P > 0.05) in basophils counts in response to vitamin E. Significant decreases were observed in packed cell volume (PCV), thyroxine (T4), alanine transferase (ALT), albumin, total cholesterol and total lipids, and increases in serum levels of globulin and calcium due to vitamin A (P > 0.05). The combination of 0 IU vitamin A and 500 mg vitamin E/kg diet had the highest value of PCV (40.09%) and hemoglobin (Hb) (10.33 mg/100 mL) among all groups. Vitamin E raised (P > 0.01) serum values of total protein, total cholesterol and total lipids. Feed intake, FCR, PCV, Hb, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, T4, ALT and total protein were significantly affected by the interaction of vitamins A and E. The interaction of vitamins A and E was only significant (P ˂ 0.05) with respect to serum total protein values. It can be concluded that layer diets supplemented with vitamins A and E had good results in alleviating the harmful impacts of high ambient temperature. The combination of 16,000 IU vitamin A and 500 mg vitamin E/kg diet is preferable for obtaining better production of laying hens reared under hot summer conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Lentil straw: An alternative and nutritious feed resource for kids

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Vishal Mudgal, Mukesh K. Mehta, Ashok S. Rane
      The scarcity of feed resources with the continuously increasing cost of usual animal feeds urgently demands searching some alternate feeds for ruminants. In this study, Barberi male kids were divided into 4 groups of 5 kids (body weight 17.5 ± 1.8 kg) in each group, and ad libitum fed lentil straw (Lens culinaris; LS), LS based total mixed ration (LSTMR), urea ammoniated LS (ALS) or ALS based total mixed ration (ALSTMR) for a period of 28 days. Results showed LS was a superior feed (CP, 9.2%) for kids, but having quite high crude fibre (CF; 39.6%) and Ca:P ratio (10:1). Urea ammoniation of LS was helpful for increasing the digestible crude protein (DCP) (P < 0.01), nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) with reduction of CF content. Urea mmoniation also improved the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fibre (P < 0.01), but its effect on CP digestibility was negative (P < 0.05). Dry matter (DM), DCP and TDN intakes (per kgW0.75) were also improved (P < 0.01) in the kids fed ALS. Negative growth rate and nitrogen (N) balance (-33.8 and -1.4 g/day, respectively) in kids fed LS became positive (46.9 and 2.0 g/day, respectively) when ALS was used in the diets of kids. Feeding of ALS also increased (P < 0.01) the total N and ammonia N content of strained rumen liquor (SRL). Use of straw (LS or ALS) in TMR increased the digestibility of DM, organic matter and NFE (P < 0.01), intake of energy, as well as total volatile fatty acids concentration (P < 0.01) in the SRL. The present study suggested that optimum performance of kids may be achieved using either ALS alone or TMR with LS or ALS.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Development of an in vitro protein digestibility assay mimicking the
           chicken digestive tract

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Dervan D.S.L. Bryan, Dawn A. Abbott, Henry L. Classen
      It is difficult to obtain in vivo digestion kinetics data of high protein ingredients using chickens. Collecting kinetics data requires repeated sampling of digesta from the small intestine during the digestion process, which is not easily accomplished due to the anatomical structure of chicken digestive tract. An in vitro technique is proposed for measuring the digestion kinetics of protein sources fed to chickens. The method has a 30 min gastric and 3 h intestinal phase. Five hundred miligram crude protein (CP) equivalent of each meal sample (CP = % N × 6.25) was digested with pepsin (28,260 units) in 50 mL polyethylene centrifuge tubes for 30 min in a shaking water bath (150 strokes/min; 30 mm stroke length) at 41 °C. The 6.5 mL pancreatin was selected as the enzyme concentration for the intestinal phase, during which time 500 μL aliquots were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 240 min. Samples were diluted 1:820 with HCl and sodium acetate buffer, and then mixed with ninhydrin reagent (2:1) at 100 ± 2 °C for 15 min and spectrometric readings taken at 568 nm. To validate the assay, 5 replications of soybean meal (SBM), corn gluten (CGM), corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles (CDDGS), porcine meal (PCM), fish meal (FM) and casein (CA) were digested. The digestion data were modeled with PROC NLIN procedure, and the intra coefficient of variation (CV) assessed using PROC MEANS of SAS 9.4. The digestion values at 180 min were SBM 95 ± 4, FM 93 ± 3, PCM 68 ± 4, CGM 82 ± 3 and CDDGS 70 ± 2. Intra CV for SBM, CGM, CDDGS, PCM and FM were 5%, 5%, 12%, 10% and 2%, respectively. The estimated fractional digestion rates for SBM, CGM, CDDGS, FM and PCM were 0.023, 0.013, 0.009, 0.024 and 0.013, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed in vitro technique estimated the rate and extent of the digestion of CP for the meals with low intra CV.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Animals as sources of food-borne pathogens: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Norma Heredia, Santos García
      Food-producing animals are the major reservoirs for many foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter species, non-Typhi serotypes of Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. The zoonotic potential of foodborne pathogens and their ability to produce toxins causing diseases or even death are sufficient to recognize the seriousness of the situation. This manuscript reviews the evidence that links animals as vehicles of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxigenic E. coli, and L. monocytogenes, their impact, and their current status. We conclude that these pathogenic bacteria will continue causing outbreaks and deaths throughout the world, because no effective interventions have eliminated them from animals and food.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Impact of essential oils and organic acids on the growth performance,
           digestive functions and immunity of broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Xin Yang, Fangyu Long, Hongliang Xin, Chengbo Yang, Xiaojun Yang
      The aim of the experiment was to study the effects of feeding blends of sorbic acid, fumaric acid, and thymol (EOA) on growth performance, digestive functions, and immunity of broiler chickens. A total of 640 one-day-old male Cobb 500 chicks with similar BW (41.8 ± 0.6 g) were randomly divided into 4 treatments groups consisting of 10 replicates with 16 birds per replicate and fed a basal diet until d 42 (CON) or diets with 0.15 g/kg enramycin during the grower period (AG), 0.30 g/kg EOA during the grower period (EG), or 0.30 g/kg EOA during the finisher period (EF). At d 42, the feed conversion ratio was reduced (P < 0.05) for birds in EG group compared with other groups. Birds in EG group showed a higher villus height of the duodenum and jejunum and muscular layers of the duodenum and ileum than birds in CON group (P < 0.05). Compared with other groups, crypt depth of the jejunum and ileum was markedly increased (P < 0.05) by EOA supplementation during the finisher period at d 42. The EOA supplementation during grower period increased significantly lipase, trypsin and chymotrypsin activity of the duodenum at d 21 and 42, as well as lipase and trypsin at d 21, and trypsin and chymotrypsin at d 42 in the jejunum, and trypsin and chymotrypsin activity of the ileum at d 21 compared to the control diet (P < 0.05). Birds of EG and EF groups showed a higher (P < 0.05) spleen index than birds of CON groups. The level of secretory immunoglobulin A in duodenal and ileal mucosa was increased (P < 0.05) in EF group at d 42 compared with other groups. In conclusion, the results indicate that EOA can be effectively applied in broiler diets, especially during the grower phase by improving intestinal morphology and increasing digestive enzyme activity.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, blood T lymphocyte subsets, and cardiac antioxidant status
           of broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Wenying Huo, Min Li, Jianping Wang, Zhixiang Wang, Yanqun Huang, Wen Chen
      Different lipid sources differ in their fatty acid profiles and consequently affect growth performance as well as immune function of broilers differently. The influences of different dietary lipid sources on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood T lymphocyte population, and cardiac antioxidant status were investigated in broilers. A total of 360 one-day-old male broilers with an average body weights of 44 ± 3 g were randomized into 3 treatment groups, consisting of 6 replicates of 20 birds in each group. Broilers received standard diets supplemented with 5% (wt/wt) of lard (LD, as a control diet), sesame oil (SO), or flaxseed oil (FO), respectively. Broilers in both SO and FO treatment groups had lower (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratios during 22 to 42 d and during the overall phase compared to those in LD treatment group. Meanwhile, the apparent total tract nutrient digestibility of crude fat in SO and FO treatment groups was higher than that in LD treatment group. Both FO and SO treatments decreased (P < 0.05) abdominal fat percentage compared to LD treatment. Total triglycerides and total cholesterol in chicken blood were decreased (P < 0.05) by SO and FO treatments compared to LD treatment. Feeding broilers with FO and SO led to a decrease (P < 0.05) in blood CD4+ T lymphocyte count and in CD4+:CD8+ ratio compared to LD treatment. Sesame oil and FO treatments increased cardiac glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05) compared to LD treatment. It is concluded that addition of 5% SO and FO to the standard corn-soybean meal diet improved feed efficiency, increased the activities of cardiac glutathione peroxidase, and affected the T lymphocytes ratio of fast growing broilers.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Diet supplementation with an organic acids-based formulation affects gut
           microbiota and expression of gut barrier genes in broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Irida Palamidi, Konstantinos C. Mountzouris
      This study was designed to study the effect of diet supplementation with an organic acids- based formulation (OABF) on luminal- and mucosa-associated bacteria, concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA), microbial glycolytic enzyme activity and expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and tight junction protein, i.e., zonula occludens-1 (ZO1), zonula occludens-2 (ZO2), claudin-1 (CLDN1), claudin-5 (CLDN5) and occludin (OCLN), genes at the ileal and cecal level. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used having OABF inclusion and avilamycin as main factors. Subsequently, 544 day-old male Cobb broilers were allocated in the following 4 treatments, each with 8 replicates: no additions (CON), 1 g OABF/kg diet (OA), 2.5 mg avilamycin/kg diet (AV) and combination of OA and AV (OAAV). The trial lasted for 42 days. In the ileum, OAAV resulted in lower mucosa-associated total bacteria levels (P O × A = 0.028) compared with AV. In addition, ileal digesta levels of Clostridium perfringens subgroup were decreased by avilamycin (P A = 0.045). Inclusion of OABF stimulated the activity of microbial glycolytic enzymes, whereas avilamycin resulted in lower acetate (P A = 0.021) and higher butyrate (P A = 0.010) molar ratios. Expression of ZO1 and CLDN5 was down-regulated by both OABF (P O = 0.016 and P O = 0.003, respectively) and avilamycin (P A = 0.016 and P A = 0.001, respectively). In addition, CLDN1 was down-regulated in AV compared with CON (P O × A = 0.012). Furthermore, OABF down-regulated MUC2 (P O = 0.027), whereas avilamycin down-regulated nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKB1) (P A = 0.024), toll-like receptor 2 family member B (TLR2B) (P A = 0.011) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) (P A = 0.014) expression. In the ceca, OABF inclusion increased digesta levels of Clostridium coccoides (P O = 0.018) and Clostridium leptum (P O = 0.040) subgroups, while it up-regulated MUC2 expression (P O = 0.014). Avilamycin (P A = 0.044) and interaction (P O × A < 0.001) effects for IgA expression were noted, with CON having higher IgA expression compared with AV. In conclusion, new findings regarding OABF inclusion effects on an array of relevant biomarkers for broiler gut ecology have been reported and discussed in parallel with avilamycin effects used as a positive control. This new knowledge is expected to provide a response baseline for follow up trials under various stress and challenge conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Role of D-aspartate on biosynthesis, racemization, and potential
           functions-a mini-review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Yuying Li, Hui Han, Jie Yin, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
      D-aspartate, a natural and endogenous amino acid, widely exists in animal tissues and can be synthesized through aspartate racemase and transformed by D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). D-aspartate mainly serves as a neurotransmitter and has been demonstrated to exhibit various physiological functions, including nutritional potential, regulation on reproduction and hormone biology, and neuron protection. This article mainly reviews the synthesis, racemization, and physiological functions of D-aspartate with emphasis on the potential in diseases.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Application of resistant starch in swine and poultry diets with particular
           reference to gut health and function

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Alemu Regassa, Charles Martin Nyachoti
      The immediate post-weaning period poses a major challenge on the survival of piglets. Similarly, newly hatched chicks face life threatening challenges due to enteric infections. In the past several years, in-feed antibiotics have been used to reduce these production problems and improve growth. However, in-feed antibiotics have been banned in many jurisdictions and therefore the most effective alternatives to in-feed antibiotics must be developed. To date, several studies have been conducted to develop alternatives to antibiotics. One of the potential candidates as alternatives to in-feed antibiotics is resistant starch (RS). Resistance starch is a type of starch that resists enzymatic digestion in the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract and therefore passes to hindgut where it can be fermented by resident microorganisms. Microbial fermentation of RS in the hindgut results in the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Production of SCFA in turn results in growth and proliferation of colonic and cecal cells, increased expression of genes involved in gut development, and creation of an acidic environment. The acidic environment suppresses the growth of pathogenic microorganisms while selectively promoting the growth of beneficial microbes. Thus, RS has the potential to improve gut health and function by modifying and stabilising gut microbial community and by improving the immunological status of the host. In this review, we discussed the roles of RS in modifying and stabilising gut microbiota, gut health and function, carcass quality, and energy metabolism and growth performance in pigs and poultry.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Feeding of processed vegetable wastes to bulls and its potential
           environmental benefit

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Nani G. Das, Khan S. Huque, Sardar M. Amanullah, Harinder P.S. Makkar
      The study was conducted with the objectives to quantify year round availability of different vegetables waste (VW) in a wholesale market and to determine the inclusion level of a processed VW (VWP) in the diets of bulls. The daily VW biomass availability at Kawran bazaar, Dhaka, Bangladesh was quantified by weighing the vegetable supply and their wastes by visiting 2 days in a week. Concurrently, VW of cucumber, bitter gourd, spotted gourd, brinjal, pumpkin, potato, tomato, ladies finger, and snake gourd representing 0.21, 0.18, 0.17, 0.16, 0.09, 0.07, 0.06, 0.03, and 0.02 as fresh fractions, respectively were blended, dried and stored while adding rice polish and common salt at 200 and 20 g/kg DM, respectively; it was tested in bulls as an ingredient of concentrate mixture. Four dietary groups, each of 6 bulls, with initial average live weight (LW) of 85.47 ± 17 kg, were fed fresh German grass (Echinochloa polystachya) ad libitum supplemented with 4 different concentrates containing 0, 10%, 20% and 30% VWP at the rate of 1% of LW for 89 days. The availability of VW biomass of the market was 42.51 t/d and recycling of them as feed, instead of using landfills, might reduce annual methane emission by 0.44 Gg. The inclusion of VWP in the diet up to 9.7% of DM, or 0.30% of LW of bulls showed no significant effect on the DM intake, digestibility, growth performance and health status of bulls. The dietary DM intake represented 3.10%, 3.09%, 3.20% and 3.14% of LW resulting in daily gain of 302, 300, 312 and 344 g, respectively. The digestibility of DM of diets was 56.9%, 62.8%, 62.8% and 63.4%, respectively. It was concluded that VWP may be included at a level of 9.7% of the diet (DM basis) or 0.30% of LW of bulls.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Nutritional value of detoxified Jatropha curcas seed cake protein isolates
           using rats as an animal model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Yinuo Zhao, Yubao Wang, Haifeng Wang, Yueming Wu, Harinder P. Makkar, Jianxin Liu
      A bioassay study was conducted to investigate the effects of substituting casein with graded levels of detoxified Jatropha curcas seed cake protein isolates (JPI) as a protein source on the growth performance, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and its protein values using rats as an animal model. Thirty 21-day-old male Sprague–Dawley weaned rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, each group with 6 replications (n = 1). Each group consumed one of the following diets: protein-free, casein (CAS) and JPI diets (JPI20, JPI40 and JPI60; different levels of JPI to replace the casein at concentrations of 20%, 40% and 60% on crude protein basis). Feed intake and protein intake showed no difference among the rats fed JPI20, JPI40 and CAS diets (P > 0.05). However, these parameters were lower in the rats fed JPI60 than in rats fed CAS (P < 0.05). The rats fed diets containing JPI had lower body weight gain, protein efficiency ratio and net protein retention than those fed CAS diet (P < 0.05). When the level of JPI used to replace the casein was lower than 40%, protein efficiency ratio (PER) was close to or higher than 2.0, which suggests that JPI could be viewed as a high-quality protein. Inclusion of JPI in the diet decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. The values were significantly lower in rats fed JPI20 and JPI40 than in rats fed CAS (P < 0.05). No histopathological changes were observed in livers and kidneys in the rats fed JPI diets. The results demonstrate that JPI could be used as an efficient protein source at a level of no more than 40% of dietary protein source.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Leucine modulates the IPEC-J2 cell proteome associated with cell
           proliferation, metabolism and phagocytosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Xiangbing Mao, Man Ren, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Lianqiang Che, Jun He, Junqiu Luo, Yuheng Luo, Jianping Wang, Hui Sun
      Leucine can affect intestinal protein expressions, and improve mucosal immune function. However, little study has been conducted to determine the change of protein component by leucine treatment in intestine epithelial cells. The present study was to cover the key proteins and cell pathways that could be regulated by leucine treatment in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) cells with the approach of proteome analysis. A total number of 3,211 proteins were identified in our approach by searching the database of Uniprot sus scrofa. Among identified proteins, there were 101 proteins expressed differently between control group and leucine group. Compared with the control group, there were 50 up-regulated proteins and 51 down-regulated proteins in leucine group. In these proteins, leucine treatment decreased the expression of some proteins including pyruvate kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, E3 ubiquitin ligase, cathepsin D, caspase 3 and caspase 6, and increased the levels of some proteins, such as some eukaryotic translation initiation factors, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, DNA-related RNA polymerase II, urokinase plasminogen activator, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2b, MutL homolog 1, 5-methylcytosine binding domain 4, polymerase δ, α-tubulin, syntaxin 18, Ras homolog D, actin related protein 2/3 complex and cofilin. Via the analysis of Gene Ontology and pathways, these proteins in IPEC-J2 cells were related with some physiological functions, such as protein metabolism, glycolysis, cell proliferation, apoptosis and phagocytosis. Thus, these results suggest that leucine affects gut barrier function possibly via regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis, metabolism and phagocytosis.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Impact of on-range choice feeding with black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia
           illucens) on flock performance, egg quality, and range use of free-range
           laying hens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Isabelle Ruhnke, Camille Normant, Dana L.M. Campbell, Zafar Iqbal, Caroline Lee, Geoff N. Hinch, Julie Roberts
      Semi-intensive free-range farm systems are common in Australia, and these systems frequently practise on-range feeding. The objective of this study was to investigate the benefit of on-range choice feeding on flock performance, egg quality, and range use of free-range laying hens using black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens, BSF). A total of 160 mature ISA brown laying hens, previously determined to range daily, were allocated to a control group (control) or a treatment group (BSF) with various replicates depending on the parameter investigated. All hens were fed ad libitum indoors with a wheat-soy based diet formulated according to breed requirements. Black soldier fly hens were offered dried BSF larvae ad libitum on the range. Body weight, feed intake, BSF intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio, internal and external egg quality parameters, and individual range use using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology was evaluated. Black soldier fly hens consumed on average 15 ± 1.7 g BSF larvae/hen per day. There were no differences between BSF and control hens for any of the performance parameters obtained (P > 0.05). Egg weight, shell weight, and shell thickness of eggs from BSF hens were significantly lower (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P = 0.004, respectively) than those of eggs from control hens. Egg yolk colour was significantly paler in eggs from BSF hens (P < 0.001). No significant ranging differences between the BSF and control hens were observed (P > 0.05) except for BSF hens showing longer total maximum time for a single visit to the range (P = 0.011). In conclusion, the average intake of BSF larvae indicated a good level of acceptance. Feed formulation should be adjusted for the intake of the choice fed source. The impact of choice-feeding on range use was minor.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 on gut
           microbiota modulation in broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Chubin Qin, Li Gong, Xiaoping Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Yibin Wang, Baikui Wang, Yali Li, Weifen Li
      The gut microbiota plays important roles in animal overall health and productiveness. Balancing host gut microbiota by probiotics has been documented. Our previous study showed that Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) significantly improve growth performance and modulate the intestinal histomorphology in broilers. To increase the knowledge regarding Sb and Bs, this study investigated the effects of these 2 probiotic strains on the gut microbiota in broilers. Three hundred 1-day-old Sanhuang broilers (Chinese cross breed) were randomly divided into 3 groups, each group with 5 replications (n = 20). The control group (CK) was fed a basal diet containing an antibiotic (virginiamycin, 20 mg/kg) and the other 2 groups received Sb and Bs (1 × 108 cfu/kg of feed) in addition to the basal diet. After 72 d of treatment, pyrosequencing revealed that the bacterial communities varied along the section of intestinal tract in the control and Bs groups, but not in the Sb group. No difference in microbial diversity was observed among 3 groups. The major phyla observed along the GI tract of broilers (particularly in the duodenum and cecum) were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia, which were considered potentially growth performance-related. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were observed at a much higher abundance in the jejunums and ileums of the Sb group (P < 0.05). In addition, the jejunal microbial communities formed 3 different clusters at either the genus level or the category of metabolism among the groups, based on the principal component analyses. These data indicated that Sb and Bs can modulate the microbial ecosystem, and subsequently enhance the health status of broilers.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Use of antibiotics in broiler production: Global impacts and alternatives

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Youcef Mehdi, Marie P. Létourneau-Montminy, Marie L. Gaucher, Younes Chorfi, Suresh Gayatri, Tarek. Rouissi, Satiner K. Brar, Caroline Côté, Antonio A. Ramirez, Stéphane Godbout
      Antibiotics are used to fight bacterial infections. A pressure of selection gave rise to bacteria resistant to antibiotics. This leaves scientists worried about the danger to human and animal health. Some strategies can be borrowed to reduce the use of antibiotics in chicken farms. Much research has been carried out to look for natural agents with similar beneficial effects of growth promoters. The aim of these alternatives is to maintain a low mortality rate, a good level of animal yield while preserving environment and consumer health. Among these, the most popular are probiotics, prebiotics, enzymes, organic acids, immunostimulants, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, phytogenic feed additives, phytoncides, nanoparticles and essential oils.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Influence of drying technique on chemical composition and ruminal
           degradability of subtropical Cajanus cajan L.

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Lindokuhle S. Buthelezi, John F. Mupangwa, Voster Muchenje, Florence V. Nherera-Chokuda
      The experiment investigated the influence of forage drying methods on the dry-matter digestibility of foliage from Cajanus cajan varieties (ICEAP 00557, ICEAP 01514 and CIMMYT100/01). These leaves were harvested at week 20 of growth and either oven- or shade-dried and analysed for chemical components and rumen degradability. Three rumen fistulated lactating Holstein cows (430 ± 18 kg live weight) were used to evaluate ruminal degradation kinetics using in vitro and in sacco procedures. Samples were incubated for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 30 and 48 h in vitro (IV DaisyII) procedure. In the in sacco procedure, samples were incubated for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 30 and 48 h in the rumen of cows. Dry matter disappearance (DMD) data for both measures were fitted to the equation Y = a + b (1 – e –ct ), where b is the slowly degradable fraction and c is the degradation rate constant, to approximate rumen degradability characteristics of varieties. Shade dried leaves contained higher crude protein (CP) (P < 0.05) than oven dried leaves. Oven drying method increased (P < 0.05) neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) content of varieties. However, shade drying method gave the higher concentration of NDIN and ADIN. Drying technique had no effect (P > 0.05) on ash, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) of varieties. Drying method did not affect (P > 0.05) calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentration in the forage dry matter. Drying method had no effect (P > 0.05) on b and c of all varieties during in vitro procedure. However, shade-drying method increased (P < 0.05) b and c of all varieties during in sacco procedure. It was concluded that shade-drying, in contrast to oven-drying, would be the most suitable method as it improves the nutritive value of the forage for ruminants.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Thyme oil inclusion levels in a rabbit ration: Evaluation of productive
           performance, carcass criteria and meat quality under hot environmental
           conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Ahmed A.A. Abdel-Wareth, Eman M.M. Taha, Karl-Heinz Südekum, Jayant Lohakare
      The aim of this study was to determine the impact of thyme essential oil supplementation in rabbit rations on performance, carcass criteria, and meat quality under hot environmental conditions. A total of 75, 4-week-old Californian male rabbits were assigned to 5 dietary treatments until 12 weeks of age. The rabbits were reared in an open house system (38 °C average ambient temperature and 26% to 35% relative humidity). Treatments were as follows: unsupplemented standard ration, negative control (CON); standard ration supplemented with 1.50 g/kg olive oil as carrier, positive control (POS); POS + 50 mg/kg thyme oil (TO1); POS + 100 mg/kg thyme oil (TO2); and POS + 150 mg/kg thyme oil (TO3). Dietary thyme oil up to 150 mg/kg improved (P < 0.001) feed intake and growth performance in comparison to CON. The highest average daily gain and most efficient feed conversion ratio (linear, P < 0.001 and quadratic, P < 0.001) were found for TO1 followed by TO2, TO3 and POS, respectively. The incorporation of thyme oil improved (P < 0.001) carcass criteria and decreased (P < 0.001) perirenal and scapular fat without any side effects on internal organs. Notably, the water holding capacity of rabbit meat was greater (P < 0.001), and the lipid oxidation was lower (P < 0.01) in rabbits fed treated rations compared with CON. Differences were also recorded in oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin contents in rabbit meat among treatments. In conclusion, thyme oil of a specified composition and to be added to a rabbit ration up to 100 mg/kg using 1.50 g/kg olive oil as a carrier can be used as an efficient feed additive for improving productive performance of rabbits under hot environmental conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Roles of dietary supplementation with arginine or N-carbamylglutamate in
           modulating the inflammation, antioxidant property, and mRNA expression of
           antioxidant-relative signaling molecules in the spleen of rats under
           oxidative stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Weiwei Mo, Xianjian Wu, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Jiayong Tang, Caimei Wu, Jingyi Cai, Gang Tian, Jing Wang, Gangmang Liu
      This study evaluated the effects of arginine (Arg) or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on inflammation, antioxidant property, and antioxidant-related gene expression in rat spleen under oxidative stress. A total of 52 rats were randomly distributed into 4 treatment groups with 13 replicates per group. Rats were fed a basal diet (BD) or BD supplemented with Arg or NCG for 30 days. On day 28, half of the BD-fed rats were intraperitoneally injected with sterile saline (control group), and the other half with 12 mg/kg body weight of diquat (DT; DT group). The other 2 diet groups were intraperitoneally injected with 12 mg/kg body weight of DT with either Arg (1%) (DT + Arg) or NCG (0.1%) (DT + NCG). Rat spleen samples were collected for analysis at 48 h after DT injection. Results showed that DT damaged the antioxidant defense in rats compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the DT group, the DT + Arg and DT + NCG groups manifested improved anti-hydroxyl radical, catalase, and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities, increased glutathione content (P < 0.05), and decreased malondialdehyde content (P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with the DT group, the DT + Arg and DT + NCG groups enhanced mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx 1), glutathione reductase (GR), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap-1), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (P < 0.05). Both NCG and Arg significantly increased anti-inflammatory cytokine mRNA level but suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression under oxidative stress (P < 0.05). In summary, NCG and Arg effectively alleviated oxidative stress, improved the antioxidant capacity and regulated the antioxidant-related signaling molecular expression in rat spleen. N-carbamylglutamate and Arg reduced the inflammation in the spleen by mediating the gene expression of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β).

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Changing dietary n-6:n-3 ratio using different oil sources affects
           performance, behavior, cytokines mRNA expression and meat fatty acid
           profile of broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 1
      Author(s): Doaa Ibrahim, Rania El-Sayed, Safaa I. Khater, Enas N. Said, Shefaa A.M. El-Mandrawy
      Typical formulated broiler diets are deficient in n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) due to widening n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio which could greatly affect performance, immune system of birds and, more importantly, meat quality. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of modifying dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio from plant and animal oil sources on performance, behavior, cytokine mRNA expression, antioxidative status and meat fatty acid profile of broiler chickens. Birds (n = 420) were fed 7 diets enriched with different dietary oil sources and ratios as follows: sunflower oil in control diet (C); fish oil (FO); 1:1 ratio of sunflower oil to FO (C1FO1); 3:1 ratio of sunflower oil to fish oil (C3FO1); linseed oil (LO); 1:1 ratio of sunflower oil to linseed oil (C1LO1); 3:1 ratio of sunflower oil to linseed oil (C3LO1), resulting in dietary n-6:n-3 ratios of approximately 40:1, 1.5:1, 4:1, 8:1, 1:1, 2.5:1 and 5:1, respectively. The best final body weight, feed conversion ratio as well as protein efficiency ratio of broilers were recorded in the C1FO1 and C1LO1 groups. Compared with the control group, the dressing percentage and breast and thigh yield were highest in the C1FO1 and C1LO1 groups. Narrowing the dietary n-6:n-3 ratio increased (P < 0.05) n-3 PUFA content of breast meat. Moreover, the breast meat contents of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increased (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary FO whereas α-linolenic acid content was higher with LO supplementation. Also, enriching the diets with n-3 PUFA from FO and LO clearly decreased (P < 0.05) serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins and enhanced antioxidative status. The feeding frequency was decreased (P < 0.05) in the C1FO1 and C1LO1 groups. Likewise, n-3 PUFA-enriched diets enhanced the frequency of preening, wing flapping and flightiness. Animal oil source addition, compared to plant oil, to broiler diets enhanced the relative mRNA expression of interferon gamma, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 genes, especially at low n-6:n-3 ratios. This study has clearly shown that narrowing n-6:n-3 ratio through the addition of FO or LO improved performance and immune response of broilers and resulted in healthy chicken meat, enriched with long chain n-3 PUFA.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Productive performance of commercial growing and finishing pigs
           supplemented with a Buttiauxella phytase as a total replacement of
           inorganic phosphate

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Yueming Dersjant-Li, Peter Plumstead, Ajay Awati, Janet Remus
      The objective of this study was to test if a novel phytase from Buttiauxella sp. can replace all added inorganic phosphate in a diet with reduced Ca and metabolizable energy (ME) fed to commercial pigs from 12 kg body weight (BW) until slaughter, whilst maintaining performance and carcass quality parameters. Four dietary treatments were tested in a completely randomized design with 9 replicate pens, each containing 31 mixed sex Newsham Choice pigs. Diets included a positive control (PC) based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middling and bakery meal, meeting all nutrient requirement of pigs; a negative control (NC) excluded inorganic phosphate and with reduced Ca (−0.13%) and ME (−0.15 MJ/kg); and NC supplemented with Buttiauxella phytase at 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg feed. Diets were fed ad libitum in mash form in 5 phases: starter (12 to 25 kg BW), grower 1 (25 to 50 kg BW) and 2 (50 to 75 kg BW), and finisher 1 (75 to 100 kg BW) and 2 (100 kg BW to slaughter). The NC group showed lower (P < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) in starter and grower phases, lower gain to feed ratio (G:F) in starter and grower 1 compared with PC. Pigs receiving the high dose of phytase of 1,000 FTU/kg had improved performance vs. the 500 FTU/kg phytase treatment in starter and grower 1 phase compared with the PC in grower 1 phase. Increasing phytase dose resulted in a linear increase in ADG (12 to 120 kg BW) and G:F (50 to 75 kg BW). A comparison of treatment groups over the full production period from 12 kg BW until slaughter showed that both 500 and 1,000 FTU/kg phytase treatments were able to maintain growth performance and carcass characteristics compared with PC. The application of Buttiauxella phytase could therefore be used as an effective strategy to replace all inorganic phosphate in diets of pigs fed corn, soybean meal, wheat middling and bakery meal based diets from 12 kg BW. An economic analysis showed greater return from both phytase treatments vs. the PC and favored the higher phytase dose at 1,000 FTU/kg vs. the traditional dose of 500 FTU/kg. The latter was mainly related to the improved performance of the higher dose in younger pigs to 75 kg BW.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Growth performance, and enteric and manure greenhouse gas emissions from
           Murrah calves fed diets with different forage to concentrate ratios

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Vinu M. Nampoothiri, Madhu Mohini, Bilal A. Malla, Goutam Mondal, Sujata Pandita
      The present study investigated the effects of different dietary forage to concentrate ratios on animal performance, and enteric and manure greenhouse gas emissions in growing calves. Fifteen male Murrah calves (153.5 ± 18.17 kg; 6 to 12 months) were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments and fed corn fodder, wheat straw and concentrate in 3 different proportions: 20:60:20 (C20); 20:40:40 (C40) and 10:30:60 (C60), for a period of 120 days. Increasing dietary concentrate proportion had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on dry matter intake (DMI) but increased crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrient intake (P < 0.05). Average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for C60 compared with C20 and for C40, these did not differ with C20 and C60 (P > 0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and CP were higher (P < 0.05), but acid detergent fiber digestibility was lower (P < 0.05) for C60 compared with C20 whereas, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities were not affected (P > 0.05). Daily methane (CH4) emission (g/d), CH4 energy loss (MJ/d) and CH4 yield (CH4 g/kg organic matter intake [OMI], CH4 g/kg digestible OMI, and CH4 % of metabolizable energy intake) were significantly higher for C20 compared with C60 (P < 0.05). Methane yield as g/kg DMI although lower for C60 compared with C20 but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Manure CH4 (g/kg DMI) and nitrous oxide (N2O mg/kg nitrogen) emissions were not affected (P > 0.05), but N2O emission on mg/kg DM basis was significantly higher (P < 0.05) from the manure of calves fed C60 than that for C20. Thus, increasing dietary concentrate proportion improved animal performance, and reduced enteric CH4 emission (g/day) without any significant effect on manure N2O (mg/kg nitrogen) and CH4 emissions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Increased dietary intake of tyrosine upregulates melanin deposition in the
           hair of adult black-coated dogs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Adrian Watson, Jamie Wayman, Russell Kelley, Alexandre Feugier, Vincent Biourge
      The principle determinant of melanin derived hair colour and patterning in mammals is genetic, but environmental factors are now thought to play a role. It has been shown that the concentration of melanins in cat hair is influenced by the amino acid composition of their diets. Also, puppies were found to require tyrosine (Tyr) intake significantly greater than that recommended for normal growth and development in order to optimize melanin expression in their coats. Much of the work to date has been conducted in growing animals. Less is known about the relationship between nutrition and hair melanin deposition in healthy adult animals. In this study, we fed 2 groups of adult black Labrador retrievers (12 dogs/group) different concentrations of Phe + Tyr (5.6 vs. 3.5 g/Mcal) for 24 weeks and used spectrophotometric measurements every 8 weeks to detect any associated changes in the dogs’ hair colour. The higher intake dogs showed reduced dilution of their black coat pigment compared with the lower intake dogs. Specifically, following 16 weeks at the higher intake, the dogs showed less yellow pigmentation to their coats (P = 0.0032), and after 24 weeks at the higher intake, the dogs showed less red (P < 0.0001) and yellow (P< 0.0001), as well as greater overall dark pigmentation (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that colour expression in the hair-coat of adult dogs is dependent on dietary intake of Tyr, and that the requirement appears to be in excess of the minimum level recommended to maintain health.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Dietary lecithin improves feed efficiency without impacting meat quality
           in immunocastrated male pigs and gilts fed a summer ration containing
           added fat

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Henny Akit, Cherie Collins, Fahri Fahri, Alex Hung, Darryl D'Souza, Brian Leury, Frank Dunshea
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sex and dietary lecithin on growth performance, meat quality, muscle collagen content and gene expression of key genes involved in collagen synthesis in finisher pigs. A total of 256 pigs (Large White × Landrace) were allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement involving sex (gilt or immunocastrated [IC] male) and dietary treatment (0 or 5 g/kg of dietary lecithin). All diets were formulated to contain 4.6% tallow with relatively high total fat of 6.3%. After 5 weeks of dietary treatment, pigs were slaughtered and Longissimus dorsi muscle was obtained for evaluation of meat quality and collagen content. Rectus abdominis muscle was analysed for gene expression of key genes involved in collagen synthesis namely, type I (α1) procollagen (COL1A1), type III (α1) procollagen (COL3A1), α-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H), lysyl oxidase and metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). The results showed that lecithin improved feed efficiency of all pigs (P < 0.05) but it had no effect on feed intake, average daily gain and dressing percentage (P > 0.05). Lecithin also had no effect on meat compression, shear force, collagen content and gene expression (P > 0.05). Immunocastrated male had higher growth rate and increased COL1A1 expression than gilts. However, sex had no effect on fat depth at the P2 site (65 mm from the midline over the last rib), collagen content and expression of other genes (P > 0.05). In conclusion, lecithin improved feed efficiency in finishing pigs without impacting pork quality. Thus, inclusion of lecithin in diets containing high amount of tallow during the summer period could be beneficial.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Non-antibiotic feed additives in diets for pigs: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Yanhong Liu, Charmaine D. Espinosa, Jerubella J. Abelilla, Gloria A. Casas, L. Vanessa Lagos, Su A. Lee, Woong B. Kwon, John K. Mathai, Diego M.D.L. Navarro, Neil W. Jaworski, Hans H. Stein
      A number of feed additives are marketed to assist in boosting the pigs' immune system, regulate gut microbiota, and reduce negative impacts of weaning and other environmental challenges. The most commonly used feed additives include acidifiers, zinc and copper, prebiotics, direct-fed microbials, yeast products, nucleotides, and plant extracts. Inclusion of pharmacological levels of zinc and copper, certain acidifiers, and several plant extracts have been reported to result in improved pig performance or improved immune function of pigs. It is also possible that use of prebiotics, direct-fed microbials, yeast, and nucleotides may have positive impacts on pig performance, but results have been less consistent and there is a need for more research in this area.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Effects of supplementation of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piatá and Napier
           grass with Desmodium distortum on feed intake, digesta kinetics and milk
           production in crossbred dairy cows

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Mupenzi Mutimura, Cyprian Ebong, Idupulapati M. Rao-, Ignatius V. Nsahlai
      This study was planned to analyse the basis that make Brachiaria species with greater feeding value than Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for lactating dairy cows. Forty lactating crossbred cows were stall-fed on B rachiaria brizantha cv. Piatá or Napier grass cv. French Cameroon supplemented (mixed on fresh matter basis) or unsupplemented with Desmodium distortum, a forage legume. All cows were fed on fresh matter basis under small-holder farming conditions. Results showed that B. brizantha cv. Piatá had higher contents of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and organic matter (OM), but lower contents of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) than Napier grass (P < 0.001). The legume supplementation increased intakes of CP and metabolizable energy (ME; P < 0.001), with higher effect on cows fed B. brizantha cv. Piatá than on cows fed Napier grass. Average daily milk yield was lower on diets based on Napier grass than those based on B. brizantha cv. Piatá (P < 0.001). The retention time of the particle phase of digesta in the digestive tract was longer on Napier grass (83.1 h) than on B. brizantha cv. Piatá (62.8 h) (P < 0.05). It was concluded that in dairy cows, legume supplementation of B. brizantha cv. Piatá increases nutrient intake, hence resulting in higher milk yields than supplementation of Napier grass.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Potential of essential oils for poultry and pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Hengxiao Zhai, Hong Liu, Shikui Wang, Jinlong Wu, Anna-Maria Kluenter
      The increasing pressure of abolishing and/or decreasing the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters for livestock calls for alternative solutions to sustain the efficiency of current livestock production. Among the alternatives, essential oils have a great potential and are generally considered natural, less toxic, and free from residues. Essential oils have been proven in numerous in vitro studies to exert antimicrobial effects on various pathogens. The current review touched on the basics of essential oils, and the in vivo effects of essential oils on growth, intestinal microflora, anti-oxidation, immune functionality, meat qualities as well as the possible modes of action in poultry and pigs, and the future research areas were proposed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Effect of different sources and levels of iron in the diet of sows on iron
           status in neonatal pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Yan Li, Weiren Yang, Donghua Dong, Shuzhen Jiang, Zaibin Yang, Yuxi Wang
      This study was conducted to determine the effects of maternal dietary supplementation of ferrous glycine chelate (Fe-Gly) and ferrous sulfate monohydrate (FeSO4·H2O) on the relative organ weight, tissue iron contents, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) in blood, as well as ferritin (Fn), serum iron (SI), and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) in serum of newborn piglets. Forty-five sows (Landrace × Large white, mean parity 3 to 4, no significant differences in BW) were randomly allotted to 9 treatments (n = 5 sows/treatment): control (basal diet with no Fe supplementation), the basal diet supplemented with 50, 80, 110 or 140 mg Fe/kg as Fe-Gly, and the basal diet supplemented with 50, 80, 110 or 140 mg Fe/kg as FeSO4·H2O. The neonatal piglets (n = 45) were used to determine the relative organ weight, tissue iron contents and blood biochemical indices. Compared with the control, the relative weight of spleen and kidney were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the Fe-Gly groups. The iron contents in liver, spleen, kidney and femur were also found increased (P < 0.05) in the Fe-Gly groups. The RBC (d 1 and 21), HGB (d 1 and 21) and HCT (d 1 and 21) in blood and Fn (d 1) and SI (d 1 and 21) significantly increased (P < 0.05), but the TIBC (d 1 and 21) in serum decreased (P < 0.05) in the Fe-Gly groups. Moreover, the kidney relative weight, iron content in liver, spleen, kidney and femur, RBC (d 1) and HGB (d 21) in blood, and SI (d 1) in the Fe-Gly groups increased (P < 0.05) compared with the FeSO4·H2O treatment. Linear and quadratic responses of the kidney relative weight, the iron content in liver, spleen, kidney and femur, RBC (d 1 and 21), HGB (d 1 and 21) and HCT (d 1 and 21) in whole blood, SI (d 1) and TIBC (d 1 and 21) in the Fe-Gly groups were observed (P < 0.05). Linear responses of Fn (d 1 and 21) and SI (d 21) in the Fe-Gly groups, and spleen relative weight, HCT (d 1), Fn (d 1) and TIBC (d 1 and 21) in the FeSO4·H2O groups were observed (P < 0.05). These finding suggest that Fe-Gly supplemented at the level of 110 mg/kg in the diet of sows in this experiment is superior to other forms of supplementation, based on HGB concentration, the relative organ weight, tissue iron contents and blood biochemical indices of piglets.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Digestible energy and metabolizable energy contents of konjac flour
           residues and ramie in growing pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Enkai Li, Jinbiao Zhao, Ling Liu, Shuai Zhang
      The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) the effects of konjac flour residues and ramie on digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in diets fed to growing pigs, 2) the DE and ME contents of konjac flour residues and ramie. Thirty barrows were allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. The 5 diets include a corn-soybean meal basal diet (CTL), konjac flour residues diets containing 15% konjac flour residues (LK) or 30% konjac flour residues (HK), and ramie diets containing 15% ramie (LR) or 30% ramie (HR). The experiment lasted 19 days, including 7 days for cage adaptation, 7 days for diet adaptation, and 5 days for total feces and urine collection. The energy values and ATTD of nutrients in each diet were determined, and DE and ME contents of konjac flour residues and ramie were calculated. The results showed that consumption of konjac flour residues significantly increased (P < 0.01) the fecal moisture content compared with the ramie treatment. The LK, HK and HR diets had lower (P < 0.01) DE values compared with the CTL diet. The HR diet had greater (P < 0.01) DE value compared with the HK diet. The LK and LR diets showed greater (P < 0.01) ATTD of DM, OM, GE and CP compared with the HK and HR diets. The HK diet had the lowest (P < 0.01) ATTD of ether extract (EE) among the 5 diets. No differences were observed for the ATTD of NDF and ADF among the 5 diets. Moreover, the DE and ME values of konjac flour residues under 2 inclusion levels (15% and 30%) were 11.66, 11.87 MJ/kg and 10.41, 10.03 MJ/kg, respectively. The corresponding values for ramie were 13.27, 13.16 MJ/kg and 13.07, 12.82 MJ/kg, respectively. In conclusion, the differences in fecal moisture content and the ATTD of EE among the 5 diets were mainly due to the different chemical compositions of konjac flour residues and ramie. Compared with konjac flour residues, ramie has greater DE and ME values under the same inclusion level.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T01:48:17Z
       
  • Browse silage as potential feed for captive wild ungulates in southern
           Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Khanyisile R. Mbatha, Archibold G. Bakare
      The objective of the review was to assess the potential of indigenous browse trees as sustainable feed supplement in the form of silage for captive wild ungulates. Several attempts to use silage as feed in zoos in temperate regions have been conducted with success. Information on silage from the indigenous browse trees preferred by wild ungulates in southern Africa is scanty. The use of silage from the browse trees is of interest as it has potential to reduce or replace expensive feed sources (pellets, fruits and farm produce) currently offered in southern African zoos, game farms and reserves, especially during the cold-dry season. Considerable leaf biomass from the indigenous browse trees can be produced for silage making. High nutrient content and minerals from indigenous browsable trees are highly recognised. Indigenous browse trees have low water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) that render them undesirable for fermentation. Techniques such as wilting browse leaves, mixing cereal crops with browse leaves, and use of additives such as urea and enzymes have been studied extensively to increase WSC of silage from the indigenous browse trees. Anti-nutritional factors from the indigenous browse preferred by the wild ungulates have also been studied extensively. Indigenous browse silages are a potential feed resource for the captive wild ungulates. If the browse trees are used to make silage, they are likely to improve performance of wild ungulates in captivity, especially during the cold-dry season when browse is scarce. Research is needed to assess the feasibility of sustainable production and the effective use of silage from indigenous browse trees in southern Africa. Improving intake and nutrient utilisation and reducing the concentrations of anti-nutritional compounds in silage from the indigenous browse trees of southern Africa should be the focus for animal nutrition research that need further investigation.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
       
  • Effect of oat hulls as a free choice feeding on broiler performance, short
           chain fatty acids and microflora under a mild necrotic enteritis challenge
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Sarbast K. Kheravii, Robert A. Swick, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
      Structure of fibre has been reported to enhance performance, intestinal function and modify the composition and quantity of the microbial population in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. It is hypothesised that insoluble fibre in oat hulls may improve gut health and reduce intestinal Clostridium perfringens number. This research assessed the effect of free choice oat hulls (OH) on performance and gut microbiota in broilers during a mild (subclinical) necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge. A total of 240 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 24 cages in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were challenge - or +; and OH - or +. On d 16, challenged broilers had lower weight gain and feed intake (P < 0.05) compared with unchallenged broilers. On d 16, broilers given OH had lower feed intake (P < 0.05) and tended to have lower (P = 0.062) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with those without access to OH. Broiler performance, however, was not affected by OH nor by challenge on d 24 and 35. The broilers given OH had heavier gizzards (P < 0.05) compared with those without OH at d 35 but not at d 13 or 16. Increased numbers of C. perfringens (P < 0.001) and reduced numbers (P < 0.05) of Lactobacillus and Salmonellae were observed in the caecal contents of challenged broilers on d 16. Challenged broilers had a lower concentration of caecal acetic acid (P < 0.01) compared with unchallenged broilers at d 16. The broilers given OH had lower concentrations of caecal acetic acid (P < 0.05), propionic acid (P < 0.05), and valeric acid (P < 0.01) compared with those without access to OH. An OH by challenge interaction on succinic acid concentration was observed on d 16 (P < 0.05). Oat hulls elevated the caecal succinic acid concentration only in the unchallenged broilers. This study indicated a positive role of OH through improved gizzard function and increased succinic acid in the gut but its role in controlling NE was not conclusive.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
       
  • Evaluation of 1α(OH)D3 alone or in combination with cholecalciferol in
           CaP deficiency diets on development of tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler
           chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Nasir Landy, Majid Toghyani
      This experiment was conducted to determine whether dietary cholecalciferol will alleviate a calcium and phosphorous (CaP) deficiency when 1α(OH)D3 is supplemented, and to determine the effects of adequate and inadequate CaP when 1α(OH)D3 is supplemented and vitamin D3 is adequate. A total of 144 one-d-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to 3 treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: treatment A, adequate CaP + cholecalciferol + 5 μg/kg 1α(OH)D3; treatment B, inadequate CaP + cholecalciferol + 5 μg/kg 1α(OH)D3; treatment C, inadequate CaP + 5 μg/kg 1α(OH)D3. All diets were mixed with 500 FTU/kg of phytase, and cholecalciferol was provided in 5,000 IU/kg except for treatment C that fed diets without vitamin D3. The CaP levels in the adequate diets were 0.90% Ca, 0.66% total phosphorus (tP); 0.75% Ca, 0.59% tP; 0.69% Ca, 0.54% tP for the starter, grower and finisher periods. At d 42 of age, broilers were inspected for incidence and severity of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). The results showed that inadequate CaP supplementation with cholecalciferol significantly decreased the incidence of TD, score and tibia ash compared with broilers fed the same diet in the absence of cholecalciferol (P < 0.05). The broilers fed inadequate CaP diets with cholecalciferol were unable to achieve the same tibia ash and incidence of TD as those fed CaP adequate diets (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this trial suggests that broilers fed an inadequate CaP diet with 1α(OH)D3 and adequate level of cholecalciferol are unable to sufficient bone formation. There was no indication that 1α(OH)D3 in the absence of cholecalciferol was effective in reducing TD whereas it could improve tibia ash.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
       
  • Effect of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on production performance, egg
           quality and blood biochemical parameters in laying hens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Ahmed S. Hussein, Mostafa A. Ayoub, Ahmed Y. Elhwetiy, Jamal A. Ghurair, Mohsin Sulaiman, Hosam M. Habib
      The effects of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on quality of egg, cholesterol level, production performance, serum total protein and blood biochemical parameters were evaluated in laying hens. A total of 300 commercial Lohmann LSL hens (30 weeks of age) were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments which consisted of a normal corn diet containing corn–soy and 2 diets containing 5% and 10% sugar syrup. Each treatment was replicated 5 times (n = 20). Egg production, feed intake, body weight and egg weight of laying hens fed different diets were recorded. The experiment lasted for 20 weeks. The Haugh unit scores of hens fed diets with sugar syrup were significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with the control treatment. The sugar syrup had no significant effect on liver enzymes, total protein, blood glucose and creatinine in all treatments. The eggs laid by hens fed sugar syrup diets had lower cholesterol level (P < 0.05) compared with those laid by hens fed the control diet. Electrophoresis analysis showed that comparable electrophoretic patterns were noticed between serum proteins of treatment groups. From the results, it can be concluded that sugar syrup diets and corn diets have similar effects on feed intake, body weight, production of eggs and blood biochemical parameters in layer hens, which suggests sugar syrup can be used as an energy source for replacing part of corn in poultry layer diets.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.81.105.205
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-