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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 970 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (85 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (690 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (110 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (31 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (54 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (54 journals)

Showing 1 - 54 of 54 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Meat and Muscle Biology     Open Access  
Media Peternakan     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Animal Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.442
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 21  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2405-6545
Published by Ke Ai Homepage  [33 journals]
  • Grain free diets for utility dogs during training work: Evaluation of the
           nutrient digestibility and faecal characteristics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Biagina Chiofalo, Giulia De Vita, Vittorio Lo Presti, Salvatore Cucinotta, Gabriella Gaglio, Francesco Leone, Ambra R. Di Rosa Two different diets characterized by the absence of cereals or by the presence of conventional cereals were evaluated on the nutrient digestibility and faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-product concentrations of 8 neutered adult Labrador retrievers housed at the Regional Centre Helen Keller (Messina, Italy) during the training work for the service guide for the blind. Dogs (age = 17 ± 1 months, initial body weight [BW] = 26.3 ± 1 kg, and body condition score [BCS] = 4.5 ± 0.11) were divided into 2 homogeneous groups for sex (half males and half females). Dogs in the grain free (GF) group were fed a commercial diet characterized by the absence of grain cereals, and dogs in the control (CTR) group were fed a super-premium pet food characterized by conventional grains as the carbohydrate source. The trial lasted 84 d, preceded by a 7-d of adaption period. Physical examination, digestibility, and faecal characteristics were studied. The statistical model included the effects of diet (GF vs. CTR), time (from d 0 to 84, end of the trial) and the interaction (diet × time). The high-protein, low-carbohydrate dry diet (GF) offered higher apparent nutrient digestibility of protein (+10%; P = 0.002) and fat (+7%; P < 0.001) and more stable large intestinal fermentation of carbohydrate compared to the commercial high-carbohydrate dry diet, enabling dogs to use nutrients from the diet more efficiently and thus requiring less food (-13%) to satisfy their nutrient requirements, producing less excrement (-33%; P = 0.033), and reaching a higher final BW (+8%; P < 0.0001) and a higher final BCS (+15%; P = 0.003). Therefore, the GF diet appears the nutritional plan most suitable for these animals taking due account not only of the training work done by animals with their increased nutrient and energy needs, but also of the gastrointestinal disorders consequent to stress coming from work and life in kennels, which cause in the Labrador retrievers an unusual weight loss.
       
  • Dietary supplementation of xylanase and protease on growth performance,
           digesta viscosity, nutrient digestibility, immune and oxidative stress
           status, and gut health of newly weaned pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Marcos E. Duarte, Fang X. Zhou, Wilson M. Dutra, Sung Woo Kim This study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with xylanase and protease on growth performance, digesta viscosity, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients, and gut health in nursery pigs. Forty-eight pigs (24 barrows and 24 gilts at 21 d of age with 7.2 ± 0.4 kg BW) were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments (2 × 2 factorial arrangement) in a randomized complete block design and fed in 2 phases (phase 1 for 10 d and phase 2 for 14 d). Factors were xylanase (0 or 45,000 XU/kg) and protease (0 or 300,000 U/kg). Feed intake and BW gain were measured on d 10 and 24. Titanium dioxide (0.25%) was added to all diets as an indigestible external marker from d 20 to 24. On d 24, all pigs were euthanized to obtain jejunal and ileal digesta to measure viscosity and apparent ileal digestibility. The jejunal mucosa was collected to measure immune and oxidative stress status. Jejunal tissues were used to measure morphology and crypt cells proliferation. In phase 2, xylanase increased (P < 0.05) the average daily gain (ADG) which was further increased (P < 0.05) when combined with protease. Overall, combinational use of xylanase and protease increased (P < 0.05) ADG compared with the use of xylanase or protease alone, whereas protease improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency. In jejunum, xylanase reduced (P < 0.05) viscosity of digesta, mucosal malondialdehyde (MDA), crypt depth and crypt cells proliferation, and protease increased (P < 0.05) villus height, and decreased (P < 0.05) crypt depth and crypt cells proliferation. Collectively, xylanase improved growth performance, digesta viscosity, and oxidative stress, whereas protease improved feed efficiency and gut morphology. The combinational use of xylanase and protease enhanced growth performance of newly weaned pigs.
       
  • Expression of antioxidant genes in broiler chickens fed nettle (Urtica
           dioica) and its link with pulmonary hypertension

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Behnam Ahmadipour, Fariborz Khajali Nettle (Urtica dioica) contains a wide range of chemical constituents that confer a strong antioxidant capacity to the plant. The present study was to investigate the antioxidant gene expression and pulmonary hypertensive responses of broiler chickens to Urtica dioica. A total of 240 one-d-old broilers (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary levels of Urtica dioica (0, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%). Birds were reared for 6 wk in a high altitude region (2,100 m). The results showed a significant relative overexpression (target gene/β-actin as the arbitrary unit) of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in the liver and lung of the chickens fed Urtica dioica. Lipid peroxidation was significantly suppressed, as reflected in reduced circulatory concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the birds fed Urtica dioica. These birds also had significantly (P < 0.05) higher serum nitric oxide (NO) concentrations than those in the control group. Feeding Urtica dioica at 1% and 1.5% also attenuated the right ventricular hypertrophy (reflected in the lower right to total ventricular weight ratio), which was associated with a significant lower rate of mortality from pulmonary hypertension syndrome. Feeding Urtica dioica led to an upregulation of hepatic and pulmonary antioxidant genes.
       
  • Fermentation characteristics of resistant starch, arabinoxylan, and
           β-glucan and their effects on the gut microbial ecology of pigs: A review
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Utsav P. Tiwari, Amit K. Singh, Rajesh Jha Dietary fibers (DF) contain an abundant amount of energy, although the mammalian genome does not encode most of the enzymes required to degrade them. However, a mutual dependence is developed between the host and symbiotic microbes, which has the potential to extract the energy present in these DF. Dietary fibers escape digestion in the foregut and are fermented in the hindgut, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) that alter the microbial ecology in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pigs. Most of the carbohydrates are fermented in the proximal part, allowing protein fermentation in the distal part, resulting in colonic diseases. The structure of resistant starch (RS), arabinoxylan (AX), and β-glucan (βG) is complex; hence, makes their way into the hindgut where these are fermented and provide energy substrates for the colonic epithelial cells. Different microbes have different preferences of binding to different substrates. The RS, AX and βG act as a unique substrate for the microbes and modify the relative composition of the gut microbial community. The granule dimension and surface area of each substrate are different, which influences the penetration capacity of microbes. Arabinose and xylan are 2 different hemicelluloses, but arabinose is substituted on the xylan backbone and occurs in the form of AX. Fermentation of xylan produces butyrate primarily in the small intestine, whereas arabinose produces butyrate in the large intestine. Types of RS and forms of βG also exert beneficial effects by producing different metabolites and modulating the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, it is important to have information of different types of RS, AX and βG and their roles in microbial modulation to get the optimum benefits of fiber fermentation in the gut. This review provides relevant information on the similarities and differences that exist in the way RS, AX, and βG are fermented, and their positive and negative effects on SCFA production and gut microbial ecology of pigs. These insights will help nutritionists to develop dietary strategies that can modulate specific SCFA production and promote beneficial microbiota in the GIT of swine.
       
  • Cloning, expression pattern, and potential role of MAPKp38 and NF-κBp65
           in response to lipopolysaccharide in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus
           fulvidraco)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Dan Shi, Ye Zhao, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Juan Zhao, Jun Jiang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways are considered to be 2 of the crucial intracellular signaling cascades in pro-inflammatory responses. In this study, we report the coding sequences (CDS) of MAPKp38 and NF-κBp65 from yellow catfish. We also investigate the gene structure, expression patterns and functional role in yellow catfish. The CDS of MAPKp38 is 1,086 bp encoding 361 amino acids (AA). The MAPKp38 protein has a long highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases catalytic domain. Yellow catfish NF-κBp65 CDS sequenced 1,794 bp, and the gene encodes 597 AA, with a Rel homology domain (RHD) which consisted of a RHD-DNA-binding domain and an Ig-like, plexins, transcription factors (IPT) domain. Moreover, MAPKp38 and NF-κBp65 protein of bony fish and other vertebrates have a single clade. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed the presence of the MAPKp38 and NF-κBp65 transcript in 12 tissues of healthy yellow catfish. The highest expression levels of MAPKp38 and NF-κBp65 were detected in the heart and liver, respectively. Upon stimulation with an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the expression levels of MAPKp38 and NF-κBp65 were up-regulated in intestine. These results indicated that MAPKp38 and NF-κBp65 play important roles in mediating the response protection against LPS in yellow catfish.
       
  • Evaluation of Calendula officinalis L. (marigold) flower as a natural
           growth promoter in comparison with using of an antibiotic growth promoter
           on growth performance, carcass traits and humoral immune responses of
           broiler chicks

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Marjan Foroutankhah, Majid Toghyani, Nasir Landy The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of dried powder of Calendula officinalis L. (marigold) flower as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, organ weights, and immunological parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 240 mixed sex broiler chicks (Ross 308) at 1 d of age were individually weighed and randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 4 replicates of 15 birds for 6 wk. The dietary treatments were: 1) a basal diet (control); 2) control plus 4.5 mg flavophospholipol/kg of diet; 3) control plus 5 g marigold/kg of diet; 4) control plus 10 g marigold/kg of diet. Antibody responses against Newcastle (NDV), influenza (AI) viruses, and sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were measured. Supplementing 4.5 mg flavophospholipol/kg of diet enhanced body weight (BW) of broilers at 14 and 28 d of age (P < 0.05), but final BW at 42 d was not markedly affected. At 14 and 28 d of age, broilers fed diets supplemented with 10 g marigold/kg of diet had significantly lower BW compared with broilers fed the basal diet supplemented with antibiotic or 5 g marigold/kg of diet. During the starter period, broilers fed diets supplemented with antibiotic had significantly (P < 0.05) better FCR compared with broilers supplemented with 10 g marigold/kg of diet, but did not differ from broilers fed the basal diet or basal diet supplemented with 5 g marigold/kg of diet. There were no significant differences in FCR between treatments, during grower, finisher phases as well as for the whole experiment. Carcass yield was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in broilers supplemented with 5 g marigold/kg of diet compared with broilers in other groups. The treatments failed to induce any marked effect on immune parameters. In conclusion, the results of this experiment showed that supplementation of 5 and 10 g dried powder of marigold/kg of diet has no affirmative influence on growth performance of broilers.
       
  • Daily expression of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter-1 protein in
           jejunum during rat ontogeny

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Juan I. Bastón, Fabricio D. Cid, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, Juan G. Chediack It is widely known that intestinal capacities such as the enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, and the subsequent absorption of the hydrolyzed products, are evolutionary matched to dietary loads and feeding behaviors. In this study, we demonstrate that the protein expression of apically located sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT-1) throughout rat ontogeny is daily adjusted to afford glucose uptake when the load of this metabolically essential monosaccharide in the intestinal lumen is maximum. The jejunal expression of SGLT-1 protein in 14 one-day-old suckling pups was found to increase at dark and early light phase (P < 0.05), when they have a better access to mother milk. In weaning 21-d-old and juvenile 28-d-old rats, the cotransporter expression was high throughout the entire day (P < 0.05). Finally, adult 90-d-old rats showed a well-developed circadian rhythm for SGLT-1 protein (P < 0.05), whose expression increased at late light and dark phase when the highest intestinal glucose load was achieved. To our knowledge, these results are the first reporting the daily profile of SGLT-1 expression during rat early developmental stage and may contribute to understand the biological significance of a well-established molecular capacity to deal with the crucial increase of glucose load in the diet during the weaning process.
       
  • Influence of dietary hydrogenated palm oil supplementation on serum
           biochemistry and progesterone levels in dairy goats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Raffaella Tudisco, Nadia Musco, Maria E. Pero, Valeria M. Morittu, Micaela Grossi, Vincenzo Mastellone, Gina Cavaliere, Metha Wanapat, Federico Infascelli, Pietro Lombardi This research was to investigate the influence of hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) added to a dairy goat diet on serum biochemistry and progesterone levels. Thirty pregnant Cilentana dairy goats were equally divided into 2 groups (control [CTR] and HPO groups). After kidding, concentrated feed for both groups was gradually increased up to 400 g/(animal·d), and the HPO group received 50 g/(animal·d) of HPO. Supplementation with HPO significantly increased cholesterol levels (mg/dL, 63.80 vs. 54.68 at 30 d, P ≤ 0.05; 78.20 vs. 58.00 at 60 d, P ≤ 0.05; 83.80 vs. 57.83 at 120 d, P ≤ 0.01) compared with the CTR group although no significant differences were detected for liver and kidney function indicators. Moreover, other biochemical parameters were not affected by HPO supplementation thus suggesting no change occurred in lipid and protein metabolism. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between progesterone levels and serum cholesterol (r = 0.65, P ≤ 0.01) although these were not significantly higher in HPO supplemented goats. The dose and time of HPO supplementation appears critical as regards assessing the limits between the risks and benefits of HPO supplementation in dairy goats. At the tested dose, HPO was well tolerated by the animals and may represent a useful tool to increase energy availability during highly demanding periods.
       
  • Effects of phytonutrients on growth performance, antioxidative status, and
           energy utilization of broilers fed low energy diets

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Lei Yan, Sha An, Zunzhou Lv, Zhengguo Wang, YuemingWu, Yutao Zhu, Min Zhao, Chunhua Sun, Mingbin Lv, Zhengpeng Zhu, Yuming Guo Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of phytonutrients (PN) on growth performance, antioxidant status, intestinal morphology, and nutrient utilization of birds fed low energy diets. In Exp. 1, a total of 1,440 one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups, with 16 replicates per treatment (48 pens; 30 birds per pen). Birds in treatment 1 were fed diets with normal energy content (NE). Birds in treatment 2 were fed NE diet but with 60 kcal removed (LE). Birds in treatment 3 were assigned to LE diet supplemented with PN (LE + PN). Results indicated that LE diet increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with NE from d 1 to 38, while LE + PN diet prevented this response (P = 0.02). At d 26, birds in the LE + PN group had the highest ileal and jejunal villus height to crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio. At d 39, PN supplementation improved ileal and jejunal VH:CD ratio, compared with LE group. Moreover, birds fed PN diets received a better economic profit. In Exp. 2, 360 one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used in a metabolism study. The treatments used in Exp. 2 were the same as those in Exp.1, with 4 replicates (pens) and 30 birds in each replicate. Dietary apparent metabolism energy (AME), energy and protein digestibility were determined between 21 and 28 d of age. Results showed that chickens fed LE + PN diet tended to have greater AME (P = 0.02) and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolism energy (AMEn) (P = 0.03) than birds fed LE diets. It was concluded that LE + PN showed a potential advantage to improve feed conversion and gut health of broilers, as well as economic profits.
       
  • Dietary sources and levels of selenium supplements affect growth
           performance, carcass yield, meat quality and tissue selenium deposition in
           broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Reza Bakhshalinejad, Ahmad Hassanabadi, Robert A. Swick This study examined the effects of sources and levels of selenium (Se) on performance, carcass parts yield, meat quality and tissue Se concentration in broilers. A total of 960 one-day-old male broilers were divided into 8 treatments in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. Chicks were penned in groups of 20 with 6 pens per group. Selenium sources were sodium selenite (SS), Se enriched yeast (SY), DL-selenomethionine (SM) and nano-selenium (NS) and dietary supplemental Se levels were 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg diet. The average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed:gain ratio, mortality, and carcass parts yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The level of 0.3 mg/kg Se decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the breast and thighs (P
       
  • Coarse corn particles cause negative effect on eggshell quality of
           semi-heavy laying hens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Vanessa R.M. Oliveira, Alex M.V. Arruda, Aurora S. Melo, Davyd H. Souza, João B.F. Souza-Junior, Raimunda T.V. Fernandes, João P.A.F. Queiroz One of the possible ways to optimize the productive performance of poultry is through the physical processing of ingredients, which can improve the use of nutrients in these animals. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different corn particle sizes in diets on the productive performance and egg quality of semi-heavy laying hens. Sixty naked neck laying hens were used from 24 weeks of age and distributed in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets in different treatments contained corn grain ground into sieves with a diameter of 2, 4, or 8 mm to provide corn particles with a geometric mean diameter (GMD) of 605 (fine), 1,030 (medium), and 2,280 μm (coarse), respectively. The feed and leftovers were weighed daily throughout the experimental period to determine the feed intake and feed conversion. Different corn particle sizes did not affect any aspect of the productive performance of hens, except for feed intake. Hens fed fine and medium corn particles exhibited higher values for eggyolk color, eggshell weight, and eggshell thickness. It is suggested that semi-heavy laying hens should be fed mash diets containing corn particles with GMD from 605 to 1,030 μm, because coarse corn particles cause negative effect on eggshell quality.
       
  • Impact of zinc and arginine on antioxidant status in weanling piglets
           raised under commercial conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Nadia Bergeron, Frédéric Guay The effects of dietary zinc and L-arginine supplements on the weight gain, feed efficiency, antioxidant capacity and oxidative status of weanling piglets raised under commercial conditions were examined. A total of 288 piglets aged 21 d were fed for 15 d a diet supplemented or not with 2,500 mg/kg of zinc (provided as zinc oxide) and 1% L-arginine·HCl. The 4 treatments were distributed in a randomized complete block design with 6 initial body weight categories (12 animals per pen). Access to feed and water was ad libitum. Data were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment using the SAS MIXED procedure, with zinc and arginine as the main independent variables. Blood collection day (d 8 and 15, samples were collected from the same 2 piglets in each pen before the morning feeding) was included as a third factor. The zinc supplement increased the average daily gain (ADG) from d 0 to 7, d 8 to 15 and d 0 to 15 (0.289 vs. 0.217 kg/d), average daily feed intake (ADFI) from d 8 to 15 and d 0 to 15 (0.338 vs. 0.279 kg/d) and the gain to feed (G:F) ratio from d 0 to 7 and d 0 to 15 (0.86 vs. 0.77) (P < 0.001). Both supplements decreased the malondialdehyde concentration significantly (zinc: 4.37 vs. 3.91 μmol/L, P = 0.005; arginine: 4.38 vs. 3.89 μmol/L, P = 0.002). Total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione (GSH) increased from d 8 to 15 (0.953 vs. 1.391 μmol/L, 2.22 vs. 3.37 μmol/L, P < 0.05) regardless of dietary treatment. Total and oxidized GSH concentrations on d 8 were higher in response to the combined supplements (zinc × arginine interaction, P < 0.05). Piglets fed either Zn-supplemented diet had a lower haptoglobin serum concentration (509 vs. 1,417 mg/L; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the zinc supplement improved piglet growth performance (ADG and ADFI) and oxidative status (based on malondialdehyde concentration). The arginine supplement had a limited effect on growth performance and oxidative status under these conditions.
       
  • Basal diet and indigestible marker influence apparent digestibility of
           nitrogen and amino acids of cottonseed meal and soybean meal in pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Susanto Prawirodigdo, Neil J. Gannon, Brian J. Leury, Frank R. Dunshea The aim of this study was to determine the apparent ileal nitrogen and amino acid digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM) and soybean meal (SBM) in simple carbohydrate and a more complex wheat-based diets. Twenty five Large White x Landrace boars (40.9 kg) were randomly allocated to one of 5 dietary treatments, a wheat diet, 40% CSM in either a sugar:starch (1:1) or wheat basal diet or 40% SBM in either a sugar:starch or wheat basal diet for 14 d. All diets contained vitamins and minerals and contained acid insoluble ash (AIA) and Cr2O3 as indigestible markers. Rations were offered (1800 g/pig per d) in 3 meals/d on day 1 to 11 and 8 meals/d on day 12 to 13. On day 14 the pigs were fed hourly for 8 h. After the 8th meal pigs were anaesthetised with isoflurothane and ileal and faecal digesta sampled from the terminal ileum and rectum before lethal injection of barbiturate. Apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen was greater (12.1%) when CSM was fed in a wheat as compared to the simple carbohydrate base whereas apparent ileal nitrogen digestibility of SBM was slightly lower (-4.5%) in the wheat-based diet as compared to the sugar:starch-based diet. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities generally responded similarly to N. Therefore, while there was a wide difference in apparent nitrogen and amino acid digestibility of SBM and CSM when fed in the sugar:starch-based diets these differences were less apparent when fed in a wheat-based diet. There was an apparent net release of nitrogen into the hindgut of pigs fed CSM in both base diets. Conversely, there was quite substantial apparent digestion of nitrogen in the hindgut of pigs fed SBM in both base diets. The use of Cr2O3 as an indigestible marker resulted in lower apparent ileal and faecal digestibilities than using AIA, particularly for diets containing CSM. These data demonstrate that the basal diet and choice of indigestible marker can substantially influence the estimate of apparent nitrogen digestibility but that this response can differ for different protein meals.
       
  • Influence of dietary carbohydrases, individually or in combination with
           phytase or an acidifier, on performance, gut morphology and microbial
           population in broiler chickens fed a wheat-based diet

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Animal Nutrition, Volume 5, Issue 1Author(s): Amin Roofchaei, Vahid Rezaeipour, Safieh Vatandour, Faegheh Zaefarian The objective of this study was to examine the effects of dietary carbohydrases (xylanase and β-glucanase; XG), individually or in combination with phytase or acidifier on the growth performance, carcass attributes, intestinal microbial counts and morphology in broiler chickens fed a wheat-based diet. A total of 240 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 4 treatment groups with 6 replicates of 10 birds each. The dietary treatments included a basal diet, the basal diet with an enzyme complex containing XG, XG plus a microbial phytase (XG + P) and XG plus acidifier (XG + A). The results indicated that feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved in broiler chickens which received XG + A during the entire production period (1 to 35 d) of the trial (P 
       
  • Is the kafirin profile capable of modulating the ileal digestibility of
           amino acids in a soybean meal-sorghum diet fed to pigs'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Víctor Alfonso Balderrama-Pérez, José Guadalupe Gómez-Soto, Tércia Cesária Reis de Souza, Ericka Ramírez Rodríguez, Gerardo Mariscal-Landín The effects of kafirins on protein and amino acid ileal digestibility have not been evaluated in vivo in pigs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of protein profile on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids. We used a sorghum hybrid with low tannin content (
       
  • Reduced dietary nitrogen with a high Lys:CP ratio restricted dietary N
           excretion without negatively affecting weaned piglets

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Hongnan Liu, Li Wu, Hui Han, Yuying Li, Lijian Wang, Jie Yin, Wenjun Fan, Miaomiao Bai, Jiming Yao, Xingguo Huang, Tiejun Li We hypothesized that balancing the content of exogenous amino acids, especially lysine, to reduce protein content in swine diets could reduce nitrogen (N) pollution associated with animal husbandry. Two experiments (45 d) were performed on weaned piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 28 d of age) to test this and to determine the optimal lysine to crude protein (Lys:CP) ratio in diet. In Exp.1, 12 piglets were fed diets containing different levels of CP (17% and 20%) but the same level of Lys. Increased CP content resulted in significant increases (P < 0.05) in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and body weight (BW), but did not affect the feed to gain ratio. In Exp.2, 24 piglets were fed 1 of 3 diets as follows: 1) 20% CP with a regular Lys:CP ratio (6.23%, control); 2) 17% CP with a reduced Lys:CP ratio (6.14%, LL); or 3) 17% CP with a standard Lys:CP ratio (7.32%, SL). The ADG, final BW, serum concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1, villus height in the jejunum, and villus height to crypt depth ratio were the lowest in piglets fed LL diets, whereas blood urea N concentration was the lowest and the value of lipase activity was the highest in the piglets fed SL diets. The SL diet did not affect growth performance, intestinal morphology, or serum hormone concentrations, indicating that reduced dietary N with a high Lys:CP ratio can efficiently reduce dietary N excretion without negatively affecting weaned piglets.
       
  • Sampling duration and freezing temperature influence the analysed gastric
           inositol phosphate composition of pigs fed diets with different levels of
           phytase

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2019Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Steven Laird, Imke Kühn, Michael R. Bedford, Hayley Whitfield, Helen M. Miller This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of time and freezing temperature during sampling on gastric phytate (myo-inositol [MYO] hexakisphosphate [InsP6]), lower inositol phosphates (InsP2–5) and MYO concentrations in pigs fed diets containing different levels of phytase. Forty pigs were fed 1 of 4 wheat-barley diets on an ad libitum basis for 28 d. The diets comprised a nutritionally adequate positive control (PC), a similar diet but with Ca and P reduced by 1.6 and 1.24 g/kg, respectively (NC), and the NC supplemented with 500 (NC + 500) or 2,000 (NC + 2000) FTU phytase/kg. At the end of the experiment, chyme were collected from the stomach, thoroughly mixed and 2 subsamples (30 mL) were frozen immediately: one snap-frozen at -79 °C and the other at -20 °C. The remaining chyme were left to sit at room temperature (20 °C) and further subsamples were collected and frozen as above at 5, 10 and 15 min from the point of mixing. There were linear reductions in gastric InsP6 concentration over time during sampling (P < 0.001), irrespective of diet or freezing temperature. Moreover, InsP6 concentration was influenced by a diet × freezing temperature interaction (P < 0.05), with less InsP6 measured in chyme frozen at -20 °C than at -79 °C; however, this difference was greater in the control diets than the phytase supplemented diets. Freezing chyme at -79 °C recovered more ∑InsP2–5 + MYO than freezing at -20 °C in pigs fed phytase supplemented diets; however, this difference was not apparent in the diets without phytase (diet × freezing temperature, P < 0.01). It can be concluded that significant phytate hydrolysis occurs in the gastric chyme of pigs during sampling and processing, irrespective of supplementary phytase activity. Therefore, to minimise post-slaughter phytate degradation and changes in the gastric inositol phosphate profile, chyme should be snap-frozen immediately after collection.
       
  • &rft.title=Animal+Nutrition&rft.issn=2405-6545&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Effects of feeding broiler chickens up to 11% rice bran in a corn-soybean
           meal diet without or with a multi-enzyme supplement ∗

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Juan Sanchez, Aizwarya Thanabalan, Tanka Khanal, Rob Patterson, Bogdan A. Slominski, Elijah Kiarie We investigated the effects of adding up to 11% rice bran (RB) in corn-soybean meal diets fed to broiler chickens without or with a multi-enzyme supplement (MES). The MES supplied xylanase, β-glucanase, invertase, protease, cellulase, α-amylase, mannanase with targeted activity of 2,500, 300, 700, 10,000, 1,200, 24,000, and 20 U/kg of feed, respectively. The study used a two-phase feeding program (starter, d 0 to 24; finisher, d 25 to 35) with RB added at 5% and 11%, respectively creating 4 diets in each phase. Diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous and contained phytase (500 FTU/kg) and TiO2 as a digestibility marker. Three hundred and sixty d-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were placed in cages based on BW (15 birds/cage) and allocated to 4 diets (n = 6). Birds had free access to feed and water. Body weight and feed intake were recorded. Excreta samples were collected 3 d prior to the end of each phase for apparent retention (AR) of components. Samples of birds were sacrificed on d 24 and 35 for gut weight and ceca digesta for organic acid content. There was no interaction (P> 0.10) between RB and MES on BWG and FCR in starter or finisher phase. In finisher phase, birds fed MES had better BWG (961 versus 858 g) and FCR (1.69 versus 1.86) than birds fed non-MES diets (P < 0.01). Feeding RB reduced (P = 0.02) BWG in finisher phase resulting in lower d 35 BW. Birds fed RB had higher (P ≤ 0.01) gizzard weight on d 24 and 35 than non-RB birds. An interaction (P ≤ 0.01) between RB and MES on concentration of propionic and iso-butyric acids in ceca digesta showed that MES reduced these acids in non-RB diet. The AR of gross energy was higher (P < 0.02) for MES versus non-MES birds in starter and finisher phases. In conclusion, independently, RB increased gizzard weight and reduced final BW whereas MES improved growth and energy utilization.
       
  • Feed intake pattern of broiler chickens under intermittent lighting: do
           birds eat in the dark'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Inês Rodrigues, Mingan Choct This paper reflects the results of a short experiment conducted in parallel with a larger trial which aimed to test the assumption that ‘consumption of feed by broiler chickens during periods of darkness is largely negligible’. To that effect, on d 31, feeders of birds raised under intermittent lighting (IL, 1 light [L]:3 dark [D]:1L:3D:1L:3D:1L:3D:2L:6D) were weighed at the onset and at the end of each period of darkness (or scotoperiod). Moreover, in order to compare the feeding behavior of IL birds with that of broilers raised under 18L:6D (CL), their feeders were weighed in parallel and at the same time points. On d 31, feed intake of IL birds during scotoperiods represented 45% of their 24 h feed intake. Both CL and IL birds presented anticipatory feed intake prior to the long nocturnal period of darkness (6D), as well as higher feed intake right at the onset of lighting at 6:00. Feed intake of CL birds during the 6D nocturnal scotoperiod was negligible at around 2 % of their total feed intake. IL birds exhibited excitement at the start of each hour-length scotoperiod and, within that time, ingested around 2.5 times the amount of feed ingested by CL birds. Although short, this study revealed several interesting observations which might be worth further exploring in a larger, lengthier, behavior-focused experiment. Amongst other factors, it might be interesting to understand whether the high feed intake observed during scotoperiods for IL birds in reflective of the whole flock or rather a coping mechanism developed mainly by hierarchically lower-ranking birds to achieve their daily feed intakes requirements.
       
  • &rft.title=Animal+Nutrition&rft.issn=2405-6545&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Growth performance, meat quality, and bone-breaking strength in broilers
           fed dietary rice hull silicon ∗

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Sarawoot Nakhon, Sonthaya Numthuam, Rangsun Charoensook, Wandee Tartrakoon, Papichaya Incharoen, Tossaporn Incharoen Bone problems have been a key issue that perilously affects broilers’ health and welfare, resulting in severe economic loss. The present study was aimed at investigating the influence of dietary rice hull silicon (RHS) on the performance, meat quality, and bone-breaking strength of broilers. One hundred 10-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were used in the study. The birds were divided into 5 groups: one group was kept as the control, and other groups were provided with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mg/kg dietary RHS along with their basal diets. Results showed that diets containing various levels of dietary RHS did not adversely affect (P> 0.05) the body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. Drip loss of thigh meat showed a reduced value in the group supplemented with 7.5 mg/kg dietary RHS compared with other groups (P ˂ 0.05), and the lowest thawing loss was observed in the same group; however, it showed no significant difference among other groups. Similarly, thawing loss of breast meat tended to decrease in the dietary RHS groups and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the 7.5 mg/kg RHS group. The shear force of breast meat was higher in all RHS groups, and the highest was in the 7.5 mg/kg RHS group (P < 0.05). Although tibia breaking strength increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the 7.5 mg/kg RHS group (P < 0.05), but a significant difference in femur breaking strength was not found among groups. In conclusion, dietary RHS can be used as a natural mineral supplement for improving bone-breaking strength and reducing drip and thawing loss of breast and thigh muscles, particularly RHS at a level of 7.5 mg/kg in broiler diets.
       
  • Broiler gut microbiota and expressions of gut barrier genes affected by
           cereal type and phytogenic inclusion

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Vasileios Paraskeuas, Konstantinos C. Mountzouris The present study assessed the effects of cereal type and the inclusion level of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) on broiler ileal and cecal gut microbiota composition, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and gene expression of toll like receptors (TLR), tight junction proteins, mucin 2 (MUC2) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Depending on cereal type (i.e. maize or wheat) and PFA inclusion level (i.e. 0, 100 and 150 mg/kg diet), 450 one-day-old male broilers were allocated in 6 treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 5 replicates of 15 broilers each, for 42 d. Significant interactions (P ≤ 0.05) between cereal type and PFA were shown for cecal digesta Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster XIVa, ileal digesta propionic and branched-VFA, ileal sIgA gene expression, as well as cecal digesta branched and other-VFA molar ratios. Cereal type affected the cecal microbiota composition. In particular, wheat-fed broilers had higher levels of mucosa-associated Lactobacillus (PCT = 0.007) and digesta Bifidobacterium (PCT < 0.001), as well as lower levels of total bacteria (PCT = 0.004) and Clostridia subgroups I, IV and XIVa (PCT ≤ 0.05), compared with maize-fed ones. In addition, cereal type gave differences in fermentation intensity (PCT = 0.021) and in certain individual VFA molar ratios. Wheat-fed broilers had higher (P ≤ 0.05) ileal zonula occludens 2 (ZO-2) and lower ileal and cecal TLR2 and sIgA levels, compared with maize-fed broilers. On the other hand, PFA inclusion at 150 mg/kg had a stimulating effect on microbial fermentation at ileum and a retarding effect in ceca with additional variable VFA molar patterns. In addition, PFA inclusion at 100 mg/kg increased the ileal mucosa expression of claudin 5 (CLDN5) (PPFA = 0.023) and MUC2 (PPFA = 0.001) genes, and at 150 mg/kg decreased cecal TLR2 (PPFA = 0.022) gene expression compared with the un-supplemented controls. In conclusion, cereal type and PFA affected in combination and independently broiler gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity as well as the expression of critical gut barrier genes including TLR2. Further exploitation of these properties in cases of stressor challenges is warranted.
       
  • Recent advances in fermented feeds towards improved broiler chicken
           performance, gastrointestinal tract microecology and immune responses: A
           review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Sugiharto Sugiharto, Samir Ranjitkar Previously, fermentation has been associated with methods that improve the nutritional value of unconventional feed ingredients for broilers. In recent decades, the fermentation process has been employed to produce functional feeds that have the potential to improve broiler gastrointestinal tract microecology, health and production performance. Some of the functional ingredients found in fermented feed include lactic acid bacteria (LAB), lactic acid and other organic acids, and appear to play major roles in determining the beneficial effects of fermented feed on broiler gut health and performance. Unlike the pig, the available literature on broiler fermented feed is still rather limited. This review describes recent advances in the use of fermented feed (on the basis of conventional and unconventional feed ingredients) in broilers. Similarly, this review also shows that additional research is necessary to exploit fermented feed as a viable food source in broiler nutrition.
       
  • Involvement of Quebracho tannins in diet alters productive and
           reproductive efficiency of postpartum buffalo cows

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Sobhy M.A. Sallam, Marwa F.A. Attia, Adel N.M. Nour El-Din, Samir Z. El-Zarkouny, Adel M. Saber, Hani M. El-Zaiat, Moustafa M. Zeitoun This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 10 weeks supplementation of Quebracho tannins (QT; 0 [control], 100 [QT100] or 200 g/[cow·d] [QT200]) to 30 multiparous postpartum buffalo cows (10 cows per group) on milk yield and composition, blood metabolites and reproductive performance. Supplementation of QT100 had no significant effect on milk yield, whereas QT200 decreased (P < 0.05) this trait. Compared with the control group, both QT levels decreased (P < 0.05) fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield, but no significant effects were found on percentages of milk fat and protein. Contrariwise, yields of milk fat, lactose and milk protein were decreased (P < 0.05) when QT200 was supplemented. The solids nonfat (SNF) percentage and yield were decreased (P < 0.05) with QT100 supplementation. Moreover, QT tended to numerically reduce total number of ovarian follicles, number of small follicles, peripheral progesterone concentration and conception rate. Supplementation of QT200 numerically increased number of large follicles, mean diameter of large follicle, number and diameters of corpora lutea. The inclusion of QT200 shortened days open (DO) and decreased number of services per conception. Contrariwise, QT did not show significant effects on serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Supplementation of QT100 caused an increase (P < 0.05) of serum urea compared with that in control and QT200 groups. Generally, QT decreased (P < 0.05) serum creatinine concentration. Therefore, the supplementation of a commercial QT to early lactating Egyptian buffalo cows displayed negative consequences on their productive and reproductive performances.
       
  • Pre-cecal phosphorus digestibility for corn, wheat, soybean meal, and corn
           gluten meal in growing Japanese quails from 28 to 32 d of age

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Mahmoud Ghazaghi, Ahmad Hassanabadi, Mehran Mehri The optimization of dietary phosphorus (P) depends on precise details of the P availability in feed ingredients to avoid excess or deficient P in a mixed diet. This study was carried out to measure the apparent ileal digestibility of P for corn, wheat, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal in growing Japanese quails from 28 to 32 d posthatch. A total of 400 quail chicks were randomly distributed across 5 treatments with 4 replicates and 20 birds in each floor pen. The P-free diet (PFD) was formulated based on cornstarch to measure the basal endogenous P losses (EPL). Digestibility coefficients were determined by ileal digesta sampling using TiO2 as an indigestible marker. The EPL was estimated at 384 mg/kg DMI. The apparent ileal P digestibility (AIPD) for corn, soybean meal, wheat, and corn gluten meal were determined to be 0.38, 0.53, 0.38, and 0.78, respectively. The corresponding values for true ileal P digestibility (TIPD) were 0.48, 0.61, 0.50, and 0.83, respectively. The t-test analysis showed that the difference of AIPD and TIPD values for corn (P = 0.031) and wheat (P = 0.015) were statistically significant, however, no significant differences were observed for corn gluten meal (P = 0.318) and soybean meal (P = 0.104). In conclusion, the correction of AIPD coefficients for EPL in low-P ingredients such as corn and wheat may be much more important than that in high-P feedstuffs such as corn gluten meal and soybean meal in growing quails.
       
  • Effects of saccharicterpenin on the antioxidant status and urinary
           metabolic profile of rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Guangmang Liu, Jie Zheng, Xianjian Wu, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Caimei Wu, Jing Wang Saccharicterpenin is a new green additive agent that is derived from the extract of Theaceae plants and has the ability to improve immunity and meat quality, increase the digestive enzyme activity, and enhance the intestinal development and growth of animals. However, the antioxidant status and systematic changes in metabolic biochemistry associated with saccharicterpenin supplementation in animals are still unknown. This study examined the effects of saccharicterpenin on the antioxidant status and urinary metabolic profile of rats. Sixteen rats were randomly distributed to 2 groups. One group was treated with 400 mg/kg body weight of saccharicterpenin, and the other group was treated with equal amount of saline. Results revealed that saccharicterpenin significantly increased the capacities of anti-hydroxyl radical (13.18%) and anti-superoxide anion (14.36%), the total antioxidant capacity (48.27%), and the activities of total superoxide dismutase (3.68%), catalase (21.52%), glutathione peroxidase (5.83%) and glutathione S-transferase (29.59%) (P < 0.05). By contrast, the contents of malondialdehyde and glutathione were not significantly affected by saccharicterpenin (P> 0.05). Saccharicterpenin supplementation significantly increased the urinary levels of bile acids, ethanol, α-ketoglutarate, and α-hydroxybutyrate but decreased the level of N-acetylglutamate (P < 0.05). In summary, saccharicterpenin can enhance the antioxidant capacity and modulate the metabolism in rats.
       
  • Effect of traditional Chinese medicine compounds on rumen fermentation,
           methanogenesis and microbial flora in vitro

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Shui Ping Wang, Wen Juan Wang, Zhi Liang Tan, Guo Wei Liu, Cheng Fu Zhou, Meng Jie Yin This study was conducted to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine compounds (TCMC) on rumen fermentation, methane emission and populations of ruminal microbes using an in vitro gas production technique. Cablin patchouli herb (CPH), Atractylodes rhizome (AR), Amur Cork-tree (AC) and Cypsum were mixed with the weight ratios of 1:1:1:0.5 and 1:1:1:1 to make up TCMC1 and TCMC2, respectively. Both TCMC were added at level of 25 g/kg of substrate dry matter. In vitro gas production was recorded and methane concentration was determined at 12 and 24 h of incubation. After 24 h, the incubation was terminated and the inoculants were measured for pH, ammonia nitrogen, volatile fatty acids (VFA). Total deoxyribonucleic acid of ruminal microbes was extracted from the inocula, and populations were determined by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Populations of total rumen methanogens, protozoa, total fungi, Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens were expressed as a proportion of total rumen bacterial 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid. Compared with the control, the 2 TCMC decreased (P ≤ 0.05) total VFA concentration, acetate molar proportion, acetate to propionate ratio, gas and methane productions at 12 and 24 h, hydrogen (H) produced and consumed, and methanogens and total fungi populations, while the 2 TCMC increased (P ≤ 0.05) propionate molar proportion. TCMC1 also decreased (P ≤ 0.05) R. flavefaciens population. From the present study, it is inferred that there is an effect of the TCMC in suppressing methanogenesis, probably mediated via indirect mode by channeling H2 utilized for methanogenesis to synthesis of propionate and direct action against the rumen microbes involved in methane formation. In addition, the relative methane reduction potential (RMRP) of TCMC2 was superior to that of TCMC1.
       
  • A multi-strain probiotic administered via drinking water on growth
           performance, haemato-biochemistryenhances feed conversion efficiency and,
           carcass and meat quality traits of in indigenous Potchefstroom koekoek
           cockerels chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Judith A. Atela, Victor Mlambo, Caven M. Mnisi Whereas the use of probiotics is commonplace in commercial production of improved chicken strains, little is known about the impact of these live microbial feed additives in indigenous chickens in South Africa. This study investigated the effect of a multi-strain probiotic (containing Bacillus safensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Cupriavidus metallidurans, total bacteria number was 1.4 × 108 cfu/mL), administered via drinking water, on growth performance, blood parameters, and carcass and meat quality characteristics of Potchefstroom koekoek cockerels for a period of 12 weeks. A total of 140 five-week old cockerels were randomly allocated to 4 experimental diets formulated to have similar energy and protein levels as follows: 1) negative control diet (CON; commercial chicken grower diet without both antibiotics and probiotics), 2) positive control diet (ANTIB; commercial chicken grower diet with antibiotics [0.05% Coxistac and 0.04% olaquindox] but no probiotics), 3) negative control diet plus 2.5 mL of probiotics per litre of water (PROB25) and 4) negative control with 5.0 mL of probiotics per litre of water (PROB50). There was a significant (P < 0.05) week and diet interaction effect on average weekly feed conversion efficiency. At 9 weeks of age, cockerels in PROB50 group had higher (P < 0.05) feed conversion efficiency than those in CON and ANTIB groups. However, 14-week-old cockerels in PROB50 group had lower (P < 0.05) feed conversion efficiency than those in ANTIB group. Treatments had no significant (P> 0.05) effect on overall feed intake, overall weight gain and haemato-biochemical parameters of cockerels. Gizzard and spleen weights were similar (P> 0.05) in PROB50, CON and PROB25 groups. Cockerels in PROB50 group had shorter (P < 0.05) small intestine than those in CON and PROB25 groups. PROB50 group had larger (P < 0.05) breast weight than PROB25 group. ANTIB and PROB50 groups had greater (P < 0.05) wing and thigh weights than CON and PROB25 groups. Shank weight was similar (P> 0.05) in PROB50, CON and ANTIB groups. Meat pH measured after 24 h of slaughter was the highest (P < 0.05) in CON and ANTIB groups followed by PROBO25 and PROB50 groups. CON group had lower (P < 0.05) cooking losses than ANTIB, PROB25 and PROB50 groups. It was concluded that probiotics can be used in place of prophylactic antibiotics in Potchefstroom koekoek cockerels.
       
  • Effect of different exogenous fatty acids on the cytosolic triacylglycerol
           content in bovine mammary cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Juan J. Loor, Philip C. Garnsworthy The objective of this study was to determine how cytosolic triacylglycerols (TAG) are stored in mammary cells and whether this depends on the individual chemical configuration of fatty acids (FA). This objective was accomplished by addition of different FA to a FA-free medium used to culture mammary alveolar cells-large T antigen cells (MAC-T). Treatments consisted of adding FA (palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate, rumenic acid [CLA], elaidate and vaccinate) solutions to the medium at 100, 200, 300 and 400 mmol/L concentrations for a 24-h incubation period. At the end of each incubation period, cytosolic TAG, DNA and protein contents were measured. Palmitate, vaccenate, linoleate and CLA increased (P < 0.05) cytosolic TAG (μg/mg protein). Palmitate and CLA increased (P < 0.05) cytosolic TAG adjusted for DNA content. Overall, effects on cytosolic TAG accumulation depended on individual FA structure (chain length, degree of saturation, and number and orientation of FA double bonds). In addition, the long-chain FA used in this study did not have a detrimental effect on MAC-T cells as indicated by cytosolic protein and DNA contents reflecting their biological role in lipid accumulation.
       
  • Performance Effects of Feed-borne Fusarium Mycotoxins on Broiler Chickens:
           Influences of Timing and Duration of Exposure

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Anhao Wang, Natacha S. Hogan In commercial practice, broiler chickens may be exposed to Fusarium mycotoxins either during specific growth stages or throughout the entire production cycle. A 34-day feeding trial was conducted to identify sensitive periods for mycotoxin effects during the growth cycle of broiler chickens. A total of 420 newly-hatched Ross 308 male broilers were randomly assigned to 60 cages with 7 birds/cage. Sources of clean wheat (
       
  • Isolation of a β-glucosidase-producing M-2 strain from cow dung and
           fermentation parameter optimization for flaxseed cake

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Chenhui Li, Junshu Wei, Yaping Jing, Baoxia Teng, Pingrong Yang, Xinjun Chen, Haiying Huang, Tang Zhao, Tuanjie Che, Chunjiang Zhang Flaxseed cake contains cyanogenic glucosides, which can be metabolized to hydrocyanic acid in the animal body, leading to asphyxia poisoning in the cells. The β-glucosidase is highly efficient in degrading cyanogenic glucosides. The cattle’s intestinal tract may contain β-glucosidase-producing strains after eating small amounts of flaxseed cake for a long time. This study aimed to report the isolation of a strain from cow dung that produced β-glucosidase with high activity and could significantly reduce the amount of cyanogenic glucosides. Cow dung was used in this study as the flora source and esculin agar as the selective medium. After screening with 0.05% esculin and 0.01% ferric citrate, 5 strains producing high amounts of β-glucosidase were isolated. In vitro flaxseed meal fermentation was fermented by these 5 strains, in which the strain M-2 exerted the best effect (P < 0.05). The strain M-2 was identified as Lichtheimia ramosa and used as the fermentation strain to optimize the fermentation parameters by a single factor analysis and orthogonal experimental design. The optimum conditions were as follows: inoculum size 3%; water content 60%; time 144 h; temperature 32 °C. Under these conditions, the removal rate of cyanogen glycoside reached 89%, and crude protein increment reached 40% to 44%. These results provide a theoretical basis for the removal of cyanogen glycoside in flaxseed and the comprehensive utilization of flaxseed meal.
       
  • Effect of dietary organic acid and fiber type on performance, intestinal
           morphology, immune responses and gut microflora in broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Sakineh Sabour, Sayed Ali Tabeidian, Ghorbanali Sadeghi This experiment was designed to investigate effects of dietary an organic acid (OA) mixture and 2 fiber sources on performance, intestinal morphology, immune responses and gut microflora in broiler chickens. A total of 390 day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to 6 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens and 13 chicks each based on a factorial arrangement (2 × 3) in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were considered as a basal diet supplemented with or without 1 g/kg an OA and 2 fiber sources (0 or 30 g/kg of either sugar beet pulp or rice hull) as well as their interaction. Dietary supplementation of OA increased growth performance of broilers compared with those did not receive OA across the entire rearing period (P < 0.05). Performance of broilers was not affected by dietary fibrous materials. Antibody titer against influenza disease virus was higher in birds fed diets containing rice hull than those in the other experimental groups (P < 0.05). The greater population of Lactobacillus bacteria observed in birds fed OA added diets without or with 30 g/kg rice hull supplementation than those fed other dietary treatments (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplemental OA improved performance of broiler chickens and also enhanced humoral immune responses when broiler chickens received diets containing an insoluble fiber source.
       
  • Review on docosahexaenoic acid in poultry and swine nutrition: Consequence
           of enriched animal products on performance and health characteristics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Sophie A. Lee, Natasha Whenham, Michael R. Bedford Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are linked to a variety of health benefits against human disorders and disease. However, the typical western diet is generally low in n-3 PUFA and high in n-6 PUFA, suggesting that the recommended intake of these essential fatty acids is seldom achieved. Therefore, dietary enrichment of animal meat and eggs with n-3 PUFA could help increase consumption of these fatty acids. Fish oils and microalgae (MA) are rich sources of long chain n-3 PUFA, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Feeding these marine products has been shown to increase DHA content of tissues and yolk, however, this may also lead to an increased requirement for anti-oxidants to prevent oxidative deterioration and associated negative sensory attributes. Nonetheless, increased DHA has been linked to promising results in animal growth, fertility, immunity and bone strength in both pigs and poultry. These findings suggest that feeding DHA-rich ingredients to mono-gastric can enrich human diets as well as providing additional benefits to the animal.
       
  • Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of 16 sources of corn
           distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Eui-Cheol Shin, Gerald C. Shurson, Daniel D. Gallaher Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of the fuel ethanol industry that is an excellent source of energy, digestible amino acids, and digestible phosphorus. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of DDGS and how it is influenced by production parameters is unknown. Therefore, 16 DDGS samples obtained from different ethanol production plants in the U.S. were characterized for antioxidant capacity, vitamin E, xanthophylls, and ferulic acid content and compared with corn. The antioxidant capacity of DDGS samples, measured using the 2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, varied almost 2 folds among samples, but in all cases was more than 3 times that of corn. All DDGS samples had a considerably greater concentration of tocopherols and tocotrienols (lipid-soluble antioxidants) than corn. However, the relative concentrations among the tocopherols and tocotrienols tended to be similar to corn. The xanthophyll lutein was present in all DDGS samples and in all cases exceeded the content in corn. Zeaxanthin was detected in most samples. The total ferulic acid content of the DDGS samples was almost 3-fold greater than corn, but, as in corn, almost all was present in a bound form. However, the concentration of unbound (free) ferulic acid was more than 3 times the concentration found in the corn sample. Thus, DDGS is a rich source of phytochemical compounds and may provide antioxidant and health benefits beyond its macronutrient composition. However, differences in processing can greatly influence the phytochemical content and quality of DDGS. In particular, thermal abuse due to excessive heat used in drying may lead to lipid oxidation products that may have deleterious effects when incorporated into feeds.
       
  • The impact of xylanases on gut microbiota of growing pigs fed with corn-
           or wheat-based diets

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Zhengxiao Zhang, Hein M. Tun, Ru Li, Beatriz J.M. Gonzalez, Hannah C. Keenes, Martin Nyachoti, Elijah Kiarie, Ehsan Khafipour This study investigated the effects of xylanase supplementations with cereal-based diets on nutrient digestibility and gut microbiota of growing pigs. A total of 96 individually penned pigs (initial BW = 22.7 ± 0.65 kg) were allotted to 12 treatments and subjected to a completely randomized block design experiment. Pigs in each treatment were fed an isocaloric wheat-based or corn-based diet with or without 1 of 5 types of xylanase supplements (XA, XB, XC, XD, XE). On d 42, all piglets were euthanized to obtain ileal and cecal digesta for microbial analysis, which involved high-throughput sequencing of the V1 – V3 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Corn- and wheat-based diets differed (P < 0.05) in digestion characteristics. Dietary treatments affected the alpha- and beta-diversities of microbiota in the cecum but not in the ileum. The wheat-based diet increased (P < 0.05) alpha-diversity and clustered separately (P < 0.05) compared with the corn-based diet. Wheat-based diet also promoted the relative abundance of genus (g.) Succinivibrio while corn-based diet promoted the proportion of family (f.) Veillonellaceae in the community. Among xylanases, only XC within the wheat-based diet altered (P < 0.05) the beta-diversity of the cecal microbiota compared with control. For each cereal-based diet and compared with the controls, xylanase treatments affected (P < 0.05) the proportions of 5 bacterial taxa in the ileum (f. Peptostreptococcaceae, order [o.] Streptophyta, f. Clostridiaceae, g. Clostridium and g. Streptococcus) and 8 in the cecum (g. Lactobacillus, g. Streptococcus, class [c.] Clostridia, f. Clostridiaceae, g. Megasphaera, g. Prevotella, g. Roseburia and f. Ruminococcaceae). Network analysis showed that across diets under control treatments, Bacteroidetes was the most influential phylum promoting cooperative relationships among members of the ileum and cecum microbiota. Xylanase treatment, however, reduced the influence of Bacteroidetes and promoted a large number of hub taxa majority of which belonged to the Firmicutes phylum. To maximize the efficiency of xylanase supplementation, our data suggest that xylanase C originated from Bacillus subtilis was more effective when applied to wheat-based diets, while xylanase A originated from Fusarium verticillioides was more beneficial when applied to corn-based diets.
       
  • Effect of supplementing layer hen diet with phytogenic feed additives on
           laying performance, egg quality, egg lipid peroxidation and blood
           biochemical constituents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Reham Abou-Elkhair, Shaimaa Selim, Eman Hussein This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing laying hen diet with phytogenic additives on laying performance, egg quality, blood constituents and egg lipid peroxidation. Two hundred Lohmann Brown Lite laying hens were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: control (without phytogenic additive), fennel seeds (5 g/kg), black cumin seeds (5 g/kg) and hot red pepper (5 g/kg). Each of the 4 diets was fed to 5 replicates of 10 hens for 8 weeks. No significant differences were observed in body weight or feed intake between the groups. Dietary inclusion of fennel, followed by red pepper improved (P < 0.05) egg weight, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio compared with control. Higher yolk shape index, shell and albumen weight percentages and Haugh unit (P < 0.05) were recorded in the fennel supplemented group compared with control. The egg yolk color score increased by the addition of fennel or hot red pepper in laying hen diets compared with control. The inclusion of black cumin or hot red pepper decreased serum and egg yolk cholesterol and malondialdehyde concentrations (P < 0.05) compared with control. Serum aspartate aminotransferase concentration was lower in black cumin group (P < 0.05) than other treatments. In conclusion, the best laying performance and egg quality were obtained by dietary inclusion of fennel, followed by hot red pepper and black cumin. Dietary supplementation of black cumin or red pepper may lead to the development of low-cholesterol concentration and better antioxidant capacity of eggs.
       
  • Laying hens performance, egg quality improved and yolk
           5-methyltetrahydrofolate content increased by dietary supplementation of
           folic acid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Sattar Bagheri, Hossein Janmohmmadi, Ramin Maleki, Alireza ostadrahimi, Ruhollah Kianfar This study was performed to evaluate the effect of folic acid (FA) on performance, egg quality and yolk 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) content. A total of 384 Hy-line W36 strain hens from 52 to 58 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 4 groups, and each group received one of following dietary treatments: 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg FA/kg diet. A completely randomized design was used. Egg production percentage, egg mass and egg weight were increased significantly (P < 0.05) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by increasing FA content in diets. No significant differences were detected among treatments on egg quality except for shell thickness. The dietary supplementations of laying hens diets with FA significantly increased yolk 5-MTHF content (P = 0.02). Overall, these data demonstrate that dietary supplementation with FA raised 5-MTHF content of yolk and productivity of egg production in laying hens.
       
  • Ultrastructure of the gastro intestinal tract of healthy Japanese quail
           (Coturnix japonica) using light and scanning electron microscopy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Ngare Wilkinson, Ivan Dinev, William J. Aspden, Robert J. Hughes, Ingrid Christiansen, James Chapman, Sheeana Gangadoo, Robert J. Moore, Dragana Stanley The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) are popular both as an alternative protein source and as a model of choice for scientific research in several disciplines. There is limited published information on the histological features of the intestinal tract of Japanese quail. The only comprehensive reference is a book published in 1969. This study aims to fill that niche by providing a reference of general histological features of the Japanese quail, covering all the main sections of the intestinal tract. Both light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images are presented. Results showed that the Japanese quail intestinal tract is very similar to that of the chicken with the exception of the luminal koilin membrane of the gizzard. Scanning electron microscopic photomicrographs show that in the Japanese quail koilin vertical rods are tightly packed together in a uniform manner making a carpet-like appearance. This differs in chicken where the conformations of vertical rods are arranged in clusters.
       
  • Processing techniques of selected oilseed by-products of potential use in
           animal feed: Effects on proximate nutrient composition, amino acid profile
           and antinutrients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Collins Prah Duodu, Daniel Adjei-Boateng, Regina Esi Edziyie, Nelson Winston Agbo, Godfred Owusu-Boateng, Bodil Katrine Larsen, Peter Vilhelm Skov The effects of processing by autoclaving (AC), soaking (SK), short-term fermentation (S-TF, 4 d) and long-term fermentation (L-TF, 14 d) on the nutritional composition, amino acid profile and some antinutrients were determined for cottonseed meal (CSM), groundnut meal (GNM) and groundnut husk (GH) in this study. After processing, crude protein content improved by 11% after L-TF, and crude lipid content 25% after SK for CSM; crude protein content improved by 27% after S-TF and L-TF, and crude lipid content 13% after SK for GNM. Soaking and fermentation were shown to significantly increase essential amino acid contents by 44% (SK, methionine) in CSM and 46% in GNM (L-TF, histidine). Phosphorus content was reduced by 59% in CSM and 57% in GNM by L-TF. All processing techniques, with the exception of AC, reduced phytic acid and gossypol contents in CSM and GNM. It was concluded that SK and fermentation were simple, cost-effective, and efficient ways to improve the nutritional value of the selected oilseed by-products.
       
  • Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and slaughter traits of male
           fattening lambs under different feeding standards

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): T. Ma, F. Wan, D. Yang, K.-D. Deng, K.-L. Yang, Q.-Y. Diao This study compared the growth performance, nutrient utilization, and slaughter traits of Dorper crossbred male lambs fed as per the established nutrition recommendations for sheep, with an aim to verify the efficacy of different feeding standards. A total of 576 lambs (four months of age, 28.3 ± 0.86 kg BW) were randomly allotted to three treatments with twelve replicates per treatment (sixteen lambs per replicate). The lambs were fed diets formulated according to the following three nutritional systems: the nutrient requirements of Dorper crossbred lambs established by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), NRC (2007), and AFRC (1993). The experiment lasted for 81 d. Feed intake was recorded every three days, and lambs were weighed every twenty days. Digestibility trials were conducted with 6 lambs each group from d 42 to 53 and d 70 to 81. At the end of the experiment, ten lambs randomly chosen from each group were sacrificed to determine the carcass traits and meat quality. The results indicated that the lambs in the NRC group had the highest dry matter intake (DMI), followed by those in the AFRC and CAAS groups (P < 0.05). The average daily gain, carcass weight, and dressing percentage were higher for lambs in the CAAS group than those in the NRC group (P < 0.05). The lambs in the CAAS group had the lowest feed conversion ratio, followed by those in the AFRC and NRC groups (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility of DM was higher for the lambs in the CAAS group than those in the NRC group (P < 0.05). Water losing rates, as well as the lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) values of the longissimus thoracis were not different among groups (P> 0.05). In conclusion, Dorper crossbred lambs fed diets formulated according to the CAAS recommendations exhibited superior growth performance than those fed diets formulated according to the American or British feeding standards.
       
  • Influence of fibre and betaine on development of the gastrointestinal
           tract of broilers between 0 and 14 d of age

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Tiago T. dos Santos, Sthéfanie C. Dassi, Celia R.C. Franco, Cleber R.V. da Costa, Sophie A. Lee, Ana V.F. da Silva An experiment was designed to determine the influence of fibre and betaine on the development of the intestine, liver and pancreas of broilers from 0 to 14 d of age. A total of 250 day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were allocated to 16 cages with 15 broilers each. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial design, consisting of 2 feed formulations (low and high fibre diets) and 4 levels of betaine (0, 1, 3 or 5 kg/t). At d 0, 10 birds in total were euthanised, and samples of the liver, pancreas, yolk sac and intestine were collected for reference of the analysed parameters before the start of the trial. On d 4, 9 and 14, 5 birds per cage (10 birds per treatment) were selected, euthanised and treated as the same as the birds on d 0. Villus height and width and crypt depth were determined on the duodenum samples, and absorptive area was calculated. The number of enterocytes in mitosis at the villus was determined by a positive reaction to antibody for Ki67 protein, and fused villus was evaluated visually. The relative weight of the yolk sac reduced (P
       
  • The effects of Angelica sinensis extracts on lipid oxidation in fish feeds
           and growth performance in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Huatao Li, Dandan Yang, Zhihao Li, Mingquan He, Fengyi Li, Jun Jiang, Siyi Tang, Peiyuan Peng, Wenhao Du, Yuting Ma, Ying Liu The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of the extracts of Angelica sinensis (EAs) on lipid oxidation in fish feeds compared with ethoxyquin (EQ) and of dietary EAs on growth performance in carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Firstly, fish feeds were incubated with EQ and ethyl ether extract, ethyl acetate extract (EAE), acetone extract, ethanol extract and aqueous extract of Angelica sinensis, except for the control. The results showed that EAs and EQ inhibited lipid oxidation in fish feeds (P
       
  • Effects of dietary 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol in calcium- and
           phosphorous-deficient diets on growth performance, tibia related indices
           and immune responses in broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Parham Ghasemi, Majid Toghyani, Nasir Landy This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-OH-D3) in calcium- and phosphorous-deficient (Ca-P deficient) diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, tibia related parameters, and immune responses of broiler chicks. A total of 280 day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to 20 floor pens and 4 dietary treatments of 5 replicates. Dietary treatments consisted of starter diets (A: 1% Ca, 0.73% total phosphorus [tP]; B: 0.85% Ca, 0.64% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; C: 0.85% Ca, 0.59% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; D: 0.85% Ca, 0.54% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3), grower diets (A: 0.86% Ca, 0.68% tP; B: 0.73% Ca, 0.59% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; C: 0.73% Ca, 0.55% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; D: 0.73% Ca, 0.50% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3) and finisher diets (A: 0.81% Ca, 0.64% tP; B: 0.68% Ca, 0.56% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; C: 0.68% Ca, 0.52% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3; D: 0.68% Ca, 0.48% tP + 5 μg/kg of 1α-OH-D3). Results showed that body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) of broilers in treatment B were similar to those of broilers in treatment A at the end of the trial (P < 0.05). Broilers in treatments C and D during the whole trial had lower BWG and FI than those in treatment A (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio, carcass traits and relative weight of lymphoid organs were not affected by dietary treatments (P> 0.05). Dietary treatments had no significant effect on antibody titer against Newcastle and Influenza disease viruses as well as sheep red blood cells. Dietary treatments had no any significant effect on tibia ash and tibial dyschondroplasia score. Broilers fed Ca-P deficient diets had lower tibia Ca and P than those in treatment A (P < 0.05). In conclusion, results indicated that broilers fed Ca-P deficient diets supplemented with 5 μg/kg 1α-OH-D3 failed to achieve the same tibia Ca and P values as broilers fed nonphytate phosphorus adequate diets.
       
  • Feed particle selection and nutrient intake altered by pecking stone
           consumption in free-range laying hens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Zafar Iqbal, Kelly Drake, Robert A. Swick, Rider A. Perez-Maldonado, Isabelle Ruhnke The present study investigated the effects of pecking stones on feeding behavior of hens from 16 to 46 wk of age. A total of 18 flocks of Hy-Line Brown hens were housed in 2 commercial free-range housing systems. Farm A housed 10 flocks of beak trimmed (infrared beak treatment) hens in fixed sheds. Farm B housed 8 flocks of hens with intact beaks in mobile sheds. On each farm, flocks were equally assigned to control groups (no access to pecking stones) and treatment groups (access to pecking stones). Data were evaluated every 10 wk. At each time point, 10 hens per flock were housed in individual pens, and each hen was provided with 250 g of mash diet and ad libitum water for 24 h. After 24 h, feed samples were collected and used to determine 24-hour feed intake. Nutrient and particle selection was measured by subtracting nutrients and particles offered in feed from that present in leftover feed and expressed as Δ. In addition, pecking stone consumption was recorded for each flock. Data were analysed separately for each farm using fixed effects of pecking stone availability and hen age. Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients and linear regression models were constructed to evaluate the relationship of beak length and pecking stone usage, discrete mean particle size (dMEAN) consumption (Δ dMEAN), and Δ nutrient intake. Hens with access to pecking stones significantly consumed lower quantities of large feed particles (>2.8 mm) on farm A (P = 0.029) and significantly selected more fine particles resulting in lower consumption of dMEAN on farm B (P = 0.013). Overall a positive relationship (P = 0.001) between beak length and pecking stone consumption, Δ dMEAN, and Δ phosphorus consumption were observed. In conclusion, pecking stone consumption resulted in lower large feed particle selection and consumption in hens housed on both farms. Further research is warranted to investigate the effect of pecking stones on sensory innervation of the beak rather than only blunting of the beak.
       
  • Effect of arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides and arabinoxylans on net energy and
           nutrient utilization in broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Natalie K. Morgan, Chake Keerqin, Andrew Wallace, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct Arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans (AX) that can be fermented by the gut microbiota, thus potentially displaying prebiotic properties. This study examined the effects of AX and AXOS on net energy and nutrient utilization in broilers. Ross 308 broilers (n = 90, 30 birds per treatment) were fed wheat-soybean diets supplemented with pure AX, AXOS produced by exposing the AX to xylanase in vitro (AXOS), or AX with xylanase (AX + E) from d 10 to 21. Performance parameters were measured from d 10 to 21. On d 15, 10 birds per treatment were allocated to closed-circuit net energy chambers to assess the impact of AX and AXOS on dietary energy utilization, through assessment of both metabolisable energy (ME) and net energy (NE). Ileal and caecal digesta samples were collected on d 21 to determine the effect of AX and AXOS on ileal and total tract dry matter digestibility, ileal digestible energy, digesta pH and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and microbiota concentration. Feed conversion ratio was numerically the lowest in birds fed the diet supplemented with AXOS, which is 1.26 compared to 1.37 and 1.30 for AX and AX + E, respectively. Ileal dry matter digestibility was higher in birds fed AXOS than those fed AX (P = 0.047). Ileal digestible energy and total tract dry matter digestibility were higher in birds fed AXOS than those fed AX or AX + E (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001, respectively). Birds fed AXOS had higher ME intake (P = 0.049) and nitrogen retention (P = 0.001) and a strong trend of higher NE (P = 0.056), NE intake (P = 0.057) and retained energy (P = 0.054) compared to those fed AX. Total ileal SCFA concentration, including lactic and formic acid, was higher in birds fed AXOS than those fed AX (P = 0.011, P = 0.012 and P = 0.023, respectively). Birds fed AXOS or AX + E had higher caecal total SCFA concentration, including acetic, butyric and isovaleric acid, compared to those fed AX (P = 0.001, P = 0.004, P = 0.016 and P = 0.008, respectively), and caecal propionic acid concentration was higher in birds fed AX + E than those fed AX (P = 0.050). Ileal and caecal microbiota concentrations were numerically higher and pH was lower in birds fed AXOS and AX + E than those fed AX. Results from this study indicate that feeding AXOS directly is more efficient than AXOS generation in the gastrointestinal tract, and suggest that AXOS has a potential to be an efficacious prebiotic in broiler diets.
       
  • Lentil straw: An alternative and nutritious feed resource for kids

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Vishal Mudgal, Mukesh K. Mehta, Ashok S. Rane The scarcity of feed resources with the continuously increasing cost of usual animal feeds urgently demands searching some alternate feeds for ruminants. In this study, Barberi male kids were divided into 4 groups of 5 kids (body weight 17.5 ± 1.8 kg) in each group, and ad libitum fed lentil straw (Lens culinaris; LS), LS based total mixed ration (LSTMR), urea ammoniated LS (ALS) or ALS based total mixed ration (ALSTMR) for a period of 28 days. Results showed LS was a superior feed (CP, 9.2%) for kids, but having quite high crude fibre (CF; 39.6%) and Ca:P ratio (10:1). Urea ammoniation of LS was helpful for increasing the digestible crude protein (DCP) (P < 0.01), nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) with reduction of CF content. Urea mmoniation also improved the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fibre (P < 0.01), but its effect on CP digestibility was negative (P < 0.05). Dry matter (DM), DCP and TDN intakes (per kgW0.75) were also improved (P < 0.01) in the kids fed ALS. Negative growth rate and nitrogen (N) balance (-33.8 and -1.4 g/day, respectively) in kids fed LS became positive (46.9 and 2.0 g/day, respectively) when ALS was used in the diets of kids. Feeding of ALS also increased (P < 0.01) the total N and ammonia N content of strained rumen liquor (SRL). Use of straw (LS or ALS) in TMR increased the digestibility of DM, organic matter and NFE (P < 0.01), intake of energy, as well as total volatile fatty acids concentration (P < 0.01) in the SRL. The present study suggested that optimum performance of kids may be achieved using either ALS alone or TMR with LS or ALS.
       
  • Productive performance, egg quality, hematological parameters and serum
           chemistry of laying hens fed diets supplemented with certain fat-soluble
           vitamins individually or combined during summer season

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mahmoud Alagawany, Khalid M. Mahrose, Muhammad Arif, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad A. Arain, Rab N. Soomro, Farman A. Siyal, Sarfraz A. Fazlani, Justin Fowler This present study aimed to determine the efficacy of supplementing layer diets with vitamins A and E either individually or in combination on egg production and quality, and blood hematology and chemistry of birds reared under summer conditions. The experiment was conducted using a 3 × 3 factorial design with 3 levels of vitamin A (0, 8,000 and 16,000 IU/kg diet) and 3 levels of vitamin E (0, 250 and 500 mg/kg diet). A total of 135 Brown Bovans laying hens were distributed into 9 treatment groups, with 5 replicates (3 hens per pen). A significant improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed as supplementary vitamin A or E increased (P> 0.05). Hens fed diets supplemented with 16,000 IU vitamin A plus 500 mg vitamin E/kg diet had the best FCR among all groups. Egg quality criteria were not significantly affected by the interaction of vitamins A and E levels. There was a significant (P> 0.01) increase in monocytes and decrease (P> 0.05) in basophils counts in response to vitamin E. Significant decreases were observed in packed cell volume (PCV), thyroxine (T4), alanine transferase (ALT), albumin, total cholesterol and total lipids, and increases in serum levels of globulin and calcium due to vitamin A (P> 0.05). The combination of 0 IU vitamin A and 500 mg vitamin E/kg diet had the highest value of PCV (40.09%) and hemoglobin (Hb) (10.33 mg/100 mL) among all groups. Vitamin E raised (P> 0.01) serum values of total protein, total cholesterol and total lipids. Feed intake, FCR, PCV, Hb, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, T4, ALT and total protein were significantly affected by the interaction of vitamins A and E. The interaction of vitamins A and E was only significant (P ˂ 0.05) with respect to serum total protein values. It can be concluded that layer diets supplemented with vitamins A and E had good results in alleviating the harmful impacts of high ambient temperature. The combination of 16,000 IU vitamin A and 500 mg vitamin E/kg diet is preferable for obtaining better production of laying hens reared under hot summer conditions.
       
  • Development of an in vitro protein digestibility assay mimicking the
           chicken digestive tract

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Dervan D.S.L. Bryan, Dawn A. Abbott, Henry L. Classen It is difficult to obtain in vivo digestion kinetics data of high protein ingredients using chickens. Collecting kinetics data requires repeated sampling of digesta from the small intestine during the digestion process, which is not easily accomplished due to the anatomical structure of chicken digestive tract. An in vitro technique is proposed for measuring the digestion kinetics of protein sources fed to chickens. The method has a 30 min gastric and 3 h intestinal phase. Five hundred milligram crude protein (CP) equivalent of each meal sample (CP = % N × 6.25) was digested with pepsin (28,260 units) in 50 mL polyethylene centrifuge tubes for 30 min in a shaking water bath (150 strokes/min; 30 mm stroke length) at 41 °C. The 6.5 mL pancreatin was selected as the enzyme concentration for the intestinal phase, during which time 500 μL aliquots were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 240 min. Samples were diluted 1:820 with HCl and sodium acetate buffer, and then mixed with ninhydrin reagent (2:1) at 100 ± 2 °C for 15 min and spectrometric readings taken at 568 nm. To validate the assay, 5 replications of soybean meal (SBM), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn distillers dried grains with solubles (CDDGS), porcine meal (PCM), fish meal (FM) and casein (CA) were digested. The digestion data were modeled with PROC NLIN procedure, and the intra coefficient of variation (CV) assessed using PROC MEANS of SAS 9.4. The digestion values at 180 min were SBM 95 ± 4, FM 93 ± 3, PCM 68 ± 4, CGM 82 ± 3 and CDDGS 70 ± 2. Intra CV for SBM, CGM, CDDGS, PCM and FM were 5%, 5%, 12%, 10% and 2%, respectively. The estimated fractional digestion rates for SBM, CGM, CDDGS, FM and PCM were 0.023, 0.013, 0.009, 0.024 and 0.013, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed in vitro technique estimated the rate and extent of the digestion of CP for the meals with low intra CV.
       
  • Impact of essential oils and organic acids on the growth performance,
           digestive functions and immunity of broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Xin Yang, Fangyu Long, Hongliang Xin, Chengbo Yang, Xiaojun Yang The aim of the experiment was to study the effects of feeding blends of sorbic acid, fumaric acid, and thymol (EOA) on growth performance, digestive functions, and immunity of broiler chickens. A total of 640 one-day-old male Cobb 500 chicks with similar BW (41.8 ± 0.6 g) were randomly divided into 4 treatments groups consisting of 10 replicates with 16 birds per replicate and fed a basal diet until d 42 (CON) or diets with 0.15 g/kg enramycin during the grower period (AG), 0.30 g/kg EOA during the grower period (EG), or 0.30 g/kg EOA during the finisher period (EF). At d 42, the feed conversion ratio was reduced (P < 0.05) for birds in EG group compared with other groups. Birds in EG group showed a higher villus height of the duodenum and jejunum and muscular layers of the duodenum and ileum than birds in CON group (P < 0.05). Compared with other groups, crypt depth of the jejunum and ileum was markedly increased (P < 0.05) by EOA supplementation during the finisher period at d 42. The EOA supplementation during grower period increased significantly lipase, trypsin and chymotrypsin activity of the duodenum at d 21 and 42, as well as lipase and trypsin at d 21, and trypsin and chymotrypsin at d 42 in the jejunum, and trypsin and chymotrypsin activity of the ileum at d 21 compared to the control diet (P < 0.05). Birds of EG and EF groups showed a higher (P < 0.05) spleen index than birds of CON groups. The level of secretory immunoglobulin A in duodenal and ileal mucosa was increased (P < 0.05) in EF group at d 42 compared with other groups. In conclusion, the results indicate that EOA can be effectively applied in broiler diets, especially during the grower phase by improving intestinal morphology and increasing digestive enzyme activity.
       
  • Effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, blood T lymphocyte subsets, and cardiac antioxidant status
           of broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Wenying Huo, Min Li, Jianping Wang, Zhixiang Wang, Yanqun Huang, Wen Chen Different lipid sources differ in their fatty acid profiles and consequently affect growth performance as well as immune function of broilers differently. The influences of different dietary lipid sources on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood T lymphocyte population, and cardiac antioxidant status were investigated in broilers. A total of 360 one-day-old male broilers with an average body weights of 44 ± 3 g were randomized into 3 treatment groups, consisting of 6 replicates of 20 birds in each group. Broilers received standard diets supplemented with 5% (wt/wt) of lard (LD, as a control diet), sesame oil (SO), or flaxseed oil (FO), respectively. Broilers in both SO and FO treatment groups had lower (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratios during 22 to 42 d and during the overall phase compared to those in LD treatment group. Meanwhile, the apparent total tract nutrient digestibility of crude fat in SO and FO treatment groups was higher than that in LD treatment group. Both FO and SO treatments decreased (P < 0.05) abdominal fat percentage compared to LD treatment. Total triglycerides and total cholesterol in chicken blood were decreased (P < 0.05) by SO and FO treatments compared to LD treatment. Feeding broilers with FO and SO led to a decrease (P < 0.05) in blood CD4+ T lymphocyte count and in CD4+:CD8+ ratio compared to LD treatment. Sesame oil and FO treatments increased cardiac glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05) compared to LD treatment. It is concluded that addition of 5% SO and FO to the standard corn-soybean meal diet improved feed efficiency, increased the activities of cardiac glutathione peroxidase, and affected the T lymphocytes ratio of fast growing broilers.
       
  • Diet supplementation with an organic acids-based formulation affects gut
           microbiota and expression of gut barrier genes in broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Irida Palamidi, Konstantinos C. Mountzouris This study was designed to study the effect of diet supplementation with an organic acids- based formulation (OABF) on luminal- and mucosa-associated bacteria, concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA), microbial glycolytic enzyme activity and expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and tight junction protein, i.e., zonula occludens-1 (ZO1), zonula occludens-2 (ZO2), claudin-1 (CLDN1), claudin-5 (CLDN5) and occludin (OCLN), genes at the ileal and cecal level. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used having OABF inclusion and avilamycin as main factors. Subsequently, 544 day-old male Cobb broilers were allocated in the following 4 treatments, each with 8 replicates: no additions (CON), 1 g OABF/kg diet (OA), 2.5 mg avilamycin/kg diet (AV) and combination of OA and AV (OAAV). The trial lasted for 42 days. In the ileum, OAAV resulted in lower mucosa-associated total bacteria levels (PO × A = 0.028) compared with AV. In addition, ileal digesta levels of Clostridium perfringens subgroup were decreased by avilamycin (PA = 0.045). Inclusion of OABF stimulated the activity of microbial glycolytic enzymes, whereas avilamycin resulted in lower acetate (PA = 0.021) and higher butyrate (PA = 0.010) molar ratios. Expression of ZO1 and CLDN5 was down-regulated by both OABF (PO = 0.016 and PO = 0.003, respectively) and avilamycin (PA = 0.016 and PA = 0.001, respectively). In addition, CLDN1 was down-regulated in AV compared with CON (PO × A = 0.012). Furthermore, OABF down-regulated MUC2 (PO = 0.027), whereas avilamycin down-regulated nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKB1) (PA = 0.024), toll-like receptor 2 family member B (TLR2B) (PA = 0.011) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) (PA = 0.014) expression. In the ceca, OABF inclusion increased digesta levels of Clostridium coccoides (PO = 0.018) and Clostridium leptum (PO = 0.040) subgroups, while it up-regulated MUC2 expression (PO = 0.014). Avilamycin (PA = 0.044) and interaction (PO × A 
       
  • Feeding of processed vegetable wastes to bulls and its potential
           environmental benefit

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Nani G. Das, Khan S. Huque, Sardar M. Amanullah, Harinder P.S. Makkar The study was conducted with the objectives to quantify year round availability of different vegetables waste (VW) in a wholesale market and to determine the inclusion level of a processed VW (VWP) in the diets of bulls. The daily VW biomass availability at Kawran bazaar, Dhaka, Bangladesh was quantified by weighing the vegetable supply and their wastes by visiting 2 days in a week. Concurrently, VW of cucumber, bitter gourd, spotted gourd, brinjal, pumpkin, potato, tomato, ladies finger, and snake gourd representing 0.21, 0.18, 0.17, 0.16, 0.09, 0.07, 0.06, 0.03, and 0.02 as fresh fractions, respectively were blended, dried and stored while adding rice polish and common salt at 200 and 20 g/kg DM, respectively; it was tested in bulls as an ingredient of concentrate mixture. Four dietary groups, each of 6 bulls, with initial average live weight (LW) of 85.47 ± 17 kg, were fed fresh German grass (Echinochloa polystachya) ad libitum supplemented with 4 different concentrates containing 0, 10%, 20% and 30% VWP at the rate of 1% of LW for 89 days. The availability of VW biomass of the market was 42.51 t/d and recycling of them as feed, instead of using landfills, might reduce annual methane emission by 0.43 Gg. The inclusion of VWP in the diet up to 9.7% of DM, or 0.30% of LW of bulls showed no significant effect on the DM intake, digestibility, growth performance and health status of bulls. The dietary DM intake represented 3.10%, 3.09%, 3.20% and 3.14% of LW resulting in daily gain of 302, 300, 312 and 344 g, respectively. The digestibility of DM of diets was 56.9%, 62.8%, 62.8% and 63.4%, respectively. It was concluded that VWP may be included at a level of 9.7% of the diet (DM basis) or 0.30% of LW of bulls.
       
  • Nutritional value of detoxified Jatropha curcas seed cake protein isolates
           using rats as an animal model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Yinuo Zhao, Yubao Wang, Haifeng Wang, Yueming Wu, Harinder P. Makkar, Jianxin Liu A bioassay study was conducted to investigate the effects of substituting casein with graded levels of detoxified Jatropha curcas seed cake protein isolates (JPI) as a protein source on the growth performance, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and its protein values using rats as an animal model. Thirty 21-day-old male Sprague–Dawley weaned rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, each group with 6 replications (n = 1). Each group consumed one of the following diets: protein-free, casein (CAS) and JPI diets (JPI20, JPI40 and JPI60; different levels of JPI to replace the casein at concentrations of 20%, 40% and 60% on crude protein basis). Feed intake and protein intake showed no difference among the rats fed JPI20, JPI40 and CAS diets (P > 0.05). However, these parameters were lower in the rats fed JPI60 than in rats fed CAS (P 
       
  • Impact of on-range choice feeding with black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia
           illucens) on flock performance, egg quality, and range use of free-range
           laying hens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Isabelle Ruhnke, Camille Normant, Dana L.M. Campbell, Zafar Iqbal, Caroline Lee, Geoff N. Hinch, Julie Roberts Semi-intensive free-range farm systems are common in Australia, and these systems frequently practise on-range feeding. The objective of this study was to investigate the benefit of on-range choice feeding on flock performance, egg quality, and range use of free-range laying hens using black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens, BSF). A total of 160 mature ISA brown laying hens, previously determined to range daily, were allocated to a control group (control) or a treatment group (BSF) with various replicates depending on the parameter investigated. All hens were fed ad libitum indoors with a wheat-soy based diet formulated according to breed requirements. Black soldier fly hens were offered dried BSF larvae ad libitum on the range. Body weight, feed intake, BSF intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio, internal and external egg quality parameters, and individual range use using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology was evaluated. Black soldier fly hens consumed on average 15 ± 1.7 g BSF larvae/hen per day. There were no differences between BSF and control hens for any of the performance parameters obtained (P > 0.05). Egg weight, shell weight, and shell thickness of eggs from BSF hens were significantly lower (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P = 0.004, respectively) than those of eggs from control hens. Egg yolk colour was significantly paler in eggs from BSF hens (P  0.05) except for BSF hens showing longer total maximum time for a single visit to the range (P = 0.011). In conclusion, the average intake of BSF larvae indicated a good level of acceptance. Feed formulation should be adjusted for the intake of the choice fed source. The impact of choice-feeding on range use was minor.
       
  • Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 on gut
           microbiota modulation in broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Chubin Qin, Li Gong, Xiaoping Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Yibin Wang, Baikui Wang, Yali Li, Weifen Li The gut microbiota plays important roles in animal overall health and productiveness. Balancing host gut microbiota by probiotics has been documented. Our previous study showed that Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) significantly improve growth performance and modulate the intestinal histomorphology in broilers. To increase the knowledge regarding Sb and Bs, this study investigated the effects of these 2 probiotic strains on the gut microbiota in broilers. Three hundred 1-day-old Sanhuang broilers (Chinese cross breed) were randomly divided into 3 groups, each group with 5 replications (n = 20). The control group (CK) was fed a basal diet containing an antibiotic (virginiamycin, 20 mg/kg) and the other 2 groups received Sb and Bs (1 × 108 cfu/kg of feed) in addition to the basal diet. After 72 d of treatment, pyrosequencing revealed that the bacterial communities varied along the section of intestinal tract in the control and Bs groups, but not in the Sb group. No difference in microbial diversity was observed among 3 groups. The major phyla observed along the GI tract of broilers (particularly in the duodenum and cecum) were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia, which were considered potentially growth performance-related. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were observed at a much higher abundance in the jejunums and ileums of the Sb group (P 
       
  • Influence of drying technique on chemical composition and ruminal
           degradability of subtropical Cajanus cajan L.

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Lindokuhle S. Buthelezi, John F. Mupangwa, Voster Muchenje, Florence V. Nherera-Chokuda The experiment investigated the influence of forage drying methods on the dry-matter digestibility of foliage from Cajanus cajan varieties (ICEAP 00557, ICEAP 01514 and CIMMYT100/01). These leaves were harvested at week 20 of growth and either oven- or shade-dried and analysed for chemical components and rumen degradability. Three rumen fistulated lactating Holstein cows (430 ± 18 kg live weight) were used to evaluate ruminal degradation kinetics using in vitro and in sacco procedures. Samples were incubated for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 30 and 48 h in vitro (IV DaisyII) procedure. In the in sacco procedure, samples were incubated for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 30 and 48 h in the rumen of cows. Dry matter disappearance (DMD) data for both measures were fitted to the equation Y = a + b (1 – e–ct), where b is the slowly degradable fraction and c is the degradation rate constant, to approximate rumen degradability characteristics of varieties. Shade dried leaves contained higher crude protein (CP) (P  0.05) calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentration in the forage dry matter. Drying method had no effect (P > 0.05) on b and c of all varieties during in vitro procedure. However, shade-drying method increased (P 
       
  • Thyme oil inclusion levels in a rabbit ration: Evaluation of productive
           performance, carcass criteria and meat quality under hot environmental
           conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Ahmed A.A. Abdel-Wareth, Eman M.M. Taha, Karl-Heinz Südekum, Jayant Lohakare The aim of this study was to determine the impact of thyme essential oil supplementation in rabbit rations on performance, carcass criteria, and meat quality under hot environmental conditions. A total of 75, 4-week-old Californian male rabbits were assigned to 5 dietary treatments until 12 weeks of age. The rabbits were reared in an open house system (38 °C average ambient temperature and 26% to 35% relative humidity). Treatments were as follows: unsupplemented standard ration, negative control (CON); standard ration supplemented with 1.50 g/kg olive oil as carrier, positive control (POS); POS + 50 mg/kg thyme oil (TO1); POS + 100 mg/kg thyme oil (TO2); and POS + 150 mg/kg thyme oil (TO3). Dietary thyme oil up to 150 mg/kg improved (P 
       
  • Productive performance of commercial growing and finishing pigs
           supplemented with a Buttiauxella phytase as a total replacement of
           inorganic phosphate

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Yueming Dersjant-Li, Peter Plumstead, Ajay Awati, Janet Remus The objective of this study was to test if a novel phytase from Buttiauxella sp. can replace all added inorganic phosphate in a diet with reduced Ca and metabolizable energy (ME) fed to commercial pigs from 12 kg body weight (BW) until slaughter, whilst maintaining performance and carcass quality parameters. Four dietary treatments were tested in a completely randomized design with 9 replicate pens, each containing 31 mixed sex Newsham Choice pigs. Diets included a positive control (PC) based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middling and bakery meal, meeting all nutrient requirement of pigs; a negative control (NC) excluded inorganic phosphate and with reduced Ca (−0.13%) and ME (−0.15 MJ/kg); and NC supplemented with Buttiauxella phytase at 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg feed. Diets were fed ad libitum in mash form in 5 phases: starter (12 to 25 kg BW), grower 1 (25 to 50 kg BW) and 2 (50 to 75 kg BW), and finisher 1 (75 to 100 kg BW) and 2 (100 kg BW to slaughter). The NC group showed lower (P 
       
  • Increased dietary intake of tyrosine upregulates melanin deposition in the
           hair of adult black-coated dogs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018Source: Animal NutritionAuthor(s): Adrian Watson, Jamie Wayman, Russell Kelley, Alexandre Feugier, Vincent Biourge The principle determinant of melanin derived hair colour and patterning in mammals is genetic, but environmental factors are now thought to play a role. It has been shown that the concentration of melanins in cat hair is influenced by the amino acid composition of their diets. Also, puppies were found to require tyrosine (Tyr) intake significantly greater than that recommended for normal growth and development in order to optimize melanin expression in their coats. Much of the work to date has been conducted in growing animals. Less is known about the relationship between nutrition and hair melanin deposition in healthy adult animals. In this study, we fed 2 groups of adult black Labrador retrievers (12 dogs/group) different concentrations of Phe + Tyr (5.6 vs. 3.5 g/Mcal) for 24 weeks and used spectrophotometric measurements every 8 weeks to detect any associated changes in the dogs’ hair colour. The higher intake dogs showed reduced dilution of their black coat pigment compared with the lower intake dogs. Specifically, following 16 weeks at the higher intake, the dogs showed less yellow pigmentation to their coats (P = 0.0032), and after 24 weeks at the higher intake, the dogs showed less red (P 
       
 
 
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