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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 876 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (77 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (617 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (101 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (29 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2055-0391
Published by Biomed Central Ltd. Homepage  [293 journals]
  • Nitric oxide induced by Indian ginseng root extract inhibits Infectious
           Bursal Disease virus in chicken embryo fibroblasts in vitro

    • Abstract: Infectious Bursal Disease is a severe viral disease of chicken responsible for serious economic losses to poultry farmers. The causative agent, Infectious Bursal Disease virus, is inhibited by nitric oxide. Root extract of the Indian ginseng, Withania somnifera, inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in vitro. Also, Withania somnifera root extract is known to induce nitric oxide production in vitro. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine if the inhibitory activity of Withania somnifera against Infectious Bursal Disease virus was based on the production of nitric oxide. We show that besides other mechanisms, the inhibition of Infectious Bursal Disease virus by Withania somnifera involves the production of nitric oxide. Our results also highlight the paradoxical role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of Infectious Bursal Disease.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
       
  • Sonogram of coccygeus muscle in dairy cows with different gestational ages

    • Abstract: Background The change in size and weight of the female reproductive organs during gestation and birth might be affect the perineal muscles and this condition in dairy cow not been reported. This study aimed to assess the ultrasonographic image of coccygeus muscle in 11 inseminated dairy cows with different gestational ages and postpartum. Methods Gestational age was calculated based on the record of artificial insemination and confirmed by using transrectal brightness mode ultrasonography. Perineal hair between the sacrum and ischium bones was shaved along 3–5 cm before being ultrasound. The images of perineal area were obtained by transcutaneous ultrasound using a 5.0 MHz transducer. The thickness and intensity of the coccygeus muscle were measured and analyzed by gestational status and postpartum to show the differences. Results The results showed that the thickness of coccygeus muscle increased with the increase in gestational age. Muscle intensity only increased at young gestational age. However, it decreased with the increase in gestational age (P < 0.05). Conclusions The ultrasound image of coccygeus muscle was affected by gestational status, thus this method may be used as one of the new methods of indirect gestational detection on dairy cows.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
       
  • Effects of amino acid composition in pig diet on odorous compounds and
           microbial characteristics of swine excreta

    • Abstract: Background Major amino acids in pig diets are Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, but little is known about the requirements for the other essential amino acids, especially on odorous compounds and microbial characteristics in feces of growing-finishing pigs. To this end, different levels of amino acid composition added to diets to investigate the effects of amino acid composition on microbial characteristics and odorous compounds concentration. Methods A total eight (n = 8) barrows (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) with an average bodyweight of 89.38 ± 3.3 kg were individually fed diets formulated by Korean Feeding Standards 2007 (old version) or 2012 (updated with ideal protein concept) in metabolism crates with two replication. After 15-day adaptation period, fresh faecal samples were collected directly from pigs every week for 4 weeks and analysed for total volatile fatty acids (VFA), phenols and indoles by using gas chromatography. The nitrogen was determined by Kjeldahl method. Bacterial communities were detected by using a 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing system. Results Level of VFA tended to be greater in 2012 than 2007 group. Among VFAs, 2012 group had greater (p < 0.05) level of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) than control.Concentration of odorous compounds in feces was also affected by amino acid composition in pig diet. Levels of ammonium and indoles tended to be higher in 2012 group when compared with 2007 group.Concentration of phenols, p-cresol, biochemical oxygen demand, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, however, were lower (P < 0.05) in 2012 treatment group compare to 2007. The proportion of Firmicute phylum were decreased, while the Bacteriodetes phylum proportion increased and bacterial genera includingCoprococcus, Bacillus, and Bacteroides increased (p < 0.05) in 2012 compare to 2007 group. Conclusion Results from our current study indicates that well balanced amino acid composition reduces odor by modulating the gut microbial community. Administration of pig diet formulated with the ideal protein concept may help improve gut fermentation as well as reduce the odor causing compounds in pig manure.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11
       
  • Milk yield and kit development of four breeds of rabbit in Ibadan, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Background Rabbit breeding with high performance imported ones would be of benefit for genetic diversity and improvement of performance in domestic rabbit breeds. The rearing of more productive rabbit breeds could be pathway to improve the productivity and reduce the production cost. Maternal nutritional status exert a great influence on reproductive functions of does, which may expand from conception, through gestation and parturition and development of kits to puberty. Methods Four breeds of rabbit were evaluated for their parturition, weaning and pubertal differences among the rabbit population in Ibadan, Nigeria. The breed consist of Fauve De Bourgogne (FDB), Chinchilla (CHA), British Spot (BS) and New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. A total of 60 bucks and 360 does consisting of 15 bucks and 90 does per breed were mated in 6 mating cycles, three each of natural mating and artificial insemination. All does were synchronized for estrus with 20 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin 48 h prior to mating. The does after parturition were assessed for milk yield (g) and kit survival rate (%) till weaning, weight changes of kits from birth to puberty. At puberty, the pubertal age (days) and weight (g) of the offspring were assessed. Result Results obtained reveals that British Spot doe had highest milk yield among the breeds which significantly increased growth of kit and weight at weaning in British Spot rabbits. Survival rates of Chinchilla kits were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Fauve de Bourgogne, British Spot and New Zealand White kits. Puberty attainment of the rabbits indicates that British spot does and Fauve de Bourgogne bucks are early maturing. Conclusion Chinchilla shows high kit survivability and British spot has highest milk yield among the four breeds of rabbit.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
       
  • Potency of cashew nut shell liquid in rumen modulation under different
           dietary conditions and indication of its surfactant action against rumen
           bacteria

    • Abstract: Background Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is an agricultural byproduct containing alkylphenols that has been shown to favorably change the rumen fermentation pattern only under experimentally fixed feeding conditions. Investigation of CNSL potency in rumen modulation under a variety of feeding regimens, and evidence leading to the understanding of CNSL action are obviously necessary for further CNSL applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of CNSL for rumen modulation under different dietary conditions, and to visually demonstrate its surfactant action against selected rumen bacteria. Methods Batch culture studies were carried out using various diets with 5 different forage to concentrate (F:C) ratios (9:1, 7:3, 5:5. 3:7 and 1:9). Strained rumen fluid was diluted with a buffer and incubated with each diet. Gas and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles were characterized after 18 h incubation at 39 °C. Monensin was also evaluated as a reference additive under the same conditions. Four species of rumen bacteria were grown in pure culture and exposed to CNSL to determine their morphological sensitivity to the surfactant action of CNSL. Results CNSL supplementation decreased total gas production in diets with 5:5 and 3:7 F:C ratios, whereas the F:C ratio alone did not affect any gas production. Methane decrease by CNSL addition was more apparent in diets with 5:5, 3:7, and 1:9 F:C ratios. An interactive effect of CNSL and the F:C ratio was also observed for methane production. CNSL supplementation enhanced propionate production, while total SCFA production was not affected. Monensin decreased methane production but only in a diet with a 1:9 F:C ratio with increased propionate. Studies of pure cultures indicated that CNSL damaged the cell surface of hydrogen- and formate-producing bacteria, but did not change that of propionate-producing bacteria. Conclusion CNSL can selectively inhibit rumen bacteria through its surfactant action to lead fermentation toward less methane and more propionate production. As CNSL is effective over a wider range of dietary conditions for such modulation of rumen fermentation in comparison with monensin, this new additive candidate might be applied to ruminant animals for various production purposes and at various stages.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24
       
  • Choosing a culture medium for SCNT and iSCNT reconstructed embryos: from
           domestic to wildlife species

    • Abstract: Over the past decades, in vitro culture media have been developed to successfully support IVF embryo growth in a variety of species. Advanced reproductive technologies, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), challenge us with a new type of embryo, with special nutritional requirements and altered physiology under in vitro conditions. Numerous studies have successfully reconstructed cloned embryos of domestic animals for biomedical research and livestock production. However, studies evaluating suitable culture conditions for SCNT embryos in wildlife species are scarce (for both intra- and interspecies SCNT). Most of the existing studies derive from previous IVF work done in conventional domestic species. Extrapolation to non-domestic species presents significant challenges since we lack information on reproductive processes and embryo development in most wildlife species. Given the challenges in adapting culture media and conditions from IVF to SCNT embryos, developmental competence of SCNT embryos remains low. This review summarizes research efforts to tailor culture media to SCNT embryos and explore the different outcomes in diverse species. It will also consider how these culture media protocols have been extrapolated to wildlife species, most particularly using SCNT as a cutting-edge technical resource to assist in the preservation of endangered species.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
       
  • Yield survey and nutritional evaluation of garlic stalk for ruminant feed

    • Abstract: Background Very limited information exists on the ruminal degradation kinetics of nutrients in garlic stalk. The present study aimed to survey the annual yield of garlic stalk in Korea and determine its feed-nutritive value for ruminants. Methods In Experiment 1, garlic stalk was incubated in situ in the rumen of two Hanwoo steers (360 ± 15 kg body weight) and removed after 12, 24, or 48 h to determine the ruminal degradation kinetics of DM and NDF. Rice straw was also included for comparison. In Experiment 2, In Experiment 2, six male Corriedale sheep were randomized to two dietary treatments to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients in garlic stalk. Diets included a control ration without garlic stalk (60% concentrate mix +40% ryegrass) or a treatment ration (70% control diet +30% garlic stalk). Results The Korean national yield of garlic stalk (sun-dried basis) in 2016 was estimated to be 31,910 tons, with the southern coastal regions producing the highest quantity. Compared with rice straw, garlic stalk had lower NDF, higher ADF, and greater effective degradabilities of DM and NDF, resulting in a greater TDN value (56.3%), which was higher than that obtained for rice straw (43.7%). Conclusion These results provide basic information on the ruminal DM and NDF degradation kinetics of garlic stalk, which would be helpful for the efficient utilization of this by-product in ruminant diets.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
       
  • Apparent and standardized ileal nutrient digestibility of broiler diets
           containing varying levels of raw full-fat soybean and microbial protease

    • Abstract: Background Although soybean meal (SBM) is excellent source of protein in diets for poultry, it is sometimes inaccessible, costly and fluctuates in supply. The SBM can partially be replaced by full-fat SBM, but the meals prepared from raw full-fat soybean contain antinutritional factors. To avoid the risk of antinutritional factors, heat treatment is always advisable, but either excessive or under heating the soybean could negatively affect the quality. However, the potential for further improvement of SBM by supplementing with microbial enzymes has been suggested by many researchers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and ileal nutrient digestibility of birds fed on diets containing raw soybeans and supplemented with microbial protease. Methods A 3 × 2 factorial, involving 3 levels of raw full-fat soybean (RFFS; 0, 45 or 75 g/kg of diet) and 2 levels of protease (0 or 15,000 PROT/kg) was used. The birds were raised in a climate-controlled room. A nitrogen-free diet was also offered to a reference group from day 19 to 24 to determine protein and amino acid flow at the terminal ileum and calculate the standardized ileal digestibility of nutrients. On days 10, 24 and 35, body weight and feed leftover were recorded to calculate the body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). On day 24, samples of ileal digesta were collected at least from two birds per replicate. Results When RFFS was increased from 0 to 75 g/kg of diet, the content of trypsin inhibitors was increased from 1747 to 10,193 trypsin inhibitors unit (TIU)/g of diets, and feed consumption of birds was also reduced (P < 0.05). Increasing RFFS level reduced the BWG from hatch 0 to 10 d (P < 0.01) and hatch to 24 d (P < 0.05). The BWG of birds from hatch to 35 was not significantly (P = 0.07) affected. Feed intake was also reduced (P < 0.05) during 0 to 35 d. However, protease supplementation improved (P < 0.05) the BWG and FCR during 0 to 24 d. Rising levels of RFFS increased the weight of pancreas (P < 0.001) and small intestine (P < 0.001) at day 24. Except for methionine, apparent and the corresponding standardized ileal digestibility of CP and AA were reduced (P < 0.01) by increasing levels of RFFS in diets. Conclusion This study showed that some commercial SBM could be replaced by RFFS in broiler diets, without markedly compromising productivity. The AID and SID of CP and lysine were slightly improved by dietary supplementation of microbial protease.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
       
  • The use of infrared thermography to detect the stages of estrus cycle and
           ovulation time in anatolian shepherd dogs

    • Abstract: Background The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of thermographic monitoring, using the temperature changes of perianal and perivulvar areas for the determination of estrus in Anatolian Shepherd bitches. Fifteen bitches were used in the study. Blood and vaginal smear samples were collected and thermographic monitoring of perianal and perivulvar areas were carried out starting from proestrus to early diestrus. Also, external signs of estrus were investigated. Smear samples were evaluated by light microscopy after Diff-Quik staining method and superficial and keratinized superficial cells were determined as percentage (S + KS%). Progesterone and luteinizing hormone measurements were done by radioimmunoassay. The difference in temperature between perianal and perivulvar areas was evaluated through thermographic images by FLIR ResearchIR Software. Results According to the results obtained from the study, differences between progesterone and S + KS% were statistically significant (P < 0,05). Although temperature showed increase and decrease with progesterone and S + KS%, the differences were not important statistically (P > 0,05). Serum luteinizing hormone levels did not sign any difference (P > 0,05). Conclusions As a result, thermographic monitoring alone is not enough for estrus detection in Anatolian Shepherd bitches. However, it can be used to assist the actual estrus detection technique in terms of providing some foreknowledge by evaluating the differences in temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
       
  • A study of ribonuclease activity in venom of vietnam cobra

    • Abstract: Background Ribonuclease (RNase) is one of the few toxic proteins that are present constantly in snake venoms of all types. However, to date this RNase is still poorly studied in comparison not only with other toxic proteins of snake venom, but also with the enzymes of RNase group. The objective of this paper was to investigate some properties of RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra Naja atra. Methods Kinetic methods and gel filtration chromatography were used to investigate RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra. Results RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra Naja atra has some characteristic properties. This RNase is a thermostable enzyme and has high conformational stability. This is the only acidic enzyme of the RNase A superfamily exhibiting a high catalytic activity in the pH range of 1–4, with pHopt = 2.58 ± 0.35. Its activity is considerably reduced with increasing ionic strength of reaction mixture. Venom proteins are separated by gel filtration into four peaks with ribonucleolytic activity, which is abnormally distributed among the isoforms: only a small part of the RNase activity is present in fractions of proteins with molecular weights of 12–15 kDa and more than 30 kDa, but most of the enzyme activity is detected in fractions of polypeptides, having molecular weights of less than 9 kDa, that is unexpected. Conclusions RNase from the venom of Vietnam cobra is a unique member of RNase A superfamily according to its acidic optimum pH (pHopt = 2.58 ± 0.35) and extremely low molecular weights of its major isoforms (approximately 8.95 kDa for RNase III and 5.93 kDa for RNase IV).
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
       
  • Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular
           long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat

    • Abstract: Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated. Methods Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO): a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC); 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM) and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH). Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Results Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3) and EPA + docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3) acids than those supplemented with DCCOM or DCCOC; Dorset sired lambs contained significantly (P < 0.05) more EPA and EPA + DHA than other sire breeds; diet and sire breed interactions were significant (P < 0.05) in affecting EPA and EPA + DHA concentrations. In cooked meat, ω3 LC-PUFA concentrations in DCCOM (32 mg/100 g), DCCOH (38 mg/100 g), Dorset (36 mg/100 g), White Suffolk (32 mg/100 g), ewes (32 mg/100 g) and wethers (33 mg/100 g), all exceeded the minimum content of 30 mg/100 g of edible cooked portion of EPA + DHA for Australian defined ‘source’ level ω3 LC-PUFA classification. Conclusion These results present that combinations of dietary degummed crude canola oil, sheep genetics and culinary preparation method can be used as effective management tools to deliver nutritionally improved ω3 LC-PUFA lamb to meat consumers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
       
  • Effect of Dietary sugar beet pulp supplementation on growth performance,
           nutrient digestibility, fecal Microflora, blood profiles and Diarrhea
           incidence in weaning pigs

    • Abstract: Background In 2006, the European Union (EU) has decided to forbid use of antibiotics as growth promoters. Although many researches had been conducted about fiber source as alternatives of antibiotics, there are still lack of reports in the literature about the optimum level of sugar beet pulp supplementation, affecting growth performance and nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs. Therefore, different level of sugar beet pulp was added to diets to determine the effects of sugar beet pulp supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microflora, blood profile and incidence of diarrhea in weaning pigs. Methods A total of 200 weaning pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc], averaging 9.01 ± 1.389 kg of initial body weight were, allotted to 5 treatments in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Each treatment was composed of 4 replicates with 10 pigs per pen. The treatments were control treatment: Corn-SBM basal diet + ZnO (phase 1: 0.05%; phase 2; 0.03%) and four different levels of sugar beet pulp were supplemented in Corn-SBM basal diet (3, 6, 9 or 12%). Two phase feeding programs (phase 1: 1–2 weeks; phase 2: 3–5 weeks) were used for 5 week of growth trial. Results In feeding trial, there were no significant differences in growth performance and incidence of diarrhea among treatments. The E.coli counts were not significantly different among dietary treatments but linear response was observed in Lactobacillus counts as sugar beet pulp supplementation increased (P < 0.05). In addition, IGF-1, IgA and IgG were not affected by dietary treatments. However, the BUN concentration was decreased when pigs were fed the treatments of diets with SBP compared to that of control treatment (P < 0.05). In nutrient digestibility, crude fiber and NDF digestibilities were improved as the sugar beet pulp increased (P < 0.05). However, digestibilities of crude ash, crude fat, crude fiber and nitrogen retention were not affected by dietary sugar beet pulp levels. Conclusion This experiment demonstrated that sugar beet pulp can be supplemented in weaning pigs’ diet instead of ZnO to prevent postweaning diarrhea without any detrimental effect on growth performance.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
       
  • Role of ghrelin in the pancreatic exocrine secretion via mitogen-activated
           protein kinase signaling in rats

    • Abstract: Background This study was performed to investigate the impact of exogenous ghrelin on the pancreatic α-amylase outputs and responses of pancreatic proteins to ghrelin that may relate to pancreatic exocrine. Methods Sprague-Dawley male rats (9 weeks old, 300 ± 10 g) were injected with ghrelin via intraperitoneal (i.p.) infusion at dosage of 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg body weight (BW), respectively. The plasma ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) level were determined using enzyme immunoassay kit; the mRNA expression of ghrelin receptor (GHSR-1α) and growth hormone (GH) receptor were assessed by reverse transcription PCR; the expressions of pancreatic α-amylase activity, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK), phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (pERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were evaluated by western blotting; moreover the responses of pancreatic proteins to ghrelin were analyzed using the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis system. Results The exogenous ghrelin (1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg BW) elevated the level of plasma ghrelin (p < 0.05), and suppressed the expression of pancreatic α-amylase at a dose of 10.0 μg/kg BW (p < 0.05). No difference in the level of plasma CCK was observed, even though rats were exposed to any dose of exogenous ghrelin. In addition, a combination of western blot and proteomic analysis revealed exogenous ghrelin (10.0 μg/kg BW) induced increasing the JNK and ERK expressions (p < 0.05) and four proteins such as Destrin, Anionic trypsin-1, Trypsinogen, and especially eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 in rat pancreas. Conclusions Taken together, exogenous ghrelin by i.p. infusion plays a role in the pancreatic exocrine secretion via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
       
  • Various levels of copra meal supplementation with β -Mannanase on growth
           performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and
           economical analysis in growing-finishing pigs

    • Abstract: Background To reduce use of main feed ingredient like corn, soy bean meal (SBM) and wheat, alternative ingredients has been studied like copra meal (CM). Production amount of CM which has been high makes CM to be an alternative feed stuff. However, low digestibility on AA and low energy content by high fiber content can be an obstacle for using CM. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of CM supplementation with β-mannanase on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and economic analysis in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 100 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) averaging 31.22 ± 2.04 kg body weight were allotted to 5 different treatments by weight and sex in a randomized complete block (RCB) design in 5 replicate with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were 1) Control (corn-SBM based diet + 0.1% of β-mannanase (800 IU)), 2) CM10 (10% copra meal + 0.1% β-mannanase (800 IU)), 3) CM15 (15% copra meal + 0.1% β-mannanase (800 IU)), 4) CM20 (20% copra meal + 0.1% β-mannanase (800 IU)) and 5) CM25 (25% copra meal + 0.1% β-mannanase (800 IU)). Four phase feeding program was used: growing I (week 1–3), growing II (week 4–6), finishing I (week 7–9) and finishing II (week 10–12). Results In growth performance, there was no significant difference among treatments during whole experimental period. In growingI phase, G:F ratio tended to increase when CM was increased (P = 0.05), but ADG and ADFI tended to decrease in finishingII phase (linear, P = 0.08). Also, increasing CM reduced ADG (linear, P = 0.02) and feed efficiency (linear, P = 0.08) during the whole finishing period. In blood profiles, BUN was linearly increased as CM increased (linear, P = 0.02) at growingII period. In digestibility trial, there was no significant difference in dry matter, crude fat, crude ash and nitrogen digestibility. However, crude protein digestibility was decreased linearly (linear, P = 0.02). In economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain and total feed cost per pig were reduced in overall period when CM was provided by 25% (linear, P = 0.02). Conclusion CM with 0.1% of β-mannanase (800 IU) could be supplemented instead of corn and SBM up to 25% without detrimental effects on growth performance and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
       
  • Behavioral and physiological changes during heat stress in Corriedale ewes
           exposed to water deprivation

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the behavioral and physiological changes of heat stressed Corriedale ewes exposed to water deprivation. Nine Corriedale ewes (average BW = 45 ± 3.7 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned into three groups (9 sheep per treatment) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design for 3 periods with 21-d duration for each period. The control (CON) group was given free access to water, 2 h water deprivation (2hWD), and 3 h water deprivation (3hWD) following feeding. No differences were found in fecal excretion frequency, standing frequency (number/d), and sitting frequency among the groups (p > 0.05). Measurements of standing duration (min/d) and urine excretion frequency (number/d) showed a significant decrease whereas sitting duration (min/d) showed a significant increase in the 2hWD and 3hWD groups when compared with the CON group (p < 0.05). Fecal score and heart rate (number/min) were not different among the groups (p > 0.05). However, respiratory rate (number/min) and panting score were found to be significantly higher in the 2hWD and 3hWD groups than in the CON group (p < 0.05). It is concluded that water deprivation following feeding intensifies physiological heat stress related indicators such as respiratory rate and panting score and changes behavioral parameters such as water intake and urine excretion frequency in heat stressed ewes. Daily adaptation to the extreme environmental conditions may occur actively in ewes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
       
  • Effect of feeding garlic leaves on rumen fermentation, methane emission,
           plasma glucose kinetics, and nitrogen utilization in sheep

    • Abstract: Background Garlic and its constituents are reported to have been effective in reducing methane emission and also influence glucose metabolism in body; however, studies in ruminants using garlic leaves are scarce. Garlic leaves contain similar compounds as garlic bulbs, but are discarded in field after garlic bulb harvest. We speculate that feeding garlic leaves might show similar effect as garlic constituents in sheep and could be potential animal feed supplement. Thus, we examined the effect of freeze dried garlic leaves (FDGL) on rumen fermentation, methane emission, plasma glucose kinetics and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Methods Six sheep were fed Control diet (mixed hay and concentrate (60:40)) or FDGL diet (Control diet supplemented with FDGL at 2.5 g/kg BW0.75 of sheep) using a crossover design. Methane gas emission was measured using open-circuit respiratory chamber. Plasma glucose turnover rate was measured using isotope dilution technique of [U-13C]glucose. Rumen fluid, feces and urine were collected to measure rumen fermentation characteristics and nitrogen utilization. Result No significant difference in rumen fermentation parameters was noticed except for rumen ammonia tended to be higher (0.05 < P < 0.1) in FDGL diet. Methane emission per kg dry matter ingested and methane emission per kg dry matter digested were lower (P < 0.05) in FDGL diet. Plasma glucose concentration was similar between diets and plasma glucose turnover rate tended to be higher in FDGL diet (0.05 < P < 0.1). Nitrogen retention was higher (P < 0.05) and microbial nitrogen supply tended to be higher (0.05 < P < 0.1) in FDGL diet. Conclusion FDGL diet did not impair rumen fermentation, improved nitrogen retention; while absence of significant results in reduction of methane emission, glucose turnover rate and microbial nitrogen supply, further studies at higher dose would be necessary to conclude the merit of FDGL as supplement in ruminant feedstuff.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26
       
  • Effects of liposomal-curcumin on five opportunistic bacterial strains
           found in the equine hindgut - preliminary study

    • Abstract: Background The horse intestinal tract is sensitive and contains a highly complex microbial population. A shift in the microbial population can lead to various issues such as inflammation and colic. The use of nutraceuticals in the equine industry is on the rise and curcumin is thought to possess antimicrobial properties that may help to minimize the proliferation of opportunistic bacteria. Methods Four cecally-cannulated horses were utilized to determine the optimal dose of liposomal-curcumin (LIPC) on reducing Streptococcus bovis/equinus complex (SBEC), Escherichia coli K-12, Escherichia coli general, Clostridium difficile, and Clostridium perfringens in the equine hindgut without adversely affecting cecal characteristics. In the first study cecal fluid was collected from each horse and composited for an in vitro, 24 h batch culture to examine LIPC at four different dosages (15, 20, 25, and 30 g) in a completely randomized design. A subsequent in vivo 4 × 4 Latin square design study was conducted to evaluate no LIPC (control, CON) or LIPC dosed at 15, 25, and 35 g per day (dosages determined from in vitro results) for 9 days on the efficacy of LIPC on selected bacterial strains, pH, and volatile fatty acids. Each period was 14 days with 9 d for acclimation and 5 d withdrawal period. Results In the in vitro study dosage had no effect (P ≥ 0.42) on Clostridium strains, but as the dose increased SBEC concentrations increased (P = 0.001). Concentrations of the E. coli strain varied with dose. In vivo, LIPC’s antimicrobial properties, at 15 g, significantly decreased (P = 0.02) SBEC when compared to 25 and 35 g dosages. C. perfringens decreased linearly (P = 0.03) as LIPC dose increased. Butyrate decreased linearly (P = 0.01) as LIPC dose increased. Conclusion Further studies should be conducted with a longer dosing period to examine the antimicrobial properties of curcumin without adversely affecting cecal characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
       
  • Effects of dexamethasone on progesterone and estrogen profiles and uterine
           progesterone receptor localization during pregnancy in Sahel goat in
           Semi-Arid region

    • Abstract: Background Despite the widespread use of dexamethasone in veterinary and human medicine, it is reported to cause some severe pregnancy related side effects like abortion in some animals. The mechanism of the response is not clear but seems to be related to interspecies and/or breed difference in response which may involve alterations in the concentrations of some reproductive hormones. Methods Twenty Sahel goats comprising 18 does and 2 bucks were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after synchronization. Repeated dexamethasone injections were given at 0.25 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected biweekly for hormonal assay. Uterine biopsies were harvested at days 28 and day 78 of gestation through caesarean section for immunohistochemical analysis using 3 pregnant does randomly selected from each group at each instant. Data were expressed as Means ± Standard Deviations and analyzed using statistical soft ware package, GraphPad Instant, version 3.0 (2003) and progesterone receptor (PR) were scored semi-quantitatively. Results Dexamethasone treatments had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on progesterone and estrogen concentrations in pregnant Sahel goats but up regulated PR from 2+ to 3+ in second trimester. Conclusion As dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta is an established fact, the lack of effect on progesterone level in this study may be due to the fact that unlike other species whose progesterone production during pregnancy is placenta – dependent, in goats is corpus luteum - dependent. Consequently dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta reported in literatures did not influence progesterone levels during pregnancy in Sahel goat. The up regulation of progesterone receptor (PR) in Sahel goat gravid uterus is a beneficial effects and that dexamethasone can safely be used in corpus luteum – dependent progesterone secreting pregnant animal species like Sahel goat and camel. Therefore source of progesterone secretions during pregnancy should be considered in clinical application of dexamethasone in pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
       
  • Effects of phosalone consumption via feeding with or without sodium
           bentonite on performance, blood metabolites and its transition to milk of
           Iranian Baluchi sheep

    • Abstract: Background Transfer of pesticides from environment to animal products is inevitable, so the purpose of the present work was to evaluate phosalone consumption via feeding with or without sodium bentonite (SB) on performance, blood metabolites and its transition to milk of Iranian Baluchi sheep. Methods Twenty Baluchi ewes were divided into four treatments (P1 as control, P2, P3, and P4) of five animals in which phosalone, an organophosphate pesticide, was given via diet (only for P2 and P3) at a dose of 280 mg/sheep/day for 63 consecutive days. The SB (32 g/sheep/day; for P3 and P4) was also evaluated for its ability to reduce deleterious effects of phosalone in the sheep diets. The control group (P1) did not receive any phosalone and SB during the experiment. Sampling was conducted in two periods of time including weeks 5 and 9. Results Phosalone residues were observed in the milk samples of P2 and P3 groups during two sampling periods. During period 1, the transfer rate of phosalone from feed to milk was 0.23 and 0.02%, respectively for the contaminated diets (P2 and P3), which is relatively similar to period 2 (0.22 and 0.02%). Only 0.34 (period 1) and 0.36% (period 2) of phosalone residue are excreted in the feces of P2 group following its daily consumption. Transfer of phosalone from feed to milk was affected (P < 0.05) by the dietary inclusion of a commercial SB, as it (SB) decreased excretion of phosalone via milk (P3). The phosalone and SB alone or together had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight (BW) gain, but feed efficiency, milk production, milk fat, dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), albumin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) affected by the treatments in period 1 or 2 (P < 0.05). The Hb, RBC, and MCHC were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by about 9.72, 20.77, and 9.71%, respectively in the group P2 as compared to those of the control group during period 1. The AChE inhibitory activity (period 1 and 2) significantly increased when phosalone administered via the diet (P < 0.05). Conclusions Although there were no adverse effects on the performance of sheep following the intake of phosalone alone (P2 vs. P1), but other research on the long and short times to the phosalone in high and low doses with more animals is suggested. Overall, compared to the control group, addition of SB in the diet of sheep improved nutrient digestibility, animal performance, and milk health.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
       
  • Effect of dietary mannanoligosaccharide supplementation on nutrient
           digestibility, hindgut fermentation, immune response and antioxidant
           indices in dogs

    • Abstract: Background Use of prebiotics in companion animal nutrition is often considered advantageous over probiotics because of the ease of handling, ability to withstand processing and storage etc. While most of the studies on prebiotic use in dogs have been done with processed food as basal diet, the response in relation to homemade diet feeding is not very well explored. Methods The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, hindgut fermentation, immune response and antioxidant indices in dogs. Ten Spitz pups were divided into two groups: control (CON) with no supplementation, and experimental (MOS) wherein the basal diet was supplemented with MOS at 15 g/kg diet. All dogs were fed on a home-prepared diet for a period of 150 days. The study protocol included a digestion trial, periodic blood collection and analysis for lipid profile and erythrocytic antioxidants. Immune response of the animals was assessed towards the end of the feeding period. Results Results revealed no significant (P > 0.05) variations in palatability score, intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients between the groups. Faecal score, faeces voided, faecal pH, concentrations of ammonia, lactate and short-chain fatty acids were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two groups. Cell-mediated immune response, assessed as delayed-type of hypersensitivity response, was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the MOS group. The percent of lymphocyte sub-populations CD4+ and ratio of CD4+:CD8+ were also significantly (P < 0.05) higher in MOS group. The serum IgG levels were similar (P > 0.05) in both the groups. Supplementation of MOS lowered (P < 0.05) serum total- and LDL- cholesterol levels, when compared with the control group. The erythrocytic antioxidant indices were similar (P > 0.05) between the two groups. Conclusions The results indicated that supplementation of MOS at the rate of 15 g/kg in the diet of dog augmented the cell-mediated immune response and serum lipid profile without any influences on digestibility of nutrients, hindgut fermentation and antioxidants indices.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
       
 
 
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