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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 878 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (77 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (621 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (99 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (29 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2055-0391
Published by Biomed Central Ltd. Homepage  [294 journals]
  • Correction to: Physicochemical properties of M. longissimus dorsi of
           Korean native pigs

    • Abstract: Upon publication of this article [1], it was noticed that during typesetting, the words ‘Breeds’ and ‘Items’ were accidentally placed next to each other in Table 1, whereas they should be discrete. Please see below the correct Table 1.
      PubDate: 2018-06-22
       
  • Dietary manipulation: a sustainable way to mitigate methane emissions from
           ruminants

    • Abstract: Abstract Methane emission from the enteric fermentation of ruminant livestock is a main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and a major concern for global warming. Methane emission is also associated with dietary energy lose; hence, reduce feed efficiency. Due to the negative environmental impacts, methane mitigation has come forward in last few decades. To date numerous efforts were made in order to reduce methane emission from ruminants. No table mitigation approaches are rumen manipulation, alteration of rumen fermentation, modification of rumen microbial biodiversity by different means and rarely by animal manipulations. However, a comprehensive exploration for a sustainable methane mitigation approach is still lacking. Dietary modification is directly linked to changes in the rumen fermentation pattern and types of end products. Studies showed that changing fermentation pattern is one of the most effective ways of methane abatement. Desirable dietary changes provide two fold benefits i.e. improve production and reduce GHG emissions. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss biology of methane emission from ruminants and its mitigation through dietary manipulation.
      PubDate: 2018-06-18
       
  • Analysis of protein-protein interaction network based on transcriptome
           profiling of ovine granulosa cells identifies candidate genes in cyclic
           recruitment of ovarian follicles

    • Abstract: Abstract After pubertal, cohort of small antral follicles enters to gonadotrophin-sensitive development, called recruited follicles. This study was aimed to identify candidate genes in follicular cyclic recruitment via analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ovine granulosa cells of small antral follicles between follicular and luteal phases were accumulated among gene/protein symbols of the Ensembl annotation. Following directed graphs, PTPN6 and FYN have the highest indegree and outdegree, respectively. Since, these hubs being up-regulated in ovine granulosa cells of small antral follicles during the follicular phase, it represents an accumulation of blood immune cells in follicular phase in comparison with luteal phase. By contrast, the up-regulated hubs in the luteal phase including CDK1, INSRR and TOP2A which stimulated DNA replication and proliferation of granulosa cells, they known as candidate genes of the cyclic recruitment.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
       
  • Dietary spray-dried plasma improves intestinal morphology of mated female
           mice under stress condition

    • Abstract: Background Stress causes inflammation that impairs intestinal barrier function. Dietary spray-dried plasma (SDP) has recognized anti-inflammatory effects and improvement of gut barrier function. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary SDP on intestinal morphology of mated female mice under stress condition. Results Villus height, width, and area of small intestines were low on gestation day (GD) 3 or 4 under stress conditions, and higher later (Time, P < 0.05). Crypt depth of colon was low on GD 4 and higher later (Time, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the SDP treatments improved (P < 0.05) intestinal morphology, indicated by increased villus height, villus width, villus area, and ratio between villus height and crypt depth of small intestines and crypt depth of colon, and by decreased crypt depth of small intestines, compared with the control diet. The SDP treatments also increased (P < 0.05) the number of goblet cells in intestines compared with the control diet. There were no differences between different levels of SDP. Conclusion Dietary SDP improves intestinal morphology of mated female mice under stress condition.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
       
  • Dietary addition of a standardized extract of turmeric (TurmaFEED TM )
           improves growth performance and carcass quality of broilers

    • Abstract: Background Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry farming has caused emergence of new pathogenic strains. The situation has warrented the development of safe and alternative growth promoters and immunity enhancers in livestock. Herbal additives in animal and bird feed is a centuries-old practice. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of a standardized formulation of lipophilic turmeric extract containing curcumin and turmerones, (TF-36), as a natural growth promoter poultry feed additive. Methods The study was designed on 180 one-day old chicks, assigned into three groups. Control group (T0) kept on basal diet and supplemented groups T0.5 and T1 fed with 0.5% and 1% TF-36 fortified basal diet for 42 days. Each dietary group consisted of six replicates of ten birds. Body weight, food intake, food conversion ratio, skin colour, blood biochemical analysis and antioxidant status of serum were investigated. Results Body weight improved significantly in T1 with a 10% decrease in FCR as compared to the control. TF-36 supplementation in T1 enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activity significantly (p < 0.05) with a decrease (p < 0.05) in lipid peroxidation. It also caused a slight yellow skin pigmentation without any change in meat color, indicating the bioavailability of curcumin from TF-36. However, no significant change in the concentration of serum creatinine, total protein and liver enzyme activities were observed, indicating the safety. Conclusion In summary, we concluded that TF-36 can be a natural feed additive to improve growth performance in poultry, probably due to the better antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effects contributed by the better bioavailability of curcuminoids and turmerones. Besides, curcuminoids and turmerones were also known to be gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents.
      PubDate: 2018-05-28
       
  • Maximum number of total born piglets in a parity and individual ranges in
           litter size expressed as specific characteristics of sows

    • Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to underline that litter size as a key trait of sows needs new parameters to be evaluated and to target an individual optimum. Large individual variation in litter size affects both production and piglet’s survival and health negatively. Therefore, two new traits were suggested and analyzed. Two data sets on 5509 purebred German Landrace sows and 3926 Large White and crossing sows including at least two parental generations and at least five parities were subjected to variance components analysis. Results The new traits for evaluating litter size were derived from the individual numbers of total born piglets (TBP) per parity: In most cases, sows reach their maximum litter size in their fourth parity. Therefore, data from at least five parities were included. The first observable maximum and minimum of TBP, and the individual variation expressed by the range were targeted. Maximum of TBP being an observable trait in pig breeding and management yielded clearly higher heritability estimates (h 2 ~ 0.3) than those estimates predominantly reported so far. Maximum TBP gets closer to the genetic capacity for litter size than other litter traits. Minimum of TBP is positively correlated with the range of TBP (r p  = 0.48, r g  > 0.6). The correlation between maximum of TBP and its individually reached frequency was negative in both data sets (r p  = − 0.28 and − 0.22, respectively). Estimated heritability coefficients for the range of TBP comprised a span of h 2  = 0.06 to 0.10. Conclusion An optimum both for maximum and range of total born piglets in selecting sows is a way contributing to homogenous litters in order to improving the animal-related conditions both for piglets’ welfare and economic management in pig.
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
       
  • Flock composition, breeding strategies and farmers’ traits of interest
           evaluation of Wollo highland sheep and their F 1 crosses

    • Abstract: Background Sheep production is a major component of the livestock sector in Ethiopia. The country owing to the large population of 30.70 million estimated numbers of sheep in the country and out of which about 72.14% are females, and 27.86% are males with diverse genetic resources. The real value of indigenous breeds was often under-estimated mostly due to their poor appearance and relatively low productivity. Developing countries in most cases opt for exotic breeds to increase animal productivity through crossbreeding or breed substitution without properly investigating the production potential of the indigenous breeds. The main objective of the research was to identify sheep flock composition and structure, farmers’ traits of interest and breeding objective of Wollo highland sheep, and their F1 crossbreed progenies. Results Smallholder farmers’ flock synthesized from breeding ewes, breeding rams, pre-weaned ewe lambs, pre-weaned ram lambs, unproductive ewes, castrated and fattened rams, with the percentage coverage of 29.2, 13.3, 15.5, 16.5, 12.4, and 12.5%, respectively. The maximum number of flock size was 289.0 sheep per flock and higher in the third stratum. The off-take rate percentage of the three strata presented as 21.9% in 1st stratum, 12% in the 2nd stratum, and 16.4% in the 3rd stratum and higher off-take rate recorded in the first stratum. Sheep producer’s traits of interest ranked by growth rate (first), body size (second) and marketing value was third rank. Communal breeding (random mating), village based controlled breeding, mixed type and private ram controlled breeding practice were comprised of 39.7, 61.7, 52 and 71.3%, respectively. The percentages of ewes per flock composition were presented as 36.5, 27.1 and 25.5%, respectively in the 3rd stratum, 2nd stratum and 3rd stratum in the order of their importance’s. Conclusion Genetic improvement practices at smallholder sheep producers situation was showing promising outcome with indigenous Washera F1 crossbred lambs and which designated for weaning rate, body size, marketing age, age at first lambing, good temperament and large litter size in the order of their rank. The contemporary breeding practice tendency indicated that, reduced flock size to improve flock productivity via crossbreeding practices.
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
       
  • Intake and performance of lambs finished in feedlot with wet
           brewer’s grains

    • Abstract: Background The use of agroindustrial by-products in ruminant nutrition to be an interesting alternative in order to reduce production costs and environmental impacts arising from the inadequate destination of residues. The initial step of beer production yields a large volume of wet brewer’s grains all year around, which is available at a low cost and has a high nutritional quality, and hence a big potential for animal production. Methods Twenty-four Suffolk non-castrated male lambs, from simple parturition were kept in individual spots and allocated to four treatments constituted by four levels of substitution of sorghum silage by WBG (i.e.0; 33.5; 66.5 and 100% of substitution). It was used roughage: concentrate rate of 50:50, based on dry matter. Results The ether extract intake increased while the acid detergent fiber intake decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05). Substituion of sorghum silage by WBG did not change lambs’ feed DMI, daily weight gain and feed conversion. Conclusion The substitution of sorghum silage by WBG as roughage showed to be a viable alternative from the productive and economic point of view for finishing of feedlot lambs.
      PubDate: 2018-05-14
       
  • Addition of Capsicum oleoresin, Carvacrol, Cinnamaldehyde and their
           mixtures to the broiler diet II: Effects on meat quality

    • Abstract: Background In recent years, with the prohibition of antibiotics used as growth stimulants in the nutrition of farm animals, researchers have searched for alternative natural and reliable products in order to be able to sustain the developments experienced during the use of antibiotics and to overcome the possible inconveniences. In this context, studies on evaluation of essential oils in poultry nutrition have been reported to improve the utilization of feed, stimulate the release of digestive enzymes, increase absorption in the stomach and intestines, antimicrobial and anti-parasitic effects and thus, can be an alternative to antibiotics and improve meat quality as well. Indeed, this study has been carried out to explore the effects of the addition of 150 mg/kg capsicum oleoresin (CAP), carvacrol (CAR), cinnamaldehyde (CIN) or their mixture (CAP+CAR+CIN) into the broilers’ ration over sensory, physical and chemical properties in breast meat and leg meat. Methods Experiments were conducted over 400 male and female broiler chicks (Ross-308) in 5 groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups), each composed of 80 chicks. The control group was fed without feed additives while the second, third, fourth and the fifth groups were fed with 150 mg CAP/kg feed, 150 mg CAR/kg feed, 150 mg CIN/kg feed, and 150 mg CAP+CAR+CIN/kg feed, respectively. Results Addition of CAP, CAR, CIN or CAP+CAR+CIN had effects on the sensory (of taste, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability); physical properties (of L* value and toughness), the chemical properties (of DM, CF, CP, linoleic, EPA, behenic, MUFA, PUFA and ∑n-6 of the leg meat), the physical characteristics (of toughness and firmness), and the chemical properties (of CF, CP, linoleic, ecosenic, EPA, lignoseric, MUFA and ∑n-3) of the breast meat in comparison to control group. Furthermore, while the treatments had positive impacts on thawing loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity in both breast and leg meat; no effect was observed on pH value and lipid oxidation on day 1, day 4 and day 8. Conclusion The results strongly suggested that the addition of CAP, CAR, CIN or CAP+CAR+CIN to the rations of the broiler chicks changed the sensory, physical and chemical properties of breast and leg meat. It was also observed that these compounds were more effective when they were added to the ratio as a mixture rather than adding them individually.
      PubDate: 2018-04-30
       
  • Effect of cold stress on infanticide by female Swiss albino mice Mus
           musculus : a pilot study

    • Abstract: Background Mice are widely accepted research models of great clinical significance. Maintenance of laboratory mice breed is an essential aspect for performing research activities in various fields of science. Infanticide is one of the prominent causes of litter loss during maintenance of laboratory mice stock. The present study is an effort to monitor the effect of change in ambient temperature of female mice below the normal range on cannibalism and infanticide during early postparturition phase. Adult female Swiss albino mice have been divided into two groups of control and treatment. On the day of litter group one was maintained under controlled temperature conditions (minimum 20 °C to maximum 23 °C) throughout, while female mice belong to group two have been exposed to variation of room temperature (maximum 15 °C to minimum 10 °C for two nights and one day) until 36 h postparturition. Results The effects of temperature changes were observed on the infanticide behaviour of dams along with the survival of pups in early postparturition phase till 36 h after delivery. The significant statistical difference (P < 0.05) was reported in infanticide behaviour of dams when control and treatment group was compared. It is observed that decrement in surrounding temperature promotes decrement in the ambient body temperature of dams during early postparturition. It is proposed that alteration of hypothalamic homeostasis due to temperature change induces cannibalism and infanticide behaviour. Lack of thermoregulation during early postparturition creates the sense of insecurity, in-satiety, anxiety and stress. Conclusions
      Authors strongly recommend the maintenance of body and surrounding temperature to prevent infanticidal behaviour and cannibalism within Swiss albino mice population. Further investigations are advisable to authenticate the active behavioural and biochemical pathway behind the phenomena.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
       
  • Effects of an odor or taste stimulus applied to an artificial teat on the
           suckling behavior of newborn dairy calves

    • Abstract: Background In their first days of life, dairy calves in artificial rearing systems often have difficulty using an artificial teat for feeding. Methods We examined the age at which calves are able to stand up voluntarily and suckle as well as their suckling behavior when presented with a plain dry teat versus a dry teat modified with a presumably attractive odor or taste substance. Single-housed newborn dairy calves (n = 51) were presented for ten consecutive days with a two-minute two-choice test, in which suckling time was recorded for 1) a plain (control) teat versus a glucose-coated teat (taste test) and 2) a plain teat versus a teat with a "Freshly Cut Grass" odor (odor test). Results On average, the calves were able to stand up voluntarily and suckle from the second or third day of age on. The "Freshly Cut Grass" odor had no significant effect on their suckling behavior. In contrast, the calves showed a significant preference for suckling the glucose-coated teat and displayed a significantly longer total suckling time in the taste test compared to the odor test. There were no significant differences between sexes regarding suckling behavior. Conclusion The results of the present study show that glucose had a significant effect on the calves’ teat preference and significantly increased total suckling time with a dry artificial teat. As such, glucose may increase suckling motivation in non-efficient drinkers or ill calves with low motivation to suckle.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
       
  • Physicochemical properties of M. longissimus dorsi of Korean native pigs

    • Abstract: Background The meat quality of Korean native pigs (KNP) and crossbred pigs (LYD; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) was examined to generate data useful for selecting native pigs for improved pork production. Methods Fifty Korean native pigs (KNP) and 50 crossbred pigs (LYD) were tested. Loin samples (M. longissimus dorsi) of the two breeds were analyzed to determine meat quality and sensory properties. Result KNP had a higher moisture content than LYD (p < 0.05); however, it had significantly lower crude fat and ash content than that of LYD (p < 0.001). KNP had significantly higher shear force than LYD (p < 0.01). KNP also showed significantly higher cooking loss than LYD (p < 0.05). KNP had a lower L* value than LYD (p < 0.05); however, it had a markedly higher a* and b* value than LYD (p < 0.001). KNP showed significantly higher linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid content than LYD (p < 0.05). Although KNP had significantly better flavor and overall palatability than LYD, it was less tender than LYD (p < 0.01). Conclusion KNP had a markedly higher a* value than LYD. KNP had significantly higher shear force than LYD. The total unsaturated fatty acid content was higher in KNP than in LYD.
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
       
  • Correction to: effects of dietary supplementation of a lipid-coated zinc
           oxide product on the fecal consistency, growth, and morphology of the
           intestinal mucosa of weanling pigs

    • Abstract: Due to a technical issue this article [1] was accidentally published in volume 59, the correct volume for this article is volume 60.
      PubDate: 2018-03-05
       
  • Nutrient production from Korean poultry and loading estimations for
           cropland

    • Abstract: Background Poultry breeding has increased by 306% in Korea, inevitably increasing the production of manure which may contribute to environmental pollution. The nutrients (NP) in the manure are essential for crop cultivation and soil fertility when applied as compost. Excess nutrients from manure can be accumulated on the land and can lead to eutrophication. Therefore, a nutrient load on the finite land should be calculated. Methods This study calculates the nutrient production from Korean poultry by investigating 11 broiler and 16 laying hen farms. The broiler manure was composted using deep litter composting while for layer deep litter composting, drying, and simple static pile were in practice. The effect of weight reduction and storing period during composting was checked. Three weight reduction cases of compost were constructed to calculate nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs) using data from; i) farm investigation, ii) theoretical P changes (ΔP = 0), and iii) dry basis. Results During farm investigation of broiler and layer with deep litter composting, there was a 68 and 21% N loss whereas 77 and 33% P loss was found, respectively. In case of layer composting, a loss of 10-56% N and a 52% P loss was observed. Drying manure increased the P concentrations therefore NLCs calculated using dry basis that showed quite higher reductions (67% N; 53% P). Nutrient loss from farm investigation was much higher than reported by Korean Ministry of Environment (ME). Conclusions Nutrients in manure are decreased when undergo storing or composting process due to microbial action, drying, and leaching. The nutrient load applied to soil is less than the fresh manure, hence the livestock manure management and conservation of environment would be facilitated.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
       
  • Correction to: in-transit development of color abnormalities in turkey
           breast meat during winter season

    • Abstract: Due to a technical issue this article [1] was accidentally published in volume 59, the correct volume for this article is volume 60.
      PubDate: 2018-02-16
       
  • Evaluating different interrow distance between corn and soybean for
           optimum growth, production and nutritive value of intercropped forages

    • Abstract: Background Maize fodder is being used as staple feed for livestock but it lacks protein and essential amino acids; lysine and tryptophan. Intercropping maize with leguminous soybean crop is promising technique under limited land resources of South Korea but it can only give considerable advantages when adequate distance is provided between corn and soybean rows. Main aim of present study was to find-out adequate distance between corn and soybean seeding rows for optimum growth, yield and nutritive value of intercropped forage. Methods Different interrow distances between corn and soybean were evaluated under four treatments, viz. 1) Corn sole as positive control treatment 2) Zero cm between corn and soybean (control); 2) Five cm between corn and soybean; 3) 10 cm between corn and soybean, with three replicates under randomized block design. Results Findings depicted that height and number of corn stalks and ears were similar (P > 0.05) among different treatments. Numerically average corn ear height was decreased at zero cm distance. Dry matter percentage in all components; corn stalk, corn ear and soybean was also found not different (P > 0.05) but dry matter yield in component of corn ear was lower (P < 0.05) at zero cm distance as compared to that of 5 and 10 cm interrow distances. In case of nutritive value, total digestible nutrient yield in intercropped corn was also found lower (P < 0.05) at zero cm distance than that of 5 and 10 cm interrow distances between corn and soybean seeding rows. Substantial decrease in dry matter yield of maize ear at zero cm distance might be attributed to factor of closed interrow spacing which made interplant competition more intensified for light interception, necessary for photosynthetic activity. Lower dry matter yield in ear also reduced total digestible nutrients in intercropped maize because it was determining factor in calculation of digestible nutrients. The optimum yield and nutritive value of forage at wider interrow distance i.e. 5 cm between corn and soybean might be due to adequate interseed distance. Conclusion Conclusively, pattern of corn and soybean seeding in rows at 5 cm distance was found suitable which provided adequate interrow distance to maintain enough mutual cooperation and decreased competition between both species for optimum production performance and nutritive value of intercropped forage.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of a lipid-coated zinc oxide product on
           the fecal consistency, growth, and morphology of the intestinal mucosa of
           weanling pigs

    • Abstract: Background Dietary supplementation of zinc oxide (ZnO) to 2000 to 4000 mg/kg is known to be effective for the prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhea in the pig. Such a ‘pharmacological’ supplementation, however, can potentially result in environmental pollution of the heavy metal, because dietary ZnO is mostly excreted unabsorbed. Two experiments (Exp.) were performed in the present study to determine the effects of a lipid-coated ZnO supplement Shield Zn (SZ) compared with those of ZnO. Methods In Exp. 1, a total of 240 21-day-old weanling pigs were fed a diet supplemented with 100 mg Zn/kg as ZnO (ZnO-100), ZnO-2500, SZ-100, or SZ-200 in 24 pens for 14 days on a farm with its post-weaning pigs exhibiting a low incidence of diarrhea. Exp. 2 was performed using 192 24-day-old piglets as in Exp. 1 on a different farm, which exhibited a high incidence of diarrhea. Results In Exp. 1, fecal consistency (diarrhea) score (FCS) was less for the ZnO-2500 and SZ-200 groups than for the SZ-100 group (P < 0.05), with no difference between the SZ-100 and ZnO-100 groups. Both average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed ratio were less for the SZ-200 group than for the ZnO-2500 group, with no difference between the ZnO-100 group and SZ-100 or SZ-200 group. The villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD), and VH:CD ratio of the intestinal mucosa were not influenced by the treatment. In Exp. 2, FCS was lowest for the ZnO-2500 group, with no difference among the other groups. However, neither the ADG nor gain:feed ratio was influenced by the treatment. Conclusion Results suggest that physiological SZ supplementation has less beneficial effects than pharmacological ZnO for the alleviation of diarrhea irrespective of its severity and for promoting growth without influencing their integrity of the intestinal mucosal structures with little advantage over physiological ZnO in weanling pigs with a small pen size.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
       
  • In-transit development of color abnormalities in turkey breast meat during
           winter season

    • Abstract: Background The poultry industry suffers losses from problems as pale, soft and exudative (PSE), and dark, firm and dry (DFD) meat can develop in meat as a result of short- and long-term stress, respectively. These abnormalities are impacted by pre-slaughter animal welfare. Methods This work evaluated the effects of open vehicle container microclimate, throughout the 38 ± 10 km journey from the farm to the slaughterhouse, on commercially turkey transported during the Brazilian winter season. The journey was initiated immediately after water bath in truck fitted with portable Kestrel anemometers to measure air ventilation, relative humidity, temperature and ventilation. Results The inferior compartments of the middle and rear truck regions showed highest temperature and relative humidity, and lower air ventilation. In addition, the superior compartments of the front truck regions presented lower temperature and wind chill, and highest air ventilation. The breast meat samples from animals located at the inferior compartments of the middle and rear truck regions and subjected to with water bath (WiB) treatment presented highest DFD-like and had lowest PSE-like meat incidence than those from animals located at other compartments within the container. Lower incidence of PSE-like meat was observed in birds without water bath (WoB). Conclusions Assessment on turkeys transported under Brazilian southern winter conditions revealed that breast meat quality can be affected by relative humidity, air ventilation, temperature, and transport under subtropical conditions promoting color abnormalities and the formation of simultaneously PSE-like and DFD-like meat.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22
       
  • Nitric oxide induced by Indian ginseng root extract inhibits Infectious
           Bursal Disease virus in chicken embryo fibroblasts in vitro

    • Abstract: Abstract Infectious Bursal Disease is a severe viral disease of chicken responsible for serious economic losses to poultry farmers. The causative agent, Infectious Bursal Disease virus, is inhibited by nitric oxide. Root extract of the Indian ginseng, Withania somnifera, inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in vitro. Also, Withania somnifera root extract is known to induce nitric oxide production in vitro. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine if the inhibitory activity of Withania somnifera against Infectious Bursal Disease virus was based on the production of nitric oxide. We show that besides other mechanisms, the inhibition of Infectious Bursal Disease virus by Withania somnifera involves the production of nitric oxide. Our results also highlight the paradoxical role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of Infectious Bursal Disease.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
       
  • Sonogram of coccygeus muscle in dairy cows with different gestational ages

    • Abstract: Background The change in size and weight of the female reproductive organs during gestation and birth might be affect the perineal muscles and this condition in dairy cow not been reported. This study aimed to assess the ultrasonographic image of coccygeus muscle in 11 inseminated dairy cows with different gestational ages and postpartum. Methods Gestational age was calculated based on the record of artificial insemination and confirmed by using transrectal brightness mode ultrasonography. Perineal hair between the sacrum and ischium bones was shaved along 3–5 cm before being ultrasound. The images of perineal area were obtained by transcutaneous ultrasound using a 5.0 MHz transducer. The thickness and intensity of the coccygeus muscle were measured and analyzed by gestational status and postpartum to show the differences. Results The results showed that the thickness of coccygeus muscle increased with the increase in gestational age. Muscle intensity only increased at young gestational age. However, it decreased with the increase in gestational age (P < 0.05). Conclusions The ultrasound image of coccygeus muscle was affected by gestational status, thus this method may be used as one of the new methods of indirect gestational detection on dairy cows.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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