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    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (74 journals)
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Showing 1 - 48 of 48 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover Nigerian Journal of Animal Science
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1119-4308
   Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [266 journals]
  • Influence of Wet Soya Waste on Nutrient Utilization by Red Sokoto Goats
           Fed Digitaria (Digitaria smutsii> ) Hay
    • Authors: S.B. Abdu, A.S. Jafar, M.R. Hassan, H.Y. Adamu, S.M. Yashim, M.A. Mijinyawa
      Abstract: Trial was conducted to determine the influence of wet soya waste (WSW) on nutrient utilization in Red Sokoto goats fed Digitaria smutsii hay basal diet. Four mature bucks of 11.32kg body weight were allotted to four dietary treatments which were 0, 200, 400 and 600g levels of WSW in 4 X 4 Latin square design. There was a  significant (P<0.05) difference in intake of Digitaria smutsii hay. The control group had higher intake (310g/day) and decrease with increase in the levels of WSW to (205g/day) in those fed 600g WSW. Total dry matter intake varied from 2.253.10% of body weight. The result of other nutrients followed similar pattern, with the  exception of crude fiber, the control had significantly (P<0.05) higher crude fiber intake which decreases with increase in WSW supplementation. Experimental  animals fed the 600g had significantly (P<0.05) lower water intake (240ml)  compared to those fed control diet (575ml). Dry matter digestibility was  significantly (P<0.05) affected by WSW supplementation. Animals that were fed the WSW had a high dry matter digestibility. The digestibility of other nutrients follows the same pattern. Goats fed the 600g had statistically (P<0.05) higher nitrogen intake (9.48g/day) and the least was in the control group (4.14g/day).  Nitrogen balance significantly (P<0.05) differed across dietary treatment. Experimental animals fed high levels of WSW had high nitrogen retention, while those fed the control diet had low nitrogen retention. From the result of the study, it can be  concluded that inclusion of WSW in the diet of goats influences nutrient intake and digestibility.Key words: digestibility, goat, intake, wet soya waste, nutrient, hay
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Performance assessment and grazing pattern of semi-intensively managed
           Maradi goats supplemented with Palm Kernel Cake and Poultry Dropping
    • Authors: A.A Lamidi, J.A. Okusor
      Abstract: Performance assessment and grazing pattern of semi intensively managed goats supplemented with Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) and Poultry Dropping Concentrates (PDM) was studied with 12 billy Maradi goats of average weight of 14.25kg ± 1.03 SEM, 3 replicates per each treatment. Four experimental treatments (T1-T4) were compounded with wheat offal (35%), cassava peel (30%), salt (2.25%) and bone meal (2.25%), T1 (30% PKC), T2 (20% + 10% PDM), T3 (15% PKC + 15% PDM) and T4 (10% PKC+20% PDM) and assigned in a Complete Randomized Design. The goats were tagged and supplemented with the  experimental treatments ad libitum twice daily before and after grazing, weather condition monitored. Results showed no  significant (P>0.05) difference in the DM of the experimental treatments, T1 had higher significantly (P<0.05) value of 17.50% CP, Maradi goats supplemented with T1 and T4 had higher and similar (P<0.05) feed intake while least significant (P<0.05) feed intake was recorded for goats supplemented with T3. Animals that were supplemented with T1 had highest significant (P<0.05) water consumption compared with animals supplemented with T2, T3 and T4 which had similar (P>0.05) water consumption. The goats fed T4 had the highest (P<0.05) weight gain, there is a significant (P<0.05) difference in the FCR of the experimental  animals. Maradi goats supplemented with T4 had the best FCR. There was no significant (P>0.05) in the grazing pattern of the Maradi goats. Conclusively, animals fed T4 (20% PDM inclusion) had the best feed intake, weight gain and FCR. It is therefore recommended that PDM is valuable feed resources for goat  production especially under the semi intensive management.
      Key words: Grazing pattern; Maradi goat; Poultry dropping.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Pattern of ticks and lice infestation on small ruminants in Sokoto, Sokoto
    • Authors: M.O. Alayande, A.M. Mayaki, M.D. Lawal, A. Abubakat, M. Kassu, A.O. Talabi
      Abstract: Sheep and goats are major sources of meat, skin and farm yard manure for more than 60% of indigenous population in Sokoto State, Nigeria. In addition, they are important for the high social economic value, as insurance against crop failure, and usage for cultural festivities and religious sacrifices. Among the factors which hamper the productivity of these small ruminants is ecto parasitism. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the pattern of tick and lice infestations on small ruminants  presented at the state Zonal Veterinary Clinic, Sokoto between March and August, 2015. Of the total 104 small ruminants presented for treatment  consisting of 73 sheep and 31 goats investigated, the prevalence of tick and lice infestations in this  study was observed to be 23.1% and 3.8% for sheep and goats, respectively. Thus, confirming the presence of these parasites in Sokoto. In sheep, Amblyomma variegatum (14.4%), Boophilus decoloratus (6.7%) and Linognathus ovilus (1.9%) were found, while Amblyomma variegatum (3.9%) was the only tick species found in goats. The pattern of ticks and lice infestations on small  ruminants based on age distribution showed that infestation was highest among the sheep above 3 years of age. It is also higher among the female animals than in males. The infestation was highest among Yankasa breed than other breeds encountered in the study, while infestation in goats was found only among Sokoto Red. A strategic control of these ectoparasites with appropriate acaricides during the period of high burden of ticks and lice based on epidemiology is recommended.Keywords: Lice infestations, Pattern, Small Ruminants, Sokoto, Ticks
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict
           management strategies in Ibarapa East Local Government Area of Oyo State,
    • Authors: O.O. Okunlola
      Abstract: Pastoral activities of the Fulani nomads in Ibarapa East Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo state Nigeria had come with some challenges over the years of interacting with their host community. This study was aimed at determining the effects of nomadic farming in the study area attendant conflicts and conflict management strategies adopted by the various stake holders. A total of 140 questionnaires and interview schedules were administered in the study area 100 for crop farmers as they were most affected by pastoral activities of the Fulani nomads 20 for nomads and 10 each for community leaders and law enforcement agents. A multi stage sampling method was adopted for crop farmers. In stage 1 the study area was divided into 2 quarters; stage 2 had  each quarter divided into 5 units while10 questionnaires were purposively administered to crop farmers in stage 3. Also random sampling of the nomads was conducted in which 20 interview  schedules were administered. The data was processed and  subjected to descriptive analysis using frequency count and simple percentage. The results obtained showed that the majority (62 and 100) %) of crop farmers and nomads respectively were  male (54 and 65) % of crop farmers and nomads respectively were within age  bracket of 20 – 39 years while (62 and 75) %.) of crop farmers and nomads  respectively had less than 20 years of farming experience Also the results showed that problems encountered by the crop farmers were crop destruction (22.89 %) and sexual harassment (20.65 %) while cattle theft (69.57 %) and language barrier (30.43 %) were those of the nomads. Conflicts were resolved by payment of  compensation by offending nomads (50.00 %) while crop farmers reported to concerned authorities (63.33 %) and mediation by community leaders and law enforcement. Concerning conflict prevention majority of the crop farmers (40.85%) suggested provision of grazing reserves by government while the nomads (53.12%) suggested fencing of crop farms by farmers. Value orientation on peaceful  coexistence of the crop farmers and Fulani pastoralists was recommended.
      Key words: nomadic, crop farming, conflicts, conflict management
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Evaluation of dry season diversity and stocking rate of Guyaku Grazing
           Reserve, Adamawa State- Nigeria
    • Authors: H.D. Nyako, C. Akosim, S.T. Simon, M.M. Yahya
      Abstract: An evaluation of dry season diversity and stocking rate of Guyaku Grazing Reserve in Gombi Adamawa State Nigeria was conducted from November to Marchss. Dry season diversity of herbaceous and woody plant species was determined using the Shannon Diversity Index Model. Stocking rate was estimated using the ratio of 60% of forage yield to animal requirement for a given period. Results showed that the reserve  comprises of diverse herbaceous and woody plant spices with Shannon Diversity Index value of 2 200 and 3 129 for the herbaceous and woody plant species respectively. The mean yield of forage was 1 085 kg DM/ha and the estimated stocking rate was 0.5/TLU/ha/210 days. It was recommended that the range should not be stocked with more than 0.5/TLU/ha/ 210 days around the periods of November to May and controlled grazing plan for the reserve be abided by so as to improve cattle production in the region. Fodder bank development and fodder bank conservation are also highly recommended.
      Keywords: Diversity, Grazing reserve, stocking rate
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Effect of storage place and storage period on nutritive quality of hay
           produced from three forage grasses
    • Authors: T.O. Muraina, O.S. Onifade, J.A. Olanite, P.A. Dele, C.I. Okpiaifoh, I.A. Ewetola, O.J. Amahwe, S.F. Kadri
      Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the effect of storage place and storage period on the proximate composition, in vitro gas production and post incubation parameters of hay produced from A. gayanus, B. decumbens and P. pedicellatum. The two storage places were in the room and in the shed while the storage periods were 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Results of this study showed that the dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF) and ash of the hays produced from the three grasses were significantly affected (P<0.05) by the interactive effect of the storage place, storage period and species. Brachiariadecumbens produced higher (P<0.05) DM (99.50%) in the shed at 4 weeks of storage (WS) and a lower DM (86.20%) in the room at 12 WS. Ether extract of Andropogongayanus and B. decumbens significantly (P<0.05) differed at both storage places and at the three storage periods. Brachiariadecumbens produced higher (P<0.05) (14.50%) and lower (4.50%) EE contents in the room at 4 and 12 WS respectively. Similarly, ash contents of the hays significantly (p<0.05) ranged from 3.50% in the storage of B. decumbens in the shed for 12weeks to 36.33% for storing P. pedicellatum in the room for 4 WS. Cumulative in vitro gas production of the  grasses though similar (p>0.05) increased over the incubation periods. The post incubation parameters of the hays were all  similar (p>0.05), except the organic matter digestibility (OMD) values (p<0.05).It is concluded that the CP contents of the three grasses fell below ruminant requirement and slightly declined with increase in storage period, thereby suggesting earlier harvesting before the onset of dry season and serious  lignification. Andropogongayanus and B. decumbens proved to be better hays vis-avis storage in the shed, higher crude protein and dry matter contents while P.pedicellatum possessed better ash contents. Conclusively, it is more economical to store grass hays in the shed as there was no distinct difference in the results  obtained in the two storage places.
      Keywords: Grasses; Hay; Nutritive quality; Storage.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Productivity of columbus grass (Sorghum almum) intercrop with Lablab
           (Lablab purpureus) in Shika, Nigeria
    • Authors: Y.M. Ishiaku, M.R. Hassan, R.J. Tanko, J.T. Amodu, S.B. Abdu, S.A. Ahmed, A.G. Bala, S.S. Bello
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to assess the productivity of Sorghum almum intercropped with Lablab (Lablab purpureus). The  experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) which consisted of intercropping systems as sole S. almum, S. almum with lablab in intra rows (IR), S. almum with lablab legume in alternate rows (AR) and sole lablab. Plant height and plant density were significantly (P<0.05) affected by sowing arrangements. The number of tillers, leaves and leaf: stem ratios were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by sowing arrangement. The highest total biomass yield of 12.85 t/ha DM was obtained from S. almum and lablab mixtures in alternate rows (AR) while the lowest yield was 7.06 t/ha DM from sole S. almum.The land equivalent ratios (LER) obtained was 1.98 for intercrop in AR and 1.88 for intra row treatment which were all above one (1.00). These values means 98.0 % and 88.0 % intercrop advantage of AR and IR respectively over sole cropping. The leave area index (LAI) of S. almum (0.74) in (AR) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the value of 0.65 for S. almum in (IR). The percentage proximate composition and fiber fractions were significantly (P<0.05) affected by intercropping systems. The highest value of 18.82 % crude protein and lowest value of 23.23 % crude fiberwas obtained in Sorghum almum and lablab in AR. Higher values of 54.55 %NDF and 23.96 %Hemicellulose are observed in sole grass compared to the two intercrop systems. Na, P, K, Mg and Mn were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by intercropping except for Ca, which gave a highest value of 3.21 g/kg Sorghum almum and lablab in AR compared to 1.71 g/kg for sole grass. This study revealed that Sorghum almum can be intercropped with lablab in alternate rows for higher yields and improved nutrient qualities than the sole crop. Therefore, intercropping Sorghum almum with lablab in alternate rows and gave the best forage productivity and good quality forage. Intercropping of Sorghum almum with Lablab purpureus in alternate rows is hereby recommended for livestock owners in Nigeria.
      Key words: Productivity, intercropsystems, yield and quality.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Fermentative characteristics and in vitro gas production of Pennisetum
           purpureum hybrid grass silage as influenced by manure type and age at
    • Authors: V.O.A. Ojo, K.O. Popoola, K.O. Omisore, O.O. Adelusi, K.O. Yusuf, A.O. Ogunsakin, T.A. Amole, T.A. Adeyemi, A.O. Jolaosho
      Abstract: The nutritive quality of Pennisetum purpureum hybrid grass silage as influenced by manure types and age at harvest were  evaluated by their fermentative characteristics and in vitro gas production. The study was a factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design which comprised four manure types (cattle, poultry, swine, goat) and no manure (control) and two  harvesting times (4 and 8 weeks after cutback (WAC)) with three replicates. Results showed that the mean pH (4.70) of silage made from grass fertilized with cattle manure was significantly (p<0.05) different from the value of 5.20 in silage of unfertilized grass at 4WAC. Lactic acid contents of the silage ranged from 4.32 % to 6.99 %, with silage made from swine manure fertilized grass being highest (p < 0.05). Crude protein (CP) contents of the silage ranged from 6.30 % in silage made from unfertilized grass at 8WAC to 9.10 % in silage from grasses that were fertilized with goat and poultry manures at 4WAC. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) contents ranged from 54 % to 66 % in silage made from grass that was harvested at 8WAC having the highest (p < 0.05) NDF contents. The highest in vitro gas production of 43.33 ml/200mg DM was recorded in silage from grass that was  harvested at 4 WAC and fertilized with cattle manure. The silage with highest in vitro dry matter digestibility (56.67 %) was from poultry manure fertilized grass harvested at 4WAC with lowest value  (49.67 %) in silage from unfertilized grass, harvested at 8WAC. The study showed that the silage of Pennisetum purpureum hybrid grass fertilized with swine manure and harvested at 4 WAC have higher quality above other manure types as well as unfertilized grass harvested at later stage.
      Keywords: manures, digestibility, regrowth, Pennisetum purpureum, silage
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia laevis
           and Allium sativum
    • Authors: A.A. Ayoola, A.O. Yusuf, D.G. Oki
      Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash, carbohydrate fractions (CHO), metabolisable energy   (ME),neutral detergent fiber (NDF)and phytochemicals. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids,   terpenoids, tannin, alkaloids, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor, phenols, antioxidants, carotenoids, oxalate and cyanide in the plant and bulb extracts.The percentages of flavonoid, terpenoid, tannin, alkaloid, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor, phenol, antioxidants,  carotenoid, oxalate and cyanide in the Newbouldia laevis were 0.15, 2.29, 392, 2.51, 2.96, 29.20, 2.86, 1.63, 624, 0.44 and  0.01mg/100g respectively, while that of the Allium sativum were 0.04, 0.07, 7.0, 4.59, 27.80, 0.25, 0.041, 0.23, 11.40, 9.02 and 0.685mg/100g, respectively. The percentage composition of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, NFE, ME and NDF for Newbouldialaevis were 55%, 5.68%, 5.61%, 10.54%, 2.15%, 21.02%, 1626.80kcal/kg and 20.22%, while Allium   sativum had 82%, 4.63%, 0%, 6.72%, 5.66%, 0.99%, 320.25kcal/kg and 0%, respectively.Therefore, it can be concluded that Newbouldialaevis leaves and Allium sativum bulbs contain bioactive  substances beneficial to animals with antinutrient   concentrations below the critical levels hence not deleterious to ruminant animals.
      Keywords: Phytochemical, Newbouldia levis and Allium sativum
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Effects of fertilizers and rates of application on growth and yields of
           Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana cv. Callide)
    • Authors: S.A. Ogedegbe, S.U. Ewansiha
      Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted at Dagwom farm, National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. The objective of the research was to compare the effects of three fertilizers (urea, NPK and poultry manure) and four rates of application (coded 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th to represent  either 0, 150, 300 and 450 kg N ha1 for urea and NPK or 0, 25, 50 and 75 t ha1 for poultry manure) on the growth, fresh herbage and dry matter yields of a 2 year old Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana cv. Callide) pasture. Twelve factorial treatments were fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated 3 times. The variables measured were sward height (cm), fresh herbage and dry matter yields (t ha1). Poultry manure was  comparable to NPK and furnished significantly better growth, higher fresh herbage and dry matter yields than urea. The   significantly (p< 0.05) tallest sward (58.10 cm) was obtained from poultry fertilizer. Similarly, the significantly heaviest dry matter yields of 15.30 and 18.20 t ha1 were produced with the 3rd and 4th rates of poultry fertilizer application, respectively. Rhodes grass could provide substantial quantities of fodder for ruminant nutrition if fertilizer application is adequate. Poultry manure should therefore be harnessed for increased production of Rhodes grass at NVRI, Vom.Keywords: Rhodes grass, poultry manure, urea
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Animal Products and Handling: A Caution for Consumers and Entrepreneurs
    • Authors: S Balarabe, UD Doma, DJU Kalla, D Zahraddeen
      Abstract: This study reviewed pertinent literature on edible animal products and handling with respect to contaminations and adulterations. Animal products include eggs, meat, milk, fish, skin/hide that are processed into other by products for human consumption. There is the need for awareness campaignsto consumers and entrepreneurs that engage in the handling and processing of these  products. The high micro flora load commonly observed in these products is an indicative of poor hygiene and handling  operations.For instance, viable count for pasteurized milk that should be consumed ought not to exceed 30, 000 microbes per ml, and bacterial count exceeding 105/g or coliform count higher than 102/g in delicatessen food products are indicative of dangerous contaminations. Contaminations may occur at various stages of the food chain; at farm, during slaughter, further  processing or in the kitchen. However, many diseases such as anthrax, Escherichia coli, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, brucellosis, diphtheria, scarlet fever; Q fever, gastroenteritis, salmonella etc are known to be transmitted via contaminated animal products. Methods of preserving animal products include the use of high temperature (canning), low temperature (freezing), drying (sun drying, smoking, use of radiation and chemical preservatives). Drying reduces the moisture content to a level that prevents the growth of microorganisms especially fungi and bacteria. It is, however, suggested that all animal products meant for consumption should be adequately washed or heat treated to enhance processing and preservation/storage for improved keeping quality.Key words: Animal Products, Handling, Consumers, Entrepreneurs
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Effects of Breeds and Spices on Water Holding Capacity and Consumers
           Acceptability of Goat Meat (Chevon)
    • Authors: E.S Apata, A.B Omojola, O.O Eniolorunda, O.C Apata, A.O Okubanjo
      Abstract: Five muscles, semitendinosus (ST), Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimusdorsi, (LD), Triceps brachii (TB) and Brachialis (BC) were excised from twelve Goats buck carcasses of two breeds, the West African Dwarf and Red Sokoto, 50g of each muscle was cooked with four different spices; ginger (A) garlic (B), alligator pepper (C) and black pepper (D) to determine their effects on water holding capacity and acceptability of the muscles. The muscles together with the spices were cooked for 20 minutes and cooled to room temperature (about 25°C), 1g of each muscle was removed and pressed to determine the water holding capacity, while the rest of the muscles were served to 10 member taste panel to assess the muscles for acceptability based on their flavour on a 9 point hedonic scale. The results (49.80, 48.30) showed that muscles cooked with ginger (A) had higher water holding capacity while those cooked with garlic (B) had the least (28.50, 25.30). Muscles from WAD buck goat (BF 49.80) had higher water holding capacity. Muscles cooked with garlic (B) (8.67, 7.80) were highly preferred by the taste panelists while muscles cooked with alligator pepper (C) (4.32, 4.15) were least accepted. It was evident from the results of this study that spices can improve water holding capacity and acceptability of chevon. Ginger (A), favoured high water holding capacity while garlic (B) is recommended for high flavour and acceptability of chevon.Keywords: Spices, goat, Water holding capacity, Acceptability, Chevon
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Morphometric traits in arbor-acres broiler chicken (Gallus gallus)fed
           graded levels of cocoa bean shell meal
    • Authors: B.A. Ajayi, O. Olubamiwa, J.L. Afolayan, M.M. Adesola
      Abstract: Fifty sixth day morphometric and body weight measurements were taken on one hundred and forty eight Arbor Acres broiler chickens reared under the Deep Litter system in the guinea savana Zone of Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the effects of substituting treated and untreated Cocoa Bean Shell (CBS) at 50 and 100% inclusion levels for Wheat bran (WB) on final live  weight and morphometric body measurements. Data were taken from birds that were randomly allotted into five different isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet treatments (T) replicated threetimes with graded levels of CBS substituted for WB (0% replacement of WB by CBS was the control, T (50% untreated CBS), T (50% treated by boiling CBS), T (100 2 3 4 %untreated)and T (100% replacement of wheat bran with treated CBS). Data 5  obtained were analysed with one way ANOVA using SAS (2004) software at 5% probability level and means compared with the Duncan's New Multiple Range Test option of the software. Results showed that, T with 50 % replacement with  treated(by 3 boiling)CBS performed best in terms of body weight (3143 ± 0.08 g)at p <0.05 although with no significant difference with the value in the control(0 % replacement) (3089±0.06 g) andT 50 %   untreated(3070±0.08 2 kg)respectively.Body length ranged between 41.60 ±0.34 (100 % replacement with untreated CBS) and 42.24 ± 0.34 cm(50 % treated CBS) although no significant difference (p>0.05) was detected across all the treatments for this trait. The values forchest circumference ranged between 37.53 ± 0.37 cm (lowest) in 100 % replacement with untreated CBS and 39.13 ± 0.27 cm (significantly highest (p < 0.05). The values forshank length ranged between 8.25±0.16 and 8.65 ± 0.15 cm
      with no significant difference (p>0.05) between the treatment groups. Other traits with no significant differences (p > 0.05) across all the treatmentsand their ranges in parenthesis are wing length (21.38 ± 0.25 and 21.97± 0.21 cm); head length (7.72 ± 0.13 and 8.04± 0.15 cm); neck length (14.13± 0.40 and 14.67±0.19 cm) and beak length (2.47 ±0.04 to 2.56 ± 0.04). Other traits that showed significant differences (p < 0.05) across treatment groups include, thigh length with T showing 2 highest value  (20.98 ± 0.18 cm) and the lowest value was recorded in T  (19.83±0.30 cm). Comb length also ranged between lowest in T  (3.91±0.28 cm) and highest 5 inT (5.00± 0.34 cm). The longest Toe length was recorded in T (8.20 ± 0.11) while 3 2 the  shortest was recorded in T The results from this study  indicated thattreated CBS 5 meal at inclusion level of 50% in replacement for WB is a good substitute for WB with no negative effects on the body morphology in Arbor Acres broiler chicken.
      Key words: morphometric traits, Cocoa Bean Shell, Arbor-Acres, broiler chicken
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Predicting the effects of non-synonymous amino acid variants on protein
           function in prolactin receptor of cattle and chicken using the MEGA-MD
    • Authors: A. Yakubu, A.E. Salako
      Abstract: Prolactin receptor (PRLR) is a single transmembrane protein belonging to the  cytokine receptor super family through which prolactin plays a wide variety of  physiological roles such as mammary gland development, milk production,  reproduction and immune function in vertebrates. Many non synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) at the PRLR locus in  vertebrates are suspected to impact protein function. This study, therefore, aimed at predicting the likelihood of non synonymous (amino acid change) coding SNPs to cause functional impact on protein at the PRLR locus of cattle and chicken using the MEGA MD bioinformatics tool. In cattle, sixteen out of the first twenty non synonymous amino substitutions obtained: V5A, T9V, T12I, N18S, T19V, C20S, L26S, E32K, F34V, R49E, T52A, S61T, R66K, M72I, I79K and H87Y were beneficial, one was likely neutral, two were deleterious while one was likely deleterious. However, in chicken, L131V, E132N, A134T, V135L, I157A and T161S mutations were found harmless, three were likely neutral, eight were deleterious while three were likely deleterious. This was  substantiated by the Evod (–10.70 65.32 versus 0.00-80.03), PolyPhen 2 (0.000- 0.859 versus 0.000-0.990) and SIFT  (0.16-1.00 versus 0.00-1.00) values in cattle and chicken, respectively. Theoretically, the harmful amino acid substitutions  would result in altered spatial structure and functions of the PRLR molecules. Further studies, however, are required to determine whether the beneficial amino acid substitutions obtained will affect the milk yield, reproductive and immune  functions of Nigerian livestock species.Keywords: prolactin receptor; non-synonymous substitutions; bioinformatics tool; protein function; livestock.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Evaluation of growth performance and egg quality traits in two strains of
           Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in Zaria, Nigeria
    • Authors: M. Kabir, M.M. Abubakar, I.I. Adedibu
      Abstract: A 14 week study was conducted at the teaching and research farm, Department of Animal Science A.B.U Zaria, using 240 two weeks old Japanese quails belonging to two strains (black strain n=120 and brown strain n=120). The aim was to evaluate the effect of strain on the growth performance and egg quality traits of the Japanese quails kept under similar nutritional environment. 90 female quails for each strain were mated to 30 males at a mating ration of 1 male to 3 females. Daily egg collection  commenced as from 6 weeks and terminated at week 14. The first three eggs dropped by each quail hen during 80% egg  production were used for egg quality analysis (internal and external quality). Parameters considered included body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and Mortality as it occurred. External and internal egg quality traits were also considered. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the R Core Team. Result obtained indicated variations at all ages (week 2, 6, 10 and 14) in body weight, weight gain and mortality in favor of black strain. Similarly, most of the egg quality traits studied was better in the black than in the brown strain. It was concluded that the two distinctly different strains of quail have different rates of growth and egg quality  characteristics indicating the possibility of further improvement in their growth and egg laying performance.Keywords: Breeder quail; egg quality traits; growth, traits
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Effect of Mucuna prurienson ovo-testis histology of giant African land
           snail (Archachatina marginata)
    • Authors: J.A. Abiona, O.A. Ogunsola, A.O. Ladokun, M.O. Abioja, J.O. Daramola, O.L. Ajayi, T.J. Williams, O.E. Oke, O.A. Osinowo, O.M. Onagbesan
      Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate effect of Mucunapruriens on ovo testis histology of giant African land snail  (Archachatinamarginata). Thirty (30) snails with weight range of 100- 150g were used for the study. Ten (10) snails were assigned to each of the three dietary treatments which include: Concentrate (CON), mixture of concentrate and Mucuna seed powder (CON + MSP) and Mucuna seed powder (MSP) only. At the end of eight (8) weeks, three (3) snails each per treatment were selected and dissected. Ovo testis was harvested from each treatment and  processed for histology. Parameters monitored were: ova and spermatozoa formation in ovo testis. Results showed that snails fed with mixture of Mucuna seed powder and concentrate had well formed ova but scanty spermatozoa, while those fed with Mucuna seed powder only had severe diffuse vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of the spermatozoa. Similarly, those snails fed with concentrate alone followed the same trend with those fed with mucuna only. It wasconcluded that MSP contain substances that couldaffect spermatozoa formation but support and ova production in right quantity in giant African land snail (Archachatinamarginata). It was recommended that MSP be processed to further evaluate its potential for spermatogenic activities as professed by different authors.Keywords: Mucuna,Ovo-testis, Snail, Archachatinamarginata
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Sperm storage potential and daily sperm production of brown male Japanese
           quails for three different physiological age groups
    • Authors: E.O. Ewuola, O.J. Esan
      Abstract: Thirty brown male Japanese quail birds consisting of 10 each of pubertal mature and adult quails were used to determine their sperm storage potential and daily sperm production at the three different physiological age groups. The birds were randomly allotted to treatment groups (pubertal mature and adult) in a completely randomised design. All animals were sacrificed and their reproductive organs excised and weighed. Testes and epididymis were homogenised separately in 0.154M NaCl. Sperm reserves in the homogenates were determined. Sperm production efficiency and daily sperm production were also determined from  testicular homogenates and epididymal sperm reserves from epididymal homogenate. The results showed that pubertal quail had significantly (P<0.05) higher paired epididymal weight (0.25±0.05g) than the mature (0.17±0.07g) and adult (0.23±0.05g). The pubertal quails had highest (P<0.05) daily sperm production per testis (259.29 x106) and had a significantly (P<0.05) higher sperm production efficiency (97.57x106) than matured (44.84x106) and adult groups (10.95x106). The mature group had a  significantly (P<0.05) higher right epididymal sperm reserve (88.46 x106) than the adult (28.62 x106) while the pubertal group had highest (P<0.05) paired epididymal sperm reserves (237.54 x106) and the age groups. The live weight of the birds was significantly (P<0.05) and positively correlated with the weight of the paired epididymis (r = 0.52) and with the paired testicular weight (r = 0.60; P<0.01). Daily sperm production per testis and right testicular sperm reserve per testis were observed to be significant and positively correlated (r=0.91 P<0.01). This study revealed that the brown male Japanese quail has its peak reproduction potential at puberty.
      Keywords: Quail sperm storage, sperm production
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Performance and egg quality characteristics of egg-type chickens as
           influenced by fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) leaf extract
    • Authors: A.O. Ladokun, A.A. Obe, A.O. Oso, O.E. Oke, J.A. Abiona
      Abstract: A total of 120 sixteen week old point of lay birds of the Isa Brown strain were used for the experiment to determine the effect of  fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) leaf extract (FPLE) administered orally on Laying performance, egg quality characteristics; blood chemistry haematology and serum chemistry for a 12 week period. The birds were randomly assigned to five treatment   groups: control group with no FPLE; 30ml FPLE/litre of drinking water; 60ml FPLE; 90ml FPLE and 120ml/litre FPLE respectively at 3 day intervals. Feed was given ad libitum. Eggs were collected at 2 week interval to determine external and internal egg   qualities. Blood sampling was carried out at the twelfth week of experiment. The results show that FPLE significantly (P<0.05)   increased hen day with birds in group with 120ml FPLE/litre water having higher values than other groups. External egg qualities were not influenced by FPLE inclusion. Internal egg qualities like shell weight and haugh unit were significantly increased by FPLE with birds in group with 120ml/litre FPLE having the highest significant values than birds in control and other groups.    Haematological results show that for packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin were not similar for all the groups in this   experiment. However results for Red blood cell count (RBC) and White blood cell count (WBC) and differential were increased with FPLE intake with birds administered 120ml/litre of FPLE having the highest values for RBC and WBC. Serum chemistry results    show similarities for serum total protein, Albumin, Globulin, Total Cholesterol and Serum Alanine Transaminase (SALT). FPLE has been proven to be a haematinic in rats and broiler chickens; this present result further strengthens this assertion though the results for blood analysis are  contrary to that obtained by the authors for meat type chickens. It can therefore be concluded that up to 120ml FPLE/litre of drinking water can be tolerated by egg type chickens from point of lay phase to early laying phase.Key Words: Fluted Pumpkin, Egg, haematology, Serum Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • The analgesic, haematological and some physiological effects of extradural
           bupivacaine in healthy dogs
    • Authors: E.A.O. Sogebi, T.K. Ogunbunmi
      Abstract: The aim of this research is to investigate the analgesic, haematologic and some physiological effects of extradural bupivacaine on dogs using six clinically healthy adult male dogs. The method used is by obtaining baseline data for physiological variables from each dogs using the multiparameter patient monitors (GD3, GenaralMeditech, Inc, China). Blood sample were also collected from the cephalic vein after extradural administration of the drug. The onset of the analgesia was determined using pin prick and the quality of analgesia with pre scrotal  urethrectomy. The physiologic variables, pulse and respiratory rate including temperatures, blood pressure and oxygen saturation were recorded. Blood samples for heamatology were collected at 30 minutes intervals after the drug administration with the dog simultaneously undergoing pre scrotal urethrectomy for bladder stones removal for one hour. The onset of the action was 29±11.34 and the quality of analgesia was very good to excellent lasting for 128minutes. There was no significant difference in values of all the physiologic parameters except the ECG which showed significant level of arrthymia 30 minutes after the drug administration. We therefore conclude that epidural bupivacaine produces very good regional  analgesic for pre scrotal urethrectomy and safe in Nigerian local breeds of dogs.
      Keywords: Analgesia, Extradural Bupivacaine, Haematology, Nigerian Local Dogs, Physiology
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Effects of composite mango (Mangifera indica) fruit reject meal on growth
           performance, digestibility and economics of production of rabbits
    • Authors: K.T. Orayaga
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mango fruit reject meal on growth performance, digestibility and  economics of production of growing rabbits.  Mango fruit rejects were sliced such that the peel and pulp were together and the  seed discarded, sun dried until it attained about 10% moisture and milled to obtain  mango fruit reject meal (MFRM). The MFRM was sub-sampled and its proximate composition determined. Five diets were formulated which contained 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% MFRM and twenty weaned rabbits of mixed sex and breed were fed the diets for 70 days. Mean daily feed intake, weight gain, FCR, and final live weights measured were not significantly affected (P>0.05). Digestibility of nutrients was also similar (P>0.05)  across the treatment groups. Inclusion of MFRM however significantly reduced (P<0.05) the cost per kg weight gain, with the rabbit group fed diet containing 20% MFRM being significantly (P<0.05) less costly. The profit was also significantly better at 20% MFRM. It was concluded that MFRM is a good feedstuff in rabbit diets and should be used. It was suggested that higher levels should be investigated to determine the optimum level of MFRM in rabbit diets to maximize profit.
      Key words: rabbit; mango fruit reject; performance
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • The diets of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) in Oyan Dam
    • Authors: F.I. Adeosun
      Abstract: Samples of Nile perch (Lates niloticus L.) were collected for stomach analysis from artisanal fishermen using fishing gear such as, cast nets, gill nets, set nets, in Oyan dam, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria. Frequency of Occurrence and Numerical  methods was used to analyse the stomach contents of 60 specimens of Lates  niloticus collected. The results of analysis of the food items found in the stomach of Late sniloticus obtained from Oyan dam were presented. The percentage of empty stomach was low; out of the 60 specimen examined only 14 had empty stomach. These specimens had a total length varying from 9.0 – 40.0cm with a mean of   19.21 ± 0.95 and a standard length from 7.8- 38.0cm, with a mean of 17.47 ± 0.90. The body weight varied from 23.5 – 550g, with mean of 188.91 ± 2.16. Only 23% of the specimens had empty stomachs. The food items encountered in the  stomach covered a wide spectrum and it's shown that it feed on a variety of food items. Fish parts dominate the stomach content followed by Insects and Blue green algae, which indicate that the species is a carnivore. Unidentified detritus also occurred  sparingly in the diets
      Key Words: Fish, Food items, Lates niloticus, Oyan Lake.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Sensory evaluation and tibia bone retention of broiler chicken fed graded
           level of toasted sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed meal
    • Authors: O.O. Adetola, A.B. Omojola, O.A. Ogunwole, O.M Odetola, I.A. Okere, T.O. Adetayo
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted for 56 days to assess the sensory evaluation of  breast meat sample and tibia bone mineralization of broiler chicken fed graded level of toasted sesame seed meal. One hundred and eighty arbor acre chicks were divided into five dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated thrice with twelve birds per replicate. The toasted sesame seed was included in broiler ration at a graded levels of 0(T ), 25 (T ), 50 (T ), 75 (T ) and 100% (T ) respectively. Data were 1 2 3 4 5 collected on sensory evaluation and tibia bone retention of broiler chicken fed graded level of toasted sesame seed meal. Sensory score for breast muscles revealed that significant difference (P<0.05) were observed in aroma colour Flavour tenderness and overall acceptability except juiciness. Meat of birds from T (0%SSM) 1 and T (25%SSM) had the highest score for colour (7.11 and 7.11) and overall 2 acceptability (6.34 and 6.22) while the least score (5.84 and 5.17) was obtained from birds on T (100%SSM) respectively. While the evaluation of thigh meat showed 5 significant difference (P<0.05) in aroma colour and tenderness among all sensory variables measured. Significant difference (P<0.05) were  observed on all parameters investigated on tibia bone mineralization. Highest values of all parameters evaluated were recorded for birds in T (0%SSM) and T (25% SSM) 1 2 except phosphorus content which had highest value on T (25% SSM) while the least 2 value was recorded from bird on T (100% SSM). Conclusively the inclusion of 5 sesame seed meal in broiler ration was found to be beneficial at 25%.
      Keywords: Toasted sesame seed, sensory evaluation, breast meat, tibia
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Effect of a commercial brand of organic acids on the performance of
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: P.A. Onimisi, A. Ponji
      Abstract: A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Biotronic®SE (BSE), a commercial brand of Bio acids on the performance of   broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty broiler chickens were assigned to four experimental diets, each with three replicates  having 20 chicks per replicate. Treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4were supplemented with 0g, 300g 400g, and 500g BSE at the starter   phase (0-4 weeks) and0g, 200g 300g, and 400g BSE at the finisher phase (5-8 weeks) respectively. Treatment diets and clean water were suppliedad libitum for the eight weeks of the experiment. Growth  parameters taken include initial weight, final weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, feed cost per kilogram and feed cost per kilogram gain for all treatments. At the end of the finisher phase, six birds selected to represent the  average weight per replicate were used for carcass analysis and  measurement of pH of intestinal organs. All data generated were subjected to analysis of variance and differences in mean were  compared using Duncan multiple range test. From the result of the study, birds fed diets containing 300g\100kg BSE showed   significantly (P<0.05) better performance in terms of weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg gain at the starter  phase. However at the finisher phase birds supplemented with 400g\100kgBSE showed best performance in terms of feed  conversion ratio and feed cost per kg gain.Significant (p<0.05) differences existed for breast and back cut parts but with no   specific trend and similarly for intestinal length and gizzard while all the other carcass parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) different across the treatments. The PH values for the intestinal organs showed no significant (p>0.05) differences for crop,   duodenum, jejunum and ileum. There was however significant (p<0.05) differences for proventriculus, gizzard, caecum, Colon and liver. It may be concluded that supplementation of broiler diets with 300g\100kg of feed at starter phase and 400g\100kg at finisher phase improves broiler performance and significantly reduce cost of production.Keywords: Broiler chickens, Biotronic®SE, growth, intestinal pH
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Effect of two types of methionine supplement on performance of finisher
    • Authors: R.S Makama, S. Duru, G.S. Bawa, A. Leye
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of two types of synthetic methionine supplement (Dl methionine and MHA FA; Methionine Hydroxyl Analogue Free Acid, also known as Alimet) on performance of finisher broiler. Two hundred and thirty four (234) day old Hubbard Flex broilerschicks were allotted to six dietary treatments and replicated three times using a 2 x 3  factorial  arrangement in a complete randomized design which lasted four weeks for the starter. A diet devoid of methionine was formulated with subsequent addition of three graded levels (0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 %) of each type of synthetic methionine to  constitute the following dietary treatment: 0.15% DL methionine (T1), 0.20% DL methionine (T2), 0.25% DL methionine (T3), 0.15% MHA FA (T4), 0.20%MHA FA (T5) and 0.25%MHA FA(T6). Parameters measured included body weight gain and feed intake. Also, blood samples were collected from the wings for blood chemical analysis. Result obtained from this study shows that methionine type had significant (P<0.05) effect on growth performance parameters. On the other hand, methionine levels had no significant (P>0.05) effect on growth performance and blood chemistry. There was no interaction between methionine type and level of methionine during the study. It was concluded that, birds fed MHA FA diets had improved growth performance. Birds fed MHA FA at 0.25% level of inclusion had the best result for weight gain. Although, feeding DL methionine at 0.15% gave higher
      feed efficiency economical. Broiler birds can be fed with diets up to 0.25% MHA FA supplements.
      Key words: Methionine, performance, blood chemistry, broiler.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Perception of ethno-veterinary practices in selected villages in Ogun
    • Authors: D.A. Ekunseitan, M.A. Adeyemi, S.S. Abiola, O.O. Oluwatosin, O.M. Sogunle, E. Fabusoro
      Abstract: The study was designed to examine perception of ethno-veterinary practices and information gathering among rural dwellers in selected villages in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun state, Nigeria. The aim was to assess the involvement of rural poultry farmers in the use of herbs as alternatives to  antibiotics. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to administer one hundred and fifteen structured questionnaires while participatory rural appraisal group discussion was also conducted.  Results showed that66.70 % female   respondents were mainly involved in rural poultry production than their   malecounterparts (33.30 %) in Ifo LGA while 52.20 % (male) and 47.80 5 (female) was observed in Odeda LGA. Backyard and free-range system of management (44.9 and 46.70 %) was prominent in both LGAs (Odeda and Ifo respectively) than the conventional system.  Poultry birds were raised for income, household consumption and festivity. Results further revealed that traditional remedies were more preferred because they are locally available, cultural, effective and cheaper relative to modern veterinary animal health care practice. It was therefore concluded that to improve poultry health and production, local knowledge of medication through herbs should be gathered and used as basis for development of drugs and conduct research programs to study clinical actions of these plant extracts and categorize active ingredients.
      Keywords: Rural dwellers, herbs, Phytobiotics and Ethno-veterinary.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Milk composition of Yankasa sheep raised under small-holder husbandry
           system in Zaria, Nigeria
    • Authors: D Zahraddeen, A.A. Mohammed, U. Muhammed
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate milk compositional parameters in Yankasa sheep raised under small-holder husbandry system in Zaria, Nigeria. A total of eighty lactating ewes were used and classified on the basis of age, body condition score (BCS), parity and season. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in milk compositional parameters with  respect to total solid, lactose, crude protein (CP) and fat contents pH and ash contents were influenced by BCS of the ewes  studied. Age of ewes significantly (P<0.05) affected all the milk composition parameters investigated. However, parity effect showed significant differences (P<0.05) in terms of total solid, lactose, CP, fat pH and ash contents of ewes milked. The results  also shows seasonal significant (p<0.05) effects on milk composition with respect to four parameters (lactose, CP, fat and ash   contents). Total solid and pH content of ewe milked did not differ significantly (P>0.05) in the two seasons (wet and dry). There   were many significant (P<0.05) and positive correlations among the milk composition parameters. For instance BCS vs season, fat vs CP and pH vs parity, CP vs BCS, BCS vs fat; values being r= 0.31, 0.76, 0.31, 0.27, 0.82 (P<0.05), respectively. This   study on milk composition of ewes showed great variability in the values of the milk composition investigated and attributed it to the differences in the feeding and management of these animals. It is therefore suggested that enhanced management in terms of feeding and housing be given to these ewes in order to achieve the purpose to which they are kept.
      Key Words: Yankasa; ewes; milk composition; small-holder
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Effect of supplementation of Carica papaya seed concentrate diets on
           performance and faecal egg count of village managed goats
    • Authors: O.A. Fasae, S.J. Alabi
      Abstract: The effect of supplementation of Carica papaya seeds (CPS) concentrate diet on the performance and faecal egg count of semi intensively village managed West African dwarf goats aged 6 to 8 months old with average weight of 7.31 ± 0.35 kg was   evaluated in a 56 day feeding trial. Goats (n =16) were balanced for weight and assigned into four groups in a completely   randomized design to varying inclusion levels of Carica papaya seeds at 0, 5, 10 and 15g/100gconcentrate. Results showed high concentrations of crude protein (25.63%) and ether extract (29.16%) with a tannin content of 0.72% in CPS. The intake of CPS concentrate differed (P <0.05) across the treatment groups, with the least intake observed in goats fed 15% CPS. The  supplementation of CPS across dietary treatments improved (P<0.05) weight gain and reduced faecal egg counts in goats with best weight gain (35.71g/day)and percentage reduction in faecal egg count (77.27%) observed in goats supplemented with 10gCPS concentrate diet. Considering the easy access of Carica papaya seeds and its availability to local farmers who manage the majority of these goats, it was concluded that the supplementation of goats' diets with 10gCPS in 100g  concentrate diet can play an important role not only in improving the growth rate but also reducing faecal egg count thereby serving as a natural lowcost deworming herb.Keywords: Carica papayaseeds,goats, performance, faecal egg count.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Performance characteristics and blood profile of West African dwarf goats
           fed diet containing graded level of malted sorghum sprout mixed with
           pineapple waste based diet
    • Authors: A.A. Saka, R.K. Adekunjo, F.O. Ogunleke, L.A. Ogunfolabo, O.O. Adetola, O.A. Awodele, O.O. Lawrence-Azua, O.J. Okuneye
      Abstract: A twelve week trial was investigated to evaluate performance and blood profile of West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed malted sorghum sprout with pineapple waste (MSPW) based diet. The malted sorghum sprout and pineapple waste was at ratio 1:2 (weight/weight) respectively. Sixteen WAD goats with average initial weight of 6 ±1.20 kg were allotted into four dietary  treatments in a Completely Randomized Design. Four diets were formulated to contain 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% of MSPW. Data were collected on growth performance and blood profile. Result revealed that there was no significant (P>0.05) differences on all the growth performance parameters measured. The highest value of average daily weight gain (19.21 g/day) was observed in goats fed 20% MSPW while the lowest value was obtained in goats fed 40% MSPW Goats placed on 20% MSPWhad the best feed conversion ratio  value . (17.15). No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed on all blood profile parameters measured except the albumin and creatinine. The albumin and creatinine values ranged from 2.63-3.52 g/dl and 0.90- 1.50mg/dl  respectively. It can be concluded that WAD goats fed 20% MSPW based diet yielded best results in terms of performance and there was no detrimental effect on their blood profile.Keywords: Malted Sorghum Sprout, Pineapple, Performance, Serum
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2017)
  • Comparative study on intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of cowpea,
           groundnut and soybean hays in a mixed diet fed red Sokoto bucks
    • Authors: H.Y. Adamu, O.A. Adesina, S.B. Abdu, M.R. Hassan, D.D. Dung, G.S. Bawa, M. Abdulrashid, T.A. Ibrahim, A. lawal
      Abstract: Four Red Sokoto bucks of average weight 15±2kg were fed different legumes hay in a mixed diet to evaluate their feed intake,  digestibility and nitrogen balance. Using 4×4 Latin Square arrangement. The four test diets contained Maize offal, Rice husk, Salt, Bone meal and Cotton seed cake.while,20% of Soybean, groundnut and cowpea hay were included in the test diets designated  T2,T3 and T4 respectively. The animals were used for digestibility and nitrogen balance studies were transferred to individual metabolism crate, for separate collection of urine and faeces.  Measurements were taken for period of five consecutive days. Total faecal and urine samples collected over five days were bulked and subsampled. Urine output for 24 hours was collected with plastic buckets containing 0.1N H SO acid placed under 2 4 metabolic crates.. Ten percent (10%) of daily urine output were taken from each buck. The result of the nutrient intake showed that the bucks fed 20% Cowpea hay had the highest (P<0.05) DM, CP, Ash, and NFE intake. The results of nutrient digestibility and the nitrogen balance values were statistically (P<0.05) higher in the bucks fed 0% followed by 20% Cowpea hay inclusion. The result indicated that the apparent digestibility of organic matter was significantly high (P<0.05) in animals fed 0% followed by 20% Cowpea hay inclusions. The least nitrogen loss was obtained in the bucks fed 20% cowpea hay .Nitrogen retained as per cent of nitrogen intake values were statistically (P<0.05) different across the treatments. The Nitrogen retained as per cent of nitrogen intake values ranged from 66.17% for bucks fed 20%  soybean hay to 76.75% for 20% cowpea hay inclusions. Nitrogen retention was positive for all treatments and significantly  (P<0.05) high in the bucks fed 20% cowpea hay inclusion. It was concluded that feed intake, nutrient  digestibility and nitrogen utilization of goat can be enhanced by feeding 20% of cowpea hay in the mixed diet without adverse effect.
      Keywords: Soybeans, Cowpea, Groundnut, hay, mixed diet
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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