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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 898 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (78 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (636 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (101 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (31 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1119-4308
Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [264 journals]
  • Frequencies of the transferrin alleles and genotypes in west African Dwarf
           goats of southwestern Nigeria
    • Authors: O.K. Awobajo, A.E. Salako, O.H. Osaiyuwu, M.O. Osaiyuwu
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of Transferrin alleles and genotypes in West African Dwarf (WAD) goat. 140 adult WAD goats, maintained in four Southwestern States of Nigeria were used in the study. The polymorphism of transferrin was determined using Cellulose Acetate electrophoresis technique. It was found that the transferrin was controlled by two codominant alleles (TfA and TfB) in WAD goats. These two alleles, because of the codominant nature of inheritance, control the occurrence of three transferrin genotypes in the analyzed populations. The first two (TfAA and TfBB) were homozygous while the third one (TfAB) was heterozygous. The TfAB genotype was predominant with frequency of 0.90, 1.00, 0.87 and 0.55 in Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Oyo States respectively with a mean frequency of 0.83±0.20 while TfBB genotype was least common except for population from Osun State with a frequency of 0.05, 0.00, 0.22 and 0.15 in Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Oyo States respectively with a mean frequency of 0.08±0.07. The frequencies of transferrin alleles were 0.50, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.58 for TfA and 0.50, 0.50, 0.55and 0.43 for TfB in Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Oyo States respectively with a mean frequency of 0.49±0.05. Transferrin system showed genetic equilibrium in the analyzed population (χ2 value = 1.780). The observed heterozygosity was 0.91, 1.00, 0.87 and 0.55 43 in Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Oyo States respectively with a mean frequency of 0.84 and average Fis value of -0.67.Keywords: Cellulose Acetate electrophoresis technique, Genotypes, Polymorphism, Transferrin alleles, West African Dwarf goat
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Morphometric characterization of west African Dwarf Sheep in Remo zone of
           Ogun State
    • Authors: O.K. Awobajo
      Abstract: The study attempted application of morphometric parameters in the assessment of phenotypic variation among West African Dwarf sheep in Three (3) Local Government Area (LGA) of Remo province in Ogun State using phenotypic traits namely, Horn Length (HL), Head Width (HW), Head Length (HDL), Shoulder Width (SW), `Foreleg Length (FL), Hearth Girth (HG), Rump Length (RL), Pauch Girth (PG), Wither Heart (WH), Tail Length (TL), Ear Length (EL), Thorax Depth (TD) and Body Length (BL). Data were collected from 150 sheep comprising of male and female animals. Analysis was done using SPSS (2001) statistical package to obtain the means, standard deviations, standard error and coefficient of variation from the data collected which was subsequently used for classification. The result showed no significant different (P < 0.05) for all the phenotypic traits measured across all the LGA except EL, HDL and HG that were significantly different (p < 0.05) in Ikenne and Sagamu LGA. The mean for EL, HDL and HG ranged between 9.88 cm in Ikenne LGA and 10.64 cm in Remo LGA, from 23.28 cm in Ikenne LGA to 24.62 cm in Remo LGA and from 26.88 cm in Ikenne LGA to 29.00 cm in Sagamu LGA respectively showing the variation in the population studied.Keywords: Morphometric parameters, Ogun State, Remo, West African Dwarf Sheep
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Correlations between blood markers and growth parameters in establishing
           marker bank for Black colour Nigerian local Turkey
    • Authors: R.J. Nosike, D.N. Onunkwo, J.C. Ezike, W Amaraduruony, E.N. Obasi, O.M. Obike, O.F. Nwakpu, S.N. Ibe, U.K. Oke
      Abstract: A total of 26 day-old random-bred Nigerian local black phenotype turkey poults were used to generate another 86 day-old F1 poults in the study to determine quantitative traits and biologic markers. The Nigerian local turkeys were obtained as base population and used to generate F1 progeny. Growth parameters namely; body length (BDL), shank length (SHL), keel length (KLL), breast width (BW), wing length (WGL) and drumstick length (DSL) were measured. Biologic markers, namely packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), total blood protein (TBP), blood glucose (BGC) and rectal temperature (RT) were determined. Body weight, growth parameters and markers had significant (p<0.05) relationship. The marker bank showed that markers common to the black phenotype were PCV, WBC and Hb. These could be used in Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) for the black turkey variety studied. It was therefore, concluded that for rapid improvement of these traits, the markers such as BPT, RT, RBC, BGC, WBC, PCV and HB could be used to enhance growth. The present findings could assist in the design of long-term genetic improvement programmes for turkey production in Nigeria using the marker bank for MAS.Keywords: Black local turkey, blood markers, marker bank, growth parameters
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Phenotypic characterization of Balami breed of sheep in Maiduguri,
           north-eastern Nigeria
    • Authors: A Dauda, B Okon, L.A. Ibom, H.Y. Abbaya
      Abstract: A total of 227 Balami breeds (50 males and 177 females) were randomly sampled from the population of Balami sheep for body characterization. The study evaluated morphometric characteristics of Balami sheep to check the effect of age, sex, correlation and descriptive statistics The morphometric characteristics evaluated were; body weight (BW), body length (BL), height at wither (HW), chest circumference (CC), head length (HDL), head width (HDW), ear length (EL), horn length (HNL), horn circumference (HNC), tail length (TL), rump width (RW), rump length (RL), foreleg (FLG), hind leg (HLG), height at rump (HTR) and neck length (NL).The result revealed that age has significant (p<0.005) effect on morphometric characteristics of Balami sheep. Increase in age lead to increase in morphometric characteristics. Sex also has significant (p<0.005) influence on morphometric traits. Male shows superiority over female in HDW, EL, TL, FLG, HLG, NL RL, HTR, HNL and HNC. Females were high in HW and CC. Skeletal measurements such as wither height, and chest circumference are less affected by nutrition and thus indicate inherent size better than measures related to muscle and fat deposition such as girth measurements and body weight. The phenotypic correlation of morphometric characteristics of Balami sheep in this study varied in magnitude and direction. BW showed positive correlation with all the morphometric traits except HDL. The positive correlation of BW with other traits showed that they are controlled by same gene.Keywords: Balami, Phenotypic, Characterization, sheep
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Phenotypic differentiation of Koroji sheep in Maiduguri
    • Authors: A Dauda, H.Y. Abbaya, S.M. Shettima, S Saul
      Abstract: A total of 250 (70 males and 180 females) were used for characterization. This study evaluated phenotypic and morphometric characteristics of Koroji sheep. Effect of age, sex, correlation and overall summary statistics were analyzed. Some of the morphometric characteristics taken were; body weight (BW), body length (BL), height at wither (HW), chest circumference (CC), head length (HDL), head wide (HDW), ear length (EL), horn length (HNL), horn circumference (HNC), tail length (TL), rump wide (RW), rump length (RL), height at rump (HR), foreleg (FLG), hind leg (HLG), height at rump (HTR) and neck length (NL).Body weight was measured with measuring tape while the morphometric characteristic was measured with measuring tape. The data was analyzed using general Linear Model Procedure of SAS. The result revealed that age and sex had significant (p<0.005) effect on morphometric characteristics of Koroji sheep with males and older animals showing superiority over females and younger ones. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) ranged from 8.56- 33.63) with Horn Length having the highest (33.63) while HL had the lowest (8.56). Pearson correlation obtained between parameters varied in magnitude and direction (p<0.05-0.01: r = -0.31 to 0.97). It was concluded that sex and age should be considered when designing a selection and breeding programs for Koroji sheep.Keywords: Koroji, Phenotypic, Age, Sheep, Sex
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Genetic diversity between exotic and Nigerian indigenous Turkey at
           different structural loci
    • Authors: C.Y. Folorunsho, A.E. Salako, O.H. Osaiyuwu
      Abstract: Poultry genetic resources in general are considered to be the most endangered and under-conserved, detailed attention is therefore needed on the existing genetic resources to reduce or prevent the increasing genetic erosion of local livestock. This study was conducted to characterize and estimate genetic diversity in Nigerian indigenous turkey and exotic turkey using blood proteins (Haemoglobin, Transferrin and Albumin) and enzyme (Carbonic Anhydrase and Esterase 1) markers. A total of 110 turkeys comprising 50 Nigerian indigenous turkeys and 60 exotic turkeys were used for the analysis. Separation of blood protein genotypes was achieved using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The populations were characterized for their genetic variability using allele frequencies, observed heterozygosity, F-statistics (FIT, FIS, FST), test for Hardy-Weinberg and Genetic distance. Eleven variants were found at the five loci studied, two co-dominant allele A and B controlling three genotypes AA, AB, and BB were observed at Haemoglobin, Carbonic Anhydrase, Albumin and Esterase1 loci for both indigenous and exotic turkey breeds, a third allele C was observed in Transferrin locus. Allele A was the most frequency at the Hb, CA, Alb and Es1 locus in Nigerian indigenous turkey with frequencies 0.541, 0.541, 0.520, and 0.520 respectively and exotic turkey at Hb, Alb, and Es1 with frequencies 0.508, 0.617, and 0.508 respectively. Chi Square result indicated deviations from Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in the two populations. The average heterozygosity values were 0.56 and 0.477 indicating high genetic variability, heterozygote excess FIT was estimated at -0.050 while within breed excess as evaluated by FIS ranged from 0.370 to -0.336. The fixation index FST revealed that genetic diversity within the studied population was slightly differentiated. Genetic distance among the populations quantified through calculation of Nei’s Genetic distance was 0.008 while the identity was 0.992. Similarity in the estimated genetic variability parameters between the breeds indicates that the populations are closely related and there were no appreciable differences among them. This result obtained may be used as an initial guide in defining objectives for further investigations of genetic diversity and developing conservation strategies.Keywords: Electrophesis; Genetic distance; Polymorphism; Structural loci
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Potentials of genotype, varied levels of Roxazyme G® enzyme and their
           interaction on two genetic stocks of commercial broiler chickens, I:
           growth performance and carcass traits
    • Authors: S.R. Amao
      Abstract: The growth performance and carcass traits of two commercial broiler stocks were evaluated on the basis of genotype potentials, varied levels of roxazyme G® enzyme and their interaction. A total of 240 day – old broiler chicks (120 of each of Arbor acre and Marshall birds) were used for this study. The chicks were fed on four experimental diets; 0 g/ton, 100 g/ton, 200 g/ton and 300 g/ton. Data were collected on average bodyweight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, daily water intake, feed conversion ratio (growth performance) and liveweight, bled weight, defeathered weight, eviscerated weight, breast weight, thigh weight, wing weight, shank weight (primal cuts), gizzard, kidney, heart, liver, abdominal fat (edible visceral organs) and analysed with General Model of SAS in completely randomized designed. Results showed that Arbor acre strain was significantly (P < 0.05) favoured for body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily water intake compared with Marshall birds. Birds fed diets supplemented with roxazyme G® enzyme, especially 300 g/ton gave a higher body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily water intake. Also, for carcass traits, Arbor acre had significantly (P < 0.05) higher live weight, bled weight, defeathered weight, eviscerated weight, breast weight, thigh weight, wing weight, shank weight, kidney, heart and abdominal fat than the Marshall birds. It can be concluded that Arbor acre birds were better in respect of growth performance and carcass traits with enzymes interaction. Besides, enzyme inclusion levels of up to 300 g/ton made meaningful responses for growth performance and carcass characteristics.Keywords: Genotype, roxazyme G®, broilers, growth performance, carcass traits
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Influence of prebiotics, probiotics or synbiotics on performance,
           intestinal mucosal integrity and gut microbiota of turkey poults
    • Authors: B.R.O. Omidiwura, A.F. Agboola, O.O. Olaleye, E.A. Iyayi
      Abstract: In a four-week experiment, 125 four-week old turkey poults were distributed into five dietary treatment groups: treatment 1 was basal diet while 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics (combination of prebiotics and probiotics) respectively. Each diet replicated five times in a completely randomised design. At day 56, poults were sacrificed and ileal digesta samples collected for microbial load count and sections from the ileum for histomorphological measurements using standard procedures. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at α0.05. The results showed similar feed intake for birds fed experimental diets except those supplemented with synbiotics which was significantly different. The villus height; crypt depth, villus width, villus:crypt ratio except the epithelial cell thickness were significantly influenced. The final weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio of the birds and the microbial load were not influenced by the diets. However, the results obtained from the histological indices showed that birds fed prebiotics, probiotics or synbiotics supplementations respectively performed better compared to birds fed antibiotics and basal diets. Therefore, probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics can be a suitable replacement as growth promoters to conventional antibiotics in turkey poults.Keywords: Antibacterial growth promoters, Histomorphological measurements, Ileal digesta, Turkey chicken
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of fermentation profiles of starches from different plant
           sources in an in vitro batch culture
    • Authors: O.O. Adeleye, P.A. Iji
      Abstract: The influence of starches containing different levels of resistant starch (RS) on short chain fatty acid formation after fermentation was investigated in an in vitro batch culture. Native starches of sago, sweet potato, potato, arrowroot, rice, wheat, corn, as well as tapioca, cassava pulp and sweet potato root meal were evaluated in buffered caecal inoculum of 28-day old broiler chicks using the cumulative gas production technique. Total starch (TS), resistant starch (RS), short chain fatty acids: acetic, propionic and butyric acids. Short chain fatty acid ratios and fermentation ratios were estimated. Total and resistant starch content of the test starches and their short chain fatty acid profile: acetic, propionic and butyric acids- varied (p<0.05) amongst test starches. There was a strong relationship observed between proportions of acetic, butyric and propionic acids and total short chain fatty acids with R2 values ranging from 0.97 to 0.99, However a weak relationship exist between proportions of acetic, butyric and propionic acids and resistant starch contents of the starches with R2 ranging from 0.19 to 0.22, highlighting that variations in short chain fatty acid profiles of the fermented starches investigated in vitro was due to plant source rather than RS content of the test starches.Keywords: Native starch; Resistant starch; Short chain fatty acids; Fermentation ratios; Caecal inoculum
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of two direct-fed microbials and mycotoxin binder on performance
           and blood parameters of weaned pigs
    • Authors: A.O.K. Adesehinwa, E Ajayi, A.A. Fatufe, O.A. Adeleye, J.O. Abiola
      Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multi-strain direct-fed microbials, mycotoxin binder and yeast culture on the growth performance and blood parameters of weaned pigs. Sixty four (64) crossbred (Landrace × Large White) weaned pigs with an average initial weight of 5.9 ±0.3 kg (± SE) were assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomised design. Each treatment had four replicates of four pigs each. Pigs on T1 were given control diet without any additive, while pigs on T2, T3 and T4 were fed the same diet as in T1, to which multi-strain direct-fed microbials, mycotoxin binder (bentonite) and yeast culture were added respectively and the study lasted for 56 days. There were significant (P<0.05) differences in daily feed intake and daily weight gains, thereby resulting in variation in the final body weights across the groups. Pigs on T2 had the highest daily feed intake (kg) and cost of feed consumed per day (₦) but had the least feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kilogram weight gain (N/kg). The highest final body weight (20.90kg) was observed in pigs on treatment 2, while the least final body weight of 16.95kg was recorded with for pigs on treatment 4. The haematological parameters were within the normal range for healthy pigs and there was a significant effect of the feed additives on the serum biochemical parameters such as AST, ALT, ALP, glucose and albumin. It could be concluded that multi-strain direct-fed microbial promoted growth over and above the mycotoxin binder and yeast culture in weaned pigs and none of the feed additives had any deleterious effect on the health status of the weaned pigs.Keywords: Direct fed microbials, bentonite, feed additives, pigs, blood
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Influence of doe exposure on the spermiogram of rabbit bucks
    • Authors: S.O. Ereke, O.M. Daudu, M Abdulrashid
      Abstract: The spermiogram of rabbit bucks exposed to rabbit does was evaluated. Seventy five mature rabbits comprising of 50 nulliparous does, 6-7 months old and 25 bucks, 8-10 months old, mixed breeds (New Zealand white, Carlifonia white, Chinchilla and Grey) were used for this study. The animals were allocated to five treatment groups in a completely randomised design (CRD). Each treatment consisted of 10 nulliparous does and five bucks. The does were placed in cages opposite the bucks separated by a distance of 2.5 cm at a ratio of 2 does: 1 buck. The treatment effect consisted of exposing the does to the bucks’ pheromonal cues at different durations (days) to synchronize the does prior to mating. Treatment 1 served as the control group, the does in this group recieved instant mating without buck exposure. In Treatment 2, the rabbit does were exposed to the bucks for seven days and then mated. Treatment 3 had does and bucks which were mated after 14 days of exposure. Treatment 4 were exposed for 21 days and mated thereafter, while Treatment 5 had rabbit does and bucks which were mated after 28 days of exposure. Semen was collected from the bucks on weekly basis for evaluation. The result showed that there were significant (P<0.05) differences in reaction time, sperm motility, percentage live sperm, percentage dead sperm and percentage coiled tails in the bucks’s semen exposed to the does from the control, indicating a positive influence of the doe exposure on the spermiogramic characteristics of rabbit bucks. Hence, this study suggests that exposing rabbit does to bucks prior to mating improves the reproductive performance of the bucks.Keywords: Bucks, Does, Exposure, Mating, Rabbits
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of dietary L-tryptophan supplementation on growth performance and
           serum metabolites of weaner pigs
    • Authors: O Alaba, O Ogunrinde, O.A. Sokunbi, A.D. Adejumo
      Abstract: The effect of dietary L-tryptophan supplementation on growth performance and serum metabolites of weaner pigs was studied using a total of 12 male pigs weaned at 28 days of age. Four different diets with graded inclusion levels of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% L-tryptophan/kg to corn-soyabean meal based diets were fed to a group of 3 piglets each. Pigs were allotted in a completely randomized design Experimental diets and water were supplied ad libitum for the period of six weeks. After the feeding trial, weekly growth performance (body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio), haematological parameters and serum indices were determined. Increased dietary tryptophan supplementation significantly (P<0.05) affected only the lymphocytes and eosinophils among all haematological indices examined and there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in all serum indices measured. Total feed intake was significantly (P<0.05) affected by all the parameters measured for growth indices. This experiment showed that dietary tryptophan improved the growth performance and health status of weaner pigs.Keywords: Tryptophan, Growth performance, Blood parameters, Weaner pigs
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of viability and cytoplasmic droplets in sperm cells harvested
           from the dromedary cauda epididymis
    • Authors: A.M. Abdussamad, H.M. Bako, D.J.U. Kalla
      Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate viability and cytoplasmic droplets (CD) in camel epididymal sperm cells. Epididymal samples from 7 adult male camels were utilized. The cauda epididymis was immersed in saline, minced and allowed to stand. It was filtered and an aliquot was stained with Eosin-Nigrosin stain. A smear was made on two slides, one each for the left and right epididymides. Twenty different fields per slide were examined using a microscope equipped with an eyepiece camera. The numbers of stained (dead) and unstained (living) cells were counted and reported as paired live-dead counts. Chi-square test for independence was carried out and viability was found to be associated with presence of CD. A reasonable proportion of live sperm cells (1824/2362) were recorded. Live spermatozoa with distal CD were higher in number (969/1824) than those with no droplets (641/1824) and those with proximal CD (214/1824). For the dead spermatozoa, a higher count of spermatozoa with no CD (346/538) followed by those with distal CD (143/538) and lastly those with proximal CD (49/538) was observed. It can be concluded that viability of camel spermatozoa was encouraging; hence, the possibility of its use in assisted reproductive technologies.Keywords: Assisted reproduction, cytoplasmic droplets, epididymal sperm, male camel
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of melatonin administration on conception rate and biochemical
           properties of the epididymis in West African Dwarf (WAD) ewes and rams,
           respectively in dry season
    • Authors: U.C. Uwaeziozi, E.O. Ewuola, I.I. Bitto
      Abstract: The effect of melatonin administration on conception rate and biochemical properties of the epididymis in West African Dwarf (WAD) ewes and ram respectively were investigated in an experiment with twenty-four sheep (16 ewes and 8 rams) aged, 12 - 18 months, with average weight of 16.5 ± 2kg. Animals were randomly allotted to four treatment groups, each group consisting of six animals and varied doses of melatonin were administered for 30 days. Melatonin was administered at 0mg (T1, control), 5mg (T2), 10mg (T3) and 15mg(T4) to each group, which contained 4 ewes and 2 rams for 30 consecutive days. Twenty-five percent (25%) and fifty percent (50%) conception rate were observed in ewes that received 10 mg and 15 mg of melatonin, respectively. One fetus was obtained from a single ewe in those administered 10mg melatonin, while two fetuses from two ewes , were obtained from those on 15 mg melatonin. Lactate dehydrogenase, was significantly (P<0.05) higher in rams administered 15mg (917.50iu/L) than those on 0mg, 5mg and 10mg melatonin respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase of rams on 5mg, and 10mg (435.50iu/L and 655.50iu/L, respectively) melatonin treatment were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in control group (375.50iu/L). Total cholesterol was significantly (P<0.05) higher in rams receiving 0mg, 5mg and 10mg melatonin than those that received 15mg melatonin treatment. Glucose was significantly (P<0.05) higher on animals that received 10mg (17.00mg/dL) melatonin compared to those on 0mg (12.00mg/dL), 5mg(12.50mg/dL) and 15mg(11.65mg/dL). Zinc was significantly (P<0.05) higher in animals administered 10mg and 15mg melatonin, however both were significantly different from animals on 0mg, and 5mg melatonin. The paired epididymis, sperm reserves of rams on 15mg (21.50 X 106 cell/mL) melatonin treatment was significantly (P<0.05) higher than those on 0mg (11.20±1.36), 5mg (6.47±1.36), and 10mg (0.90±1.36). No Significant difference was observed in Total Protein, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Magnesium and calcium in all the treatment groups. In conclusion exogenous melatonin influenced the conception rate of ewes and improved the quality of epididymal sperm cells of the rams in the dry season.Keywords: Melatonin; epididymal biochemical properties; sperm reserves; West African Dwarf sheep; Dry season
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effects of housing systems and different dietary proprietary
           vitamin-mineral premixes on performance characteristics and haematology of
           pullets from weeks 10 to 21
    • Authors: A.Y.P. Ojelade, O.A. Ogunwole
      Abstract: Effects of two housing systems (HS) and five dietary Proprietary vitamin-mineral premixes (Pvmp) on performance characteristics, haematology and selected serum biochemical indices of pullets from week 10 to 21 of life was investigated. Bovan nera pullets (n = 576) aged 16 weeks were divided into two equal portions of 288 pullets. Each portion was managed in conventional battery cage systems (BCS) and an open-sided deep litter system (DLS), respectively. Pullets were allotted to six dietary treatments of 48 pullets per treatment both in BCS and DLS. Each treatment was replicated six times with eight pullets per replicate. Six isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated: T1 was without test premix, while T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 were each supplemented appropriately with 0.25% premixes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The experiment was a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design. Effect of HS on final liveweight (FLW), daily feed intake (DFI), number of eggs produced (EP) and hen day egg production (HDEP) were significant (p<0.05). The DFI of pullets increased linearly in DLS (R2=0.82) (p<0.05) and BCS (R2=0.57). The HDEP (%) in BCS (8.19) was higher (p<0.05) than in DLS (3.95). Dietary Pvmp increased (p<0.05) HDEP from 3.18 in pullets on T1 to 5.58 (T3), 5.90 (T4), 6.96 (T6), 7.24 (T5) and 7.54 (T2). Pullets in both BCS and DLS laid first egg at day 122 of life. However, dietary Pvmp led to significantly varied (p>0.05) onset of laying from 122 to 131 days. Effects of interaction of HS and Pvmp on FLW, EP and HDEP were significant (p<0.05). Haematological indices of pullets in both HS were similar (p>0.05) but varied significantly (p<0.05) with dietary Pvmp as well as interactions of HS and Pvmp. Therefore, effect of HS, type of dietary Pvmp and the interactions of HS and Pvmp influenced the performance characterics of pullets in this study.Keywords: Hen day egg production, Deep litter system, Battery cage system, Laying pullets, Blood differential counts
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Performance, blood chemistry and serum electrolytes of broilers given
           water from different sources
    • Authors: G.O. Adeyemo, A.O. Kabir, D.A. Tanimowo, A.D. Ologhobo
      Abstract: The role of water sources in broiler performance was assessed using 168 Abor Acre broiler birds. The birds were randomly allotted to 4 treatments (Treatment 1(T1) - tap water, Treatment 2 (T2) – bore-hole water, Treatment 3 (T3) – well water and Treatment 4 (T4) – river water), with 6 replicates each in a completely randomized design. The initial weight was measured at hatch and subsequently on weekly basis till the final week of study. Feed intake and conversion ratio were recorded and computed, while rectal temperature was obtained using a clinical thermometer inserted into the rectum of the broiler chicken. On day 42, blood was collected via the jugular vein into sample bottles for hematological and serum electrolyte assay. Data obtained were analyzed and means separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Water source was observed to significantly influence rectal temperature at the 4th week, with birds served borehole water having higher rectal temperature than birds served river water. Source of water offered to the birds was also observed to influence (p<0.05) serum levels of sodium, calcium, potassium and phosphorus. Sodium level was significantly higher in birds offered river water, while borehole water resulted in significantly higher phosphorus level in broiler chicken.Keywords: Water source, broilers, serum electrolytes, rectal temperature
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Growth performance and serum chemistry of earthworm (Hyperiodrilus
           euryaulos) cultured in different animal dung media
    • Authors: O.A. Ukoha, D.N. Onunkwo, C.N. Odukwe, O Ezike
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance and serum biochemistry of earthworms cultured in different animal dung manures in a Completely Randomized Design experiment that lasted for 10weeks, using 315 earthworms. Five treatments, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively containing garden soil alone (control) and four animals (poultry, rabbit, pig and goat) manure mixed with garden soil in the ratio of 1: 3 were put into rectangular plastic containers (30 x 42.5x27) cm. The containers were perforated at the base to enable excess water to drain out. 1kg of diet each was formulated with maize offal, wheat offal and PKC in a proportion of 0.35kg, 0.30kg and 0.35kg respectively and were mixed thoroughly with each medium. 63 fry earthworms of similar length were introduced into each treatment that was replicated thrice.1 litre of water was sprinkled to each treatment once every two days. At the end of the experiment, the control group (T1) was observed to have the least values for all the parameters evaluated. The results indicated that the absence of animal dung did not support growth of the earthworms. Poultry dung- cultured earthworms had the highest gain in weight (15.31g) followed by the goat dung-cultured earthworms (13.41g). The animal dungs improved the final average length with the highest value observed in the group cultured in the poultry dung. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in all the serum chemistry parameters evaluated. The control was observed to have 0.53g/dl total protein, 1.80mg/dl creatinine, 10.03mg/dl urea, 13.34mg/dl cholesterol and 6.12g/dl glucose. Group T3 (rabbit dung medium) earthworms had the highest (P<0.05) urea (58.30mg/dl) and cholesterol (106.15g/dl).Keywords: Earthworm, animal manure media
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Influence of pre-breeder dietary energy and protein levels on subsequent
           laying performance of FUNAAB - alpha chickens
    • Authors: B Saleh, U.D. Doma, D.J.U. Kalla, S.T. Mbap, G Mohammed
      Abstract: The effects of pre-breeder dietary energy and protein on subsequent reproductive performance of FUNAAB - Alpha chickens were studied using a total of 120 (96 hens and 24 cocks) birds. The birds were fed standard exotic grower diet (2650 Kcal/kg, 14%CP; Control), high energy low protein (2800Kcal/kg, 12%CP; HELP), high energy high protein (2800Kcal/kg, 16%CP; HEHP) and low energy low protein (2500Kcal/kg, 16%CP; LEHP) diets during pre-breeder phase (10 – 22 weeks of age). During, lay all the birds were fed the same breeder diet (2600 Kcal/kg and 16%CP) for twelve weeks. The diets and water were allowed ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The response criteria include; feed intake, body weight, egg production, fertility and hatchability. Data obtained were analysed for variance as a Randomized Complete Block Design. Hen day egg production was significantly (P<0.01) influenced by dietary treatment. Egg weights of 42.85, 43.55, 42.85 and 43.05g for control, HELP, HEHP and LEHP respectively were similar. A significant (P<0.01) difference was observed among means of egg mass with HEHP being highest (17.31) and control lowest (11.40). Pre-breeder dietary treatment had a significant (P<0.05) influence on FCR. Pre-breeder HEHP diet supported the best hen day egg production (41.06%), fertility (86.67%) and hatchability (68.98%). It was concluded that feeding high energy high protein (HEHP) diet during pre-breeder phase subsequently supported high egg production, fertility and hatchability.Keywords: Breeder chicken, fertility, hatchability, nutrition, reproduction
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Linear body measurements, correlation matrix, hematological and serum
           biochemistry of cattle fed supplemental diet containing varying inclusion
           levels of fermented molasses treated sawdust
    • Authors: D.N. Tsado, I.N. Effiong, T.Z. Adama
      Abstract: A study was conducted to assess the Linear Body Measurements, Correlation Matrix, Hematological and Serum Biochemistry of Brahman x Sokoto Gudali cross fed inclusion levels of fermented molasses treated sawdust diet. A total of 30 Brahman x Sokoto Gudali cattle aged 12-15 months and weighing averagely 80-110 kg were randomly assigned to five treatment groups designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 each comprising of two replicates, with three animals per replicate. The fermented molasses treated sawdust was included in the cattle diets at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 50% inclusion levels.. Feeding was twice daily for all the treatment groups. Supplementary diets were offered in the morning and in the evening with clean water given ad-libitum throughout the duration of the study that lasted for 12 weeks. The animals were allowed to graze from a pasture comprising of Bracharia ruziziensis, Chloris gayana, Digitaria smutsi,Stylosanthes hamata and Lablab pruriens for eight (8) hours daily. The results showed no significant difference (P>0.05). Among the Linear body measurements, chest girth is observed to be the most correlated (0.98**) to Body weight. Only Lymphocyte values are observed to be below the normal range among the hematological parameters. However, all the parameters measured in the serum were within the normal range. It was concluded that molasses treated sawdust can be included in cattle diets up to 20 % level without significantly affecting performance.Keywords: Brahman x Sokoto Gudali cattle: molasses treated sawdust, growth, haematology
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Growth performance of red sokoto goats fed cowpea husk supplemented with
           graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaves
    • Authors: U.M. Mafindi, A.U. Kibon, D.U. Zaklag, I.G. Buba
      Abstract: A twelve-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the growth performance of Red Sokoto goats fed cowpea husk supplemented with graded levels of moringa leaves. Sixteen Red Sokoto bucks aged 8-10 months with mean live weight of 10 + 0.5kg were subjected to four dietary treatments consisting of four animals per treatment in a completely randomized design (CRD). Four dietary treatments were formulated; cowpea husk only (T1) control, cowpea husk plus 50g moringa leaves (T2), cowpea husk plus 100g moringa leaves (T3) and cowpea husk plus 150g moringa leaves (T4), water and mineral lick were offered ad libitum. Data on feed intake, water intake, weight gain and digestibility were collected and analysed. Results indicated that moringa supplementation significantly (P<0.05) influenced the feed intake of the experimental animals across the dietary treatments in which animals in T3 recorded the highest value (74.90g) however water intake was not significantly (P>0.05) affected. T3 had the highest weight gain values (60.95g/h/day) and the best feed conversion ratio value (7.50). There were significant (P<0.05) difference in all the digestibility values measured across the dietary treatments in which goats in T3 recorded the highest values. It can be concluded that supplementation of moringa leaves up to 100g will improve better feed utilization and growth performance of Red Sokoto goats.Keywords: Red Sokoto Goats, Cowpea husk, Moringa leaves, Intake, Weight gain
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effects of sodium acetate and sodium propionate supplemented diets on
           growth performance and gut histomorphology of broiler starters
    • Authors: A.F. Agboola, B.R.O. Omidiwura, P.O. Osakue, K.O. Ogunbiyi
      Abstract: In a 21-day feeding trial, 240 one-day old broiler chicks were distributed into five treatments replicated six times with eight birds each to evaluate the effect of sodium acetate, sodium propionate and their combination on growth performance and gut histomorphological parameters of broiler starter. Diet 1 was a basal diet, diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained 0.1g/kg oxytetracycline, 4g/kg sodium acetate, 4g/kg sodium propionate and combination of 4g/kg sodium acetate + 4g/kg sodium propionate respectively. Performance indices, morphological measurements and histological examinations were assayed for. Birds fed sodium acetate diet had significantly (P<0.05) higher final weight compared to those fed other diets. However, birds fed sodium propionate diets and the combination were identical with birds fed other treatments. Improved villus height was recorded for birds fed sodium acetate, which did not differ significantly from those fed the combination. Sample sectioning of liver of birds fed antibiotics revealed dissociation of hepatic cords while sodium propionate showed hepatic necrosis. However sodium acetate and the combination showed no observable lesion. Bursa of fabricius of birds fed antibiotics revealed evidence of fibrosis while those fed sodium propionate showed scanty populated follicles. It was concluded that organic salt is a viable feed supplement in broiler diet.Keywords: Broiler starter, Growth performance, Gut histomorphology and Organic salts
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Performance of crossbred weaner rabbits fed diets formulated from mixtures
           of legume and grass
    • Authors: O.A. Aderinola, D.O. Okunlola, M.D. Shittu, A.A. Akinwunmi, K Ayandiran
      Abstract: Twenty four (24) crossbred weaner rabbits aged between 5-6 weeks with an initial weight ranging between 587.8g and 658.8g were used to investigate the performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed diets containing mixture of grasses and legume. Three experimental diets were formulated, Diet T1 was the control fed concentrate feed without forage, Diet T2 contained a mixture of Gliricidia sepium and Panicum maximum while Diet T3 contained Gliricidia sepium and Brachiaria brizantha, mainly in substitution for the maize of the control diet. The animals were randomly distributed into three treatment groups of 8 rabbits each with each serving as a replicate in a completely randomised design experiment. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. The type of forage used in this study did not have effect on the nutrient intake of the rabbits and except the dry matter and ash digestibilities, other nutrients were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was observed that final weight, weight gain and daily feed intake are not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the experimental diets. The highest final weight (1193g) was observed in T3 though similar to T2 (1111.20) and the lowest final weight (1036.20g) was observed in T1 (containing no forage). Average daily weight gain followed the same trend with 9.54g, 9.35g and 7.6g in recorded for T3, T2 and T1 respectively. The best feed efficiency was observed for T3 (8.41). It can be concluded that incorporation of legume/ grass mixtures, as substitutes for maize in rabbit diets will give better results when compared with diet without forages.Keywords: legume/grass mixtures, Concentrate, weaner rabbits, feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of levels of methionine supplementation on processed Mucuna sloanei
           seed meal based broiler chicken diets
    • Authors: O.C.O. Ezeigbo, D.N. Onunkwo
      Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted with 150 Marshal Broiler chicken from day-old to 8 weeks to assess the effect of levels of methionine supplementation on processed Mucuna sloanei seed meal in broiler chickens diet. The trial lasted for 56 days. Mucuna sloanei seeds were soaked for 24 hours, and then boiled for 30 minutes after decanting the water used for soaking; oven dried and milled using the hammer mill (2.00 mm sieve). Five experimental diets were formulated (T1 - T5). T1 was control diet, and contained neither Mucuna sloanei seed meal nor methionine supplementation. T2 contained only Mucuna sloanei seed meal without methionine supplement, T3–T5 had 6% Mucuna sloanei seed meal quantitative replacement of soybean meal each, with methionine supplementation at 0.10%, 0.20% and 0.30% respectively. The feed conversion ratio of T5 was the lowest, and so indicates better conversion than the rest. For cut parts, there were significant differences (P<0.05) for all the parameters measured. Diet 5 was better than the others. The organ weights showed no significant difference (p>0.05). Diet 5 had the least cost/kg weight, highest revenue and gross margin, and hence recommended.Keywords:  Mucuna sloanei; Methionine; supplementation; soaking; boiling
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of commercial layer feeds and their impact on performance and
           egg quality
    • Authors: L.A.F. Akinola, O.A. Ekine
      Abstract: One hundred and eight (108) ISA brown hens at 34 weeks of age were used for this study which lasted for 12 weeks. The hens were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (FT1, FT2 and FT3) consisting of four replicates each with nine (9) hens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Three commonly available commercial layers feed were purchased from a sales outfit and were designated as FT1, FT2 and FT3. Each of the three feeds were analysed for calcium, phosphorus and proximate composition. The hen day production (HDP), feed intake, number of eggs produced, feed conversion ratio, feed cost and mortality were recorded/calculated. The egg quality was obtained from samples of three eggs collected from each of the replicate at the end of the study. The results showed that there were significant (P < 0.05) differences in the analyzed moisture and ash content of the feed, and in the declared and analyzed values of the crude fibre, metabolizable energy, ME, calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) while the crude protein and fat did not differ. The crude fibre content indicated for all the feeds were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the analyzed content while the declared ME, Ca and P were significantly higher than the analyzed values except for the ME in FT3. The feeds (FT1 and FT2) with the determined high crude fibre content had significantly (P<0.05) better HDP, number of eggs laid per hen, feed conversion ratio and cost of feed per dozen egg. The feed intake of the hens fed the FT1 and FT2 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the FT3 but did not have any negative effect on the cost of feed per dozen eggs. The egg quality parameters examined showed that the FT3 feed produced significantly (P<0.05) higher weight of eggs, yolk and weight of the albumen while the other quality indices showed no differences. The study clearly showed the feed manufacturer’s strategy of sustaining their businesses with high fibre content, which still ensures that feed users produce reasonable quantity of eggs. It was concluded that while all the three commercial feeds were useful in the absence of other quality layers’ diets, the agencies concerned with feed regulation in Nigeria must ensure strict compliance with quality standards to enhance the farmers’ confidence in commercial layer’s feed and also boost egg production.Keywords: Commercial layers’ feed, Egg production, Egg quality, Feed intake, Laying hens, Proximate analysis
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Growth performance and egg production of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix
           japonica) fed diets containing graded levels of sun-dried cassava (Manihot
           esculenta) peel meal
    • Authors: A.A. Malik, A.T. Ijaiya, D.N. Tsado, N Ntaudom
      Abstract: A two-phase research project was carried out to determine the growth performance and egg production of Japanese quails fed diets containing graded levels of sun-dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) peel meal (SCPM). A total of 360 two-week-old Japanese quails of mixed sexes with average initial weight of 32.09 ± 0.02 g were used for the study. The birds were randomly allotted to four treatment groups, with each treatment replicated thrice having a total of 90 birds per treatment. SCPM replaced maize at 0, 25, 50 and 75 % levels to form diets A, B, C and D respectively and were fed to the birds for six weeks during the growing phase. In the laying phase, a total of 180 female Japanese quails were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments replicated thrice with 45 birds per treatment, and fed layers diets (with the same levels of maize replacement by SCPM as done in the growing phase) for six weeks. Results showed significant (p<0.05) differences in daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the treatments in the growing phase. In the laying phase, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in daily feed intake, hen day production (HDP), FCR and egg quality traits. Hence, it was concluded that dietary maize could be replaced with SCPM up to 50 % for optimum growth performance; while 25 % SCPM level of replacement is adequate for optimum egg production at the laying phase.Keywords: Growth performance, egg production, cassava peel, Japanese quail
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Haematology, serum biochemistry and economic characteristics of cockerels
           fed diets containing varying levels of water hyacinth [Eichhornia
           crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach] meal supplemented with Maxigrain® enzyme
           
    • Authors: A.A. Malik, Y.S. Kudu, R.O. Gold
      Abstract: The haematology, serum biochemistry and economic characteristics of two hundred and eighty-eight (288) nine-week-old Black Harco strain cockerels fed diets containing water hyacinth (Echhornia crassipes) meal supplemented with or without exogenous enzymes was investigated. Water hyacinth was included at 0, 10 and 20 % dietary inclusion levels as replacement for wheat offal without enzyme supplementation to form Diet 1, Diet 2 and Diet 3, respectively; and then supplemented with exogenous enzymes to form Diet 4, Diet 5 and Diet 6, respectively. The cockerels were randomly allocated to six treatment groups replicated three times to have 16 chicks per replicate; and were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for 9 weeks under a deep litter management system. At the end of the feeding trial, blood samples were collected for the evaluation of the haematological characteristics and biochemical profile of the cockerels. Economic characteristics in terms of cost of feed per kg, total cost of feed consumed per animal and cost of feed consumed per kg weight gain were evaluated. Results show that only white blood cell (leucocytes) and red blood cell (erythrocytes) count were significantly (p<0.05) different among the treatments. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration; as well as in neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes concentration. For the biochemical indices, total bilirubin level, conjugate bilirubin level, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein were significantly (p<0.05) different among the various dietary treatments. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in cost per kg weight gain between birds fed the 0, 10 and 20 % WHM; but cost savings for 10 and 20 % dietary inclusion of WHM were ₦2.36 and ₦4.89, respectively. Based on the haematology, serum biochemistry and economic characteristics of cockerels, water hyacinth meal can be included up to 20 % in the diet of cockerels at the chick phase without any detrimental effect on their performance.Keywords: Cockerels, haematological characteristics, water hyacinth, wheat offal
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Carcass characteristics and blood components of broiler chickens fed
           sorghum sk-5912 (Sorghum bicolor L. moench) variety in mixture with
           different plant protein sources
    • Authors: O.A. Lakurbe, U.D. Doma, K.M. Bello, M Abubakar
      Abstract: The effect of feeding sorghum SK-5912 variety with different plant protein sources to broiler chickens on the carcass characteristics and blood parameters were investigated. Five diets were formulated in which maize with boiled soya bean (MBSB) was used as the control and sorghum SK-5912 variety was combined with boiled soya bean (SBSB), soya bean meal (SSBM), industrial ground nuts cake (SIGNC) and local ground nuts cake (LGNC) tagged as diets 1 (control), 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Three hundred broilers chicks ‘marshal strain’ were randomly allotted to the dietary treatments with four replications in a completely randomized design. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum and the feeding trial lasted for eight weeks. At the end of feeding trial eight birds per treatment were randomly selected for carcass analysis, blood samples were collected for haematological and serum biochemical analysis. Results showed that all the carcass and gut parameters measured did not differ (P>0.05) significantly. Packed cell volume, Red blood cells, White blood cells and platelets were also not influenced (P>0.05) by the dietary treatments. However, results obtained were inferior in the control diet. Serum biochemical indices were also not affected except the high density lipoproteins (HDL) that was (P<0.05) affected across the dietary treatments. Despite control diet had the best HDL (mmo/L), but all values obtained were within the normal range. This study therefore, revealed that sorghum SK-5912 variety can completely replace maize and favourably combine with different plant protein sources with no detrimental effect on the carcass yield and blood constituents of broiler chickens.Keywords: Broiler, Carcass, Haematology, Plant proteins, Serum, Sorghum SK-5912
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of feeding raw and differently processed kapok (Ceiba pentandra)
           seed meal on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of weaner
           rabbits
    • Authors: R.J. Wafar, B Yakubu, H.B. Yusuf, M Antyev
      Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding raw and differently processed kapok seed meal on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, internal organ weights and blood profile of weaner rabbits. Forty eight weaner rabbits were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments containing 0% kapok seed meal (T1), 10% RKSM (T2), 10% CKSM (T3), 10% TKSM (T4), 10% FKSM (T5) and 10% SKSM (T6) in a completely randomized design. Each treatment group had 8 rabbits replicated four times with 2 rabbits per replicate. The proximate composition of raw and differently processed kapok seed meal showed that crude protein contents ranged between 22.59±0.04 - 34.82±0.11%, while the crude fibre values varied between 9.28±0.89 - 17.45±0.06%. Cooked and fermented kapok seed meal had significantly (P <0.05) higher metabolisable energy content than raw and other processed kapok seed meals. Cooked kapok seed meal had lower values in all anti-nutritional factors, with trypsin inhibitor completely deactivated by cooking, fermenting and toasting. The result of the growth performance showed that final body weight and total feed intake of rabbits in control diet and CKSM were significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of rabbits in RKSM, FKSM, TKSM and SKSM groups. Rabbits on RKSM had the lowest final body weight gain, total feed intake, daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and poor feed conversion ratio (FCR) values compared to the processed kapok seed meal group. FCR ranged from 3.92±0.92 in CKSM to 4.70±0.31 in RKSM diets. Rabbits fed CKSM showed significantly (P<0.05) better FCR. Differences (P<0.05) were found in carcass, dressed, liver, liver, lungs, kidney weights. It was concluded that rabbits fed diets containing cooked kapok seed meal had the best growth performance and carcass characteristics. It could be suggested that cooking was the most efficient processing method in reducing anti-nutritional factors in kapok seed.Keywords: Kapok seed, Processing Methods, Anti-nutritional factor, Growth performance, Rabbits
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from growing
           rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) fed diets containing varying levels of
           fermented lebbeck (Albizia lebbeck) seed meal
    • Authors: D.N. Tsado, I Larai, T.Z. Adama, E.Z. Jiya
      Abstract: Following a 12 weeks feeding trial with growing rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) fed diets containing varying levels of fermented Lebbeck (Albizia lebbeck) seed meal, forty-five (45) mixed breeds of rabbits aged between 6-8 weeks with an average initial weight of 588.87g were used to determine the carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation. Five experimental diets were formulated such that fermented Albizia lebbeck seed meal was included to replace groundnut cake at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % on weight to weight basis using completely randomized design (CRD). The rabbits were randomly allotted to five treatments in three replicates with 9 rabbits per treatment and 3 per replicate. The rabbits were also offered fresh Amaranthus hybridus ad libitum daily. The results showed significant reduction of saponin from 90.0-12.33 (86.30%), Tannin from 2.12-0.00 (100%), Cyanide 63.66-0.43 (99.32%), Flavonoid 0.24-0.00 (100%) and Alkaloid 1.28-0.00 (100%) after fermentation. Feeding fermented Albizia lebbeck seed meal however, resulted in non-significant differences (P>0.05) in dressed weight irrespective of inclusion level. The overall acceptability of both the cooked and fried meat also showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in all the dietary groups. It is therefore recommended that fermented Albizia lebbeck seed meal (FALSM) can be used to replace groundnut cake up to 20 % in rabbit diet with optimum carcass yield.Keywords: Rabbits; Albizia lebbeck seed; carcass characteristics
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of fore-stomach of cattle for foreign materials in Ilokun
           Abattoir, Ado-Ekiti
    • Authors: C.O. Raimi, F.O. Bamigboye
      Abstract: A study was conducted from October to December 2015 at Ilokun Abattoir, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, to assess the prevalence of rumen and reticulum foreign bodies of cattle. Post-mortem examination was employed for the recovery of foreign bodies from rumen and reticulum after slaughtering. The animals were selected by using simple random sampling from all the slaughtered animals. The total numbers of slaughtered cattle examined were 241 while the numbers of animals with ingested foreign bodies in reticulum and rumen were 68 (28.2%). The types of foreign bodies detected were leathers (1.5%), clothes (1.5%), mango seeds (4.4%), wires (4.4%), plastic (7.4%), thread (16.2%), nylon (27.9%) and plants materials (36.7%). Awareness should be created on proper disposal of these foreign materials, as well as the periodical cleaning of these wastes in the grazing area.Keywords: foreign bodies, ruminants, prevalence, abattoir, rumen
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Nutritional evaluation of bitter leaf meal (Vernonia amygdalina): effects
           on performance, carcass and serum metabolites of broiler chickens
    • Authors: O.T. Daramola, O.D. Oloruntola, S.O. Ayodele
      Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemicals present in bitter leaf meal and to determine the effect of graded levels of bitter leaf meal (BLM) on performance, carcass quality, internal organs and serum metabolites of broiler chickens. A total of 72 one-day-old broiler chicks of Abor-acre breed were used for the trial and fed with diets supplemented with graded levels of bitter leaf meal (0%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%). The diets were isonitrogenous and iso-caloric. The chicks were grouped into 4 treatments (18 chicks per treatment) and teach treatment was replicated 3 times using a complete randomized design. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Results showed a relatively high proximate and mineral content while phytochemical screening revealed that BLM contains bioactive substances beneficial to broiler chickens with anti-nutrient concentrations below the critical levels. The final liveweight, carcass weight and dressing percentage at 1362.27g, 1138.85g and 75.22%, respectively improved in treated groups especially among birds fed diet containing 0.3% BLM. The improvement in the feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 2.56 resulted in improved muscle development. The inclusion of BLM at 0.3% reduced the level of cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, low density lipoprotein, creatinine at 70.67mg/dl, 34.67mg/dl, 10.33mmol/l , 7.67mg/dl and 0.12mg/dl, respectively, and increased the high density lipoprotein values at 90.33mg/dl. It was concluded that BLM is not deleterious to the growth and health status of broiler chicken rather it can be a good growth booster.Keywords: broiler chickens, bitter leaf meal, growth performance, serum metabolites
      PubDate: 2018-05-16
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
 
 
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