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Showing 1 - 48 of 48 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa
  [2 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0378-9721
   Published by African Journals Online Homepage  [266 journals]
  • Analysis of farm household technical efficiency in small-scale beekeeping
           enterprise in Mwingi and Kitui, Kenya
    • Authors: AI Omondi, HD Affognon, WS Kingori, MG Diiro, BW Muriithi, SK Raina
      Abstract: Beekeeping generates both socioeconomic and environmental benefits. It is crucial for agricultural well-being owing to the natural biological interdependence that comes from insects and is a useful means of strengthening livelihoods because it uses and creates a range of assets. Beekeeping has been promoted among marginalized rural farmers in Kenya as an alternative source of income generation that improves forest resource management and conserves biodiversity by governments and development agents, for instance, ICIPE’s Commercial Insects Programme (CIP). The main objectives of this paper are to measure the technical efficiency levels of Kenyan small-scale beekeeping enterprises and to investigate the degree to which various factors influence efficiency levels in these farms. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied to farm-level cross-sectional data collected in mid-2013 after the implementation of CIP activities. Our empirical results indicate that CIP participants and improved farmers (using using both traditional and modern hives) had the highest average levels of technical efficiencies. CIP participants had average technical efficiencies of 0.56, which is higher than non-participants, who achieved average technical efficiencies of
      0.26. While improved farmers achieved the highest average levels of technical efficiencies (0.59), the overall level of technical efficiencies in the study area was low (0.35) indicating that a large room for improvement still exists. Participation in CIP had a significant influence on technical efficiency levels of the small-scale
      farmers. Other important factors influencing the technical efficiencies were found to include farmers’ knowledge in honey harvesting and colony transfer, and access to land. Most importantly, gender, age, education and farmers’ years of beekeeping experience had no statistically significant influence on the technical efficiencies of small-scale beekeepers in Kenya. The findings of this study can inform the design
      and the implementation of interventions targeting beekeeping, thereby strengthening beekeeping as an alternative source of income generation.
      Keywords: Beekeeping, Beehive, Commercial Insects Programme, Technical Efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Strengthening the resilience of women and youth in Somalia to economic
           shocks through beekeeping
    • Authors: E Mbugua, C Biaou, K Saeed, G Obhai
      Abstract: Somalia has a huge potential for the production of honey and other hive products. Though traditionally practiced for centuries, apiculture, like many other sectors in the country has suffered from low knowledge and skills and poor perceptions in regard to modern beekeeping technologies. There is a pervading lack of awareness of the high potential for value-addition in processing of hive products and the
      real opportunity for income generation and investment that beekeeping provides. Capacity development and material support were therefore identified as  indispensable incentives for the sustainable production of honey and other hive products. Since 2013, FAO has intervened in apiculture in Somalia with the support of UKaid by forming rural beekeeping village groups and further supporting the groups with beekeeping equipment and tools as well as technical knowledge transfer. The goal of FAO interventions is to diversify households’ income and employment opportunities, mainly targeting women and youth. This paper discusses the challenges and impacts of FAO’s intervention in Somalia in strengthening the productive capacity of the beekeeping sub-sector. It is evident that technical support and provi¬sion of equipment to beekeepers provides significant alternative income and employment sources for rural households and improves their livelihoods. From the initial lessons learnt during a pilot phase, FAO has replicated beekeeping activities suc¬cessfully in several regions of Somalia by opening opportunity for more women and youth into beekeeping with over 750 households currently benefitting since 2013, with a potential to produce 22.5 Mt of honey annually. Further, the role of women and youth in building sustainable models of rural  development has been demonstrated: it is suggested that technical and institutional capacity be strengthened, including establishment of appropriate food safety  standards for hive products in the context of Somalia to meet customer needs in local and external markets. Gendered value-chain analysis is also required to delineate relative share of benefits, especially to women and youth.
      Keywords: Bee-keeping, Women, Knowledge transfer, Honey
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Technical and socioeconomic assessment of honey production in Cameroon
           western highlands
    • Authors: F Meutchieye, FP Kamogne, P Zango, AF Youbissi, J Tchoumboue
      Abstract: Socio-economic and technical characteristics of 113 beekeepers selected randomly in three Divisions (Bamboutos, Mifi, Menoua) of the Sudano Guinean highlands zone of West Region of Cameroon were assessed through survey using a semi-structural questionnaire, direct interviews and observations from April to July 2014. The main results were as follow: beekeeping is mostly done by men (79.6%) aged between 50-60 years. Many of them are Christians (75.2%), married (88.5%) and taking care of more than 5 persons. 95.6% of the beekeepers have been to school. Some of them have not received a proper training but have been exercising for more than 15 years. The bee colonies, bred through extensive the system, belong to the yellow Apis mellifera adansonii. The number of hives varies from 1 to more than 101, with
      an average of 40 hives per beekeeper. The fixed (traditional) and mobile (modern) hives are the commonly used. The bait used is mainly wax (91.2%). The interval between hives installation and bee populating as well as hives installation and honey harvest is not evaluated by beekeepers. The products harvested are honey (100.0%), wax (69.9%), propolis (44.2%), pollen (15.9%) and royal jelly (3.5%). The average amount of honey harvest varies from 4 to 7 liters per colony. Honey is kept within the comb or stored in a filtered form. Honey colors were light amber (36.7%). The estimated annual gain from honey production ranged from 16 000 to 16 875 and from 28 125 to 28 625 FCFA per hive, for fixed and mobile hives respectively. Constraints to beekeeping are socio-economic (financial problems), technical (lack or inadequacy of the framework) and pathological (insects). The majority of beekeepers would like to continue the activity and wish to improve and increase the size of the apiary despite these constraints.
      Key words: Beekeeping, performances, constraints, perspectives, Western Cameroon.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Major challenges of beekeeping in Chiron Worde of West Harangue Zone, East
           Roomier, Ethiopia
    • Authors: Temesgen Terefe
      Abstract: The study was conducted in Chiron District of West Harangue Zone, Ethiopia to identify the major challenges to bee-keeping activities so as to indicate the priority intervention areas for Government and non-governmental beekeeping development organizations. The average traditional and modern hives possessed per respondent was 6.87and 0.38 respectively. Occupancy rates stood at 58.8% for traditional
      hives and 46.7% for the modern hives. The main reason for these low occupancy rates was the fact that most of the modern hives were distributed at no cost to receipients by NGOs without training on how to operate them as well as the shortage of bee colonies and operational accessories. Out of 119 respondents, only eight (6.7%) were women and this could be due to enduring traditional perceptions that beekeeping was the domain of men only. According to respondents the main sources of the foundation colony were catching swarm, gifting by family members and purchase of colonies. Respondents indicated that the three sources were unreliable because of different factors. The respondents kept their colonies both in and out door, but with no internal hive inspection. The major challenges in the region were shortage of bee colonies, high price of the modern hives and its accessories making them inaccessible for many, low extension service, and lack of awareness of the farmers. Some of these were also factors in keeping women’s participation in beekeeping low. Ants and wax moth pest problems were also reported.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Progress and challenges towards listing of Kenya in European Union market
           for export of honey and hive products
    • Authors: Kamau Samuel Kabochi, Onyango Irene Awino
      Abstract: No .
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Enabling policies and legal framework to support the growth of honey
           industry in sub Saharan Africa: A case of Rwanda
    • Authors: S. Niyonsenga, W Mwiza
      Abstract: No .
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Keynote Address - The future of the African bee: A call to mainstream
           beekeeping to enhance delivery of the Malabo declaration
    • Authors: S Nouala, SA Ossiya
      Abstract: No .
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Special remarks at official opening of the symposium
    • Authors: Ahmed Elsawalhy
      Abstract: No .
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Bee diseases: Examining options for their management in Africa
    • Authors: Wolfgang Ritter, Ute Schneider Ritter
      Abstract: In Europe and Asia, the problem of damage to bees by Varroa-Mites has primarily been attacked by increased medical treatment: in Europe, in 1980, they started with one treatment per year and have meanwhile arrived at four to five yearly treatments, depending on the region. The side-effects of the treatment have weakened the colonies additionally and have made them susceptible, especially to viruses and also to some bacterial diseases (Ritter, 2014b). Though honey production is less affected, the handling of the colonies has become more complicated, more  work-intensive and more cost-intensive. The management of Varroosis in Europe and America has not been successful up to now and even ended up in a total failure sometimes. To copy this for Africa would mean to make the same mistakes twice and to finally fail as well. The situation in parts of Africa, especially in East Africa, already reveals possible solutions. Though the Varroa mite has been spread there for a long time already, heavy losses as experienced elsewhere have not occurred, even without treatment. A sustainable solution for Africa can only consist in strengthening the native bees and in creating a modified African way of beekeeping instead of introducing foreign bees and European and American management methods.
      It is necessary to go the African way to have healthy bees and to strengthen colonies sustainably!
      Key words: Bee losses, bee diseases, American foulbrood, Nosemosis, Varroosis, African way of beekeeping
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Bee pollination industry in Africa: Status, challenges and options for
    • Authors: Peter Kwapong
      Abstract: No .
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • The impact on environmental stressors on apiculture in Africa
    • Authors: Christian Maus
      Abstract: Honeybees are important as pollinators of agricultural crops as well as of producers of bee products like honey and beeswax. Honeybees are exposed to various environmental stressors that can significantly affect apiculture. These stressors can vary in their prevalence and impact between different regions. In Africa, apiculture has a long tradition. Nevertheless, there is only limited data available about the influence of environmental stressors on beekeeping specifically on this continent is limited in comparison to certain other regions. A review of information available is provided in this article. There are close to 310 million bee colonies in Africa but only an estimated 14-18 millions of them are managed, which is a
      completely different scenario than in most other continents. According to the limited data available, colony losses do occur in Africa, and where they were recorded, at more or less comparable levels like in Europe or North America. In general, stressors that play a relevant role on global level are to a certain extent prevalent in Africa too, with parasites and pathogens being of key importance as factors influencing bee health, as in other continents. Many of the relevant species appear to have been introduced to Africa only relatively recently, and to be just in the status of spreading there. In general, honeybees in Africa appear to be more resilient against many of these pathogens and parasites, compared to the European honeybee. Most notably, the parasitic Varroa mite which has been identified as the most important individual factor adversely affecting bee health in Europe and North America, does not appear to be a problem of comparable dimension in Africa. Beyond those issues, habitat loss, factors related to beekeeping practices, and the
      indiscriminate or careless use of pesticides has been identified as relevant stressors impacting bee health and apiculture in Africa.
      Keywords: Apiculture, Beekeeping, Africa, Honeybees, Environmental Stressors, Bee Pathogens
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Impacts of climate variability and change on beekeeping productivity
    • Authors: GG Malisa, PZ Yanda
      Abstract: This study investigated impacts of climate variability and change on Beekeeping productivity in Sunya, Kijungu and Olgira villages in Kiteto District in Manyara region in Tanzania. Specific objectives of the study were to identify the contribution of honey bees to community livelihoods, to identify climate related factors which influence honey bee productivity, to characterise impact of climate variability and change on honey bees productivity, to identify the role of climate services and indigenous knowledge on linking changing climate with bee keeping activities and to identify possible adaptation measures that beekeepers use to respond to the impact of climate variability and change. Beekeepers were purposively selected based on their experience, with a snow balling approach was used to come up with more experienced and long term practitioners of beekeeping activities. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and Rainfall data were analysed using Microsoft Excel. Climate Change and Climate Variability have negative impacts to the productivity of honeybees; altering plant flowering time, increasing water stress especially in situations of drought, thus reducing pollen and nectar availability, inhibiting movement, affecting bee  communications, causing physical damage of hives, colony starvation and retarding bee forage activities. In response to climate change beekeepers have adapted to reduce impacts by shifting to pollen rich areas, providing food for bees, providing water, changing hive types, changing apiary location, putting hives in tree shadows, use of over-dimensioned wooden hive and changing harvesting methods and time.
      Nonetheless beekeepers face serious constraints and interventions are needed to strengthen the capacity of beekeepers to adapt through integrating climate services with available indigenous knowledge and local practices.
      Key Words: Beekeeping, climate change and variability, vulnerability and adaptation
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Assessing the use of crop protection products for potential risks to honey
    • Authors: CH Maus, A Alix, D Castle, M Coulson, J Cuffe, G Mitchell, S Simiyu-Wafukho, H Thompson, S Maund
      Abstract: Honeybees are an important part of agricultural ecosystems due to their activity as pollinators. In the scope of bee colony losses reported from some regions, there is an intense ongoing discussion about the multiple factors potentially affecting bee health. One of the factors central in these public debate is pesticides. In the context of this discussion, regulatory authorities in many countries are considering how
      to revise their national assessment schemes to evaluate the safety of pesticides to bees. It is important that risk assessment systems are globally as consistent as possible. They need to be protective, scientifically robust, yet pragmatic, easy to interpret and implement. This review outlines a risk assessment system which fulfills these criteria. The system presented is based on the principles of the EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) 170 Approach which is successfully used in Europe and is demonstrably protective. It is a tiered,  hierarchical system relying on internationally validated study designs. The goal is
      protection of the bee colony, its health and productivity. The higher-tier assessment is based on semi-field and field studies. Such studies provide direct evidence in cases where the lower-tier laboratory-based assessment did not yield conclusive results, and they include the option to consider realistic exposure scenarios in specific cases. For the bee-safe use of crop protection products, risk management is critical as a measure to minimize exposure; therefore risk management and risk mitigation are integral to the proposed scheme. At any stage during the tiered risk assessment, it may be appropriate to consider risk mitigation measures.
      Keywords: Honeybees, Pesticides, Risk assessment, Ecotoxicology
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Des dispositions responsables à prendre pour la protection des abeilles
           contre les effets néfastes des pesticides
    • Authors: Joseph Zafack
      Abstract: En considérant l’effet néfaste des maladies, des parasites, du changement climatique et d’autres facteurs environnementaux (les OGM par exemple) sur la survie des abeilles, la baisse de leurs populations dans certaines parties du monde ne saurait être attribuée aux seules pesticides. En plus, l’impact de ces derniers sur les abeilles serait  substantiellement amoindri si les bonnes pratiques phytosanitaires étaient appliquées lors des traitements contre les nuisibles des végétaux.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Honey residues monitoring, samples collected from three of the East
           African’s countries (Uganda, Kenya, and SouthSudan) markets
    • Authors: PE Ashjan
      Abstract: Beekeeping plays an important role in enhancing food security and sustainable agriculture as it contributes significantly to enhancing production and productivity of crops. Honey and other hive products contribute to income generation for some countries, and for countries where pollination services exist, beekeeping is a strategic enterprise. A major challenge that African honey producers face is access to both local and international markets due to underdeveloped marketing systems and inadequate quality control. The aim of this study was to screen for existence of pesticides and anti-biotic residues in the African beehive products from selected markets and to determine whether it is within the limits of EU range of Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) or not. Secondly to investigate whether the honey from those selected markets meets minimum quality and labelling requirements based on EU and CODEX Standards. A market survey was done in three countries of east Africa (Uganda, Kenya and South Sudan), and 36 samples were collected from three different markets from different region in each country. Analysis was conducted using Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for pesticides residue analysis, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for antibiotic analysis. The result shown that none of targeted organochlorine nor organo-phoshate pesticides appeared in the tested samples. There were also no targeted antibiotics were present in the samples. This result could be an indication that either the farmers and honey producers in those countries (Kenya, Uganda and South Sudan) abide by the food Safety measures and procedures, or there is a limited utilization of the targeted drugs and pesticides in study countries.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Labellisation des miels et valorisation des spécifications régionales,
           cas de la région boeny à l’ouest de Madagascar
    • Authors: Fidy Harijaona Andriamamonjy
      Abstract: À part la classification des miels par rapport à sa couleur, leurs origines florales ou géographiques pourront être utilisées comme critères dans le processus de labellisation de ce produit. Dans la région de BOENY à l’ouest de Madagascar, les acteurs apicoles ont entamé un processus pour la valorisation des miels produits dans cette région. Ce processus nécessite la mise en place de la plate forme multiacteurs
      régionaux qui pilote les activités dénommé « Plate Forme Miel de Boeny ». Des outils ont été également conçus : des guides, des manuels, des supports de communication permettant de mieux gérer et de contrôles la qualité des miels. Des dispositifs de suivis et de contrôle sont en vue, mais aussi la création des références de qualité et la labellisation devront se baser sur des cadres réglementaires légales.
      Mots cles : Madagascar, Région Boeny, miels, labellisation, certification, qualité.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and
           beekeeping development in Werieleke District, northern Ethiopia
    • Authors: Teweldemedhn Gebretinsae
      Abstract: Government and NGOs are promoting beekeeping as a tool for poverty alleviation in Ethiopia. This increased promotion is creating increasing demand for bee colonies in the Northern part of the country such as Tigray region. Thus, colony marketing is an important venture in Werieleke district of Tigray region. This research was  conducted in Nebelet and Maikinetal colony market centres of the district. It investigates the market and its implications through interviewing 120 market actors. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Pearson correlations were run using JMP5 statistical package. Traders in Nebelet were men who compose producers and traders. In Maikinetal, they were producers and hunters. Colony traders in Nebelet were experienced in colony multiplication through swarming and able to transport safely from highland areas of 40km radius. Traders in Maikinetal were less  experienced youngsters who hunt colonies from valleys of Werie. Customers use the markets as source of colony for start up, expansion and replacement. Several
      youth who bought fewer colonies were found in Nebelet implying their attraction to beekeeping as employment option. There was better involvement of women in purchasing colonies as contrasted to selling, which reflect their improving participation in beekeeping. Price of colonies has significantly varied spatially and temporally (P < 0.0001) in association with their number and strength. Regardless of its valuable contribution to beekeeping development, colony marketing has been neglected. Consequently, several constraints were pointed-out as faced in transporting and marketing colonies. Colonies have been flowing from highlands to lowlands, which can cause genetic mix-up, disease transmissions and failure to
      adapt. Selling virgin queens and deserting worker bees at market were common practices indicating low understanding of beekeepers on bee biology. Therefore, law should be established in order to standardize colonies and queens sold, conserve bee diversity and avoid disease transmissions. Beekeepers should be empowered to rear queens and multiply their own colonies.
      Keywords: Beekeeping, Bee colony marketing, Queen bee rearing
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • The status of honeybee pests in Uganda
    • Authors: R Kajobe, EK Kato, SA Otim, P Kasangaki, PP Abila
      Abstract: Beekeeping provides enormous potential for income generation, pollination and sustainable use of forest resources. In Uganda, honey production potential is enormous and in 2005; Uganda was licensed to export honey to the EU, creating an immense opportunity. However, the potential for beekeeping is not fully exploited. Many pests attack honeybees causing enormous losses. This descriptive study that
      took a participatory action research approach, evaluated how beekeepers managed honeybee pests. Data collection was carried out from 2009 to 2012 from four of the ten agro-ecological zones of Uganda. These zones are classified on the basis of distinct vegetation type, elevation and climatic conditions. Eleven honeybee pests and predators that affect beekeeping production were documented. The important pests causing economic losses were black ants, small hive beetles, wax moths and bee hornets. Effective methods for pest control and management applied by beekeepers included mechanical methods and bio-control. The mechanical methods included keeping the apiary tidy; avoiding throwing combs around apiaries and
      frequent smoking to drive out small hive beetles. At least 28% of the beekeepers developed local organic (bee-safe) methods for pest control. To manage the ants, many beekeepers applied ash at the apiaries. They hanged their hives using wires and kept their apiaries tidy. The use of hive stands placed in used engine oil also helped reduce many pests. Some beekeepers swatted bee hornets to reduce colony abscondment. The pests led to absconding of many colonies. Honey production with the traditional hives was most affected by the pests; followed by the top bar hive. Frame hives were the least affected by the pests. Many beekeepers lacked adequate information for managing the pests limiting the methods used to control the pests. There should be detailed study of the important honeybee pests in order to design best management practices.
      Key words: Honeybees, Honeybee pests, ants, wax moths, small hive beetles, Uganda
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Profiling of honey bee viruses in Kenyan honey bee colonies
    • Authors: I Onyango, R Skilton, S Muya, G Michuki, S Kabochi, H Kutima, M Kasina
      Abstract: Honey bee population worldwide is dwindling due to a number of interrelated factors among them pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and metazoan parasites. These factors negatively affect agricultural production as well as the apiculture industry which is dependent on a seasonal abundance of honey bees year-round. As a result, food security and livelihood is compromised due to loss of pollinators. Majority of viruses infecting honey bees are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses of the order Picornavirales. The economically important viruses of bees in this order belong to family Dicistroviridae and Iflaviridae. Paenibacillus larvae and Melisococcus plutonius are bacteria known to cause bee brood diseases. This study
      aimed at identifying the viruses circulating in Kenyan honey bee colonies using next generation sequencing. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from sixteen libraries and was used in cDNA synthesis using superscript II. The cDNA converted to dsDNA using Klenow reaction and used in amplification. 454 pyro sequencing was performed on genome sequencer FLX system. The resultant single reads were analyzed using CLC Genomic workbench. The reads were mapped on the full genomes of the identified viruses and then de novo assembled. The resultant contigs were interrogated using basic alignment search tool (BLAST) on national center for biotechnology information (NCBI) database. The contigs were exported
      to MEGA6 and used in phylogenetic analysis. The viruses identified belonged to family Iflaviridae and included deformed wing virus, Kakugo virus and Varroa destructor virus-1. Melissococcus plutonius and Enterococcus faecalis were also detected. Of the sixteen libraries sequenced, two libraries; Busia_adult and
      Siaya_brood reported the incidences of iflaviruses while five libraries had reads matching with M. plutonius and E. faecalis. There is need for a strategy in place for the management of bee diseases to enhance bee health and quality of hive products.Key words: Bee viruses, Paenibacillus larvae, Melissococcus plutonius, Iflavirus, Next generation sequencing
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Occurrence of Nosema species in honey bee colonies in Kenya
    • Authors: JK Wanjama, I Onyango, DM Mutyambai, SK Kabochi, PN Ndegwa
      Abstract: Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide critical pollination services and livelihood for small-holder farmers in Kenya, thus contributing to nutrition and food security. While honey bee colonies in North America and Europe are in decline due to parasites and pathogens, little is known about the status and effects of the honey bee pathogens and pests on the honey bee populations in Africa. A nationwide survey was conducted in 2012/2013 across eight agro-ecological zones to assess the  presence of Nosema microsporidia and quantify the levels of infection. Nosema microsporidia occurred throughout the eight ecological zones. Infection levels were negatively correlated with altitude, suggesting that environmental factors may play a role in the honey bee host-pathogen interactions. Infections levels were higher in the coastal region than in the interior. There was no evidence of colony size reduction in areas where the Nosema microsporidia was in abundant. The results suggest that Nosema could be an exotic pathogen and may have been recently introduced in Kenya and is spreading to all ecological zones. However, its impact on
      honey bee populations is not yet known. This study thus provides baseline data for further detailed survey and analysis of the impact of this pathogen to the Kenyan honey bee colonies with a view of establishing any form of resistance mechanisms of the Kenyan honey bee colonies compared to the European honey bee colonies.
      Key Words: Honey bee, Nosema, Kenya
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Particularité du traitement à l’acide formique de varroa destructor
           (Acari, Varroidae), parasite d’apis mellifera dans les conditions
    • Authors: Faten Ben Abdelkader, Naima Barbouche
      Abstract: Varroa destructor est un acarien parasite de l’abeille responsable d’un  affaiblissement de la colonie et suspecté d’être impliqué dans les processus de mortalités hivernales. Pour contrôler ce parasite, plusieurs scientifiques et apiculteurs ont eu recours aux produits chimiques. En dépit de leur efficacité, la répétition de ces pesticides a causé certains problèmes comme la toxicité, la
      résistance ainsi que la contamination des produits de la ruche. Pour ces raisons, les chercheurs tentent de trouver d’autres moyens relativement sûrs tels que l’acide formique. Le traitement par l’acide formique (AF) a été utilisé depuis plusieurs années en Europe pour tenter de lutter contre Varroa avec des concentrations de 80% et plus. Dans ce travail nous avons cherché à voir l’effet de l’AF sur Varroa et l’abeille dans les conditions tunisiennes.
      Nos résultats ont montré que les fortes concentrations avaient des effets néfastes sur les abeilles alors qu’une concentration de 30 à 40% de l’acide formique a montré une efficacité de 90% et 75% respectivement sur les varroas phorétiques et de 90% sur les varroas dans le couvain operculé sans aucun effet sur la reine pour la concentration 30%. Ceci pourrait s’expliquer par les caractéristiques comportementales de l’abeille tunisienne Apis mellifera intermissa dans les conditions contraignantes du climat tunisien.
      Mots clés : Apis mellifera, varroa destructor, acide formique, infestation
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Preliminary observations on enemies of stingless bees and honeybee (Apis
           Mellifera adansonii L.) Colonies from the Miticivanga- Tshibinda sector
    • Authors: TMB Munyuli, D Rubabura, C Kana, S Batumike
      Abstract: Beekeeping gives local people an economic incentive for the retention of natural habitats, and is an ideal activity for the local conservation program. A monitoring field survey, aimed at identifying enemies (pests, parasites, diseases) of Apis mellifera adansonii L. in apicultural villages surrounding Kahuzi Biega National park, was conducted for two years (2012-2014) in rural areas surrounding a protected area in South-Kivu province, Eastern DRCongo. . Both wild and domesticated colonies (in apiary) were visited and enemies sampled and or identified (observed) in the field during the rainy and dry seasons. The status, epidemiology and impacts of bee pests and diseases are largely unknown in DRCongo. The preliminary surveys indicated the occurrence of parasites-pests/predators including mammals, birds, reptiles, beetles, ants and wasps and flies. This survey found pests, parasites, predators belonging to lnsecta, Mammalia, Reptilia, Arachnida and Gastropoda groups. The frequency of occurrence of enemies (pests, parasites) was higher
      during dry season than during rainy season. Mites were common during both dry and rainy seasons, but the species is yet to confirmed by a taxonomist. The knowledge of enemies and perceptions of beekeeping challenges by beekeepers, honey hunters, forest honey gatherers was also investigated. Respondents knew predators of honeybees but had little knowledge of the pests, parasites and diseases of honeybees in the region. However, both beekeepers and honey hunters had a good and similar knowledge of bee species (honeybees and stingless bees) and are able to produce good quality honey that is in high at the market and that is highly medicinal. Environmental challenges and the different approaches to management were also recognized by respondents. Efforts are needed to organize landless and marginalized peoples by providing them with the necessary beekeeping technologies and inputs to ensure maximum honey production while promoting rehabilitation and conservation of landscape habitats of eastern DRCongo.
      Key words: Diseases, Pests and Parasites, Honeybees, Honey hunters strategies, South-Kivu Province, eastern DRCongo
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • The status and future prospects of honeybee production in Africa
    • Authors: James Moinde
      Abstract: The demand for honey and other hive products in the world market is high compared to the current production. Honey and beeswax production in Africa is estimated to be less than 10 and25 per cent of the potential respectively. The beekeeping sector in Africa is extremely fragmented therefore the actual production and growth levels are difficult to quantify accurately. The actual production is mainly carried at the rural household as part –time income generating activity and food. The production systems and type of hives used vary from fixed comb hives such as bark or log hives to improved movable frame or top bar hives. The introduction of modern technologies and the improvement of the existing indigenous knowledge in beekeeping industry have shown major development in various aspects and beekeeping is now an important component of the Agricultural sector in various countries. However the effective use of these improved production methods is very limited. The current share of production is characterized by low productivity and low quality. The institutional support infrastructure for promoting beekeeping as in economic activity and providing technical and financial services is generally weak and unstructured The promotion and development of apiculture as a commercial enterprise and the increases in the output of hive products in Africa would require that the agricultural sector policies of most African governments address the uniqueness of the bee industry. Effective use of improved methods of production
      would contribute to enhanced household food security; increased incomes, and environmental conservation. There are many opportunities for increasing the output of hive products and improving production efficiency and quality. The beekeeping industry provides opportunities to various stakeholders, among them are comparatively low capital investment, no pressure on human settlement and agricultural land, pollination, job creation, high demand for hive products in domestic and export markets, large unexploited natural vegetation and production of organic honey. It does not need sophisticated infrastructure or compete for resources with other agricultural activities. There is need to cultivate for business oriented
      and well focused approach that will ensure viable beekeeping industry through public-private partnerships. In order to exploit these opportunities, there are technical, financial and administrative constraints that require urgent attention. Development strategies for African apiculture should aim in the first instance at
      improving the existing technology and progress gradually towards the advanced technologies. The use of transitional steps to improvement would increase output over traditional systems and also be financially beneficial as input costs remain relatively low. Other constraints include inadequate technically trained and
      committed extension personnel, insufficient research, low adoption of improved technologies, ineffective control of pests and diseases among others. Most African hive products are consumed or used locally but there is a broad range of marketing opportunities for honey and other hive products. In particular, African honey can supply niche markets such as for organic products and value added products. However because of poor market access, poor infrastructure and inadequate products of sufficient quality and quantity and lack of strong organizations representing the interests of beekeepers, market opportunities are not fully
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • A review of African honeybees, behaviour and potential for increased
           beekeeping production and food security
    • Authors: Cosmas Alfred Butele
      Abstract: African honeybees have a higher tendency to swarm, abscond and migrate than their counterparts in Europe and elsewhere, thus making it more difficult to maintain  African honeybee colonies over years. They are also labeled as overly defensive, with a high propensity to sting, making their management a challenge. An extensive literature search on honeybee behaviour and management practices was conducted
      to synthesize available information on African honeybee species and races and behaviour. The aim was to assess potential for options to increase beekeeping production and food security. The review revealed that there are at least twelve different honeybee races in Africa with varied behaviour, and options that can be utilized to  proliferate hive colonization, develop more active and productive colonies. A better
      understanding of African honeybee races and their behaviour can be harnessed for more efficient pollination services critical to improving food security on the African continent, and for increased production of honey and other beehive products.
      Key-words: African honeybees, bee behaviour and potential.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • The honey industry in COMESA: Opportunities and challenges
    • Authors: Yoseph Shiferaw Mamo
      Abstract: Global honey production in 2013 is estimated at 1,663,797.73 tones and the five leading producers in the same year were China, Turkey, Argentina, Ukraine and Russia who contribute 450,300; 94,694; 80,000; 73,713; and 68,446 tones, respectively to the total world production. In terms of trade, only about 31.2 % of global honey production entered international trade in the same year. Whereas, the total natural honey production in Africa in 2013 was only 10.2% (169,306.00 tones) of which, 1.55 % entered international trade. The total honey production from COMESA Member States in 2013 was estimated at 81,454 tones and the total wax production was 9,811 tones. The four leading Honey producer Member States in
      the same year in the region were Ethiopia, Kenya, Egypt and Madagascar who contributed 45,000, 12,000, 5100, and 4400 tones, respectively. In terms of trade, only 2.74% of honey produced entered international markets partly being influenced by food quality standard requirements by developed countries. Cognizant of the suitable agro-ecological zones and potential for intensification, honey bee production is potentially one of the most significant resources that Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) countries can harness for livelihood and economic growth. It serves as a source of income, employment and public revenue.
      In COMESA, there is significant potential for production and trade. However, in many Member States, critical challenges to more effective participation in honey bee production and trade include limited technical capacity to implement modern honey bee production, lack of laboratory facilities and operational capacity, poorly defined roles of private and public sector in planning and implementation, lack of market support systems, and inadequate enforcement of quality standards. In addition, poor access to financial service sectors, inefficient cross-border trade facilities and weak organizational capacity of small-scale operators remain major challenges. The absence of a national policy in most of COMESA Member States on the development of the honey sub-sector appears to be one of the major causes for lack of coherence in the industry; neither do the strategic approaches and  interventions by development agencies through various programs appear to be addressing issues affecting the industry on sustainable bases. In order to overcome the current development challenges and achieve the desired outcomes, significant investments are required especially in the area of production and trade. Establishing intra-regional honey bee product supply chains is essential, and requires significant support to sustain supplies, improve trade efficiencies and enhance the quality of products. It is also important to put in place effective and harmonized regulatory frameworks and enforcement of standard management measures in collaboration
      with Member States and all concerned stakeholders.Key words; COMESA, Honey, beeswax, production export
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Beekeeping technology adoption in arid and semi-arid lands of southern
    • Authors: J. Muriuki
      Abstract: This study was conducted in Kibwezi Sub-County, south eastern Kenya. This is a typical semiarid area and beekeeping is a major economic activity. Although various beekeeping technologies have been available in the study area for many decades, information on the effect of these technologies on the production levels of hive products and on the farmers’ social and economic conditions has been lacking.
      This study was undertaken to establish the factors that determine the adoption of various beekeeping technologies and the impacts of these technologies on the production of hive products. Data were collected through formal interviews using a structured questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was applied to select a sample size of 170 households. Results indicated that 90 out of 170 respondents, representing 52.9% were beekeepers. Of the adopters, 75.6% were found to be using traditional technology while the rest were using modern technology.  Descriptive analysis revealed that the major factors that determine the choice of beekeeping technology include the cost, availability and capacity to implement a management regime of a particular type of technology. Analysis using a binary logistic model indicated that the gender of a household head, size of a household, size of land holding, size of a herd and access to extension services significantly influenced the adoption of beekeeping technology. Application of the Cobb-Douglas production function suggested that variable capital items, labour and managerial skills have a significant contribution to output. Recurrent droughts, pests,  vandalism, deforestation and inadequate extension services were found to be the main constraints to the adoption of beekeeping technology. The study therefore recommends the provision of more focused extension packages to impart the necessary skills on bee management. The capacity of the existing farmer groups and associations involved in beekeeping activities should also be strengthened in an effort to enhance productivityKey words: Adoption, beekeeping, technology, productivity, semi-arid
      PubDate: 2017-01-24
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Evaluation of transitional and modern hives for honey production in the
           Mid Rift Valley of Ethiopia
    • Authors: T Beyene, D Abi, G Chalchissa, WoldaTsadik M Mekonen
      Abstract: The study was conducted in Adami Tulu and Arsi Negelle districts from September 2009 to June 2012 to evaluate productivity performance of transitional and modern box bee hives. Based on farmers’ capacity, one modern box hive and one transitional hive made from locally available materials were used at each of the experimenting farmer. Traditional hives were used as control. Before actual commencement of
      this study, theoretical and practical training session was given for a total of 60 beekeepers at the selected sites. After training, the farmers were organized as Farmers’ Research Group (FRG) to perform all research activities together. Data related to honey yield were collected and analyzed using the General Linear Model
      procedure of the statistical Analysis System (2006). The overall average annual honey yield performance clearly revealed that both modern bee hive (23.18 kg/hive and transitional bee hive (13.88 kg/hive were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than traditional bee hive (6.08 kg/hive. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) among the three representative sites. It is concluded that using improved bee hives with improved management practices can improve honey yield and ensure better quality of honey compared to traditional bee hive. It is recommended that government and non government should intensively focus on scaling up and promoting the adoption of transitional hive for small scale beekeepers and modern bee hive for large scale/commercial beekeepers to improve their’ income.
      Key words: Transitional hive, modern hive, evaluation, honey, bee colonies, yield
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1 (2017)
  • Honey beekeeping and livelihoods prospects related to fair trade in Oku
           Region – North West Cameroon
    • Authors: Félix Meutchieye, Mathilde Sanglier, Mintsia Fokam Olivier
      Abstract: Oku’s White Honey has been produced for generations in the Kilum-Ijim forest, North-West region of Cameroon. Its white colour and creamy texture are bestowed by special mountainous plants, especially Schefflera abyssinica and Nuxia congesta. This honey is produced in a remote rural area where beekeeping is an important activity for the local economy. However, the trade channel needs to be improved in order to expand the market opportunities. Fair Trade might suit Oku’s White Honey and open up new market opportunities. Fair Trade standards have been internationally defined by Fair Trade Labelling Organizations (FLO) to homogenise certification processes. Athree-month survey (2012-2013) provided a deep analysis of the Oku’s White Honey production system. The social analysis revealed women empowerment and the state of child labour in Oku’s honey production system. The technical analysis highlighted the nature of traditional beekeeping in Oku. The environmental analysis underlined actions undertaken by beekeepers
      to protect the Kilum-Ijim forest. A description of honey drink and beeswax  processing illustrates the diversification of bees-products realised in Oku. The economic analysis provides information on quantities produced, benefits and means of commercialisation. Results coming from this deep analysis are referenced
      at FLO’s standards and requirements in order to assess if such certification would be possible and  appropriate for this production system. Investments to improve production and certification of Oku white honey may have potential benefits for the ecosystem as well as for the communities living in this particular highlands  environment and some ways forward given.
      Key words: Honey, Oku, Fair-trade, household income
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 1
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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