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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 879 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (77 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (622 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (99 journals)
    - DAIRYING AND DAIRY PRODUCTS (29 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (52 journals)

Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal  
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Journal of Applied Poultry Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.585
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1056-6171 - ISSN (Online) 1537-0437
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Effects of isolated soy protein and broken rice in corn-soy pre-starter
           diet on performance, intestinal microflora, and gut morphology in broiler
           chickens
    • Authors: Nabizadeh A; Golian A, Hassanabadi A, et al.
      Pages: 133 - 144
      Abstract: SUMMARYA trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of type of protein and energy sources in pre-starter diet on performance, intestinal microflora and gut morphology in broiler chickens. Pre-starter diets were a 4 × 4 factorial design with 4 levels of isolated soy protein (ISP; 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5%) and 4 levels of broken rice (0, 6, 12, and 18%). All pre-starter diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. A common commercial grower and finisher diet was fed to all birds from 11 to 24 and 25 to 42 d of age, respectively. Birds fed pre-starter diet contained 4.5% and 18% or 3% and 6% and/or 1.5% and 18% ISP and broken rice, respectively had higher (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) at 42 d of age compared to those fed control or other diets. Chickens fed pre-starter diet contained 4.5% ISP and 18% broken rice had lower (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to those fed control (1.602 vs. 1.653) or other diets during 1 to 42 d of age. Lactobacillus counts in ileum was reduced (P < 0.05) by 14% when birds fed pre-starter diet contained 4.5% ISP and 18% broken rice compared to control ones at 10 d of age. Bifidobacteria counts in ileum and Escherichia coli counts in ceca were reduced (P < 0.05) when pre-starter diet contained 4.5% ISP compared to control ones at 10 d of age. The inclusion of broken rice in diet did not have a significant effect on Escherichia coli and Bifidobacteria counts in ileum or Bifidobacteria, Escherichia coli, and Lactobacillus counts in ceca of 10 d old broiler chickens. The villus height in duodenum, jejunum and ilium in birds fed diet containing 4.5% ISP and 18% broken rice were increased (P < 0.05) by 6% at 5 and 4% at 10 d of age. It is concluded that, the inclusion of ISP and broken rice in pre-starter diet may have some beneficial effects on gut morphology, and performance of broiler chickens.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx025
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of dried vegetable residues for poultry: III Effects of feeding
           cabbage leaf residues on laying performance, egg quality, and apparent
           total tract digestibility
    • Authors: Mustafa A; Baurhoo B.
      Pages: 145 - 151
      Abstract: SUMMARYThe objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of feeding dried cabbage leaf residues (DCR) on egg production parameters, egg components, and egg fatty acid, cholesterol, and α-tocopherol concentrations and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Seventy-two 34-week-old layers were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: 0, 4, 8, or 12% DCR with 6 replicates with 3 birds each. Results showed that feed intake, egg production, and feed conversion ratio were unaffected by dietary treatments. Similar treatment effects also were observed for egg yolk and albumin percentages. However, eggshell percentage decreased (quadratic effect, P = 0.008) with increasing DCR. Egg yolk concentrations of α-tocopherol (linear effect, P <0.001), polyunsaturated fatty acids (linear effect, P = 0.0288), and linolenic acid (quadratic effect, P = 0.025) increased with increasing dietary DCR. However, inclusion of DCR had no influence on egg yolk cholesterol concentration. ATTD of dry matter (quadratic effect, P = 0.005), organic matter (quadratic effect, P = 0.008), neutral detergent fiber (quadratic effect, P = 0.0012), apparent metabolizable energy (quadratic effect, P = 0.0006), and apparent metabolizable energy corrected-nitrogen (quadratic effect, P = 0.0006) increased as the level of DCR in the diet increased. However, ATTD of crude protein and gross energy was similar among treatments. It was concluded that DCR can be fed to layers up to 12% without adverse effects on production parameters and may improve total tract nutrient utilization and egg quality.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx031
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of dietary lysine level on performance, egg quality and serum
           biochemical indices of laying pigeons
    • Authors: Chang L; Xie P, Bu Z, et al.
      Pages: 152 - 158
      Abstract: SUMMARYThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine level on performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of laying pigeons, with the aim of discussing the lysine requirements of laying pigeons. A total of 2,400 healthy pigeons (average body weight: 583 ± 77g) with the age of 40 wk were randomly allocated to 6 treatment groups of 5 replicates with 80 female pigeons each (housed 2 per cage). A 16L:8D light cycle was used. The control group fed the basal diet which was primarily composed of corn-soybean meal with a low lysine level of 0.64%. The lysine levels of the other 5 treatment groups were 0.68%, 0.72%, 0.76%, 0.80%, and 0.84% achieved by adding supplemental lysine to the basal diet. The study had lasted for 12 wk after a 1-wk adaptive phase. The results showed that laying rate and average egg weight of the entire experimental period were significantly influenced by dietary lysine level (P < 0.05), laying rate showed a significant quadratic response to increasing dietary lysine level (maximum response = 0.784), egg weight showed a significant linear response. Dietary lysine level had significant effects on eggshell thickness and yolk color (P < 0.05), both showing significant linear response. Eggshell thickness showed a downward trend while yolk color showed an opposite trend. Dietary lysine level had significant effects on the concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), total cholesterol, and total protein (P < 0.05) in serum. The concentration of Ca and total cholesterol showed significant linear responses; Ca showed an upward trend, and total cholesterol showed the opposite trend. The content of P showed a significant quadratic response, and showed an upward trend in the range of dietary lysine levels. In conclusion, taking laying rate as the main assessment index and then considering egg quality and serum biochemical indices secondly, the optimal lysine level of dietary was 0.78% for laying pigeons.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx047
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Response of broiler chickens to processed soy protein product when offered
           at different inclusion levels in mash or crumbled prestarter diets
    • Authors: Omede A; Iji P.
      Pages: 159 - 171
      Abstract: SUMMARYThis study investigated the effects of varying levels (0, 50, and 100 g/kg) of a processed soy protein product (PSP), fed to chicks in mash or crumbled form up to 10 d posthatch on the gross performance, carcass quality, nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activities in broiler chickens. A total of 324 Ross 308 male day-old broiler chicks were used in 6 replicates per group, with 9 birds per replicate. Between hatch and 24 d, birds fed crumbled diets had higher (P < 0.05) body weight gain and feed intake than those fed mash diets, with the exception of those fed control mash diet. There was no significant effect of feed form, PSP levels in diets or their interactions on the ileal digestibility of nutrients. However, the total tract digestibility of crude protein and gross energy decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing PSP inclusion level. Increasing levels of PSP in diets increased (P < 0.001) tissue protein content at 24 d of age. Also, sucrase activity of broiler chickens fed on crumbled diets was significantly (P < 0.009) higher than was observed in mash-fed birds. Feed form is an important factor when processed soy protein is supplemented in prestarter diet and may improve growth and development of digestive functions later in the life of the birds.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx048
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Impact of meat and bone meal nutritional variability on broiler
           performance
    • Authors: Eagleson C; Clark T, Hill B, et al.
      Pages: 172 - 179
      Abstract: SUMMARYDue to the variability of raw ingredient inputs into meat and bone meal (MBM), the nutritional composition of each batch can vary. An evaluation was performed to determine if the performance and yield of broilers grown to 49 d of age would be impacted by dietary inclusion of MBM with a consistent or a variable nutritional quality. MBM inclusion rate was 10, 7.5, and 5% for the starter, grower, and finisher periods, respectively. Live production data as well as processing data were collected to determine the performance of the bird. The performance data were then used on an economic evaluation. Evaluation of live production determined that the variable CP levels of the MBM had a negative effect on the growth performance as well as processing. This lack in final weights of the birds from the variable CP levels of MBM allowed for a greater cost margin in the economic evaluation. Thus, MBM with a consistent CP level, allowed for greater growth as well as more usable product. In return, gross margins were higher for birds fed a consistent MBM.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx053
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of layer cage cleaning and disinfection regimens
    • Authors: White D; Gurung S, Zhao D, et al.
      Pages: 180 - 187
      Abstract: SUMMARYLayer cage cleaning and disinfection are important for disease prevention; however, published research is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of commonly used products on soiled layer cages. Trial one was conducted at a university poultry research farm, and trial two was completed in a commercial pullet house. All products were mixed according to manufacturer recommendations. Treatments consisted of a negative control, a low-pressure water rinse (LPWR, garden hose), a high-pressure water rinse (HPWR, power washer), a soap, a chlorinated cleaner, a quaternary ammonium, a glutaraldehyde, a peroxyacetic acid, a phenolic, a potassium peroxymonosulfate, a hydrogen peroxide, and a quaternary/glutaraldehyde blend product. Swabs of cage floors were collected post treatment to determine if bacterial loads were reduced (P < 0.05) as compared to the appropriate controls. Aerobic bacteria were significantly reduced by 4 disinfectants in trial one and by all 7 disinfectants in trial two as compared to the HPWR control. No treatment in the first trial decreased (P < 0.05) coliforms or Staphylococcus spp. when compared to untreated control cages and the HPWR. However, reduction (P < 0.05) of coliforms and Staphylococcus spp. were observed with all disinfectants in trial two. Two disinfectant products reduced (P < 0.05) Pseudomonas spp. in trial one, and 5 disinfectant products reduced Pseudomonas spp. in trial two. These data suggest that characteristics of cleaning and disinfection regimens can vary significantly and should be taken into consideration when choosing a chemistry for disinfecting agricultural surfaces.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx056
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effects of cassava pulp fermented with Aspergillus oryzae as a feed
           ingredient substitution in laying hen diets
    • Authors: Okrathok S; Pasri P, Thongkratok R, et al.
      Pages: 188 - 197
      Abstract: SUMMARYThis study was conducted to investigate the effects of using cassava pulp fermented with Aspergillus oryzae as feed ingredient substitution to improve nutritive values in laying hen diets. In experiment I, a total of 48 laying hens (Isa Brown) was placed in individual cages to measure nutrient digestibility for 10 days. Six dietary treatments were control and fermented cassava pulp (FCP)-substituted diets at 8, 16, 24, 32, or 40%, respectively. The results showed that FCP can be used in laying hen diets up to 32% without showing negative effects on nutrient digestibility or retention. In experiment II, a total of 192 laying hens was randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments: control and FCP substitution diets at 16, 24, or 32% through 8 weeks. All FCP substitution levels had no effect on feed intake or egg weight. Egg production was significantly decreased when FCP was used at levels of 32%. Feed conversion ratio, egg mass, and protein efficiency ratio decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as FCP was increased in the diets. However, FCP had no detrimental effect on egg quality, except for the egg yolk color being linearly decreased with increasing the pulp in diets (P ≤ 0.05). The biochemistry profiles revealed FCP had no effect on the enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, or total immunoglobulin in laying hens. In conclusion, FCP can be used in laying hen diets up to 24% without showing negative effects on nutrient digestibility, egg production, egg quality, or blood biochemistry.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx057
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of litter density and foot health program on ammonia emissions in
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: Cohuo-Colli J; Salinas-Ruíz J, Hernández-Cázares A, et al.
      Pages: 198 - 205
      Abstract: SUMMARYThe effect of litter density and addition of organic minerals (Availa-Zn® and Mn®) and Yucca schidigera extract (MicroAid®) on ammonia emissions in broiler chickens was evaluated. Four treatments were tested: I. Traditional growing program with a litter density of one kg m−2 of rice hulls (TP1); II. Treatment I with a litter density of 2 kg m−2 of rice hulls (TP2); III. Traditional growing program with a foot health program (40 ppm of Availa-Zn®, 40 ppm of Mn®, and 125 ppm of MicroAid®) during the growing cycle with a litter density of one kg m−2 of rice hulls (TP1+FHP); and IV. Treatment III with a litter density of 2 kg m−2 of rice hulls (TP2+FHP). Ross-line chickens were used. Ammonia emissions from litter and at peak height (ppm), litter moisture (%), relative humidity (%), pH, litter temperature (°C), and ambient temperature (°C) were measured weekly during the growing period. The results of ammonia emissions from litter showed significant differences among treatments (P ≤ 0.0001); treatments with a litter density of 2 kg m−2 plus the use of organic minerals and MicroAid® added separately and in combination were statistically different from the traditional program (TP1), reducing ammonia emissions from litter by up to 36%.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx058
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effects of yeast fermentation product inclusion during the brooder phase
           and grower/finisher phase feed form effects on large tom performance using
           feed produced at a commercial mill
    • Authors: Wamsley K; Moritz J.
      Pages: 206 - 214
      Abstract: SUMMARYThe brooder phase (d one to 42) is crucial to overall turkey performance, and many integrators believe that the utilization of yeast products (YP) is cost effective. Pellet quality is crucial to grower/finisher phase production (d 42 to 118) due to feed form advantages during this period of high-volume consumption. Also, feed and feed manufacture represent the largest investment required to produce poultry. The objective of this study was to establish the effects of YP (YP1 or YP2) inclusion on d one to 42 poult performance. On d 42, a 2 YP carryover x 2 feed form [intact high-quality pellets (HQP) or ground pellets (GP)] factorial arrangement was used to measure main effects and interactions on d one to 118 tom performance. All diets had similar nutrient composition (other than YP), and feed was manufactured at a commercial feed mill. Feed form consisted of either intact HQP (average of 21.4% fines) or ground HQP (GP; average particle size of 1,108 microns). Male Hybrid Converters were reared at a facility that mimicked commercial grow-out. On d 42, YP1 improved ending weight (EW) and FCR. No YP carryover effect was demonstrated for any of the d 42 to 118 performance variables. Feeding HQP produced toms that were 0.29 kg/bird heavier with 9 points lower FCR, as compared to toms fed GP. Regression analyses predicted that if toms fed GP finished at the same d 118 EW as those fed HQP, then FCR advantages of HQP would be 12 points. These FCR benefits may justify the increased feed costs associated with manufacturing HQP.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx059
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Meat quality characteristics of fast-growing broilers reared under
           different types of pasture management: Implications for organic and
           alternative production systems (Part II)
    • Authors: Woo-Ming A; Arsi K, Moyle J, et al.
      Pages: 215 - 222
      Abstract: SUMMARYCurrently, there is little scientific information regarding the effect of differing housing types and production methods on the final quality of broiler meat. The purpose of this study was to evaluate meat quality characteristics of commercial fast-growing broiler chickens when raised in portable vs. fixed housing, with or without access to pasture. Fast-growing broilers are being grown by many small farm poultry producers due to their favorable attributes, including greater breast meat yields, a more uniform carcass, and higher feed efficiency than heritage or slower growing breeds. The pasture land used in this study closely matched the lands common to this local area. It was a pasture composed of a mix of tall fescue, Bermuda grass, and a lesser amount of legumes and forbs. The experiment had 4 treatment groups: (1) small, portable hoop houses with access to pasture, (2) small, portable hoop houses without access to pasture, (3) a fixed house with access to the outdoors, and (4) a fixed house without access to the outdoors. The study was conducted during spring and fall within the same yr to evaluate if any seasonal effects on carcass or meat quality were present. Overall, the access to pasture did not alter meat quality parameters such as moisture, protein, fat percentage, pH, color, texture, cooking loss, or shear energy when compared to birds without pasture access. Since forages contribute to the nutritive value of the meat and may help in reducing costs, the type and quality of forage choices in pastures are important considerations for these production methods and need to be explored further for pasture production systems.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx060
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Detecting Campylobacter coli in young chicks using two different cloacal
           swab techniques
    • Authors: McLendon B; Cox N, Cosby D, et al.
      Pages: 223 - 227
      Abstract: SUMMARYIt is important to determine whether valuable broiler-breeder chicks are contaminated with Campylobacter. It is important to have a non-destructive method to determine whether microorganisms such as Campylobacter are present without sacrificing the animal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of cloacal swabs to detect Campylobacter in young chicks. Day-old chicks (n = 25) were gavaged with 101–3 or 106Campylobacter coli (C. coli) gentamicin-resistant marker strain. Batches of chicks were placed in separate isolation units, and 7, 10, 14, or 21 d post challenge, 10 birds per group were cloacally swabbed shallow (9 mm) and deep (24 mm). Swabs were placed into 5 mL of Tecra® broth, vortexed, and streaked for isolation onto Campy Cefex agar plus 200 ppm of gentamicin. After swabbing, birds were sacrificed and one cecum was quantitatively analyzed for C. coli from the control group; both ceca from all challenged birds were analyzed for C. coli. At 14 d post challenge, 95% of the shallow and 90% of the deep swabs were positive. Even with a low inoculum of 103, C. coli achieved a high degree of cecal colonization, and the cloacal swab (either shallow or deep) proved reliable for detecting C. coli. Birds challenged with >102, after 7 and 14 d were colonized with >106 cells. After 7 d, all shallow and deep swabs were positive for C. coli, regardless of challenge dose. Since it might not be practical in industry to process the swabs the d of collection, we looked at the reliability of cloacal swabs after freezing for up to 21 days. When the level in the ceca was high, recovery of C. coli was excellent, but when the level was low (± 102 inoculum level), recovery was very unreliable. If the levels of Campylobacter are relatively high (log ≥ 6.0) in the ceca, both the shallow and deep swabs, unfrozen or frozen, are reliable, nondestructive methods to detect this microorganism.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx061
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of NSPase inclusion in diets manufactured with high- and
           low-quality corn on male broilers
    • Authors: Walters H; Brown B, Augspurger N, et al.
      Pages: 228 - 239
      Abstract: SUMMARYThe objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPase) inclusion in diets manufactured with high- and low-quality corn on male broilers. Low-quality corn was achieved with the inclusion of 20% corn screenings (CS), and formulations were made on an isonitrogenous and isocaloric basis. Three energy levels were fed throughout the study with and without CS: high energy (HE), low energy (LE, less 110 kcal/kg), and LE with NSPase (LEN). The inclusion of CS decreased (P < 0.05) starter feed consumption (FC) and thus negatively impacted (P < 0.05) d 14 body weight (BW). Reduction of dietary energy increased (P < 0.05) starter mortality corrected feed conversion ratio (FCR). A significant interaction (P < 0.05) was observed on d 27 relating to BW and FC between diet type and energy level, as benefits associated with NSPase inclusion were more pronounced in diets containing CS. Addition of CS increased grower and cumulative FCR (d 1 to 27) as compared to diets excluding screenings. Reduction of dietary energy increased (P < 0.05) grower and cumulative (d 1 to 27) FCR in the LE fed broilers as compared to the HE broilers. FCR was improved (P < 0.05) in the LEN diet during the grower phase and through 27 d of age compared to the LE diet. During the finisher phase, broilers fed diets containing CS exhibited a lower (P < 0.05) FCR as compared to broilers fed diets without screenings. Reduction in dietary energy increased (P < 0.05) FCR; however, inclusion of NSPase diet reduced (P < 0.05) FCR to a level comparable to the HE. In conclusion, the use of CS did not impact final performance, and the inclusion of NSPase reduced FCR when fed in reduced energy diets.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx063
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effects of modifying diet and feed manufacture concern areas that are
           notorious for decreasing pellet quality
    • Authors: Rigby T; Glover B, Foltz K, et al.
      Pages: 240 - 248
      Abstract: SUMMARYThe production of high-quality pellets has often been described as more art than science due to the multitude of variables that affect pellet quality. The objectives of the current study were to examine the feed manufacture and pellet quality effects of 4 different feed milling concern areas. Each area of concern was evaluated using either a circumstance of low concern or a corresponding circumstance of high concern. Treatments included high or low mixer-added fat inclusion (MAF; 2.5 vs. 0.5%), high or low distillers dried grains with solubles inclusion (DDGS; 8 vs. 2%), high or low dicalcium phosphate inclusion (DCP; 1.63 vs. 0.31%), and high or low steam conditioning temperature (79 vs. 71°C). All diets were formulated to similar nutrient specifications based on commercial broiler starter recommendations. Treatments were replicated 3 times utilizing an experimental unit of 136 kg feed allotments organized as a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design. Contrasts were performed to better understand main effect interactions. High MAF and low DCP decreased pellet durability, percent pellets, and pellet particle size (P < 0.05). Conditions of high concern for DDGS and steam conditioning did not produce similar negative effects (P > 0.05). Extraneous variables such as corn moisture content and ambient temperature during feed manufacture likely confounded some treatment effects. A greater appreciation of variable interactive effects may benefit pellet mill operators, nutritionists, and pelleting aid vendors to better circumvent hurdles encountered during the pelleting process.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx064
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of eggshell temperature on survival rate, development at hatch, and
           7-day growth
    • Authors: Lopez J; Kitto L, Hulet R.
      Pages: 249 - 252
      Abstract: SUMMARYDetermination of the optimal embryo temperature for growth, maturation, nutrient utilization, hatchability, and hatchling quality has received much research attention. While several studies in other avian species have been reported, studies fine-tuning turkey hatchability have not been done. Therefore, a study looking at 4 different eggshell temperatures (99.2–99.4, 99.4–99.6, 99.8–100.2, and 100.5–101.0°F) from d 1 to 25 of incubation was conducted. Results show a decrease in hatch of fertile eggs for eggs incubated at eggshell temperatures greater than 100.5°F. Body weight and yolk free body mass were also decreased for eggs incubated at these same higher eggshell temperatures. The optimal eggshell temperature (EST) throughout incubation for turkey embryos seems to be lower than the optimum EST found for broiler embryos and this might be related to the greater turkey egg mass.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx065
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Molecular epidemiologic survey of infectious bursal disease viruses in
           broiler farms raised under different vaccination programs
    • Authors: Muniz E; Verdi R, Jackwood D, et al.
      Pages: 253 - 261
      Abstract: SUMMARYOver a span of nearly 4 yr, 246 bursal tissue samples were collected from Brazilian commercial broiler flocks (Gallus gallus) throughout the country and imprinted to sample collection cards (Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards). A total of 75 infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) strains was successfully detected from the FTA card imprints and were submitted for further identification and molecular characterization. Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the IBDV surface protein VP2 were used to identify strains of the virus and place them into phylogenetic groups. The amino acids across the hypervariable region of VP2 in this study varied, but around half of all positive samples were classified as vaccine virus. The IBD viruses fell into 3 categories: variant IBDV, classic IBDV (vaccine), and very virulent (vv) IBDV. The samples were collected according to the 3 different vaccination strategies used in broilers: vectored vaccine, antigen-antibody complex vaccine, and conventional live vaccine. The genetic profile and frequency of the strains recovered from the flocks were highly dependent on the vaccination program. This information helps us gain a better understanding of the current landscape of IBD in Brazil and provides additional scientific data to support selection of the most effective vaccination strategies, products, and practices to prevent disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx043
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Identifying dead-on-arrivals (DOA) at shackling in a slaughter line gas
           stunning system for end-of-lay hens: Part I - Hock flexion resistance and
           wing position
    • Authors: Ouckama R; Salgado-Bierman F, Guerin M, et al.
      Pages: 262 - 271
      Abstract: SUMMARYThis study of end-of-lay fowl characterized the development of rigor mortis over time after euthanasia by testing the force required to flex a hock joint and by evaluating wing position as a test to differentiate euthanized birds from stunned birds. Using a force gauge, it was demonstrated that measurable resistance to hock flexion to the point of activation of the perch reflex develops rapidly after death and consistently increases over time, plateauing at 90 min. Based on a minimum detection threshold of 300 gram-force (gf) for hock stiffness, birds that developed rigor quickly, in the 50th percentile and higher, were detectable by 5 min postmortem, and all birds in the study population were detectable by 21 min postmortem. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of wing position to differentiate dead birds from stunned birds was high (87.5 and 100%, respectively). We conclude that the development of palpable hock joint stiffness is sufficiently rapid to be useful as a means of differentiating between hens unconscious after CO2 gas stunning from hens that died during transport or lairage. Wing position can be used as a secondary assessment as the hen is lifted to the shackle line, such that the presence of wings held tight to the body would identify the hen as a DOA.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx051
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Identifying dead-on-arrivals (DOA) at shackling in a slaughter line gas
           stunning system for end-of-lay hens: Part II - Proof of concept for
           detecting simulated change in hock flexion resistance
    • Authors: Ouckama R; Salgado-Bierman F, Guerin M, et al.
      Pages: 272 - 277
      Abstract: SUMMARYIn this study, the simulated hock flexion resistance at which employees could consistently differentiate a stunned bird from a recently dead end-of-lay hen was evaluated. A mechanical apparatus was used with individually weighted levers, ranging in resistance from 66 to 485 gram-force (gf), in a random order. A reference lever was weighted at 120 gf, which is similar to that of stunned birds measured immediately after gas stunning. Each employee (n = 15) lifted each lever to an approximately horizontal plane and designated it as having less resistance or similar resistance to the reference lever (light) or greater resistance than the reference lever (heavy). Dominant and non-dominant hands were tested independently. For resistance of up to 300 gf, there was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increasing curvilinear trend in the proportion of employees who considered the lever to be heavy, and a significant decreasing curvilinear trend in the proportion who considered the lever to be light. At greater than 300 gf, close to 100% of employees gave the designation heavy, and there was no significant (P > 0.05) change with any further increases in weight. It was concluded that employees could reliably detect hock flexion resistances of ≥ 300 gf as larger in magnitude than 120 gf.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfx055
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Corrigendum to “Poultry carcass visceral contour recognition method
           using image processing”
    • Authors: Chen Y; Wang S.
      Pages: 278 - 278
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/japr/pfy018
      Issue No: Vol. 27, No. 2 (2018)
       
 
 
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