for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 821 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (74 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (576 journals)
    - CROP PRODUCTION AND SOIL (95 journals)
    - POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK (48 journals)


Showing 1 - 48 of 48 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Reproduction     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal  
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover Poultry Science
  [SJR: 1.162]   [H-I: 95]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0032-5791 - ISSN (Online) 1525-3171
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • Effect of space allowance and cage size on laying hens housed in furnished
           cages, Part I: Performance and well-being
    • Authors: Widowski T; Caston L, Hunniford M, et al.
      Pages: 3805 - 3815
      Abstract: There are few published data on the effects of housing laying hens at different densities in large furnished cages (FC; a.k.a. enriched colony cages). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of housing laying hens at 2 space allowances (SA) in 2 sizes of FC on measures of production and well-being. At 18 wk of age, 1,218 LSL-Lite hens were housed in cages furnished with a curtained nesting area, perches, and scratch mat, and stocked at either 520 cm2 (Low) or 748 cm2 (High) total floor space. This resulted in 4 group sizes: 40 vs. 28 birds in smaller FC (SFC) and 80 vs. 55 in larger FC (LFC). Data were collected from 20 to 72 wks of age. There was no effect of cage size (P = 0.21) or SA (P = 0.37) on hen day egg production, egg weight (PSize = 0.90; PSA = 0.73), or eggshell deformation (PSize = 0.14; PSA = 0.053), but feed disappearance was higher in SFC than LFC (P = 0.005). Mortality to 72 wk was not affected by cage size (P = 0.78) or SA (P = 0.55). BW (P = 0.006) and BW CV (P = 0.008) increased with age but were not affected by treatment. Feather cleanliness was poorer in FC with low SA vs. high (P < 0.0001) and small vs. large FC (P < 0.0001). Feather condition was poorer in low SA (P = 0.048) and the best in small cages with high SA (P = 0.006), but deteriorated in all treatments over time (P < 0.0001). Treatments did not affect the breaking strengths of femur, tibia, or humerus, proportions of birds suffering keel deformations, or foot health scores. Overall, the SA studied in the 2 cage sizes in this trial had few effects on production parameters. However, stocking birds at the lower space allowance resulted in some measures of poorer external condition in both sizes of FC, which indicates that the welfare of hens housed at the lower space allowance may be compromised according to some welfare assessment criteria.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex197
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • The effect of space allowance and cage size on laying hens housed in
           furnished cages, Part II: Behavior at the feeder
    • Authors: Widowski T; Caston L, Casey-Trott T, et al.
      Pages: 3816 - 3823
      Abstract: Standards for feeder (a.k.a. feed trough) space allowance (SA) are based primarily on studies in conventional cages where laying hens tend to eat simultaneously, limiting feeder space. Large furnished cages (FC) offer more total space and opportunities to perform a greater variety of behaviors, which may affect feeding behavior and feeder space requirements. Our objective was to determine the effects of floor/feeder SA on behavior at the feeder. LSL-Lite hens were housed in FC equipped with a nest, perches, and a scratch mat. Hens with SA of either 520 cm2 (Low; 8.9 cm feeder space/hen) or 748 cm2 (High; 12.8 cm feeder space/hen) per bird resulted in groups of 40 vs. 28 birds in small FC (SFC) and 80 vs. 55 in large FC (LFC). Chain feeders ran at 0500, 0800, 1100, 1400, and 1700 with lights on at 0500 and off at 1900 hours. Digital recordings of FC were scanned at chain feeder onset and every 15 min for one h after (5 scans × 5 feeding times × 2 d) to count the number of birds with their head in the feeder. All occurrences of aggressive pecks and displacements during 2 continuous 30-minute observations at 0800 h and 1700 h also were counted. Mixed model repeated analyses tested the effects of SA, cage size, and time on the percent of hens feeding, and the frequency of aggressive pecks and displacements. Surprisingly, the percent of birds feeding simultaneously was similar regardless of cage size (LFC: 23.0 ± 0.9%; SFC: 24.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.44) or SA (Low: 23.8 ± 0.9%; High: 23.3 ± 1.0%; P = 0.62). More birds were observed feeding at 1700 h (35.3 ± 0.1%) than any at other time (P < 0.001). Feeder use differed by cage area (nest, middle, or scratch) over the d (P < 0.001). The frequency of aggressive pecks was low overall and not affected by SA or cage size. Frequency of displacements was also low but greater at Low SA (P = 0.001). There was little evidence of feeder competition at the Low SA in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex198
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Laying hens in aviaries with different litter substrates: Behavior across
           the flock cycle and feather lipid content
    • Authors: Campbell D; Ali A, Karcher D, et al.
      Pages: 3824 - 3835
      Abstract: The tiered aviary for laying hens includes a floor litter area to promote foraging and dust bathing. Data are needed on hens’ use of different litter substrates and effectiveness of substrates in removing excess feather lipids to ensure a suitable litter area. Bovans White hens were housed in commercial-style aviaries with access to one of 3 litter substrates (wood shavings, straw, or plastic turf mats—AstroTurf®, n = 4 aviary pens per substrate, 144 cage-reared hens populated per pen). Litter areas were videoed across 2 d each at 4 ages: immediately following first aviary opening (25 wk), then at 28, 50, and 68 weeks. Observations of hens throughout the d included percentages of all hens in each pen on the litter area, foraging and transitioning between the tiered enclosure and litter area. Percentages of hens dust bathing were observed from 11:00 to 15:00. Breast and back feather samples from 7 birds per pen at 28, 50, and 68 wk were analyzed for lipid content. Overall, fewer hens simultaneously accessed the AstroTurf® (P < 0.0001), but flocks showed relatively balanced transitions between the tiered enclosure and the litter area throughout the d, regardless of substrate. On average, less than 5% of all hens were observed dust bathing (peaks up to 15% of hens) with no differences among litter substrates or ages (P ≥ 0.18). On average, less than 2% of hens were observed foraging (peaks up to 4% of hens) with fewer hens foraging on AstroTurf® (P < 0.0001). Feather lipid differences among litter substrates (P < 0.0001) were inconsistent across sampling periods, possibly due to different birds sampled across time. At all ages, lipid levels were higher on the back over breast feathers (P < 0.0001) for hens housed with AstroTurf®. AstroTurf® may be suitable for nest boxes, but straw and shavings are more ideal litter substrates. Further study should investigate alternative substrates or regular substrate addition to encourage more foraging and dust bathing.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex204
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Influence of hot exposure on 12-week-old turkey hen physiology, welfare,
           and meat quality and 16-week-old turkey tom core body temperature when
           crated at transport density
    • Authors: Vermette C; Henrikson Z, Schwean-Lardner K, et al.
      Pages: 3836 - 3843
      Abstract: The influence of hot conditions on 12-week-old turkey hens and 16-week-old toms while crated at transport density was evaluated. Forty-eight hens and 48 toms (8 birds per flock × 3 flocks × 2 humidity levels) were used in neutral treatments (trt; 20°C), and 16 hens and 16 toms (8 birds per flock × 1 flock × 2 humidity levels) were used in the hot trt (35°C). Birds were placed in crates at a transport stocking density of approximately 83 kg/m2, then inside a pre-conditioned chamber for 8 hours. Live shrink, core body temperature (CBT), heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and breast and thigh pH and color were recorded. Differences were declared significant at P ≤ 0.05. Live shrink after exposure to the 35°C trt (4.92%) was greater (P < 0.0001) than when birds were exposed to 20°C (1.48%). The 35°C trt (P < 0.0001) had higher Δ CBT (final minus initial) compared to the 20°C trt. The 35°C trt also caused higher (P < 0.0001) H/L ratio, 4.07 vs. 1.57 for the 20°C trt. Breast (P = 0.0110) and thigh pH levels (P < 0.0001) measured 27 h postmortem were lower for the 35°C trt at 5.64 and 5.73 compared to the 20°C trt at 5.70 and 5.92, respectively. Breast meat from birds exposed to 35°C was darker (P < 0.0001), while the color of thigh meat was unaffected. Toms quickly became distressed in the hot conditions, forcing those tests to be aborted. Only CBT data were analyzed. The CBT increased at a mean rate of 0.09°C/min for hens at both RH levels, while the CBT of toms increased at 0.12 and 0.18°C/min when exposed to 35°C, 30%; and 35°C, 80%, respectively. Exposure to hot temperatures caused higher CBT, greater live shrink, and greater H/L ratio. Toms were more greatly affected than hens to the hot trt, with CBT increasing at a greater rate.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex220
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Correlated responses to long-term divergent selection for 8-week body
           weight in female White Plymouth Rock chickens: Sexual maturity
    • Authors: Jambui M; Honaker C, Siegel P.
      Pages: 3844 - 3851
      Abstract: Reported here are correlated responses for reproductive traits to long-term divergent selection (54 generations) for 8-week body weight (BW8). Comparisons involved both selected and relaxed lines. Traits measured were age at first egg (AFE), body weight at first egg (WFE), and ratio of body weight and age at first egg (WAFE). Although sexual maturity was delayed in the selected lines, the effect was more pronounced in the low than high selected and relaxed lines. Selection for low BW resulted in decreases in WFE and WAFE. Correlated responses to selection for high BW were increased WFE and WAFE. Minimum AFE, WFE, and WAFE in relation to sexual maturity were line specific and influenced by selection for BW8. WAFE provided a “yardstick” for target body weights that were optimum for successful attainment of sexual maturity and higher reproductive rates. Such may be line specific. There was opposition between relaxed and artificial selection, resulting in a higher reproductive performance and fitness for the former.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex224
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Random regression analyses to model the longitudinal measurements of yolk
           proportions in the laying chicken
    • Authors: Jun G; Kehua W, Liang Q, et al.
      Pages: 3852 - 3857
      Abstract: Cubic spline function was used in a genetic evaluation to model the change of yolk proportion over the lay life. A total of 19,862 yolk proportion records of 2,324 hens was used. The evaluated submodels consisted of 3 to 6 knot models. The same knots were fitted for genetic and permanent environmental splines. The residual effects were specified to be independently and normally distributed, but with heterogeneous variance for each test week. (Co)variance components were estimated by the average information restricted maximum likelihood (AIREML) method. The best fitting random regression model (RRM) was a submodel with 4 knots at 32, 36, 52, and 72 wk of age for genetic and permanent environmental effects. The estimate of genetic variance was larger than that of permanent environmental variance at the same time point. The heritability of yolk proportion ranged from 0.32 to 0.55, and the repeatability ranged between 0.45 and 0.73. The genetic correlations between test wk were from moderate to unity. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report on the use of a RRM to evaluate yolk proportion. The results of this study showed that random regression models with the spline function could be used for improvement of yolk proportion.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex233
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Development and validation of a novel SNP panel for the genetic
           characterization of Italian chicken breeds by next-generation sequencing
           discovery and array genotyping
    • Authors: Viale E; Zanetti E, Özdemir D, et al.
      Pages: 3858 - 3866
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the intra and inter genetic variability and population structure of 7 indigenous chicken breeds of the Veneto region, through a novel panel of 64 SNP, each located in an exonic region and mostly on different chromosomes. A total of 753 blood samples from 7 local chicken breeds (Ermellinata di Rovigo, Millefiori di Lonigo, Polverara, Pepòi, Robusta Lionata, Robusta Maculata, and Padovana) was collected and analyzed. Two strains of Polverara (Nera and Bianca) and Padovana (Dorata and Camosciata) were included in the study. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.124 (Pèpoi) to 0.244 (Ermellinata di Rovigo), and the expected heterozygosity varied from 0.132 (Millefiori di Lonigo) to 0.300 (Ermellinata di Rovigo). Global FIS results (0.114) indicated a low-medium inbreeding effect, with values ranging from 0.008 (Millefiori di Lonigo) to 0.223 (Ermellinata di Rovigo). Pairwise FST values (0.167) for all populations ranged from 0.020 (Polverara Nera and Polverara Bianca) to 0.193 (Robusta Lionata and Polverara Nera), indicating that the studied breeds were genetically highly differentiated. The software STRUCTURE was used to detect the presence of population substructures, and the most probable number of clusters (K) of the 10 chicken populations was at K = 8. The affiliation was successful in all Veneto chicken breeds. The present SNP marker results, compared with previous data obtained using microsatellites, provided a reliable estimate of genetic diversity within and between the studied breeds, and demonstrated the utility of the proposed panel as a rapid, efficient, and cost-effective tool for periodical monitoring of the genetic variability among poultry populations. In addition, the present SNP panel could represent a resource for a systematic approach with relevant impact on breeding program decisions and could turn out to be a reliable tool for genetic traceability of indigenous chicken meat. Adoption of a periodical monitoring system of genetic diversity is a fundamental tool in conservation actions and should increase the value of typical and niche products.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex238
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Isolation and genetic characterization of a novel adeno-associated virus
           from Muscovy ducks in China
    • Authors: Su X; Liu J, Zhou Q, et al.
      Pages: 3867 - 3871
      Abstract: Adeno-associated virus (AAV; genus Dependoparvovirus, family Parvoviridae) was first discovered in 1965 as a contaminant in adenovirus preparations. The AAVs are generally considered non-pathogenic, and they have the ability to attenuate the replication of other more pathogenic viruses, which makes them attractive as potential therapeutics or preventative measures. This study characterized a novel AAV isolated from Muscovy ducks in China. The novel virus (MHH-05–2015) was isolated after propagating a field isolate of the DAdV-3 virus (a type 3 duck adenovirus) in duck embryo fibroblasts. The full genome sequence of MHH-05–2015 was determined, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences were compared to other avian AAVs. The genomic distribution of the structural and non-structural protein-coding genes in MHH-05–2015 was conserved and consistent with the other AAVs. Compared to previously isolated avian AAVs, MHH-05–2015 had approximately 63 to 64% sequence identity. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MHH-05–2015 clustered separately from other avian AAVs, suggesting that MHH-05–2015 was not directly descended from other Dependoparvovirus family members. These results suggest that MHH-05–2015 is a new subtype of AAV that is distinct from other avian AAVs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex235
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Immune-enhancing activity of phosvitin by stimulating the production of
           pro-inflammatory mediator
    • Authors: Lee J; Moon S, Kim H, et al.
      Pages: 3872 - 3878
      Abstract: Egg yolk phosvitin is one of the most phosphorylated proteins in nature, and the extraordinarily high concentration of phosphate groups in its structure provides a strong metal-binding ability. Phosvitin is known to possess various functional activities, including metal-chelating, antioxidant, emulsifying, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities. However, little is known about the immune-enhancing activity of phosvitin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune-enhancing activity of phosvitin in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Griess reagents and quantitative real-time PCR were used to determine the effect of phosvitin (at 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) on the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators NO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The effect of phosvitin on the phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages was also measured using the Neutral-Red Uptake method. Lipopolysaccharides was used as a positive control. Phosvitin significantly (P < 0.05) increased the production of NO in RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner, but did not show any cytotoxicity. The amounts of NO produced were 3.47, 7.12, 10.23, and 14.57 μM in 12.5 to 100 μg/mL range of phosvitin (control: 0.46 μM). Compared with the untreated group, phosvitin treatment at a 100 μg/mL level increased the production of NO by 31.67 times. Phosvitin also significantly increased the mRNA expression of the RAW 264.7 macrophages: 100 μg/mL of phosvitin treatment increased the expression of mRNA for iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-1β by 46.25, 9.09, and 85.18 times of the control, respectively. The phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages was also increased significantly by phosvitin treatment. These results demonstrated that phosvitin dramatically improved the immune functions RAW 264.7 macrophages by enhancing the production of immune mediators and increasing phagocytic activity. Therefore, phosvitin has a potential to be used as an immune-enhancing agent by food or nutraceutical industries.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex205
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Layer chicken embryo survival to hatch when administered an in ovo
           vaccination of strain F Mycoplasma gallisepticum and locations of bacteria
           prevalence in the newly hatched chick 1 , 2 , 3
    • Authors: Elliott K; Branton S, Evans J, et al.
      Pages: 3879 - 3884
      Abstract: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a bacterial pathogen that causes production losses in layer chickens. To combat MG, multiage layer facilities vaccinate pullets by either spray or eye-drop vaccination. The objective in this study was to evaluate the use of in ovo vaccination as a potential alternative for MG vaccination. Layer embryos at 18 d of incubation were either not-injected (control), or were hand-injected with either commercial Marek's disease vaccine diluent alone or with a high, medium, low, or very low dosage of a live attenuated strain F (FMG) vaccine suspended in the commercial diluent. Hatch success and residual egg embryonic mortality were determined after 23 d of incubation. Six hatched chicks per treatment were swabbed for the detection of FMG at 4 different sites (trachea, mouth and esophagus, yolk sac membrane, and the lumen of the duodenal loop) via real-time PCR. Embryos were found to be administered 106 CFU per dose in the high treatment, 104 CFU/dose in the medium treatment, 102 CFU/dose in the low treatment, and between 5.06 and 5.93 CFU/dose in the very low treatment. Hatch of embryonated eggs was decreased by the medium and high doses (P = 0.02). These embryos died while pipping. No FMG was detected in the control and diluent-injected chicks. In the FMG treatments, FMG was found in all sites and dosages, with a greater number of positive chicks found in the higher FMG dosage treatments. These findings indicate the potential practicality of vaccinating layer embryos with FMG by in ovo injection based on the observed hatch success at lower dosages. Also, once injected into the amnion, the bacteria are present in the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts as well the yolk sac membrane and the small intestine of hatchlings. Future research will need to ascertain the effects of FMG administered by in ovo injection on posthatch immunity and mortality.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex196
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Pathogenicity and immunosuppressive potential of fowl adenovirus in
           specific pathogen free chickens
    • Authors: Niu Y; Sun Q, Zhang G, et al.
      Pages: 3885 - 3892
      Abstract: To elucidate the effect of fowl adenovirus (FAdV)-C in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, we investigated the pathogenicity, body weights, enzymatic systems, and immune organs of chickens in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were divided randomly into four groups, which included injection groups (FAdV-C, vaccination, and FAdV-C plus vaccination) and a negative control group. The results indicated that FAdV-C was highly pathogenic in SPF chickens and led to a 40% mortality rate and growth retardation, compared with the control birds. Significant changes in clinical chemical markers of all infected birds, together with histopathological lesions, indicated impairment of the liver and heart integrity and function. Furthermore, chickens in the FAdV-C plus vaccination group had significantly lower titers of antibodies against NDV and AIV-H9 than the uninfected and vaccinated chickens. The results of this study provide new insights into the pathogenesis of hydropericardium syndrome, a disease that progresses to a metabolic disorder and causes serious growth retardation and immunosuppression.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex206
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Serological survey of Reticuloendotheliosis virus infection in chickens in
           China in 2005 to 2015
    • Authors: Yang Y; Zhao J, Ma Z, et al.
      Pages: 3893 - 3895
      Abstract: Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes an immunosuppressive, oncogenic, and runting syndrome in many avian hosts worldwide. The immunosuppression caused by REV can decrease the antibody levels of vaccines and subsequent increase susceptibility to secondary infections. There are no commercial vaccines or effective drugs to control REV infections at present. To investigate the REV infection status in chickens in China, 25,224 sera from 573 chicken flocks, collected between 2005 and 2015, were measured for REV antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The seroprevalence of REV antibodies in the flocks was 56.20% (322/573) and the overall seroprevalence in individual chickens was 13.91% (3,509/25,224). Of the 23 regions sampled, all provinces, except Heilongjiang, produced positive samples. Guangxi had the highest rate, of 57.84%. The virus-positive rate also tended to increase as the chickens aged. Our study indicates that REV infection has been common in China over the past decade.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex209
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Effects of rearing systems on laying performance, egg quality, and serum
           biochemistry of Xianju chickens in summer
    • Authors: Dong X; Yin Z, Ma Y, et al.
      Pages: 3896 - 3900
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the laying performance, egg quality, and serum biochemistry of hens maintained in conventional cage rearing system (CRS), flat net-rearing system (NRS), and free range system (FRS) under summer conditions. Indigenous Xianju chickens (n = 540) were randomly allocated into cages or pens of rearing system groups, within each system there were 5 replicates with 36 hens in each replicate. The experiment lasted between 21 and 29 wk of age. Hen-day egg production (P = 0.00) and egg mass (P = 0.00) were higher in the CRS but were similar in the NRS and FRS. Lowest egg weight (P = 0.02), yolk weight (P = 0.00) and yolk ratio (P = 0.01), and feed intake (P = 0.01) were observed from the FRS, whereas lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded from the CRS (P = 0.01). Rearing systems had negligible effect on egg quality. Serum Ca (P = 0.04) and total protein (P = 0.03) levels were found to be higher in the CRS but were lower in the FRS. Serum levels of glucose (P = 0.01), cholesterol (P = 0.00), and triglyceride (P = 0.00) in the CRS increased compared with the NRS and FRS groups, whereas serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P = 0.01) in the CRS decreased. It can be concluded that under summer conditions, Xianju chickens from CRS had an advantage in terms of productivity parameters, but exhibited higher levels of serum lipids and glucose.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex155
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and
           bacterial load
    • Authors: Olsen R; Kudirkiene E, Thøfner I, et al.
      Pages: 3901 - 3911
      Abstract: Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted to two times fumigation and finally spray disinfection. The eggshell microbiome was characterized by sequencing of the total amount of 16S rRNA extracted from each sample, consisting of shell surface swabs of five eggs from the same group. In addition, the number of colony forming units (cfu) under aerobic conditions was established for each disinfection step. The disinfection procedure reduced the bacterial load from more than 104 cfu (initially visibly clean eggs) and 105 cfu (initially visibly dirty eggs) to less than 10 cfu per sample after disinfection for both groups of eggs. The microbiome of both initially visibly clean and initially visibly dirty eggs had the highest abundances of the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Within the phyla Firmicutes the relative abundances of Clostridiales decreased while Lactobacillus increased from before to after final disinfection. In conclusion, the investigated disinfection procedure is effective in reducing the bacterial load, and by adding a chlorine wash for initially visibly dirty eggs, the microbiome of initially visibly clean and initially visibly dirty eggs had a highly similar microflora after the final disinfection step.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex182
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Influence of swimming time in alleviating the deleterious effects of hot
           summer on growing Muscovy duck performance
    • Authors: Farghly M; Mahrose K, Ullah Z, et al.
      Pages: 3912 - 3919
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to observe the effects of varying swimming times (ST) of Muscovy ducks, raised in an open-sided house, in alleviating the deleterious effects of high temperature in hotter times of the day in the summer season on growth performance (body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio), carcass characteristics, body temperature, and some health aspects. We hypothesized that swimming times during the hottest periods of the day would show different performances. To test this hypothesis a total of 180 Muscovy ducklings were randomly distributed into 4 equal groups in a completely randomized design experiment. All groups were raised under similar housing conditions. Birds of the first group (C) were raised in the indoor system and had no access to a swimming pond. While all birds of the second, third, and fourth groups (T1, T2, and T3) had access to a swimming pond during 10:00 to 12:00 h, 12:00 to 14:00 h, and 14:00 to 16:00 h, respectively. The swimming pond (dimensions of 30 m length × 10 m width × 3 m depth with cement floor) was located in the front of the house. Vaccination and medical programs were undertaken according to the different ages under supervision of a licensed veterinarian. The obtained results indicated that swimming during 12:00 to 14:00 h improved (P < 0.05) growth performance, dressed carcass, meat tenderness, lymphocyte, heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, body temperature, and mortality rate of Muscovy ducks. However, bone measurement, plumage conditions, foot pad dermatitis, hock discoloration, breast blisters score, and blood hematocrit values were insignificantly better in the group with access to the swimming pond during 12:00 to 14:00 h. In conclusion, raising ducks during hot conditions in an open-sided house with access to a swimming pond at 12:00 to 14:00 h is highly recommended due to the high BW, better immunity, decreased mortality rate, and low body temperature of ducks which was positively reflected in the health condition.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex207
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Iron requirements of broiler breeder hens
    • Authors: Taschetto D; Vieira S, Angel C, et al.
      Pages: 3920 - 3927
      Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate Fe requirements of broiler breeders. One-hundred-fifty-six Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens were individually placed in electrostatically painted cages at 22 weeks. The study was composed of an adaptation phase, in which hens were fed corn-soy-wheat bran diets until 35 wks. An Fe deficient mash diet (24.6 ppm Fe) was provided from 35 to 46 wk in order to induce a partial body Fe depletion. A production phase followed from 47 to 70 wk when hens were fed 6 diets with increasing Fe sulfate supplementation, which, upon analyses had 24.6, 48.6, 74.3, 99.6, 125.6, and 148.2 ppm Fe. Thirty hatching eggs from each treatment were randomly collected in the last wk of each production period and incubated. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were analyzed from 6 hens as well as all hatched chicks per treatment. Analyses of production and hatching data were conducted using quadratic polynomial (QP), broken-line (BL), and exponential asymptotic (EA) models. Effects of dietary Fe were observed for total eggs and total hatching eggs, egg yolk Fe content, and hen and chick hematocrit and hemoglobin (P < 0.05). These responses to added Fe were optimized when dietary Fe were 96.8, 97.1, 130.6, 122.6, 120.0, and 125.0 ppm (QP) and 76.4, 89.3, 135.0, 128.4, 133.8, and 95.0 ppm (BL) for total hatching eggs, egg yolk Fe content, and hen and chick hematocrit and hemoglobin, respectively. Optimization with the EA model was obtained for total hatching eggs, egg yolk Fe, and hen and chick hemoglobin at 97.9, 111.0, 77.9, and 96.3 ppm Fe for total hatching eggs, egg yolk Fe, and hen and chick hemoglobin, respectively. Adequate Fe levels are needed to maintain egg production as well as hatching chicks’ indexes. Fe concentration in the yolk and diet are positively influenced. The average of all Fe requirement estimates obtained in the present study was 106 ppm total Fe, whereas averaged values for BL, QP, and EA models were 107, 113, and 97 ppm Fe, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex208
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Influence of the incorporation mode of sugar beet pulp in the finishing
           diet on the digestive tract and performances of geese reared for foie gras
    • Authors: Arroyo J; Lavigne F, Bannelier C, et al.
      Pages: 3928 - 3937
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the effects of incorporating sugar beet pulp (SBP) into the diet of geese in two feeding systems (complete pelleted feed or loose-mix feeding system) on crop development and performance. A total of 480 1-d-old male geese were divided into three groups whose diet differed from d 56 to 90: a complete pelleted diet containing 50% corn (control diet: AMEn 11.5 MJ/kg; CP 161 g/kg), and no SBP; a complete pelleted diet containing 50% corn and 10% SBP (SBPcp diet: AMEn: 11.5 MJ/kg; CP: 161 g/kg); and a mix in the same feeder (SBPlm diet) of 500 g/kg of protein-rich pellets containing 20% SBP (SBPprp: AMEn: 9.0 MJ/kg; CP: 250 g/kg) and 500 g/kg of whole corn (WC: AMEn: 14.0 MJ/kg; CP: 72 g/kg). Body traits, including crop volume, were measured at d 91. From d 91 to 106, 88 birds/group were overfed with a mixture containing mainly corn and water before slaughter to measure fatty liver performance. Feed intake from d 56 to 90 was higher (+10%; P = 0.004) in the SBPcp group than the other two, but at d 90, the body weight (BW) of the birds was higher (+7%; P = 0.002) in the SBPlm group than the other two. At d 91, the volume of the crop was greater in the SBPcp group (80.4 mL/kg of BW, P < 0.001) than in the control group (60.3 mL/kg of BW), the SBPlm group being intermediate (64.1 mL/kg of BW). Feed intake (13,321 g), weight gain (2,733 g), and feed-to-gain ratio (4.9) during the overfeeding period, as well as fatty liver weight (963 g) and commercial grading, were similar (P > 0.05) between the three groups. In conclusion, the use of sugar beet pulp in the diet of finishing geese helps the adaptation of the digestive tract to the overfeeding period, even in a loose-mix feeding system based on whole corn.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex210
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Sound analysis to model weight of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Fontana I; Tullo E, Carpentier L, et al.
      Pages: 3938 - 3943
      Abstract: The pattern of body weight gain during the commercial growing of broiler chickens is important to understand growth and feed conversion ratio of each flock.The application of sound analysis techniques has been widely studied to measure and analyze the amplitude and frequency of animal sounds. Previous studies have shown a significant correlation (P ≤ 0.001) between the frequency of vocalization and the age and weight of broilers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and validate a model that describes the growth rate of broiler chickens based on the peak frequency of their vocalizations and to explore the possibility to develop a tool capable of automatically detecting the growth of the chickens based on the frequency of their vocalizations during the production cycle. It is part of an overall goal to develop a Precision Livestock Farming tool that assists farmers in monitoring the growth of broiler chickens during the production cycle. In the present study, sounds and body weight were continuously recorded in an intensive broiler farm during 5 production cycles. For each cycle the peak frequencies of the chicken vocalizations were used to estimate the weight and then they were compared with the observed weight of the birds automatically measured using on farm automated weighing devices. No significant difference is shown between expected and observed weights along the entire production cycles; this trend was confirmed by the correlation coefficient between expected and observed weights (r = 96%, P value ≤ 0.001).The identified model used to predict the weight as a function of the peak frequency confirmed that bird weight might be predicted by the frequency analysis of the sounds emitted at farm level. Even if the precision of the weighing method based on sounds investigated in this study has to be improved, it gives a reasonable indication regarding the growth of broilers opening a new scenario in monitoring systems in broiler houses.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex215
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Comparative effects of in ovo versus subcutaneous administration of the
           Marek's disease vaccine and pre-placement holding time on the processing
           yield of Ross 708 broilers 1,2,3
    • Authors: Peebles E; Barbosa T, Cummings T, et al.
      Pages: 3944 - 3948
      Abstract: Effects of the in ovo (i.o.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) method of administration (moa) of the Marek's disease (MD) vaccine and 4 or 18 h pre-placement holding time (pht) on the processing yield of male broilers through 49 d of age (doa) were investigated. Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs (3,900) were either i.o.-vaccinated at 18 d of incubation or chicks from eggs that were not i.o.-vaccinated were s.c.-vaccinated at hatch. The i.o. injections (50 μL) were delivered by a commercial multi-egg injector and s.c. injections (200 μL) were delivered by an automatic pneumatic s.c. injector. The pht was imposed on chicks after vaccination. Sixteen birds were initially assigned to each of 15 replicate floor pens belonging to each of the moa and pht combination groups and were grown out through 48 doa. At 48 doa, 6 birds were randomly selected from each replicate pen and were weighed and fasted for 16 h before being processed. At 49 doa, whole carcass, fat pad, breast muscle, and tenders muscles weights were recorded. Whole carcass weight as a percentage of live BW, and fat pad, breast muscle, and tenders muscles weights as percentages of both live and whole carcass weights were calculated. Upon subjection of the data to a 2 × 2 factorial analysis, only a main effect due to moa was observed for tenders muscles weight as a percentage of live and whole carcass weights. Tenders muscles weight as a percentage of both live (P ≤ 0.010) and whole carcass (P ≤ 0.004) weight was higher in birds hatched from eggs that received i.o. rather than s.c. vaccinations. In conclusion, in comparison to s.c. vaccination, i.o. vaccination increased relative tenders weight yield, whether or not broilers were held for 4 or 18 h prior to placement. Therefore, with regard to broiler processing yield, i.o. and s.c. vaccinations were safe for the administration of the MD vaccine, with i.o. vaccination displaying a slight potential advantage.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex201
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Feeding broiler breeders a reduced balanced protein diet during the
           rearing and laying period impairs reproductive performance but enhances
           broiler offspring performance
    • Authors: Lesuisse J; Li C, Schallier S, et al.
      Pages: 3949 - 3959
      Abstract: Mammalian studies have shown that nutritional constraints during the perinatal period are able to program the progeny (metabolism, performance). The presented research aimed to investigate if broiler breeders and their offspring performance could be influenced by reducing the dietary crude protein (CP) level with 25%. A total of 160 day-old pure line A breeder females were randomly divided over 2 dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial diets, whereas the reduced balanced protein (RP) breeders received an isoenergetic diet that was decreased with 25% in dietary CP and amino acid during their entire lifespan. The RP birds required an increased feed allowance, varying between 3 and 15%, to meet the same BW goals as their control fed counterparts. The difference in feed allocations and reduction of the dietary CP level resulted in a net protein reduction varying between 14 and 23%. At wk 27 and 40, the body composition of the breeders was changed as a result of the dietary treatment. At both ages, the proportional abdominal fat pad weight of the RP breeders was increased (P < 0.001), whereas the proportional breast muscle weight was only higher at wk 27 in the control group compared to the RP group (P < 0.001). Egg weight (P < 0.001) and egg production (P < 0.001) was decreased for the RP fed birds. The lower dietary CP level reduced the proportional albumen weight of the RP eggs (P = 0.006). Male offspring from RP breeders were characterized by an increase in BW from 28 d until 35 d of age (P = 0.015). Moreover, female progeny of RP breeders showed a reduced FCR (P = 0.025), whereas male progeny showed a tendency (P = 0.052) towards a lower FCR at 5 wk of age. In conclusion, lowering dietary CP levels in rearing and laying phase of breeders had a negative effect on breeder performance but enhanced live performance of the offspring.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex211
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Performance, nutrient utilization, and energy partitioning in broiler
           chickens offered high canola meal diets supplemented with multicomponent
           carbohydrase and mono-component protease
    • Authors: Toghyani M; Wu S, Pérez-Maldonado R, et al.
      Pages: 3960 - 3972
      Abstract: Two broiler chicken experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of canola meal (CM) replacing soybean meal (SBM) in diets supplemented with carbohydrase and protease on performance and partitioning of energy. First, a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed to evaluate: protein meals (CM vs. SBM), carbohydrase (none or 300 mg/kg), protease (none or 200 mg/kg), and their interactions. Each treatment was fed to 6 replicated pens of 16 male broilers (Ross 308) from d 10 to 35. In the second experiment, 32 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to investigate CM and carbohydrase effects on energy partitioning. Birds were transferred into 16 closed-circuit calorimeter chambers (4 chambers/diet; 2 birds/chamber) to measure heat production (HP), metabolizable and net energy (NE) by gaseous exchange, and total excreta collection from d 25 to 28. There were no 3-way interactions among experimental factors for any of the performance parameters measured. Birds given CM diets consumed less feed, had lower BW, and exhibited higher FCR compared to the control birds (P < 0.01). Both enzymes, alone or in combination, improved final BW and FCR (P < 0.05). There was an interaction between carbohydrase and protease for FCR over the grower period (P < 0.01), in which the combination of the enzymes resulted in further improvement of FCR. Energy, DM, and crude protein digestibility values were higher in control birds (P < 0.05). There was an interaction of protein meal and carbohydrase for HP, respiratory quotient (P < 0.05), and NE:ME ratio of the diets (P = 0.06). Inclusion of CM without carbohydrase increased HP and decreased NE and NE:ME ratio of the diets (P < 0.05). Carbohydrase decreased HP and increased retained energy (P = 0.06) and NE and NE:ME ratio (P < 0.05). In conclusion, high CM in the diet negatively affects growth performance through reduction in feed consumption, nutrient digestibility, and NE of the diet, which could partly be restored by enzyme supplementation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex212
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Effect of sodium selenite and selenium yeast on performance, egg quality,
           antioxidant capacity, and selenium deposition of laying hens
    • Authors: Han X; Qin P, Li W, et al.
      Pages: 3973 - 3980
      Abstract: This study compared the effects of sodium selenite and selenium yeast and their combination on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant capacity, and selenium (Se) contents in tissues and eggs. Two-hundred-eighty-eight Jing Hong layers that were similar in laying rate (87.5 ± 0.38%) and body weight (1.70 ± 0.02 kg) were randomly distributed into 4 treatments for 11 wk (from 203 d old to 279 d old) with 9 replicates of 8 hens per replicate. The diets (corn-soybean meal diet) were supplemented with 0 [blank control (BC)], 0.3 mg/kg Se from sodium selenite (SS), 0.15 mg/kg Se from sodium selenite and 0.15 mg/kg Se from Se yeast (SS+SY), or 0.3 mg/kg Se from Se yeast (SY). Results showed that the laying rate of the SS+SY group increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the BC and SY groups. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in egg quality between the Se-supplemented diets and the BC diet. The serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was increased (P < 0.01) in hens fed Se-supplemented diets compared to the BC diet. The liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the SY group was increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the BC group. Significant increase (P < 0.01) due to SY supplementation was noted in the serum vitamin E content compared to BC and SS. Layers fed Se-supplemented diets had higher (P < 0.01) contents of Se in the serum, liver, and kidney compared to the BC diet. Compared to BC, Se content in eggs was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by feeding supplementary Se. In conclusion, the effects of SS and Se yeast were approximately equal in promoting antioxidant capacity of laying hens, while Se yeast is easier to deposit into eggs and tissues. The diet with added equal amounts of the 2 sources of Se was more cost effective and affordable than a comparable amount of Se yeast to obtain the promising production performance and nearly similar Se deposition.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex216
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Sodium butyrate improved performance while modulating the cecal microbiota
           and regulating the expression of intestinal immune-related genes of
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: Bortoluzzi C; Pedroso A, Mallo J, et al.
      Pages: 3981 - 3993
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on performance, expression of immune-related genes in the cecal tonsils, and cecal microbiota of broiler chickens when dietary energy and amino acids concentrations were reduced. Day-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial design (8 pens per treatment) with 3 dietary formulations (control diet; reduction of 2.3% of amino acids and 60 kcal/kg; and reduction of 4.6% of amino acids and 120 kcal/kg) with or without the inclusion of 0.1% of SB. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BW gain), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded until 28 d of age. From 14 to 28 d, there was an interaction of nutrient density by SB (P = 0.003) wherein BW gain of birds fed SB was impaired less by the energy/amino acids reduction than unsupplemented birds. A similar result was obtained from 1 to 28 d (P = 0.004). No interaction (P < 0.05) between nutrient density by SB was observed for FCR. Nutritional density of the diets and SB modified the structure, composition, and predicted function of the cecal microbiota. The nutritionally reduced diet altered the imputed function performed by the microbiota and the SB supplementation reduced these variations, keeping the microbial function similar to that observed in chickens fed a control diet. The frequency of bacterial species presenting the butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene increased in the microbiota of chickens fed a nutritionally reduced diet without SB supplementation, and was not changed by nutrient density of the diet when supplemented with SB (interaction; P = 0.01). SB modulated the expression of immune related genes in the cecal tonsils; wherein SB upregulated the expression of A20 in broilers fed control diets (P < 0.05) and increased IL-6 expression (P < 0.05). These results show that SB had positive effects on the productive performance of broilers fed nutritionally reduced diets, partially by modulating the cecal microbiota and exerting immune-modulatory effects.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex218
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Brazil nut meal and spray-dried egg powders as alternatives to synthetic
           methionine in organic laying hen diets
    • Authors: Burley H; Patterson P.
      Pages: 3994 - 4005
      Abstract: The United States organic poultry industry is currently facing a limitation on dietary inclusion of synthetic methionine (Met). This study investigated Brazil nut protein powder (BNPP), spray-dried egg white (SDEW), and spray-dried egg blend (70:30 albumen: yolk) (SDEB) as alternatives to synthetic Met in organic laying hen diets. A total of 270 Hy-Line Brown laying hens was fed 5 diets from 22 to 38 wk of age, with 6 replicates of 3 adjacent cages per diet and 3 hens per cage. Diets included a commercial control (COM) (non-organic with standard CP and synthetic Met), an organic control (ORG) (with no synthetic Met, but higher CP to meet Met requirements), and 3 organic treatment diets with no synthetic Met, but including BNPP, SDEW, or SDEB at levels to meet Met requirements. Egg production and quality, body weight (BW), feed intake, and manure nutrients and ammonia were assessed. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS, with Tukey's test used for multiple mean comparisons, and P ≤ 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. Body weight was greatest for the COM diet, and feed conversion improved for hens fed egg-based diets compared to controls. Egg weight and production did not differ between COM and treatment diets. The SDEW diet had greater albumen height and Haugh units compared to ORG and BNPP diets and greater percent albumen compared to COM and BNPP diets. Specific gravity was greatest for BNPP fed hens. Manure DM and potash were highest from COM and BNPP diets, respectively. Both egg-based diets increased ammonia flux relative to the COM diet. The BNPP and egg-based diets were lower in cost for $/metric tonne, $/dozen eggs, and $/kg of eggs compared to the ORG diet. The ingredients assessed herein could, therefore, cost-effectively replace synthetic Met in organic hen diets without negatively impacting egg production.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex222
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Dietary sugarcane bagasse and coarse particle size of corn are beneficial
           to performance and gizzard development in broilers fed normal and high
           sodium diets
    • Authors: Kheravii S; Swick R, Choct M, et al.
      Pages: 4006 - 4016
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and particle size on broiler performance, gizzard development, ileal microflora, litter quality, and bird welfare under a wet litter challenge model. A total of 672 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with corn particle size—coarse 3,576 μm (CC) or fine 1,113 μm (FC) geometric mean diameter, SB - 0 or 2% and sodium (Na) - 0.16 or 0.40% with increased Na level to induce wet litter. A 3-way particle size × Na × SB interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for weight gain at d 10. Birds fed FC showed a higher weight gain compared to birds fed CC when 0.40% Na without SB diet or 0.16% Na with 2% SB diet was offered. A significant particle size × SB interaction was observed at d 24 on feed conversion ratio (FCR; P < 0.001) and weight gain (P < 0.05). FCR was reduced by 2% SB supplementation in birds fed CC but increased in birds fed FC. Further, weight gain of birds fed 2% SB was higher in birds fed CC but not in those fed FC. On d 35, birds fed 2% SB had a higher weight gain (P < 0.001) compared to those without SB, and a SB × particle size interaction on relative gizzard weight (P < 0.05) and pH (P < 0.05) was present. SB reduced gizzard pH and increased the relative gizzard weight in birds fed the FC diet but not the CC diet (P < 0.05). Counts of ileal Bacillus spp. were increased in birds fed SB (P < 0.05) on d 24. No effects of SB and particle size on litter quality and bird welfare were observed, but higher Na increased litter moisture and footpad dermatitis (FPD) scores (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that SB independently or in combination with CC improves performance in older birds regardless of Na level in diets, possibly through improved gizzard development and gut microflora of birds.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex225
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Effect of the addition of glycosaminoglycans on bone and cartilaginous
           development of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Sgavioli S; Santos E, Borges L, et al.
      Pages: 4017 - 4025
      Abstract: Locomotion issues in broiler production may decrease performance (carcass yield and traits) and lead to high financial losses. This study evaluates the addition of glucosaminoglycans in broiler diets to minimize the lack of proper bone development and joint weakening. The experiment was conducted using 2,160 broilers randomly distributed in a factorial pattern (3 × 3) using 3 levels of glucosamine sulfate (0, 0.12, and 0.24%) and 3 levels of chondroitin sulfate addition (0, 0.08, and 0.16%). Eight repetitions were used for each treatment, distributed in 72 pens with 30 broilers each. There was a quadratic effect on feed conversion for broilers from 1 to 42 d old (P = 0.0123) for the addition of chondroitin, and better feed conversion was obtained by adding 0.08% of chondroitin. The relative tibia weight, the width of the proximal epiphysis and diaphysis presented a linear increased effect in broilers at 42 d old. An interaction was found between the amount of chondroitin × glucosamine and the number of chondrocytes in the proximal cartilage of the tibia (P = 0.0072). There was a quadratic effect of glucosamine levels (P = 0.0107) in the birds that had received the 0.16% addition of chondroitin, and the presence of 0.18% glucosamine increased the number chondrocytes in the cartilage of broilers. These results provide the first evidence that broilers may benefit from increased dietary chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that the addition of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates in broiler feed rations might alleviate leg conditions and decrease financial losses in the broiler industry.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex228
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • The physiological response of broiler chickens to the dietary
           supplementation of the bacteriocin nisin and ionophore coccidiostats
    • Authors: Kierończyk B; Sassek M, Pruszyńska-Oszmałek E, et al.
      Pages: 4026 - 4037
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with nisin alone or in combination with salinomycin or monensin on broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, selected blood parameters, digestive enzyme activity, apparent nutrient digestibility, and tibiotarsus mineralization, as well as selected gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organ weights, intestinal length, and central immune organ weights. Two independent experiments, each including 400 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks differing in ionophore coccidiostats, i.e., salinomycin and monensin supplementation, were conducted. The following treatments were applied: experiment 1: NA—no additives, SAL—salinomycin (60 mg/kg diet), NIS—nisin (2,700 IU/kg diet), SAL+NIS—salinomycin (60 mg/kg diet) and nisin (2,700 IU/kg diet); experiment 2: NA—no additives, MON—monensin (100 mg/kg diet), NIS—nisin (2,700 IU/kg diet) and MON+NIS—monensin (100 mg/kg diet) and nisin (2,700 IU/kg diet). The addition of nisin with or without ionophores to the birds’ diet improved broiler growth performance in terms of BWG and FCR (days 1 to 14) and BWG and FI (15 to 35 d; 1 to 35 d). Salinomycin showed effects similar to those of nisin influence on growth performance (1 to 35 d), while monensin supplementation resulted in lower BWG. Moreover, no additive effect between nisin and ionophores was observed. Nisin and salinomycin had no influence on the serum concentration of selected hormones and other blood biochemical parameters except glucose, which was reduced by nisin. A decrease in lipase activity was observed during nisin and salinomycin supplementation, while the apparent ileal digestibility of fat was not affected. However, the digestibility of crude protein increased with nisin administration. Additionally, the effects of nisin on decreasing the weight and length of GIT segments were observed. Supplementation with nisin and monensin was not associated with a negative impact on tibiotarsus mineralization and the immune organ index. This study suggests that nisin may be used in broiler nutrition as a growth promotor, with no negative influence on the bird's metabolism or immune status.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex234
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Microbiological quality assessment and validation of antimicrobials
           against unstressed or cold-stress adapted Salmonella and surrogate
           Enterococcus faecium on broiler carcasses and wings
    • Authors: Lemonakis L; Li K, Adler J, et al.
      Pages: 4038 - 4045
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the microbiological quality and efficacy of antimicrobials to inactivate unstressed or cold-stress adapted Salmonella and Enterococcus on broiler carcasses and wings processed at a small USDA-inspected slaughter facility in West Virginia. The first part of the study included 42 carcasses that were pre- and secondarily-enriched in bacterial media followed by streak-plating onto XLT-4 and HardyCHROM™-agar Salmonella and confirmation using an API20E-kit. The aerobic plate counts (APC), Escherichia coli (ECC), total coliforms (TCC), and yeast/molds were analyzed on petri-films. The second part of the study included fresh broiler carcasses and wings that were inoculated with unstressed and cold-stress-adapted (4 °C, 7-day) Salmonella Typhimurium and Tennessee, and Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459 (5.5 to 6.0 log10CFU/mL) and later dipped into peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 1,000 ppm), lactic acid (LA; 5%), lactic and citric acid blend (LCA; 2.5%), and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 70 ppm) for 30 s without (carcasses) or with 2-min drainage (wings). The surviving bacteria were recovered onto non-selective and selective agar to analyze the total microbial population, Salmonella and Enterococcus. APC, TCC, and Yeast/Molds were 2.62, 1.08, and 2.37 log10CFU/mL on broiler carcasses, respectively. A total of 30 and 40% of the carcasses tested positive for Salmonella spp. and E. coli (0.48 to 1.70 log10CFU/mL), respectively. For carcasses, antimicrobial reductions of cold-stress-adapted cells of Salmonella and Enterococcus were greater (P < 0.05) than the unstressed cells. For wings, cold-stress-adapted Salmonella were more (P < 0.05) sensitive to antimicrobials than unstressed cells; however, unstressed and cold-stress-adapted Enterococcus behaved similarly (P > 0.05). The reduction of Salmonella and Enterococcus on carcasses and wings increased in the order of SH ≤ LCA < LA < PAA and irrespective of unstressed or cold-stress-adapted cells. Applying post-chilling antimicrobial dipping treatments could be an intervention approach to control Salmonella on locally processed broilers. In addition, Enterococcus faecium could be a Salmonella surrogate for in-plant validation studies.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex195
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Microbial loads and antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococcus
           aureus in different types of raw poultry-based meat preparations
    • Authors: Buzón-Durán L; Capita R, Alonso-Calleja C.
      Pages: 4046 - 4052
      Abstract: The hygiene status of raw chicken-meat preparations from retail outlets in North-Western Spain was investigated. Microbial counts (aerobic plate counts (APCs), psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae, fecal coliforms, enterococci, pseudomonads, fluorescent pseudomonads, yeasts and molds, and Staphylococcus aureus) were determined for minced meat, hamburgers, nuggets, white sausages, red sausages, escalope, and roll-ups. S. aureus isolates were tested for susceptibility to twenty antimicrobials of veterinary and human clinical significance (disc diffusion method, CLSI). Average microbial loads (log10 cfu/g) ranged from 2.63 ± 0.80 (enterococci) to 6.66 ± 1.09 (psychrotrophs). Average APCs (6.44 ± 1.16 log10 cfu/g) were regarded as acceptable according to EU microbiological criteria. The type of product had an influence (P < 0.05) on microbial loads, samples of escalope showing the highest counts for most microbial groups. Two-thirds (66.7%) of the samples tested harbored S. aureus. All the S. aureus isolates were multi-resistant (to between three and fifteen antibiotics). The greatest prevalence of resistance was shown for ampicillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, ceftazidime, and nalidixic acid. The results of this study show that poultry-based meat preparations present high microbial loads and are a major reservoir of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains. This highlights the need for correct handling of such foodstuffs with a view to reducing risks to consumers.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex200
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Effect of an organic acids based feed additive and enrofloxacin on the
           prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in cecum of broilers
    • Authors: Roth N; Mayrhofer S, Gierus M, et al.
      Pages: 4053 - 4060
      Abstract: Increasing antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. Fluoroquinolones are used to treat and prevent poultry diseases worldwide. Fluoroquinolone resistance rates are high in their countries of use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an acids-based feed additive, as well as fluoroquinolone antibiotics, on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. A total of 480 broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: a control group receiving a basal diet; a group receiving a feed additive (FA) based on formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid; and an antibiotic enrofloxacin (AB) group given the same diet, but supplemented with enrofloxacin in water. A pooled fecal sample of one-day-old chicks was collected upon arrival at the experimental farm. On d 17 and d 38 of the trial, cecal samples from each of the 8 pens were taken, and the count of E. coli and antibiotic-resistant E. coli was determined.The results of the present study show a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in one-day-old chicks. Supplementation of the diet with FA and treatment of broilers with AB did not have a significant influence on the total number of E. coli in the cecal content on d 17 and d 38 of the trial. Supplementation with FA contributed to better growth performance and to a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in E. coli resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline compared to the control and AB groups, as well as to a decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli compared to the AB group. Treatment with AB increased (P ≤ 0.05) the average daily weight compared to the control group and increased (P ≤ 0.05) the number of E. coli resistant to ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline; it also decreased (P ≤ 0.05) the number of E. coli resistant to cefotaxime and extended spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing E. coli in the ceca of broilers.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex232
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • A functional single nucleotide polymorphism in the tyrosinase gene
           promoter affects skin color and transcription activity in the black-boned
    • Authors: Yu S; Liao J, Tang M, et al.
      Pages: 4061 - 4067
      Abstract: The tyrosinase (TYR) gene is the major melanogenesis-related gene for skin (fur) or plumage color in mammals and birds. Genetic variation in the promoter region of a gene may affect gene expression and phenotypes. This study compared the TYR promoter region between pooled DNA (n = 8) of chickens (Gallus gallus) with black and white skin using direct sequencing. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.-2228A>T was found to have the opposite allele distribution in the two groups. The results of genotyping in a larger population (n = 188) revealed that SNP c.-2228A>T was associated with the skin color of the black-boned chicken. Individuals with genotypes AA and AT had greater TYR expression than those with genotype TT. A luciferase assay of the promoter activity revealed that genotype AA had greater activity than genotype TT. Transcription factor binding site analyses showed that the c.-2228A allele has a putative binding site for transcription factor AT-rich interaction domain 3a (Arid3a), while the c.-2228T allele has sites for GS homeobox 2 (GSX2), homeobox D9 (Hoxd9), and mix paired-like homeobox (MIXL1). We concluded that the TYR promoter polymorphism affects skin color. SNP c.-2228A>T could be used as a genetic marker for marker-assisted selection of skin color in the black-boned chicken.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex217
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Successful chilling of red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa ) sperm for
           use in artificial insemination
    • Authors: Santiago-Moreno J; Castaño C, Toledano-Díaz A, et al.
      Pages: 4068 - 4074
      Abstract: The fertilizing capacity of pure, fresh avian semen may disappear in just half an hour, hindering its successful use in artificial insemination (AI) projects. Longer storage requires the use of infra-physiological temperatures and of semen diluents that help preserve the spermatozoa but that do not interfere with their fertilizing capacity. This study examines the effect on sperm quality of storing red-legged partridge sperm for 3 h at 5°C with 2 different semen extenders: 1) a medium referred to as L&R-84, composed of sodium glutamate, glucose, magnesium acetate, potassium acetate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone, and 2) Lake 7.1 medium, composed of sodium glutamate, glucose, magnesium acetate, potassium citrate, and N,N-Bis(2-hydroxyethyl)taurine (BES). Extending with L&R-84 returned better curvilinear velocity (P < 0.01), straight-line velocity (P < 0.01), average path velocity (P < 0.01), linearity (P < 0.05), straightness (P < 0.05), and wobble (P < 0.05) values, while extending with the Lake 7.1 medium was associated with higher percentages (P < 0.001) of motile sperm. The fertility rate was higher (P < 0.05) when birds were inseminated with L&R-84-extended sperm than with Lake 7.1-extended sperm. The mean number of penetrations of perivitelline layer samples (taken from above the germinal disc) was also higher for the L&R-84-extended sperm (P < 0.05). These results show L&R-84 can be recommended as an extender for red-legged partridge semen to be stored for at least 3 h at 5°C.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex176
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Effect of feeding soybean meal and differently processed peas on
           intestinal morphology and functional glucose transport in the small
           intestine of broilers
    • Authors: Röhe I; Boroojeni F, Zentek J.
      Pages: 4075 - 4084
      Abstract: Peas are locally grown legumes being rich in protein and starch. However, the broad usage of peas as a feed component in poultry nutrition is limited to anti-nutritional factors, which might impair gut morphology and function. This study investigated the effect of feeding raw or differently processed peas compared with feeding a soybean meal-based control diet (C) on intestinal morphology and nutrient transport in broilers. A total of 360 day-old broiler chicks were fed with one of the following diets: The C diet, and 3 diets containing raw peas (RP), fermented peas (FP) and enzymatically pre-digested peas (EP), each supplying 30% of dietary crude protein. After 35 d, jejunal samples of broilers were taken for analyzing histomorphological parameters, active glucose transport in Ussing chambers and the expression of genes related to glucose absorption, intestinal permeability and cell maturation. Villus length (P = 0.017) and crypt depth (P = 0.009) of EP-fed broilers were shorter compared to birds received C. The villus surface area was larger in broilers fed C compared to those fed with the pea-containing feed (P = 0.005). Glucose transport was higher for broilers fed C in comparison to birds fed with the EP diet (P = 0.044). The sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) expression was down-regulated in RP (P = 0.028) and FP (P = 0.015) fed broilers. Correlation analyses show that jejunal villus length negatively correlates with the previously published number of jejunal intraepithelial T cells (P = 0.014) and that jejunal glucose transport was negatively correlated with the occurrence of jejunal intraepithelial leukocytes (P = 0.041). To conclude, the feeding of raw and processed pea containing diets compared to a soybean based diet reduced the jejunal mucosal surface area of broilers, which on average was accompanied by lower glucose transport capacities. These morphological and functional alterations were associated with observed mucosal immune reactions. Further studies are required elucidating the specific components in peas provoking such effects and whether these effects have a beneficial or detrimental impact on gut function and animal health.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex199
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Incubation temperature and time of hatch impact broiler muscle growth and
    • Authors: Clark D; Walter K, Velleman S.
      Pages: 4085 - 4095
      Abstract: The adult myogenic population of stem cells, called satellite cells, initially develop in late-term embryos. Satellite cells are the only myogenic cell that repair damaged myofibers and increase post-hatch growth. The objective of the current study was to determine if incubation temperatures and time of hatch impact growth and pectoralis major (p. major) muscle morphology. Eggs were incubated at a constant 37.8°C; however, from d 14 to 18, the eggs were subject to 39.5°C for 0, 3, or 12 h per day. Chicks were divided into early, mid, or late hatch groups based upon the time they emerged from the shell. Growth and feed efficiency were measured throughout the 63-day trial, while meat quality and muscle morphology were evaluated at the time of processing. The chicks incubated at an increased temperature for 12 h per d had reduced (P < 0.01) body weights throughout the trial compared to the 3 h treatment and control. The early hatch broilers were heavier (P < 0.01) at 63 d compared to mid and late hatch broilers. Chicks from the 12 h incubation treatment had an increased (P = 0.01) gain to feed ratio compared to the control. Broilers from the 12 h incubation treatment had lower (P < 0.01) p. major weights compared to the 0 and 3 h treatments. Early hatch broilers had heavier p. major weights (P < 0.01) compared to mid and late hatch groups. The 12 h incubation treatment also reduced the number of broilers with moderate to severe myopathic attributes compared to the control. Similarly, there were fewer late hatch birds with fibrotic and necrotic p. major muscles compared to the early hatch group. Together, these data demonstrate that altering incubation temperature is a feasible management strategy to improve muscle morphology without negatively impacting meat quality parameters.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex202
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Adaptive response to exercise of fast-growing and slow-growing chicken
           strains: Blood oxidative status and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense
    • Authors: Mattioli S; Dal Bosco A, Ruggeri S, et al.
      Pages: 4096 - 4102
      Abstract: The adaptation of chickens to free-range rearing systems mainly involves the locomotory behavior, which is very different in fast-growing (FG) and slow-growing (SG) strains. This study aimed to compare the effect of moderate locomotory activity (induced and prolonged) on the blood oxidative status in a slow-growing chicken strain with that in a fast-growing one. Thirty FG (Ross 308) birds and 30 SG (Hubbard) birds were divided into 2 groups for each strain and subjected to different treatments: no exercise (the control group [C]) and 1 h of walking at 4 km/h (the exercise group [E]). Daily exercise was promoted by operators, who walked behind the animals around a paddock. Blood samples were obtained weekly from both groups. For the E group, samples were obtained before exercise (E1) and after exercise (E2). Oxidative markers (creatine kinase [CK], reactive oxygen molecular substance [ROMS], thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]), and antioxidant compounds (α-tocopherol [α-T], γ-tocopherol [γ-T], δ-tocopherol [δ-T], α-tocotrienol [α-T3], γ-tocotrienol [γ-T3], retinol, and carotenoids) were evaluated. In both strains, the CK level was higher in chickens subjected to exercise; however, its increase was greater in the FG group than in the SG one (1.56-fold vs. 1.08-fold). The antioxidant status was worse in FG strain birds subjected to exercise, whereas the status remained nearly the same in the SG strain birds. The α-T and retinol concentrations were significantly reduced by exercise, primarily in the FG group, whereas the other antioxidant compounds (α-T3, γ-T3, γ-T, δ-T, lutein, and zeaxanthin) were unaffected by strain or treatment. The FG and SG strains had different responses to exercise, and only the SG showed a progressive reduction in TBARS and ROMS values during the 28-day experiment. Accordingly, moderate exercise may be beneficial only when the birds have suitable behavioral characteristics (e.g., higher kinetic activity, rusticity, and explorative nature) or physical characteristics (e.g., low body weight); otherwise, exercise is highly stressful and affects physiology and well-being.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex203
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • A study on the sternum growth and mineralization kinetic of meat duck from
           35 to 63 days of age
    • Authors: Zhang H; Liao H, Zeng Q, et al.
      Pages: 4103 - 4115
      Abstract: The sternum as an important part of the skeleton and not only provides a crucial attachment site for the pectoral muscles and protects internal organs such as the heart and lungs for meat duck, but may also be considered as the primary ventilator in the avian respiratory system. Therefore, this study focuses on the sternum growth and mineralization kinetics of ducks from 35 d to 63 d of age. A total of 72 one-d-old males and 72 females were chosen and fed with the same diet until the age of 9 weeks. The sternum and serum were harvested at 35 d, 42 d, 49 d, 56d, and 63 d of feeding. Results showed that the sternum width rapidly grew from 35 d to 42 d and the value changed little after 42 d, while the keel length and the sternum depth did not significantly change until 49 d age. The sternum defatted weight and density increased assumed to “S” with ducks’ age and their plateau in the 56 d. The sternum ash content, calcium (Ca), and phosphate (P) levels increased with duck age, then all three reached a plateau in 49 days. Similarly, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was higher in the ducks at both 35 and 42 days, followed by 49 days, and the value was lowered to a minimum on both days 56 and 63. Conversely, serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity substantially increased until 49 days irrespective of duck gender. Results indicate that the dimensions of the sternum were already at the maximum in 49-day-old ducks and the sternum of the ducks rapidly mineralized from 42 d to 49 d of age and achieved a plateau phase after 49-days resulting from the high activity of ALP at the sternum early mineralization.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex223
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Effects of copper ions on the characteristics of egg white gel induced by
           strong alkali
    • Authors: Shao Y; Zhao Y, Xu M, et al.
      Pages: 4116 - 4123
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of copper ions on egg white (EW) gel induced by strong alkali. Changes in gel characteristics were examined through texture profile analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical methods. The value of gel strength reached its maximum when 0.1% copper ions was added. However, the lowest cohesiveness values were observed at 0.1%. The springiness of gel without copper ions was significantly greater than the gel with copper ions added. SEM results illustrated that the low concentration of copper ions contributes to a dense and uniform gel network, and an open matrix was formed at 0.4%. The free and total sulphhydryl group content in the egg white protein gel significantly decreased with the increased copper. The increase of copper ions left the contents of ionic and hydrogen bonds basically unchanged, hydrophobic interaction presented an increasing trend, and the disulfide bond exhibited a completely opposite change. The change of surface hydrophobicity proved that the main binding force of copper induced gel was hydrophobic interaction. However, copper ions had no effect on the protein component of the gels. Generally, a low level of copper ions facilitates protein–protein association, which is involved in the characteristics of gels. Instead, high ionic strength had a negative effect on gels induced by strong alkali.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex213
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
  • Extraction and physicochemical characterization of broiler ( Gallus gallus
           domesticus ) skin gelatin compared to commercial bovine gelatin
    • Authors: Aykın-Dinçer E; Koç A, Erbaş M.
      Pages: 4124 - 4131
      Abstract: Gelatin was extracted from broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skins and analyzed to compare its physicochemical properties with those of commercial bovine gelatin. The average yield of broiler skin gelatin was 6.5% on a wet weight basis. Broiler skin gelatin had more α1-and α2-chains than β-chain and contained high molecular weight (γ-chain) polymers. Glycine was the dominant amino acid in broiler skin gelatin (20.26%), followed by proline (Pro) (15.12%) then hydroxyproline (Hyp) (11.36%). Compared to commercial bovine gelatin, broiler skin gelatin had less total imino acids (Pro and Hyp) but a higher (33.65 vs. 31.38°C) melting temperature (P < 0.01). The differences in physical properties between the broiler and commercial bovine gelatins appeared to be associated with differences in their amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The sensory evaluation results revealed that broiler skin gelatin could be a potential alternative to commercial bovine gelatin, useful in various food products.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex237
      Issue No: Vol. 96, No. 11 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Your IP address:
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-