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Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Poultry Science
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0032-5791 - ISSN (Online) 1525-3171
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • Ranging behavior relates to welfare indicators pre- and post-range access
           in commercial free-range broilers
    • Authors: Taylor P; Hemsworth P, Groves P, et al.
      Pages: 1861 - 1871
      Abstract: ABSTRACTLittle is known about the effect of accessing an outdoor range on chicken welfare. We tracked individual ranging behavior of 538 mixed-sex Ross 308 chickens on a commercial farm across 4 flocks in winter and summer. Before range access, at 17 to 19 d of age, and post-range access, at 30 to 33 and 42 to 46 d of age in winter and summer flocks respectively, welfare indicators were measured on chickens (pre-range: winter N = 292; summer N = 280; post-range: winter N = 131; summer N = 140), including weight, gait score, dermatitis and plumage condition. Post-ranging autopsies were performed (winter: N = 170; summer: N = 60) to assess breast burn, leg health, and ascites. Fewer chickens accessed the range in winter flocks (32.5%) than summer flocks (82.1%). Few relationships between welfare and ranging were identified in winter, likely due to minimal ranging and the earlier age of post-ranging data collection compared to summer flocks. In summer flocks prior to range access, chickens that accessed the range weighed 4.9% less (P = 0.03) than chickens that did not access the range. Pre-ranging weight, gait score, and overall plumage cover predicted the amount of range use by ranging chickens in summer flocks (P < 0.01), but it explained less than 5% of the variation, suggesting other factors are associated with ranging behavior. In summer flocks post-range access, ranging chickens weighed 12.8% less than non-ranging chickens (P < 0.001). More range visits were associated with lower weight (P < 0.01), improved gait scores (P = 0.02), greater breast plumage cover (P = 0.02), lower ascites index (P = 0.01), and less pericardial fluid (P = 0.04). More time spent on the range was associated with lower weight (P < 0.01) and better gait scores (P < 0.01). These results suggest that accessing an outdoor range in summer is partly related to changes in broiler chicken welfare. Further investigations are required to determine causation.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey060
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Narrowing the wingless-2 mutation to a 227 kb candidate region on
           chicken chromosome 12
    • Authors: Webb A; Youngworth I, Kaya M, et al.
      Pages: 1872 - 1880
      Abstract: ABSTRACTWingless-2 (wg-2) is an autosomal recessive mutation in chicken that results in an embryonic lethal condition. Affected individuals exhibit a multisystem syndrome characterized by absent wings, truncated legs, and craniofacial, kidney, and feather malformations. Previously, work focused on phenotype description, establishing the autosomal recessive pattern of Mendelian inheritance and placing the mutation on an inbred genetic background to create the congenic line UCD Wingless-2.331. The research described in this paper employed the complementary tools of breeding, genetics, and genomics to map the chromosomal location of the mutation and successively narrow the size of the region for analysis of the causative element. Specifically, the wg-2 mutation was initially mapped to a 7 Mb region of chromosome 12 using an Illumina 3 K SNP array. Subsequent SNP genotyping and exon sequencing combined with analysis from improved genome assemblies narrowed the region of interest to a maximum size of 227 kb. Within this region, 3 validated and 3 predicted candidate genes are found, and these are described. The wg-2 mutation is a valuable resource to contribute to an improved understanding of the developmental pathways involved in chicken and avian limb development as well as serving as a model for human development, as the resulting syndrome shares features with human congenital disorders.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey073
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Dietary supplementation with DHA-rich microalgae improves performance,
           serum composition, carcass trait, antioxidant status, and fatty acid
           profile of broilers
    • Authors: Long S; Kang S, Wang Q, et al.
      Pages: 1881 - 1890
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis experiment was conducted with 126 as-hatched male Arbor Acres chicks (1-d-old, weighing 45.3 ± 0.72 g) to determine the effects of microalgae [MA, containing 29% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] on performance, serum composition, carcass trait, antioxidant status, and fatty acid deposition of birds. The birds were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 treatments with 7 replicate pens per treatment (6 birds per pen). The dietary treatments included a control diet [corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with 3% soybean oil (SO), CON], 1% MA diet (basal diet supplemented with 1% MA and 2% SO, 1MA), and 2% MA diet (basal diet supplemented with 2% MA and 1% SO, 2MA). All birds were raised in wire-floored cages. The trial consists of a starter phase from d 1 to 21 and a grower phase from d 22 to 42. Compared with CON, birds supplemented with MA (1MA or 2MA) had greater (P < 0.05) average daily gain, liver percentage (liver weight/body weight), and serum glucose, as well as lower (P < 0.05) feed conversation ratio, abdominal fat percentage (abdominal fat weight/body weight), and total serum cholesterol. Moreover, due to the high concentration of DHA in MA, birds fed MA showed increased (P < 0.05) concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid, DHA, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity, as well as decreased (P < 0.05) n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio, polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratio, and malondialdehyde in the breast and thigh muscle compared with CON. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% or 2% DHA-rich microalgae had positive effects on performance, serum composition, carcass trait, antioxidant status, and fatty acid deposition in birds.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey027
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects of in ovo injection of different doses of coccidiosis vaccine and
           turn-out times on broiler performance1,2,3
    • Authors: Sokale A; Williams C, Cummings T, et al.
      Pages: 1891 - 1898
      Abstract: ABSTRACTInovocox EM1 vaccine (EM1) is hatchery-applied via in ovo injection for the control of coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Effects of 3 in ovo injection treatments (INT) and 2 turn-out times (TOT) on the hatching chick quality variables and 35 d posthatch performance of Ross × Ross 708 broilers were investigated. In a single-stage incubator, 1,440 hatching eggs were randomly distributed among 3 INT groups on each of 8 tray levels. At 19 d of incubation (doi), embryonated eggs were subjected to one of the following INT by in ovo injection: noninjected control; 1 × dose of EM1; 10 × dose of EM1. On 21 doi, hatchability of injected eggs (HI), hatching body weight (HBW), and hatching chick quality variables were determined. Additionally, for the grow-out phase, birds belonging to each INT were randomly subjected to a 7 or 10 d TOT. Twenty chicks were initially placed in each of 48 floor pens (6 INT × TOT combination groups × 8 replications) for growth performance evaluation from 0 to 35 d posthatch. The main effect of INT on hatching chick quality variables, as well as the main and interactive effects of INT and TOT on various grow-out performance variables were determined. Although there was no significant INT effect on HI or HBW, significant INT effects on chick total BW, yolk-free BW, and yolk sac weight were observed. There were significant INT effects on BWG and FCR in the 21- to 28-d posthatch interval, as well as on BWG and FCR in the 0- to 35-d posthatch interval. There was no main effect of TOT or interactive effect of INT and TOT on BW and other performance variables from 0 to 35 d posthatch. There was a significant main effect of INT on relative intestine weight at 28 d posthatch. In conclusion, the injection of EM1 vaccine at a 10 × dose may affect hatching chick quality variables and growth performance up to 35 d posthatch.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey028
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Allium hookeri supplementation improves intestinal immune response against
           necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens
    • Authors: Lee Y; Lee S, Gadde U, et al.
      Pages: 1899 - 1908
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThree hundred birds (1 day old) were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n = 50 birds/treatment) and fed a basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with Allium hookeri (AH) root (1 or 3%). At day 14, half of the birds in each group were orally challenged with E. maxima 41A (1 × 104 cells/chicken), followed by C. perfringens infection (1 × 109 cfu/chicken) on day 18. Necrotic enteritis (NE)-associated infections and intestinal immune response were assessed by average body weight gain, lesion score, and oocyst shedding. The effect of dietary supplementation, AH, on transcript levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and tight junction proteins and mucin protein in the jejunum, were quantified by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR. At day 20, birds fed with diet supplementation (3% of AH) significantly weighted more than the control group. Although the NE-challenged had significantly reduced average body weight gain, there was no significance in the effect between diet × NE-challenge interactions on the average body weight gain. Among the NE-challenged groups, gut lesion score and oocyst shedding were significantly decreased in birds given AH (1 or 3%) compared to the control group. There was a correlation between diet and NE infection with regards to interleukin (IL)-17A, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The up-regulated transcript levels of cytokines IL-8, IL-17A, iNOS, and LITAF by NE challenged groups were significantly reduced by AH (1 or 3%) supplementation. Down-regulated expression levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins: junctional adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2), occluding, and intestinal mucin 2 (MUC2) by NE challenge, was up-regulated by the addition of AH (1 or 3%) supplementation. All TJ proteins (JAM2, ZO1, Ocluddin and MUC2) in the jejunum had a significant diet × NE-challenge interaction. These findings demonstrate that dietary supplementation of AH in chicken feed could be beneficially used to improve chicken health against NE.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey031
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effect of direct-fed microbial addition in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris)
           diets on performance and health responses
    • Authors: Sarfo G; Larbi A, Hamidu J, et al.
      Pages: 1909 - 1913
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe present study was conducted to investigate the effect of intermittent use of direct-fed microbial addition (DFM-“RE3®”) on growth performance and health status of indigenous guinea fowls in northern Ghana. One-hundred and eighty day-old guinea keets were randomly assigned to 4 direct-fed microbial (DFM) treatments that included: control, daily, 3 consecutive days per wk (3CDW), and 7 days repeated every other wk (7DREOW) at 1.5 ml/L through water from day 1 to 56 days. Feed intake, body weight gain, and blood hematological and serum biochemical properties were recorded. The treatments had no effects (P > 0.05) on the hematological or serum biochemical properties recorded. Birds on DFM treatments appeared to consume less feed (range: 1,584 to 1,824 g/d) compared to the control (1,870 g/d/head). Birds on DFM treatments daily and 3CDW gained more (P < 0.05) weight (334 to 394 g/d) compared to the control (306.1 g/head) with keets on daily DFM supplementation recording the lowest (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio. The total blood protein, globulin, lipids, albumin concentrations, and cholesterol concentrations were not affected (P > 0.05) by DFM supplementation. Supplementing birds with 1.5 mL of RE3®/liter of water daily can improve body weight. Further research on immune competence from the spleen, thymus, and bursa fibrosis for evidence of increased immune competence in probiotic administered birds is recommended.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey066
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of free-range laying
           hens naturally infected with Ascaridia galli
    • Authors: Sharma N; Hunt P, Hine B, et al.
      Pages: 1914 - 1921
      Abstract: ABSTRACTA study was conducted to determine the performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of laying hens exposed to ranges contaminated with Ascaridia galli. Sixteen-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) were divided into 4 treatments with 5 replicates containing 10 hens per pen. Hens of treatment 1 [negative control (NC)] ranged on a decontaminated area, and hens of treatments 2 (low infection) and 3 (medium infection) ranged on areas previously contaminated by hens artificially infected with 250 and 1,000 embryonated A. galli eggs, respectively. The hens of treatment 4 [positive control (PC)] ranged on areas previously contaminated by hens artificially infected with 2,500 embryonated A. galli eggs, and in addition these hens were orally inoculated with 1,000 embryonated eggs. Results indicated that hens of the medium infection group had a higher number of intestinal A. galli worms and A. galli eggs in the coprodeum excreta (43.9 ± 4.0 and 3,437 ± 459 eggs/g) compared to hens of the low infection group (23.8 ± 4.0 and 1,820 ± 450 eggs/g) (P < 0.01) and similar worm counts to PC hens (34.4 ± 4.0 and 2,918 ± 474) (P > 0.05). Egg production, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not affected by A. galli infection (P > 0.05). Egg quality parameters (egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell weight, shell thickness, shell percentage, shell breaking strength, deformation, albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk score) were not affected by A. galli infection (P > 0.05). Highly infected hens had lower liver lipid content (2.72 ± 0.51 g) compared to uninfected hens (4.46 ± 0.58 g, P < 0.01). The results indicate that exposure to ranges contaminated with A. galli resulted in infection of the ranging hens, but this did not affect egg production or egg quality. Infection with A. galli lowered the liver lipid reserves of the host significantly, suggesting infected hens use more energy reserves for maintenance and production.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey068
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects on health, performance, and tissue residues of the ionophore
           antibiotic salinomycin in finishing broilers (21 to 38 d)
    • Authors: Diaz G; Aguillón Y, Cortés A.
      Pages: 1922 - 1928
      Abstract: ABSTRACTA study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding salinomycin at the recommended prophylactic level, and at 2 and 3 times this level, to finishing male broilers (d 21 to 38). Four treatment groups were given the experimental diets containing 0, 60, 120, or 180 parts per million (ppm) salinomycin from d 21 to 38. Performance, relative organ weights, selected serum enzymes, and salinomycin residues in liver, muscle, and serum were determined. Salinomycin supplementation had no effect on body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion, and caused no overt signs of toxicity. After a week of being fed the salinomycin diets, the serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased in chickens fed 180 ppm compared with controls. These birds also showed microscopic lesions in breast and thigh muscles, but not in cardiac muscle. Salinomycin residues were not detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in liver or muscle samples from the birds fed 0, 60, or 120 ppm salinomycin. However, chickens fed 180 ppm salinomycin had detectable levels in liver and muscle above the maximum residue level of 5 μg/kg established by the European Union. All birds fed salinomycin had salinomycin in their sera with levels ranging from N.D. (not detected) in the controls to 24.4 ± 7.9, 61.4 ± 18.9, and 94.5 ± 9.1 μg/L for salinomycin dietary levels of 60, 120, and 180 ppm, respectively. Serum salinomycin concentration was linearly related with salinomycin content in feed (y = 0.584x − 10, r2 = 0.999). The results showed that even at 3 times the prophylactic level, salinomycin does not induce clinical toxicosis or mortality. No salinomycin residues were found in edible tissues at the recommended dietary level or at 2 times this level. However, salinomycin was detected in serum regardless of the dietary level. A simple method for salinomycin determination in serum is described which can be used as a marker of exposure and/or to predict levels in the diet.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey069
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • An optimist's view on limiting necrotic enteritis and maintaining broiler
           gut health and performance in today's marketing, food safety, and
           regulatory climate1
    • Authors: Hofacre C; Smith J, Mathis G.
      Pages: 1929 - 1933
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe future poultry nutritionist, veterinarian, and husbandryman will have many new regulatory requirements and consumer preferences to navigate in addition to their normal responsibility of raising birds in a cost-efficient and wholesome manner. New challenges include changes to antibiotic use, increased food safety regulations, and more concern over how birds are raised and how to dispose of poultry house waste. All of these new programs and new regulations will alter how we have been raising birds for the last 60 years since the inception of the integrated poultry industry. The most significant change may be the voluntary or regulatory withdrawal of the use of antibiotics in poultry production. In North America, this withdrawal of antibiotic use includes removal of in-ovo antibiotics, performance-improving antibiotics or antibiotic growth promotors (AGP), and the polyether ionophore antibiotics (ionophore anticoccidials).The removal of antibiotics in poultry production may result in welfare concerns due to elevated mortality and less efficient feed conversion, resulting in greater environmental impacts from increased manure production and more use of grain per unit of meat produced. There also may be concerns with greater intestinal disease in the birds resulting in increased numbers of foodborne illness-causing bacteria such as Salmonella sp. or Campylobacter sp. on the carcass. A major impact will be the disease necrotic enteritis (NE). This review will focus on the pathophysiology of NE, the management of the disease, and the additional effects on growth rate, feed efficiency, and body weight that may be associated with NE.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey082
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Chitosan-adjuvanted Mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin via intraocular
           administration enhances Mycoplasma gallisepticum protection in commercial
    • Authors: Limsatanun A; Sasipreeyajan J, Pakpinyo S.
      Pages: 1934 - 1940
      Abstract: ABSTRACTMycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) causes respiratory signs and economic losses in the poultry industry. MG vaccination is one of the effective prevention and control measures that have been used around the world. Our previous study demonstrated that chitosan-adjuvanted MG bacterin could effectively reduce pathological lesions induced by MG and that chitosan could be used as an adjuvant in MG bacterin. The present study determining the efficacy of MG bacterins against the Thai MG strain was based on vaccine programs. Seven groups (25 layers/group) were received MG bacterins containing 0.5% chitosan or a commercial bacterin via intramuscular (IM) or intraocular (IO) route at 6 and 10 wk of age. Sham-negative and sham-positive controls were groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group 3: IM route of chitosan bacterin followed by IM route of chitosan bacterin; group 4: commercial bacterin via IM route followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route; group 5: commercial bacterin via IM route followed by commercial bacterin via IM route; group 6: chitosan bacterin via IM followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route; and group 7: chitosan bacterin via IO route followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route were determined. At 16 wk of age, all groups, excluding group 1, were challenged intratracheally with 0.1 mL containing Thai MG strain 107 colony-forming unit. At 17, 18, and 20 wk of age, 5 birds in each group were bled for serological testing and swabbed at the choanal cleft for the quantitative real-time PCR assay, the euthanized and necropsied. The results showed that birds vaccinated with a commercial intramuscular bacterin followed by an intraocularly chitosan adjuvant bacterin showed the best protection against the MG challenge. The study indicated that chitosan could be the effective mucosal adjuvant and increased the effectiveness of MG bacterin.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey051
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects of in ovo administration of L-ascorbic acid on broiler
           hatchability and its influence on the effects of pre-placement holding
           time on broiler quality characteristics1,2,3
    • Authors: Zhang H; Elliott K, Durojaye O, et al.
      Pages: 1941 - 1947
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe current study was conducted to determine the possible effects of the in ovo administration of different dosages of L-ascorbic acid (AA) to broiler hatching eggs on hatchability and its potential for reducing the adverse effects of delayed placement.A total of 702 broiler hatching eggs was hand-injected at 17 d of incubation (
      DOI ) with 100 μL of sterile saline (0.85%) alone or containing 0.5, 1.5, 4.5, or 13.5 mg AA. Hatchability was recorded every 5 h from 480 h to 505 hours. Results showed that AA injection did not affect embryo BW as percentage of set egg weight or yolk sac weight as percentage of embryo weight at 19.5
      DOI . The hatching time of all embryos that received an AA in ovo injection was between 480 and 495 h of incubation, and significantly fewer embryos hatched before 480 h in comparison to non-injected controls. Hatchability (above 92% in all groups) was not significantly affected by injection treatment. However, fertile eggs injected with saline containing 4.5 mg AA had the highest hatchability. At 21
      DOI , hatching BW as a percentage of set egg weight and yolk sac weight as a percentage of BW were numerically higher in AA injection groups. An in ovo injection of AA at a 13.5 mg/egg level resulted in a numerically higher BW as a percentage of set egg weight. The in ovo injection of AA did not reduce the adverse effects of a 48-hour posthatch pre-placement holding time on BW or on yolk sac absorption. Overall, in ovo injection of L-ascorbic acid (0.5 to 13.5 mg/egg) into fertile broiler hatching eggs at 17
      DOI did not negatively affect hatchability or embryo development, and did not prevent the negative effects of a 48-hour posthatch holding time on BW and yolk sac absorption. The range of tolerance as well as the optimal dosage of in ovo-injected AA warrants future study.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Brown eggshell fading with layer ageing: dynamic change in the content of
           protoporphyrin IX
    • Authors: Bi H; Liu Z, Sun C, et al.
      Pages: 1948 - 1953
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe dynamic change in brown eggshell color as hens age has been observed, but much uncertainty still exists. We aimed to analyze the depth of eggshell color and quantity of protoporphyrin ΙΧ throughout the laying period to explore the reasons for color variation. In this study, 120 Rhode Island Red hens were used, and two eggs were collected from each individual at 26, 34, 42, 50, 60, and 70 wk of age. The eggshell color (L*, a*, b*), egg weight, eggshell dry weight, and protoporphyrin ΙΧ quantity in eggshell were measured for individual eggs. Our results showed that the intensity of brown eggshell color weaken as hens aged from 26 to 60 wk of age (L* gradually increased from 61.43 to 68.07), while eggshell lightness recovered slightly at 70 wk (L* = 64.77). The correlation analysis indicated that the content of protoporphyrin ΙΧ deposited in the eggshell was an important factor for lightness fading with the ageing process (the average r was 0.66, P < 0.01), while the egg weight had little impact on the eggshell color (the average r was 0.07, P > 0.05). The shade of the eggshell color (L* and a*) at the early laying period (26 or 34 wk) had a low correlation with the other age points (42, 50, 60, and 70 wk). However, high correlations between the shell color at 42 wk of age and subsequent ages (50, 60, and 70 wk) were found, suggesting that the intensity of eggshell color is more stable after egg-laying peaks (such as 42 wk of age). In conclusion, the intensity of brown eggshell color varies greatly among the whole laying cycle and breeders can choose the proper age for eggshell color measurements to ensure the degree of shell color in the late laying period.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey044
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Poultry rearing on perforated plastic floors and the effect on air
           quality, growth performance, and carcass injuries – Experiment 2: Heat
           stress situation
    • Authors: Almeida E; Sant’Anna A, Crowe T, et al.
      Pages: 1954 - 1960
      Abstract: ABSTRACTPreviously, we reported the effect of rearing conditions (plastic floors and air quality) on carcass injury development of broiler chickens at thermal comfort. In this study, the same rearing conditions were tested at thermal stress. The birds were reared in 2 climatic chambers, and the experiment followed a completely randomized design with one factor, flooring material: wood shaving or perforated plastic. The birds were divided into 16 experimental pens, being 8 females and 8 males. The studied parameters were the same as the previous study (ammonia concentration, carbon dioxide, performance, carcass yield, and variability, and scores of hygiene, gait and chest, and hocks and footpad lesions). Higher ammonia (15 ppm vs. 4 ppm) and carbon dioxide (1,000 ppm vs. 850 ppm) concentration was seen at d 42 for the wood shavings floor as compared to the perforated plastic floor, respectively. Regarding gender, males had better performance than females at 42 d of age on both floor types. Males reared on wood shavings showed a higher meat production (29.049 kg/m2) than females (24.700 kg/m2). There were observed breast lesion incidences of 10.4% (score 1) in males reared on the plastic floor, as well higher incidence of hock injury and footpad dermatitis. Chickens reared on plastic flooring showed better hygiene than chickens reared on wood shavings. Our findings revealed that the use of perforated plastic flooring in a heat stress situation can improve the air quality (less CO2 and NH3 concentration) and bird cleanliness. On the other hand, chickens are more susceptible to develop lesions in the breast, hock, and footpad. We conclude that the use of plastic flooring in heat stress conditions needs more attention, since chickens are more susceptible to develop lesions on the carcass, being a source of pain, impairing bird wellbeing and causing losses in meat production.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey048
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects of low oxygen during chorioallantoic membrane development on
           post-hatch growing performance of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Druyan S; Ruzal M, Shinder D, et al.
      Pages: 1961 - 1967
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe prenatal circulatory system is adaptive and capable of plasticity designed for the needs of the growing tissue. When a broiler embryo is faced with hypoxic stress, the process of angiogenesis in tissues begins. Exposure to hypoxic conditions of 17% oxygen during the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) development (E5 to E12) affected the circulatory system and contributed to an increase in the blood oxygen carrying capacity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of hypoxic exposure during CAM development on post-hatch performance of broilers and to examine whether hypoxic exposure improved sustainability of birds exposed to acute heat stress.Two consecutive trials, with male broilers from each of the incubation treatments—optimal conditions and exposure to hypoxia of 15 or 17% oxygen, for 12 h/day, during CAM development—were conducted. In experiment 1, 60 male chicks from each group were raised in individual cages. In experiment 2, 160 male chicks from each group were raised in 40-chick pens until marketing. On d 35, 20 birds from each group were transferred to individual cages kept at a temperature of 23°C for 72 h, and then birds were exposed to 35°C for 5 hours. Body temperatures were measured at 0, 2, and 5 h of the heat exposure. In both experiments BW, feed intake, and FCR were recorded. At marketing, chicks were slaughtered, and relative weights of breast muscle, abdominal fat pad, heart, and liver were calculated.Hypoxia treatment resulted in a FCR advantage. Food intake was similar in all treatments, but groups exposed to hypoxia grew better than controls until the age of 35 days. Hypoxia-treated groups had higher relative breast, heart, and liver weights than controls. Body temperatures of hypoxia-treated chickens remained lower during heat stress exposure, and their mortality rate was lower as well. Intermittent exposure to moderate hypoxia during CAM development confers advantages to broilers in feed utilization efficiency and in coping with heat stress. It may be considered as a mitigating step in incubation to facilitate broilers in achieving their full growth potential.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey052
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects of dietary protein level and age at photo stimulation on
           reproduction traits of broiler breeders and progeny performance
    • Authors: van Emous R; de la Cruz C, Naranjo V.
      Pages: 1968 - 1979
      Abstract: ABSTRACTA study with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary crude protein levels, high (CPh) or low (CPl), supplemented with free amino acids (AA), and 2 ages at photo stimulation (PS)—early (21 wk; PSe) or late (23 wk; PSl)—on reproduction traits of broiler breeders and progeny performance. Diets were isocaloric, and calculated CP content of the CPl diets was 15 g/kg lower than the CPh diets during all phases. A total of 480 female and 64 male Ross 308 breeders of 20 wk of age were used. Total egg production was similar between CPl and CPh birds during phase 1 and 2 but was reduced by 2.8 eggs for CPl birds during phase 3. For the overall laying period, CPl birds tended (P = 0.075) to produce 4.7 fewer total eggs. Hatchability of set eggs was similar between CPl and CPh birds during phases 1 and 2 but tended (P = 0.064) to be lower for CPl birds in phase 3. PSe birds showed an advanced age at sexual maturity and age at peak production of 4.6 and 5.3 d, respectively, resulting in 2.5 more total eggs during phase 1. During phase 1, PSe birds showed an almost 5% increased fertility. Chick production in phase 1 was higher for PSe birds resulting in a tendency (P = 0.071) to higher overall chick production of almost 8 chicks. Progeny from early PS breeders showed an overall significant lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). It was concluded that egg and chick production during phases 1 and 2 were not affected by dietary CP level, but egg and chick production was reduced for CPl birds during phase 3. On the other hand, PSe birds showed an increased number of chicks. It is possible to decrease CP level of breeder diets with comparable reproduction from 22 to 46 wk; however, this is questionable for phase 3. For maximal chick production, early PS is recommended.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey053
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • The quantitative models for broiler chicken response to monochromatic,
           combined, and mixed light-emitting diode light: A meta-analysis1
    • Authors: Yang Y; Pan C, Zhong R, et al.
      Pages: 1980 - 1989
      Abstract: ABSTRACTAlthough many experiments have been conducted to clarify the response of broiler chickens to light-emitting diode (LED) light, those published results do not provide a solid scientific basis for quantifying the response of broiler chickens. This study used a meta-analysis to establish light spectral models of broiler chickens. The results indicated that 455 to 495 nm blue LED light produced the greatest positive response in body weight by 10.66% (BW; P < 0.001) and 515 to 560 nm green LED light increased BW by 6.27% (P < 0.001) when compared with white light. Regression showed that the wavelength (455 to 660 nm) was negatively related to BW change of birds, with a decrease of about 4.9% BW for each 100 nm increase in wavelength (P = 0.002). Further analysis suggested that a combination of the two beneficial light sources caused a synergistic effect. BW was further increased in birds transferred either from green LED light to blue LED light (17.23%; P < 0.001) or from blue LED light to green LED light (17.52%; P < 0.001). Moreover, birds raised with a mixture of green and blue LED light showed a greater BW promotion (10.66%; P < 0.001) than those raised with green LED light (6.27%). A subgroup analysis indicated that BW response to monochromatic LED light was significant regardless of the genetic strain, sex, control light sources, light intensity and regime of LED light, environmental temperature, and dietary ME and CP (P > 0.05). However, there was an interaction between the FCR response to monochromatic LED light with those covariant factors (P < 0.05). Additionally, green and yellow LED light played a role in affecting the meat color, quality, and nutrition of broiler chickens. The results indicate that the optimal ratio of green × blue of mixed LED light or shift to green-blue of combined LED light may produce the optimized production performance, whereas the optimal ratio of green/yellow of mixed or combined LED light may result in the optimized meat quality.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey065
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects of production systems on the carcass and meat quality
           characteristics of spent laying hens
    • Authors: Semwogerere F; Neethling J, Muchenje V, et al.
      Pages: 1990 - 1997
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis study evaluated the carcass characteristics and meat quality attributes of spent laying hens raised under conventional battery cage and free-range systems. Thirty free-range and 30 conventional battery-caged Lohmann Brown-Elite spent laying hens of 53 and 40 wk of age, respectively were obtained from a commercial egg producer. Carcass, portion, and organ weights and percentages were determined. Physicochemical analyses were performed on thigh and breast meat samples. Caged hens had heavier (P ≤ 0.05) warm and cold carcasses, thighs, wings, and feet. The percentages of the breast (26.1 ± 0.51 vs. 28.3 ± 0.28), drum, breast bones, breast thaw and cooking loss, and thigh cooking loss were higher (P ≤ 0.05) for free-range than for caged hens. Free-range hens had heavy (P ≤ 0.05) gizzards (33.9 ± 1.04 vs. 30.5 ± 0.73) and bones and a lower (P ≤ 0.05) breast meat percentage (47.3 ± 0.94 vs. 51.7 ± 1.35). Meat redness (a*) (0.54 ± 0.222 vs. 1.40 ± 0.135) and hue angle, skin redness (a*), breast (12.37 ± 0.411 vs. 17.10 ± 0.751), and thigh (29.68 ± 0.306 vs. 39.75 ± 0.826) Warner-Bratzler shear force values (N), breast moisture, and thigh ash content were higher (P ≤ 0.05) for free-range hens. Caged hens had a higher (P ≤ 0.05) thigh thaw loss percentage and breast ash content. Production system significantly influenced the carcass characteristics and meat quality of spent laying hens. The results of this study supply baseline information for the utilization of spent laying hens by the poultry industry and consumers.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey074
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • In-ovo green light photostimulation during different embryonic stages
           affect somatotropic axis
    • Authors: Dishon L; Avital-Cohen N, Zaguri S, et al.
      Pages: 1998 - 2004
      Abstract: ABSTRACTPrevious studies demonstrated that in-ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increased the somatotropic axis expression in broilers embryos. The objective of the current study was to detect the critical period for in-ovo GL photostimulation, in order to find the optimal targeted photostimulation period during the incubation process. Three hundred thirty-six fertile broiler eggs were divided into 4 groups. The first group was incubated under dark conditions as a negative control. The second incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0.1 W\m2 at shell level from d 0 of the incubation as a positive control. The third group incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light from d 10 of the incubation. The last group incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light from d 15 of the incubation. In-ovo green light photostimulation from embryonic d 0 (ED0) increased plasma growth hormone (GH), as well as hypothalamic growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and liver growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA levels. In-ovo green light photostimulation from ED10 increased the GH plasma levels compared to the negative control group, without affecting somatotropic axis mRNA genes expressions of GHRH, GHR, and IGF-1. In-ovo green light photostimulation from ED15 caused an increase in both the plasma GH levels and the somatotropic axis mRNA genes expressions of GHRH, GHR, and IGF-1, compared to the negative control group. These results suggest that the critical period of somatotropic axis acceleration by GL photostimulation start at 15 d of incubation.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey078
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects of aging on fat deposition and meat quality in Sheldrake duck
    • Authors: He J; Zheng H, Pan D, et al.
      Pages: 2005 - 2010
      Abstract: ABSTRACTSheldrake is a duck breed widely used for its meat and eggs. In this study, the quantities of abdominal fat, sebum, intramuscular fat and liver fat, meat quality (pH, cooking loss, drip loss, and shear force), and expression and activity of several enzymes at different ages were determined. The results showed that the fat content increased (P < 0.05) during the aging process (90 d, 180 d, 270 d, and 360 d). Fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were chosen to represent the activity of lipid biosynthesis in Sheldrake ducks. The quantitative real-time PCR and enzymic activity data showed that the expression of both FAS and ME were generally up-regulated along with aging. Based on these results, the individual ducks were selected at 180 d and 360 d for analyzing the changes of serum lipid levels and related enzymic activities in liver. The contents of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TCH), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in serum were found not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, we thought that the variation of TG/HDL (P < 0.05) might explain the increased fat deposition. Moreover, the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were both detected significantly up-regulated at 360 d (P < 0.05). The meat quality results of breast muscles indicated that pH, cooking loss, drip loss, and shear force values could all be affected by aging. Considering these results, we concluded that the best quality of Sheldrake duck meat occurs between 180 d and 270 d. These results might provide useful information for Sheldrake cultivation and research on lipid metabolism.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey077
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effect of supplemental phytase and xylanase in wheat-based diets on
           prececal phosphorus digestibility and phytate degradation in young turkeys
    • Authors: Ingelmann C; Witzig M, Möhring J, et al.
      Pages: 2011 - 2020
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis study aimed to investigate the effect of phytase and a combination of phytase and xylanase on the prececal phosphorus digestibility (pcdP) of wheat-based diets in turkeys. A low-P basal diet (BD) based on cornstarch and soybean meal, and 2 diets containing 43% of different wheat genotypes (genotype diets GD6 or GD7) were fed to turkeys from 20 to 27 d of age. Diets were fed either without enzyme supplementation or supplemented with phytase (500 FTU/kg) or a combination of phytase and xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg). At 27 d of age, digesta were sampled from the lower ileum of animals to determine pcdP and pc myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate) (InsP6) disappearance, and to analyze the concentrations of lower inositol phosphate isomers. Similar pcdP was observed in non-supplemented BD and GD (∼36%). Phytase alone increased the pcdP in all diets by 8 to 12%, but a beneficial effect of xylanase was found only for BD. Similar results were found for pc InsP6 disappearance, although xylanase addition compared to phytase alone decreased pc InsP6 disappearance in GD7 compared to phytase alone. Animals fed GD7 performed better than those fed GD6; however, these differences could not be linked to the pcdP. The pattern of lower inositol phosphates in digesta also changed with enzyme supplementation, resulting in lower proportions of InsP5 and higher proportions of InsP4. Phytase alone decreased Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P5 but increased D-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 and D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 concentrations. An additional increase in D-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 and D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 concentrations was achieved with xylanase, although for the former isomer, this was observed only with GD. These results indicate that enzyme supplementation alters the pc degradation of InsP6, and that combining both enzymes had a minor additional effect on the pcdP from wheat-based diets when compared to phytase alone.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey030
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects of adding methionine in low-protein diet and subsequently fed
           low-energy diet on productive performance, blood chemical profile, and
           lipid metabolism-related gene expression of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Jariyahatthakij P; Chomtee B, Poeikhampha T, et al.
      Pages: 2021 - 2033
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing methionine (Met) in a low-protein (Low-CP) diet during d 11 to 24 and subsequently feeding with a low-metabolizable energy diet (Low-ME; -75 kcal/kg) or a normal ME diet during d 25 to 42 on the productive performance, blood chemical profile, and lipid metabolism-related gene expression of broiler chickens. The 1,600 broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1) Normal CP, then Normal ME; 2) Low-CP, then Normal ME; 3) Low-CP, then Low-ME; 4) Low-CP+Met, then Normal ME; and 5) Low-CP+Met, then Low-ME. During d 11 to 24, the growth performance of the control group was better than those of the other groups (P < 0.01). In Low-CP diets, the addition of Met resulted in an improvement in the growth performance, breast meat yield, protein conversion ratio, plasma total protein, and albumin (P < 0.01). Moreover, the supplementation significantly increased the plasma triglyceride content (P < 0.01). Feeding Low-CP or Low-CP+Met diets increased the abdominal fat content compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Feeding the Low-CP+Met, then Normal ME (d 25 to 42) resulted in compensation in the feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein conversion ratio, and energy conversion ratio equal to or better than the control group (P < 0.01). The body weights of birds fed Low-CP diets were still inferior to the control group (P < 0.01), except in the Low-CP+Met group followed by the normal ME diet. Feeding with the Low-ME diet tended to decrease the expression of the carnitine palmitoyl transferase I gene in the liver (P = 0.08). In conclusion, supplementing Met in the Low-CP diet during the grower period and subsequently feeding with a control diet improved the feed and protein conversion ratios, reduced fat accumulation, and reduced the production cost of broiler chickens with regard to fat deposition compared to the control diet.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey034
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects of Pediococcus acidilactici, mannan-oligosaccharide, butyric acid
           and their combination on growth performance and intestinal health in young
           broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium
    • Authors: Jazi V; Foroozandeh A, Toghyani M, et al.
      Pages: 2034 - 2043
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis study compared the efficacy of Pediococcus acidilactici, mannan-oligosaccharide, butyric acid, and their combination on growth performance and intestinal health in broiler chickens challenged with S. Typhimurium. Ross 308 male broilers (n = 420) were randomly assigned to one of the 6 treatments, resulting in 5 replicate pens of 14 chicks per treatment. The treatments included a negative control [(NC), no additive, not challenged]; positive control [(PC), no additive, but challenged with S. Typhimurium at d 3 posthatch], and 4 groups whereby birds were challenged with S. Typhimurium at d 3 posthatch and fed diets supplemented with either probiotic [0.1 g/kg Pediococcus acidilactici (PA)], prebiotic [2 g/kg mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS)], organic acid [0.5 g/kg butyric acid (BA)], or a combination of the 3 additives (MA). The S. Typhimurium challenge decreased feed intake, body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio and reduced jejunum villus height (VH) and VH to crypt depth (CD) ratio (P < 0.05). Birds on the MA treatment exhibited similar performance to birds on the NC treatment (P > 0.05) and had a lower population of Salmonella in the ceca compared with birds on the PC treatment, at d 14 and 21 post-challenge (P < 0.05). The lowest heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was observed in birds on the MA and NC treatments (P < 0.05). Birds fed diets supplemented with MA or PA had greater VH and VH: CD ratio than birds on the PC treatment at d 7, 14 and 21 d post-challenge (P < 0.05). Suppressed amylase and protease activity was observed as a result of the S. Typhimurium challenge; the enzyme levels were restored in birds fed the additive-supplemented diets, when compared to the birds on the PC treatment, particularly at d 21 post-challenge (P < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with a combination of PA, BA, and MOS in broiler chickens could be used as an effective tool for controlling S. Typhimurium and promoting growth performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey035
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Digestible methionine+cysteine in the diet of commercial layers and its
           influence on the performance, quality, and amino acid profile of eggs and
           economic evaluation
    • Authors: Carvalho T; Sousa L, Nogueira F, et al.
      Pages: 2044 - 2052
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis work aimed at evaluating the effects of 4 digestible Met+Cys levels on the diet of commercial layers and their influence on the productive performance, quality, and amino acid profile of eggs and economic viability of the activity. A total of 576 white Lohmann LSL-Lite layers was distributed into 6 replicates of 24 birds for each diet. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 treatments defined by levels evaluated in the feed (0.465, 0.540, 0.581, and 0.647%). The productive performance was measured for 30 weeks. The quality (34 and 50 wk old) and the amino acid profile of eggs (43 wk old) also were evaluated. A linear positive response was observed at higher Met+Cys levels for feed intake, number of eggs per housed bird, and digestible Met+Cys intake. Egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, and weight gain had their optimal values determined by the quadratic regression model at 0.638, 0.654, 0.647, 0.644, and 0.613% digestible Met+Cys, respectively. In the 34th wk, eggshell thickness decreased linearly at higher Met+Cys levels. In the 50th week, the optimal levels detected for eggshell thickness and percentage were 0.571 and 0.570% digestible Met+Cys, respectively. The percentages of proteins, branched‐chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine), histidine, and proline in eggs (albumen+yolk) showed a linear negative response in function of higher Met+Cys levels. Higher digestible Met+Cys levels (>0.630%) led to a good performance of layers, while lower Met+Cys levels improved the eggshell quality of layers in peak production. Optimal Met+Cys levels may change according to the price of the synthetic amino acid.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey036
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Gene expression and activity of methionine converting enzymes in broiler
           chickens fed methionine isomers or precursors
    • Authors: Zhang S; Gilbert E, Noonan K, et al.
      Pages: 2053 - 2063
      Abstract: ABSTRACTCommon dietary supplemental methionine (Met) sources include DL-methionine (DL-Met) and the Met precursor DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA). For bio-utilization, D-Met and DL-HMTBA are converted into L-Met through oxidation and transamination. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary supplemental Met sources on gene expression and enzyme activity of Met oxidases in male broiler chickens. Liver, muscle, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected at days 10 (d 10), 21 (d 21), and 26 (d 26) post-hatch from male broiler chickens that were fed a basal diet deficient in sulfur amino acids (SAA) (control), or the control diet supplemented with DL-Met, L-Met, or DL-HMTBA to meet SAA requirements. The mRNA abundance of D-Met oxidase, L-HMTBA oxidase, and D-HMTBA oxidase was measured by real-time PCR, and oxidase activities were measured using colorimetric assays (n = 5). Liver expressed more D- and L-HMTBA oxidase mRNA, while breast muscle and liver expressed more D-Met oxidase mRNA than other tissues. In the liver, DL-HMTBA and L-Met supplementation were associated with greater mRNA abundance of L-HMTBA oxidase compared to the control diet-fed group at d 10 but not d 21 or d 26. DL-HMTBA supplementation, however, was not associated with changes in the mRNA abundance of D-HMTBA oxidase. The Met-deficient diet at d 26 was associated with greater hepatic abundance of DAO mRNA, which is responsible for oxidation of amino acids. Oxidase activities were similar among the Met deficient and Met-supplemented groups. In conclusion, dietary Met supplementation influenced the transcriptional regulation and activity of Met oxidases in a tissue and age-specific manner. Met oxidases may thus act as a determining factor in the bioefficacy of different dietary supplemental Met sources.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey037
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Interactions between the concentration of non-starch polysaccharides in
           wheat and the addition of an enzyme mixture in a broiler digestibility and
           performance trial
    • Authors: Smeets N; Nuyens F, Van Campenhout L, et al.
      Pages: 2064 - 2070
      Abstract: ABSTRACTTwo broiler trials were designed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat and 1) its nutritional value for broilers and 2) the efficacy of exogenous enzymes. In a balance trial, diets were formulated with 3 wheat cultivars (Rustic and Viscount—medium NSP, Centenaire—high NSP) and were tested with or without the addition of an exogenous enzyme mixture. The diets were fed to 144 male Ross 308 broiler chickens housed in digestibility cages. Total tract nutrient digestibilities and AMEn were measured from 18 to 22 d of age. In a performance trial, diets were formulated with wheat (medium NSP diet) or with wheat mixed with rye and barley (high NSP diet) and were tested with or without the addition of an exogenous enzyme mixture. The diets were fed to 960 male Ross 308 broilers housed in pens and broiler performance during starter, grower and finisher periods was measured.In the balance trial, wheat cultivar did not affect nutrient digestibility or AMEn. Enzyme addition caused a significant increase in nutrient digestibilities and AMEn for the diet formulated with the high NSP wheat Centenaire only. In the performance trial, feeding the high NSP diet resulted in a higher feed conversion ratio and lower final body weight compared to the medium NSP diet. The largest improvements by enzyme addition were observed in the high NSP diet.In conclusion, the study was not able to show a consistent relationship between the NSP concentration of wheat and its nutritional value, but did demonstrate that the effect of an enzyme mixture on nutrient digestibility or broiler performance depends upon the NSP concentration in the diet.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey038
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility, and excreta microbiota
           shedding in laying hens fed corn-soybean-meal-wheat-based diets
           supplemented with xylanase
    • Authors: Lei X; Lee K, Kim I.
      Pages: 2071 - 2077
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary levels of xylanase on production performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility, and excreta microbiota shedding of laying hens in a 12-week trial. Two-hundred-forty Hy-Line brown laying hens (44 wk old) were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design into one of 4 dietary treatments with 10 replicates of 6 birds each. The 4 dietary treatments were corn-soybean-meal-wheat-based diets supplemented with 0, 225, 450, or 900 U/kg xylanase. Daily feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and damaged egg rate showed no significant response to increasing xylanase supplementation during any phase (P > 0.05). No significant responses were observed for apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, or gross energy (P > 0.05). A significant linear increase to increasing xylanase supplementation was seen for lactic acid bacteria numbers, although coliforms and Salmonella counts were not affected. Increasing the dietary xylanase resulted in a significant linear increase in eggshell thickness in wk 3, 6, 9, and 12 (P < 0.05). In addition, a significant linear increase occurred for Haugh unit and albumen height in wk 12 (P < 0.05). In summary, the inclusion of xylanase in corn-soybean-meal-wheat-based diets increased eggshell thickness, Haugh unit, albumen height, and excreta lactic acid bacteria count but had no effect on production performance or nutrient digestibility.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey041
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Meta-analysis: explicit value of mono-component proteases in monogastric
    • Authors: Lee S; Bedford M, Walk C.
      Pages: 2078 - 2085
      Abstract: ABSTRACTA meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of mono-component proteases on performance and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD, %) in monogastrics. A total of 67 experimental trials were included in the meta-analysis from published and internal reports, contributing 467 lines of data. Poultry and swine data accounted for 81 and 19% of the dataset, respectively. Forty-four different proteases were included in the meta-analysis, accounting for commercial and non-commercial products. Mixed Model analysis was used to assess protease effect and the influence of inherent characteristics of the control on protease response. The mean performance response to protease was a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) for poultry (1%, P < 0.05) and swine (4%, P > 0.05). The mean relative effect of protease on AIAAD over the control was 1.6 ± 0.3%, ranging from 1.2% for Arg, Phe and Trp to 2.6% for Cys. For the majority of amino acids, inherent AIAAD of control diets influenced (P < 0.05) the magnitude of the protease response such that, as inherent digestibility increased, the effect of protease on amino acid digestibility decreased. The dataset was subsequently divided into 2 subgroups: diets with and without other enzymes, namely non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes (NSPase) and phytase. Addition of protease in diets containing no other enzymes significantly (P < 0.05) increased AIAAD for the majority of amino acids and tended (P < 0.10) to improve Met, Trp, Pro, Gly, and Tyr. However, when other enzymes were included in the experiment, the beneficial effect of protease on AIAAD was lost (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that when other enzymes are already included in the diet, addition of protease requires further justification for use in monogastric diets.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey042
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Response of goose intestinal microflora to the source and level of dietary
    • Authors: Zhou H; Guo W, Zhang T, et al.
      Pages: 2086 - 2094
      Abstract: ABSTRACTGeese are capable of digesting and making use of a high-fiber diet, but the mechanism is not well understood and would be of great significance for the development and utilization of roughage resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary fiber (source: corn stover and alfalfa, included at 5% or 8%) on microflora in goose intestines. We used 35-day-old Carlos geese in which we first studied the influence of fiber ingestion on diet digestibility and immune organ indices of geese and found that high dietary fiber (8% content) significantly increased feed intake, the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and thymus, bursa, and spleen size. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of dietary fiber on the microbial flora in the various intestinal segments by high throughput sequencing. The bacterial diversity and relative abundance were significantly affected by the type and amount of dietary fiber fed, including that of cellulolytic bacteria such as Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, Clostridium, and Pseudomonas spp. Finally, we isolated and identified 8 strains with cellulolytic ability from goose intestine and then analyzed their activities in combination. The optimal combination for cellulase activity was Cerea bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study has laid a theoretical and practical foundation for knowledge of the efficient conversion and utilization of cellulose by geese.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey045
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Forsythia suspensa extract protects broilers against breast muscle
           oxidative injury induced by corticosterone mimicked pre-slaughter acute
    • Authors: Pan L; Zhao P, Ma X, et al.
      Pages: 2095 - 2105
      Abstract: ABSTRACTBroilers were used to determine the protective effects of Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE) against breast muscle oxidative injury induced by corticosterone (CS) mimicking pre-slaughter acute stress. A total of 144 male Arbor Acre broilers was randomly allotted to one of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement that included FSE supplementation (0 or 100 mg/kg) and subcutaneous injection of CS (0 or 4 mg/kg) at 3 h before slaughter. Corticosterone increased live BW loss, and the adverse effect was attenuated by FSE in broilers subjected to CS (P < 0.05). Serum levels of CS, uric acid, and glucose were increased, and postmortem breast muscle pH values at 45 min and 24 h were decreased for CS-challenged broilers (P < 0.05). Corticosterone increased lightness and yellowness values and decreased redness of breast muscle (P < 0.05), and FSE decreased yellowness and increased redness of breast muscle (P < 0.05). Drip loss was increased by CS for birds supplemented without FSE (P < 0.05) and decreased by FSE for birds under CS challenge (P < 0.05). Corticosterone increased monounsaturated fatty acid (FA) and decreased polyunsaturated FA in breast muscle (P < 0.05), and saturated FA was decreased and polyunsaturated FA was increased by FSE (P < 0.05). Malondialdehyde and carbonyl contents in breast muscle were increased by CS and decreased by FSE (P < 0.05). Inhibition of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl was decreased by CS and increased by FSE (P < 0.05). The activities of total-antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in breast muscle were lower in birds subjected to CS (P < 0.05) and were greater in birds supplemented with FSE (P < 0.05). Collectively, live BW loss and breast muscle oxidative injury were increased by CS in broilers, and these stress-related adverse effects could be attenuated by FSE supplementation via enhanced scavenging ability of free radicals and antioxidant capacity. Therefore, FSE could protect broilers against breast muscle oxidative injury when acute stress happens.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey046
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • The effect of drying method temperature, collection method, and marker
           type on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in 21-day-old broilers fed
           corn-soybean meal-barley based diet1
    • Authors: Olojede O; Ford M, Jacob J, et al.
      Pages: 2106 - 2112
      Abstract: ABSTRACTFor accurate estimation of nutrient digestibility, an ideal drying and sampling method is required to preserve the quality of the digesta. A standard corn-soybean meal (corn-SBM) broiler starter diet was fed from d 0 to 10 before birds were placed on the experimental diets until d 21. One hundred and sixty-eight male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effect of two drying methods (freeze-dryer vs. forced air-oven) and two drying temperatures (40 vs. 55°C) (Exp 1), while ninety-six chicks were used to evaluate the effect of flushing and squeezing as well as marker types (titanium vs. chromium) on apparent ileal DM, N, Ca, P, and AA digestibility (Exp 2). There were seven (Exp 1) or eight (Exp 2) replicate cages per treatment with 6 birds/cage. Digesta from the distal two thirds of the ileum was obtained from birds following euthanasia on d 21 by squeezing (Exp 1) and squeezing or flushing (Exp 2). Samples collected were stored in the freezer at −20°C until they were either freeze-dried (FD) or oven-dried (OD) at 40 or 55°C. There were no interactions between the drying methods and drying temperatures (Exp 1) on apparent ileal DM, N, and AA digestibility. Met had the highest (92.3%) while Cys had the lowest (73.8%) digestibility value. In Exp 2, no interaction between sampling methods and marker types was observed. The effect of sampling methods was not significant except for Arg and Met where squeezing resulted in higher (P < 0.05) digestibility values. Furthermore, apparent ileal His, Ile, Cys, Ser, and Tyr digestibility tended to be higher (P < 0.1) in squeezed digesta compared to the flushed digesta. Results from these studies showed that OD ileal digesta at 40 or 55°C had no negative effect on apparent ileal AA digestibility. Likewise, marker type did not influence apparent ileal AA digestibility values.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey049
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Fermented soybean meal exhibits probiotic properties when included in
           Japanese quail diet in replacement of soybean meal
    • Authors: Jazi V; Ashayerizadeh A, Toghyani M, et al.
      Pages: 2113 - 2122
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of dietary probiotic mixture (PM) and organic acid (OA) mixture with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on performance, crop, and ceca microbiota, small intestine morphology, and serum lipid profile in Japanese quails. A total of 800 day-old Japanese quails was randomly allotted to 5 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 20 birds each, for 35 days. The experimental diets consisted of a control corn-soybean meal diet and 4 test diets: 1) control diet + 0.1% PM; 2) control diet + 0.2% OA mixture; 3) control diet + the combination of both PM and OA; and 4) an additives-free diet in which the soybean meal in the control diet was replaced with FSBM. The results indicated that in starter and the entire rearing periods, FSBM, PM, and PM+OA diets had significantly lower FCR compared to control or OA diets (P < 0.05). Birds in the FSBM group gained higher weight than control and OA birds (P < 0.05; 1 to 35 d). At d 21 and 35, birds fed the control diet showed significantly lower numbers of lactic acid bacteria in the crop, while coliforms were higher in the cecal content compared to the other diets (P < 0.05). At d 21, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed PM, PM+OA, and FSBM diets were greater than in other treatments (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of birds fed PM, PM+OA, and FSBM diets were significantly lower than birds in control and AO groups (P < 0.05). The results obtained herein suggest that FSBM exhibits probiotic properties and, when used in substitution of SBM in Japanese quail diet, can improve growth performance, balance of desirable gastrointestinal microbiota in crop and ceca, small intestinal morphology, and serum lipid profile—likewise, a probiotic supplement.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey071
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Evaluation of novel protease enzymes on growth performance and apparent
           ileal digestibility of amino acids in poultry: enzyme screening
    • Authors: Walk C; Pirgozliev V, Juntunen K, et al.
      Pages: 2123 - 2138
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThree experiments were conducted to evaluate eight neutral and six acid proteases on growth performance and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of poults (Experiment 1) or chicks (Experiments 2 and 3). Two basal diets were formulated: a nutrient adequate positive control (PC), which met or exceeded the nutrient requirements for poults (Experiment 1) or chicks (Experiments 2 and 3) and a negative control (NC) formulated to achieve 85% (Experiments 1 and 2) or 80% (Experiments 3) of the requirement for protein and amino acids. Phytase was included in all diets to provide 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg and xylanase was included in all diets to provide 10,000 (Experiments 1 and 2) or 16,000 (Experiments 3) xylanase units (BXU)/kg. Proteases were supplemented in the NC diet at an equivalent amount of enzyme protein to create 16 experimental diets. There were five birds/pen and 10 replicate pens per treatment in each experiment. In experiment 1, birds fed the PC diet gained more (P < 0.05) than birds fed the NC. There were no differences in growth performance in birds fed the PC or NC in experiments 2 or 3. In all three experiments, birds fed the NC supplemented with neutral protease 1 had reduced (P < 0.05) feed intake (FI) or body weight gain (BWG) and increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with birds fed the NC. Birds fed the NC diet supplemented with neutral protease 3, 7 (Experiment 1), or acid protease 4 (Experiment 3) had increased (P < 0.05) FCR and birds fed neutral protease 6 (Experiment 2) had reduced (P < 0.05) BWG compared with birds fed the NC. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility was improved (P < 0.05) with protease supplementation to the NC diets (Experiment 1 or 3), but this was dependent on the protease and the amino acid. In conclusion, novel protease supplementation improved AID of amino acids but this was not reflected in improvements in growth performance of poults or chicks.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey080
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects of vitamin E on growth performance, tissue α-tocopherol, and
           lipid peroxidation of starter White Pekin ducks
    • Authors: Xie M; Wang S, Huang W, et al.
      Pages: 2139 - 2143
      Abstract: ABSTRACTTwo experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin E on growth performance, tissue α-tocopherol, and lipid peroxidation of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. The 6 supplemental vitamin E levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 100 mg DL-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg) and 4 supplemental vitamin E levels (0, 10, 20, and 100 mg DL-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg) were utilized in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. All treatments were replicated 8 times using 7 ducklings per pen in experiment 1 and 6 times using 8 birds per pen in experiment 2. All ducks were raised from hatch to 21 d of age. In both experiments, compared with ducks fed vitamin E-supplemented diets, the birds fed basal diets with no supplemental vitamin E had less weight gain and feed intake (P < 0.05) but these two criteria showed no linear or quadratic response to increasing supplemental vitamin E levels (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the plasma or liver α-tocopherol was dependent on supplemental vitamin E levels. The plasma or liver α-tocopherol increased linearly or quadratically as supplemental vitamin E increased gradually in both experiments (P < 0.05). In addition, supplementation of vitamin E in basal diets could reduce liver lipid peroxidation but the further reduction did not take place when supplemental vitamin E level was above 5 mg/kg in experiment 1 or 10 mg/kg in experiment 2 due to no linear or quadratic response to increasing supplemental levels of this vitamin (P > 0.05). Therefore, when including the vitamin E content of basal diets, the dietary total vitamin E should not be less than 10 mg/kg in order to keep optimal growth performance and antioxidant capacity of starter Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age. Plasma or liver α-tocopherol were sensitive indicators for the status of this vitamin.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex443
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated
           from poultry farms in southeastern United States
    • Authors: Velasquez C; Macklin K, Kumar S, et al.
      Pages: 2144 - 2152
      Abstract: ABSTRACTSalmonella spp. are among the most common foodborne pathogens, and increase in the occurrence of antimicrobial drug-resistant Salmonella poses a severe risk to public health. The main objective of this study was to determine changes in Salmonella prevalence and their antimicrobial resistance on poultry farms following recommendations to changes in biosecurity practices. Four poultry farms were sampled by collecting cloacal swabs, drag swabs, and litter samples prior to recommended biosecurity changes (March–April) and post recommendations (October–November). Prevalence of Salmonella was 3 to 4% during pre-recommendations, while the prevalence was higher (P > 0.05), ranging from 5 to 14% during post recommendations. Higher Salmonella prevalence was observed for pre- and post-recommendation phases by sample type in cloacal and drag samples −5% for farm 1, drag swab −6% on farm 2, cloacal swab −6% for farm 3, and drag swab −17% on farm 4. The PCR confirmed Salmonella were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Six serotypes of Salmonella were identified with S. Enteritidis (52%) being the most prevalent, followed by S. Berta (38%), S. Mbandaka (7%), S. Typhimurium (2%), S. Kentucky (0.4%), and S. Tennessee (0.4%). A total of 7% isolates exhibited resistance to at least one of the 8 antimicrobials. Higher resistance was observed for tetracycline, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid. A single isolate of S. Mbandaka exhibited multidrug resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and ampicillin. Based on these prevalence results, it can be inferred that, irrespective of implementation of improved biosecurity practices, seasonal variation can cause changes in the prevalence of Salmonella on the farms. Resistance to clinically important antimicrobials used to treat salmonellosis is a concern to public health.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex449
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effects of high ambient temperature on the community structure and
           composition of ileal microbiome of broilers
    • Authors: Wang X; Feng J, Zhang M, et al.
      Pages: 2153 - 2158
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe intestinal microbiome has been shown to influence animal nutrient metabolism and immune homeostasis. The present study aimed to examine the effect of heat stress on the intestinal microbiome of broilers using pyrosequencing technologies. Ninety-six Arbor Acres broiler chicks were allocated to thermoneutral control (TC; 21 ± 1°C) and high ambient temperature (HT; 31 ± 1°C) groups (6 cages of 8 birds per group), respectively, and raised in 2 controlled climate chambers from 28 to 42 d old. Genomic DNA was extracted from ileal contents isolated from 6 male broiler chicks of each group at 42 d old, and then amplified based on the V3–4 hyper-variable region of 16S rRNA. High temperature had no significant effects, but tended to influence the relative abundance of major phyla and orders in the broilers’ ileal microbiota. Analysis of linear effect size feature selection identified 9 discriminative features (genus level, linear discriminant analysis score > 3). Clostridium XIVb, Streptophyta, Faecalibacterium, Rothia, Alistipes, Azospirillum, and Oscillibacter were enriched, while Coprococcus and Streptococcus were reduced in heat-stressed broilers. High temperature significantly influenced the alpha diversity, with higher observed species (P = 0.004), whole-tree phylogenetic diversity (P = 0.002), and Chao 1 (P = 0.002), but the Pielou, Shannon, and Simpson indices were unaltered (P > 0.05), indicating that high temperature increased the ileal microbiota species richness. Based on unweighted UniFrac distance metric matrices, principal component analysis showed that the HT group formed a distinct cluster clearly set apart from the TC group. Analysis of similarity also indicated that samples within groups were more similar to each other than to any samples from other groups (R = 0.626; P = 0.004). In conclusion, high temperature influenced the bacterial composition and community structure of the ileal microbiota of broilers, specifically by increasing the species richness.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey032
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Characterization of the animal by-product meal industry in Costa Rica:
           Manufacturing practices through the production chain and food safety
    • Authors: Leiva A; Granados-Chinchilla F, Redondo-Solano M, et al.
      Pages: 2159 - 2169
      Abstract: ABSTRACTAnimal by-product rendering establishments are still relevant industries worldwide. Animal by-product meal safety is paramount to protect feed, animals, and the rest of the food chain from unwanted contamination. As microbiological contamination may arise from inadequate processing of slaughterhouse waste and deficiencies in good manufacturing practices within the rendering facilities, we conducted an overall establishment's inspection, including the product in several parts of the process.An evaluation of the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) was carried out, which included the location and access (i.e., admission) to the facilities, integrated pest management programs, physical condition of the facilities (e.g., infrastructure), equipments, vehicles and transportation, as well as critical control points (i.e., particle size and temperature set at 50 mm, 133°C at atmospheric pressure for 20 min, respectively) recommended by the OIE and the European Commission. The most sensitive points according to the evaluation are physical structure of the facilities (avg 42.2%), access to the facilities (avg 48.6%), and cleaning procedures (avg 51.4%).Also, indicator microorganisms (Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., total coliforms, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7) were used to evaluate the safety in different parts of the animal meal production process. There was a prevalence of Salmonella spp. of 12.9, 14.3, and 33.3% in Meat and Bone Meal (MBM), poultry by-products, and fish meal, respectively. However, there were no significant differences (P = 0.73) in the prevalence between the different animal meals, according to the data collected.It was also observed that renderings associated with the poultry industry (i.e., 92.0%) obtained the best ratings overall, which reflects a satisfactory development of this sector and the integration of its production system as a whole.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey058
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Comparative proteomic analysis of ovaries from Huoyan geese between
           pre-laying and laying periods using an iTRAQ-based approach
    • Authors: Cao Z; Meng B, Fan R, et al.
      Pages: 2170 - 2182
      Abstract: ABSTRACTTo explore the key regulatory genes and their translated products involved in Huoyan goose egg laying, we first applied the iTRAQ technology integrated with LC-MS/MS analysis to identify differentially abundant proteins in the ovarian tissue of Huoyan geese between the pre-laying and laying periods. Then, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses of the proteins were conducted. As observed, 403 proteins, which included 255 up-regulated and 148 down-regulated proteins, were identified. Some differentially abundant proteins, such as apolipoprotein B (apoB), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), vitellogenin-2 (VTG-2), apolipoprotein II (apoVLDL-II), and fatty-acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), were found to be involved in lipid transportation and metabolic process, follicle development and final egg production, ovarian steroidogenesis, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Subsequently, the modification of the abundance of 3 proteins, adiponectin, FABP4, and RBP4, was verified using Western blotting. Our findings might provide comprehensive protein expression information that can facilitate the understanding of the reproductive biology and improve the egg-laying performance of Huoyan geese.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey029
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Effect of short- and long-term feed restriction on ghrelin concentrations
           in turkeys1
    • Authors: Vizcarra F; Verghese M, Vizcarra J.
      Pages: 2183 - 2188
      Abstract: ABSTRACTOne-day-old broad-breasted white turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were reared as recommended by industry standards. In Experiment 1, starting at 5 wk of age (WOA), birds were placed in individual cages with free access to feed and water. Blood samples were taken after 18 h of fasting (FASTING) and at 90 ± 5 min after feeding (1.5 h after feeding). In Experiment 2, birds were weighed, randomly assigned to 2 treatments, and placed in individual cages. In treatment 1 (n = 10), birds were fed ad libitum (FF), while birds in treatment 2 (n = 11) were placed on a restricted diet to allow for an average daily gain of 10.0 g per d from 4 to 11 WOA (RES). In Experiment 1, concentrations of ghrelin (P = 0.012) and glucose (P < 0.001) were increased 1.5 h after feeding compared with concentration during FASTING, whereas concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (P < 0.001) and corticosterone (P = 0.002) were decreased 1.5 h after feeding. Concentration of insulin, free fatty acids, and ketone bodies followed a normal physiological response to fasting and feeding. Similarly, in Experiment 2, concentrations of ghrelin (P < 0.001) and glucose (P = 0.038) were increased in FF birds, whereas concentrations of corticosterone were decreased (P = 0.002) in FF birds. It could be concluded that in turkeys, preprandial (18 h of fasting) and long-term feed restriction is associated with decreased concentration of ghrelin—thus, the opposite effect of that reported in chickens and mammalian species.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey039
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Changes in hormone profiles, growth factors, and mRNA expression of the
           related receptors in crop tissue, relative organ weight, and serum
           biochemical parameters in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia) during
           incubation and chick-rearing periods under artificial farming conditions
    • Authors: Xie P; Wan X, Bu Z, et al.
      Pages: 2189 - 2202
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe present study was conducted to determine the changes in concentrations of hormones and growth factors and their related receptor gene expressions in crop tissue, relative organ weight, and serum biochemical parameters in male and female pigeons during incubation and chick-rearing periods under artificial farming conditions. Seventy-eight pairs of 60-week-old White King pigeons with 2 fertile eggs per pair were randomly divided into 13 groups by different breeding stages. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in crop tissue homogenates were the highest in both male and female pigeons at 1 d of chick-rearing (R1), while epidermal growth factor (EGF) in female pigeons peaked at d 17 of incubation (I17) (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of the prolactin and EGF receptors in the crop tissue increased at the end of incubation and the early chick-rearing stage in both sexes. However, estrogen, progesterone, and growth hormone receptor expression each decreased during the early chick-rearing stage (P < 0.05). In male pigeons, IGF-1 receptor gene expression reached its peak at R7, while in female pigeons, it increased at the end of incubation. The relative weight of breast and abdominal fat in both sexes and thighs in the males was lowest at R7, and then gradually increased to the incubation period level. Serum total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations increased to the highest levels at I17 (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein reached their highest values at I17 in male pigeons and R25 in female pigeons (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hormones, growth factors, and their receptors potentially underlie pigeon crop tissue development. Changes in organs and serum biochemical profiles suggested their different breeding-cycle patterns with sexual effects.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey061
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Paul D. Sturkie: Avian cardiac physiologist
    • Authors: Bello N; Cohick W, McKeever K, et al.
      Pages: 2203 - 2206
      Abstract: ABSTRACTSturkie's Avian Physiology is a highly regarded textbook for the study of comparative poultry physiology. Less well known, however, is the contribution of Paul D. Sturkie (1909–2002) as a pioneer in the experimental physiology of avian species. His seminal research on the cardiovascular and hemodynamic controls of chickens and egg-laying hens had a notable impact on the poultry industry and breeding practices of farmers. The purpose of this article is to highlight the contributions and practical insights of Paul D. Sturkie to the field of poultry science.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey072
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Antilisterial effects of hop alpha and beta acids in turkey slurry at 7
           and 37°C
    • Authors: Sansawat T; Singh P, Lee H, et al.
      Pages: 2207 - 2210
      Abstract: ABSTRACTChemical components of hop resins effectively inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes in microbiological culture media. This study was conducted to investigate antilisterial activities of hop α- and β-acid in turkey slurry. Turkey slurries were inoculated with L. monocytogenes, formulated with hop α- or β-acid from 0 to 1,000 ppm, and incubated at 37°C for 24 h or at 7°C for 12 days. During storage at 37°C for 24 h, L. monocytogenes populations were reduced from 2.40 log CFU/g to non-detectable (<1 log CFU/g) in α-acid at ≥750 ppm and β-acid at 1,000 ppm, whereas the control (0 ppm) allowed the pathogen to grow to 8.0 log CFU/g. During storage at 7°C for 12 d, the slurry treated with α-acid at ≥100 ppm and β-acid at ≥500 ppm showed listeristatic effects, while listericidal effects were observed in the slurries at 1,000 ppm, regardless of hop acid type. Hop α-acid ≤ 50 ppm and β-acid ≤ 100 ppm failed to inhibit L. monocytogenes, and the pattern of bacterial growth was similar to that of control with no significant difference (P > 0.05). Based on these results, the concentration of α-acid > 100 ppm or β-acid > 500 ppm is minimally required to inhibit L. monocytogenes when turkey batters are formulated with hop acids as a single antilisterial agent prior to cooking and storage at 7°C.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex422
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Apoptosis during the development of the hepatic steatosis in force-fed
           ducks and cooking yield implications
    • Authors: Rémignon H; Yahia R, Marty-Gasset N, et al.
      Pages: 2211 - 2217
      Abstract: ABSTRACTMule ducks were force-fed for 12 d to determine whether or not signs of apoptosis could occur during the development of the hepatic steatosis induced by the huge quantities of corn ingested twice daily by the birds. Presence of apoptosis in hepatocytes was assessed through the measurements of increased activities of capsase-3 +-7, -8, and -9. From d 0 of the force-feeding period until d 8, activities of the different caspases remained at a low level. On the contrary, at d 10 and d 12, activities of all measured caspases dramatically increased, indicating that apoptosis occurred at this stage, which corresponds to the time of accumulation of large quantities of lipids in the hepatic cells.The melting level of the liver issued from force-feeding (“foie gras”) during cooking is a point of interest for processors because it could degrade the quality of this delicate dish. In this study, we used the levels of caspases activities to improve the predictability of foie gras cooking, in addition to other parameters usually used, such as its weight or lipid content. From this improvement, we suggest that part of the variability of melting during cooking of fatty livers could reside in more or less intense activity of hepatic proteases.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey054
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Influence of ultrasound probe treatment time and protease type on
           functional and physicochemical characteristics of egg white protein
    • Authors: Stefanović A; Jovanović J, Balanč B, et al.
      Pages: 2218 - 2229
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to discover the relationship between the ultrasound probe treatment (UPT) on egg white proteins (EWPs) before EWPs hydrolysis by different proteases, and the functional properties of the obtained hydrolysates. To fulfill this goal, the protein solubility, foaming, and emulsifying properties were studied as a function of the UPT time and then related to the surface characteristics and structural properties. The changes in the hydrolysates microstructures and macromolecular conformation, induced by the UPT, were followed using scanning electron microscope analyzis (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that UPT influenced (P < 0.05) the proteolysis of egg white proteins for all examined treatment times. Alcalase hydrolysates (AHs) and papain hydrolysates (PHs) were found to have a higher solubility, as a consequence of their relatively higher foaming, and emulsifying properties compared to the untreated hydrolysates. The changes in surface hydrophobicity, sulfhydryl content and surface charge of AHs and PHs indicated unfolding of EWPs affected by ultrasound. SEM analyzis showed that UPT destroyed the microstructures of AHs and PHs, while FTIR spectra indicated remarkable changes in the macromolecular conformation of AHs and PHs after UPT. This study revealed that by combining ultrasound pre-hydrolysis treatment under controlled conditions with thoughtful proteases selection, hydrolysates with improved functional properties could be produced, enhancing utilization of EWPs in food products.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey055
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Highly efficient extraction and purification of low-density lipoprotein
           from hen egg yolk
    • Authors: Wang N; Xu Q, Liu Y, et al.
      Pages: 2230 - 2238
      Abstract: ABSTRACTLow-density lipoprotein (LDL) from hen egg yolk has high nutritional value and plays an important role in the fields of biology, medicine, and materials. To develop fundamental research about LDL, a highly efficient extraction method is necessary. We found that 30% saturated ammonium sulfate can extract more crude LDL than 40% saturation. We selected polyethylene glycol (PEG; nonionic type) to obtain crude LDL. Three factors were employed, namely, degree of polymerization, concentration of PEG, and pH of egg yolk plasma. The optimized condition was 5% PEG 4,000 and plasma pH 6.0, and the best extraction efficiency was 68.1 ± 0.5 g lipid /100 g DM and 69.9 ± 2.0% protein. The crude LDL oil of PEG precipitation was very significantly higher (P < 0.01) than ammonium sulfate precipitation (ASP), while there was no significant difference in protein, which indicates that PEG can extract more crude LDL. When ascorbic acid was added, hydrosulfuryl (SH) groups and lipids oxidation degree of crude LDL extracted by PEG (PEG-LDL) was very significantly lower than ASP (P < 0.01). We also obtained both purified LDL and yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) with an appropriate purification column. This paper proposes a highly efficient method to extract LDL with high activity using PEG and ensures co-purification of LDL and IgY.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey059
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Rapid determination of the fat, moisture, and protein contents in
           homogenized chicken eggs based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy
    • Authors: Zhao Q; Lv X, Jia Y, et al.
      Pages: 2239 - 2245
      Abstract: ABSTRACTCurrent analytical methods used for composition analysis of egg products are time consuming and laborious. We developed a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)-based method to determine the fat, moisture, and protein contents in homogenized egg yolk and the moisture and protein contents in homogenized egg albumen to substitute for conventional methods. The coefficients of determination in the external validation set (R2P) were over 0.8 for all chemical compositions. The ratios of performance to standard deviation (RPD) were 4.38, 2.25, 2.28, 2.31, and 3.03 for fat, moisture, protein and moisture in the egg yolk, and protein in the egg albumen, respectively. Thus, NIR spectroscopy could be an efficient tool for quantitative analysis of the nutrients in chicken eggs.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey070
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Positions Available
    • Pages: 2246 - 2246
      PubDate: Fri, 11 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey179
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
  • Differences in egg nutrient availability and embryo development in white
           layer breeder genotypes
    • Authors: Onbaşılar E; Kahraman M, Ahlat O, et al.
      Pages: 2247 - 2247
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey091
      Issue No: Vol. 97, No. 6 (2018)
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