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  Subjects -> AGRICULTURE (Total: 953 journals)
    - AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (84 journals)
    - AGRICULTURE (677 journals)
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Showing 1 - 52 of 52 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
African Journal of Livestock Extension     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Frontiers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Animal Production     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Animal Production Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Research International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Animal Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives Animal Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletim de Indústria Animal     Open Access  
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Hayvansal Üretim     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Livestock Production     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Animal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Applied Poultry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of World's Poultry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Agripet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ilmu Produksi dan Teknologi Hasil Peternakan     Open Access  
La Chèvre     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nutrición Animal Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Poultry Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Poultry Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal     Open Access  
Revista de Producción Animal     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Professional Animal Scientist     Hybrid Journal  
Tropical Animal Health and Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Veeplaas     Full-text available via subscription  
World Rabbit Science     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Tropical Animal Health and Production
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.511
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-7438 - ISSN (Online) 0049-4747
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Prevalence of bovine and avian tuberculosis in camel herds and associated
           public health risk factors in Isiolo County, Kenya
    • Authors: Peter O. Lamuka; Francis M. Njeruh; George C. Gitao; Joseph Matofari; Richard Bowen; Khalif A. Abey
      Pages: 937 - 945
      Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 308 lactating camels selected from 15 herds from three different camel milk clusters in Isiolo County, Kenya, to determine prevalence of bovine and avian tuberculosis using Single Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Skin test. Seventy-five (75) questionnaires were administered to pastoralists/herders, and focus group discussions were conducted among 3–5 pastoralists/herders selected from each camel herd to collect information on camel husbandry and health management practices and knowledge on tuberculosis in livestock and wildlife. An overall prevalence of bovine and avian reactors was 3.57 and 18.18%, respectively, with bovine and avian reactors for different clusters being 2.38, 3.82, and 4.48% and 25, 17.2, and 11.94%, respectively. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in prevalence of bovine and avian reactors between different clusters. There was a negative correction (r = −0.1399) between herd size and bovine reactors, while there was a positive correlation (r = 0.0445) between herd size and avian reactors. The respondents indicated that camel herds are exposed to several risk factors like close contact with other herds or livestock or wildlife during grazing and at watering points. Pastoralists have poor knowledge on mode of infection and transmission of bovine or avian tuberculosis. The high prevalence of bovine and avian reactors and pastoralists’ poor knowledge on mode of transmission signify potential risk to public health.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-017-1486-2
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Immunogenicity of adenovirus and DNA vaccines co-expressing P39 and
           lumazine synthase proteins of Brucella abortus in BALB/c mice
    • Authors: Guo-Zhen Lin; Ju-Tian Yang; Suo-Cheng Wei; Shi-En Chen; Sheng-Dong Huo; Zhong-Ren Ma
      Pages: 957 - 963
      Abstract: Brucella poses a great threat to animal and human health. Vaccination is the most promising strategy in the effort to control Brucella abortus (B. abortus) infection, but the currently used live vaccines interfere with diagnostic tests and could potentially result in disease outbreak. Therefore, new subunit vaccines and combined immunization strategies are currently under investigation. In this study, immunogenicity and protection ability of a recombinant adenovirus and plasmid DNA vaccine co-expressing P39 and lumazine synthase proteins of B. abortus were evaluated based on the construction of the two molecular vaccines. Four immunization strategies (single adenovirus, single DNA, adenovirus/DNA, DNA/adenovirus) were investigated. The results showed that the immunization strategy of DNA priming followed by adenovirus boosting induced robust humoral and cellular immune responses, and it significantly reduced the numbers of B. abortus in a mouse model. These results suggest that it could be a potential antigen candidate for development of a new subunit vaccine against B. abortus infection.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1517-7
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Effect of pad-fan cooling and dietary organic acid supplementation during
           late gestation and lactation on reproductive performance and antioxidant
           status of multiparous sows in hot weather
    • Authors: Jun Chen; Ji Guo; Wu-tai Guan; Jun-Jie Song; Zi-Xiao Deng; Lin Cheng; Yue-Lin Deng; Fang Chen; Shi-Hai Zhang; Yin-Zi Zhang; Fei Yang; Chun-Xiao Ren; Chao-Xian Wang
      Pages: 973 - 982
      Abstract: A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (rearing room with or without pad-fan cooling × diet with or without 2.5 kg/t organic acid) was used to evaluate the effect of pad-fan cooling and dietary organic acid supplementation during perinatal period on reproductive performance and antioxidant status of sows in hot weather. This study was conducted in a subtropical city in Guangdong Province in South China between August and October, 2015. At day 85 of gestation, a total of 112 sows were randomly assigned to the four treatments with 28 sows per treatment, and maintained until day 21 of lactation, and the feeding trial lasted for 51 days. During the experimental period, room temperature and humidity were recorded hourly. The lactation feed intake of sows (P = 0.109) and stillbirths (P < 0.05) increased when the sows were reared in the room with the pad-fan cooling against the room without pad-fan cooling. The number of weak newborns per litter and the malondialdehyde content in days 14 and 21 milk decreased (P < 0.05), while the lactation feed intake of sows, weaned litter weights, and individual pig weights increased when the sows were fed the organic acid (P < 0.05). In conclusion, pad-fan cooling in rearing room improved the lactation feed intake of sows, and dietary organic acid supplementation improved reproductive performance and milk antioxidant status of sows. Pad-fan cooling is recommended in farrowing room, but not in gestating room.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1520-z
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to brucellosis and
           factors affecting knowledge sharing on animal diseases: a cross-sectional
           survey in the dry zone of Sri Lanka
    • Authors: Kasthuri Arachchige Chandrika Hemal Kothalawala; Kohei Makita; Hemal Kothalawala; Athambawa Mohamed Jiffry; Satoko Kubota; Hiroichi Kono
      Pages: 983 - 989
      Abstract: Farmers’ lack of knowledge is assumed to have affected the presence of brucellosis in Sri Lanka for decades. This study, carried out in the Ampara district in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, revealed that there is a significant knowledge gap for brucellosis compared to foot and mouth disease (FMD) (p < 0.001). Only 8.3% of farmers knew that brucellosis causes cattle abortions. Only 2.6% knew that it is zoonotic. The difference in knowledge of the symptoms and transmission of brucellosis and FMD was significant (p < 0.001). Farmers’ attitudes and practices related to the spread of the disease were poor. Farmers’ education and spoken language had a negative influence on knowledge. Young people and those with strong social relationships were efficient in knowledge sharing. It can be concluded that brucellosis knowledge, attitudes, and practices are poor; thus, there is a need for more attention in disease control policymaking. Backward farmer groups should be the focus in animal health extension programs.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1521-y
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Haematological, biochemical and organ changes in broiler chickens fed
           varying levels of Morinda lucida (brimstone) leaf meal supplementation in
           the diets
    • Authors: A. O. Lala; O. L. Ajayi; N. Okwelum; A. O. Oso; T. V. Fakorede; T. A. Adebayo; J. E. Jagbojo
      Pages: 1005 - 1010
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Morinda lucida leaf meal (MLLM) on the haematology, biochemical and organ changes of broiler chickens. One hundred and ninety-eight day-old Marshall broiler chicks were completely randomised into 6 treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of three levels of M. lucida leaf meal supplementation (0, 0.1 and 0.2 g/kg) with or without medication. The treatment consisted of both negative (without MLLM and routine medication) and positive (containing no MLLM but with routine medication) control groups while each treatment was replicated thrice. MLLM-supplemented diets and routine medication decreased (p < 0.05) the white blood cell count compared to the negative control. Dietary supplementation with MLLM in combination with normal routine medication increased (p < 0.05) total serum protein when compared with treatment group without MLLM and routine medication. Dietary supplementation with MLLM and routine medication reduced (p < 0.05) serum creatinine concentration of the broiler chickens. Birds fed with 0.2 g/kg MLLM supplement coupled with medication and those on negative control had higher (p < 0.05) creatinine values. Serum enzyme activities reduced (p < 0.05) following supplementation. MLLM supplementation recorded no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the liver, kidney, heart and gizzard. M. lucida leaf meal can be compared to routine medication for improved health status of broiler chickens. Dietary inclusion with 0.1 g/kg MLML combined with routine medication could be used in producing healthy and safe chickens.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1524-8
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Impact of seasonal thermal stress on physiological and blood biochemical
           parameters in pigs under different dietary energy levels
    • Authors: P. K. Pathak; R. Roychoudhury; J. Saharia; M. C. Borah; D. J. Dutta; R. Bhuyan; D. Kalita
      Pages: 1025 - 1032
      Abstract: The present study was formulated to find out the status of important season related thermal stress biomarkers of pure-bred (Hampshire) and crossbred (50% Hampshire × 50% local) pigs under the agro-climatic condition of Assam State, India. The experiment was also aimed to study the role of different level of energy ration (110, 100, and 90% energy of NRC feeding standard for pig) in variation of physiological and biochemical parameters in two genetic groups of pigs in different seasons. The metabolizable energy value were 3260, 2936.5, and 3585.8 kcal/kg in grower ration and 3260.2, 2936.6, and 3587 kcal/kg in finisher ration for normal energy (NE), low energy (LE) and high energy (HE), respectively. Both the genetic group of animals were housed separately under intensive system of management. Each pen was measuring 10′ × 12′ along with an outer enclosure. Six weaned piglets (almost similar body weight of average 10.55 kg) of each group were kept in a separate pen. However, after attainment of 35 kg body weight, the animals of a group were divided in two pens of three animals each. The present experiment indicated that average ambient temperature during summer months (27.33–29.51 °C) was above the comfort zone for pigs (22 °C). The significantly (P < 0.01) higher relative humidity (RH) (%) was recorded in outdoor environment (87.26–91.10%) and in the morning time (86.60–91.10%). The temperature humidity index (THI) during the study period was found to be indicative of thermal stress to the experimental animals during summer (79.55–82.56). Physiological parameters viz., respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in summer season (43.75–72.12 breaths/min. and 102.29–103.23 °F) and non-significantly higher values were recorded in Hampshire pigs. It was also found that the significantly (P < 0.01) lower RR as well as RT was recorded in the pigs fed with high energy (HE) ration during summer season. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) lower during summer, while both the genetic groups showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher concentration of serum cortisol during summer season. It was also observed that thyroid hormone and cortisol concentrations were maintained in groups of pig fed vegetable oil incorporated HE diet during summer. From the present study, it is found that the increasing the energy level of the ration might be helpful to minimize the effects of thermal stress during summer.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1526-6
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Morphofunctional diversity of equine of varied genetic compositions raised
           in the Pantanal biome of Brazil
    • Authors: Marcos Paulo Gonçalves de Rezende; Julio Cesar de Souza; Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro; Riccardo Bozzi; Rodrigo Jose Delgado Jardim; Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado
      Pages: 1033 - 1040
      Abstract: Evaluating phenotypic diversity makes it possible to identify discrepancies in aptitudes among animals of different genetic bases, which is an indicator of adaptive or selective differences between populations. The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphofunctional diversity of 452 male and female adult equines (Arabian, Quarter Mile, Pantaneiro, and Criollo breeds, and undefined crossbreeds of horses and mules) raised in the Pantanal biome (Brazil). Linear measurements were performed to estimate conformation indexes. Initially, a discriminant analysis was performed, regardless of the animal’s size, followed by factor analysis. The factors were characterized and used as new variables. The diversity among equines and their relationship with the factors were evaluated using multivariate analysis. The factors were classified according to their decreasing importance: balance, rusticity, and robustness for the measurement factors; and load, ability, conformation, and equilibrium for the index factors. The genetic groups of equines have well-defined morphofunctional characteristics. The main differences are based on the rusticity and ability typologies in relation to those based on performance. Equines introduced to the Pantanal biome presented a more robust and compact body with good conformation. As a result, these horses may have superior athletic performance during equestrian activities when compared to the Pantaneiro local breed. However, this biotype may represent less rusticity (less adaptive capacity). Therefore, the regional breed can be equal or better in equestrian activities than breeds introduced to the Pantanal biome. Thus, breeders may cross horses from local breeds as an alternative to those introduced. Undefined crossbred male equines presented a different profile from the Pantaneiro breed, which may indicate little use of crossbreeds in breeding.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1527-5
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Effect of feeding oat and vetch forages on milk production and quality in
           smallholder dairy farms in Central Kenya
    • Authors: Solomon W. Mwendia; Chris M. Mwungu; Stanley Karanja Ng’ang’a; David Njenga; An Notenbaert
      Pages: 1051 - 1057
      Abstract: Despite the significant livestock contribution to households’ nutrition and incomes in many African smallholder farms, milk productivity remains low. Inadequate feeding is the main reason for the underperformance. To contribute towards addressing this, an on-farm feeding trial was undertaken in Ol-joro-Orok Central Kenya. A feed basket using oat (Avena sativa) cv Conway and vetch (Vicia villosa) was compared to farmers practice. Milk production (kg) and quality parameters, including butterfat, protein, lactose, and density, were monitored, and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) undertaken. Feeding both oat and vetch increased milk production by 21% (morning) and 18%, (evening), equivalent to 1.4 kg/day. Increases (%) in quality were butter fat (18.2), solid-non-fat (16.5), lactose (16.2), and protein (16.1). Concomitantly, the CBA returned positive results, supporting the hypothesis of economic advantage in using oat and vetch in milk production in the area, and possibly in other similar areas.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1529-3
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Risk factors and indicators of reduced welfare of grazing dairy cows from
           selected smallholder dairy farms in Midlands Province, Zimbabwe
    • Authors: Z. Matore; P. Woods; S. Kagler
      Pages: 1059 - 1064
      Abstract: Zimbabwe’s smallholder dairying faces many challenges that affect the welfare of dairy cows; however, the status of this welfare has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Midlands Province on 41 active smallholder dairy farms with 86 cows in winter and summer to determine the risk factors and indicators to impaired cow welfare. These objectives were achieved using farmer questionnaires and direct observations. Eleven percent of the observed cows were severely lame in summer while only 5% were severely lame in winter. Lameness was significantly associated with season, absence of shade, breed, and low dipping frequency; 58% of the cows had low body condition scores (BC < 3) and this low BC was associated with low frequency of protein (p = 0.002) and vitamin (p = 0.012) supplementation recorded in more than 52% of the farms visited. In winter, only 11% of the observed cows were heavily soiled (score 3), while in summer 64% of the cows were heavily soiled and this was associated with slurry accumulation in more than 80% of the observed cattle pens as well as the study season (p < 0.001). A quarter (26%) of the studied animals had visible teat lesions on the teat skin and this was associated with the type of lubricant used (p = 0.011). Only 34% of the cows allowed an approaching stockman to touch them and this was associated with shouting (p = 0.012) and whipping of cows (p = 0.002). The study concluded that welfare of dairy cows was poor in most of the smallholder dairy farms studied.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1530-x
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Energy balance in grazing Jersey cows in early lactation supplemented with
           peanut and sunflower oils
    • Authors: Marcelo de Oliveira Alves Rufino; Márcia Saladine Vieira Salles; João Alberto Negrão; João Luiz Pratti Daniel; Luciano Soares de Lima; Francilaine Eloise De Marchi; Luiz Carlos Roma Júnior; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos
      Pages: 1065 - 1070
      Abstract: In this study, we evaluated the effects of supplementation with peanut and sunflower oils on intake and digestibility, milk yield and composition, energy balance (EB), changes in weight and body condition score (BW and BCS), and blood metabolites of Jersey cows on pasture in early lactation. Twenty-four cows were distributed in a randomized block design where they received the following treatments: concentrate without oil (CON), concentrate plus 59.6 g/kg DM peanut oil (PEA), concentrate plus 59.6 g/kg DM sunflower oil (SUN), and concentrate plus 59.6 g/kg DM of a 1:1 mixture of peanut oil and sunflower oil (MIX). The data were analyzed at 30 and 60 days in milk (DIM). Oil supplementation did not affect total dry matter intake or forage intake. The treatment SUN reduced daily milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk yield, and milk fat, while the other treatments generated similar results. The treatment SUN reduced the milk net energy and the use efficiency of the NEL for milk production and BW and BCS changes, and improved EB up to 60 DIM. On tropical pastures, supplementation with unsaturated oils for cows in early lactation does not result in better milk performance. The supplementation with sunflower oil improves the energy balance in early lactation.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1531-9
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Potential of feeding beef cattle with whole corn crop silage and rice
           straw in Malaysia
    • Authors: Muhamad Hazim Nazli; Ridzwan Abdul Halim; Amin Mahir Abdullah; Ghazali Hussin; Anjas Asmara Samsudin
      Pages: 1119 - 1124
      Abstract: The potential of using whole corn crop silage and rice straw as an alternative feed for the beef cattle based on the intake and growth performance were evaluated. Using randomised completely block design, nine adult Mafriwal cattle were blocked intro three groups and treated with three different forage diets supplemented with 20% pelleted palm kernel cake on dry matter basis. The treatments were 100% rice straw (RS), 100% corn silage (CS) and an equal mixture of rice straw and corn silage (MIX) fed ad libitum. The animals were housed in individual pens, and the feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks with 2 weeks of adaptation period. The results showed that CS had the best feed nutritive composition with the lowest concentration of highly indigestible fibre and the highest concentration of organic matter and energy. The CS also had the highest intake, and the corn silage inclusion in MIX managed to improve the intake on par with CS in terms of the dry matter intake of body weight (DMI of BW), voluntary intake (VI) and crude protein (CP) intake. Cattle fed with CS gave the highest and most stable BW gain with an average daily gain (ADG) of 808 g/day rivalling cross-bred cattle fed with high amount of concentrates. The all straw diet (RS) supplemented with PKC recorded a positive ADG of 133 g/day while the MIX gave 383 g/day matching total Napier grass diet.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1538-2
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Effects of increasing dietary protein supplies on milk yield, milk
           composition, and nitrogen use efficiency in lactating buffalo
    • Authors: Muhammad Naveed-ul-Haque; Muhammad Uzair Akhtar; Rizwan Munnawar; Saba Anwar; Anjum Khalique; Murtaza Ali Tipu; Fayyaz Ahmad; Muhammad Qamer Shahid
      Pages: 1125 - 1130
      Abstract: Nitrogen efficiency of lactating buffalo can be increased by providing dietary crude protein (CP) precisely to the requirement. Twelve lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes (6 primiparous and 6 multiparous) at 76 ± 37.5 days in milk (DIM) were used in this study. The treatments were diets providing three levels of CP (% DM basis): (1) low-protein = 11%; (2) medium-protein = 13.1%; (3) high-protein = 14.2% according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design. The period length of each treatment was 21 days and the total duration of experiment was 63 days. The diets were designed to provide similar energy. The nitrogen intake of buffalo increased linearly by increasing CP levels. Dry matter intake showed a tendency toward decrease in quadratic fashion, whereas milk yield decreased linearly in high-protein diet. No effect was observed on milk protein yield and content. Increasing the dietary CP levels increased plasma urea nitrogen, whereas glucose and triacylglycerol levels remain unaffected. Efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization to milk averaged 21% and showed both linear and quadratic decreases by increasing the protein supply levels. In conclusion, low CP level showed higher milk production with low plasma urea nitrogen and high nitrogen efficiency in this experiment.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1539-1
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Prevalence of Leptospira serogroup-specific antibodies in cattle
           associated with reproductive problems in endemic states of India
    • Authors: Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan; Anusha Alamuri; K. Bharathkumar; Sharanagouda Siddanagouda Patil; Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj; Mohandoss Nagalingam; Paramanandham Krishnamoorthy; Habibur Rahman; Bibek Ranjan Shome
      Pages: 1131 - 1138
      Abstract: In this study, the seroprevalence and distribution of Leptospira in dairy cattle in endemic states of India were investigated in association with reproductive problems of the cattle. A total of 373 cattle serum samples from 45 farms in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Sikkim and Uttarakhand states were collected from animals with a history of reproductive disorders like abortion, repeat breeding, anoestrus and endometritis, and also from apparently healthy animals. These samples were screened for Leptospira serogroup-specific antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using a panel of 18 live reference serovar antigens. The seropositivity of 70.51% (263/373, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.75) was associated with reproductive problems (χ2 = 55.71, p < 0.01) and sampled states (χ2 = 32.99, p < 0.01) and independent of apparently healthy animals (χ2 = 15.6, p > 0.10) and age groups of cattle (χ2 = 0.91, p > 0.10). Further, the odds (risk-relation) of reproductive disorders was 5.29 compared to apparently healthy animals (0.25 odds). The frequency distribution of predominant serogroup-specific Leptospira antibodies were determined against the serovars: Hardjo (27.76%), Pyrogenes (18.63%), Canicola and Javanica (17.49%), Hebdomadis (17.11%), Shermani and Panama (16.73%), Djasiman (16.35%), Tarassovi, Grippotyphosa and Pomona (15.97%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (15.59%), Copenhageni (14.83%), Australis (13.69%), Kaup and Hurstbridge (10.65%), Bankinang (10.27%) and Bataviae (9.51%). In conclusion, dairy cattle have a role in maintaining important several serovars besides well-known Hardjo serovar in endemic states of India and warrant mitigating measures to reduce the incidence of cattle leptospirosis including need for an intensive surveillance programme, preventive vaccination and control strategies.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1540-8
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Effects of provision of water and nesting material on reproductive
           performance of native Moo Lath pigs in Lao PDR
    • Authors: Ammaly Phengvilaysouk; Jan Erik Lindberg; Viengsamai Sisongkham; Phonpaseuth Phengsavanh; Anna Jansson
      Pages: 1139 - 1145
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of providing extra water and nesting material to Moo Lath sows on piglet survival and growth. Three treatments were evaluated in a randomized block design with six sows/treatment. In the Control treatment, sows were not provided with nesting material or extra water apart from that included in the feed (conventional smallholder practice). In treatment NM, nesting material was provided 1–2 days before expected farrowing. In treatment NMW, nesting material as in NM and extra water were provided ad libitum throughout the study. Data on sow feed and water intake, plasma protein concentration (TPP), body weight, and re-mating period, and on litter size, body weight, and survival of piglets, were collected for two reproduction cycles. NMW sows had higher water intake than Control and NM sows (14.7, 4.5, and 4.5 L/day, respectively, SE = 0.2). The weight loss from 2 weeks prior to farrowing until weaning was smaller in NMW than in NM and Control sows (16.0, 23.8, and 22.9 kg, respectively, SE = 0.9). TPP dropped from farrowing until 21 days of lactation in NMW sows, whereas it increased or was unchanged in NM and Control sows. The re-mating period was shorter and the number of litters/year was higher in NMW than in Control and NM sows (2.2, 2.0, and 2.0, respectively, SE = 0.01). Piglet mortality was lower in NMW than in Control and NM (9.5, 43.9, and 26.7%, respectively, SE = 4.9). Piglets in NMW were heavier at weaning and had higher daily weight gain than Control and NM piglets. It was concluded that providing water ad libitum and nesting material improved piglet survival and growth, and that providing water ad libitum improved sow physiological and reproductive fitness. However, provision of nesting material without access to ad libitum water might increase susceptibility to heat stress in sows.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1541-7
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Effect of supplementing germinated sprouts of pulses on performance,
           carcass variables, immune and oxidative stress indicators in broiler
           chickens reared during tropical summer season
    • Authors: S. V. Rama Rao; B. Prakash; U. Rajkumar; M. V. L. N. Raju; T. Srilatha; E. P. K. Reddy
      Pages: 1147 - 1154
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effects of supplementing sprouts of pulses on performance, carcass variables, immune responses, and anti-oxidant variables in broiler chicken (day 1 to 6 weeks of age) reared during summer season in tropical region. Sprouts of black gram (BG, Vigna mungo), green gram (GG, Vigna radiata), and wild gram (WG, Vigna trilobata) were produced by soaking the pulses in water for 16 h and incubating at 37 °C for 24 h. Total phenolic content in sprouts of WG, BG, and GG was 102, 96.1, and 79.2 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the anti-radical activity in the sprouts was 61, 58, and 52%, respectively. A total of 200-day-old broiler male chicks were equally and randomly distributed in to 4 groups, each having 10 replicates of 5 chicks and housed in battery brooders in open-sided poultry house. Each of these groups was fed sprouts of BG, GG, or WG at 5% of feed intake, while the control group without feeding sprouts was kept for comparison. The trial was conducted during mid summer season (April and May, 2017). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was reduced (P < 0.05) in broilers fed sprouted pulses compared to the control group at day 21. However, the body weight gain and FCR at 42 days of age, slaughter variables, and immune responses were not affected due to feeding of sprouted pulses. Feeding of sprouts significantly (P < 0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation and increased (P < 0.05) the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase in liver and spleen of broilers compared to the control group. Based on the results, it is concluded that oxidative stress in broiler chicken reared in tropical summer could be reduced by supplementing sprouted pulses without affecting performance, carcass variables, and immune responses.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1543-5
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Factors affecting reproductive performance in dromedary camel herds in
           Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Ahmed Ali; Derar Derar; Abdulhadi Alsharari; Assaf Alsharari; Rashid Khalil; Tariq I. Almundarij; Yaser Alboti; Fahd Al-Sobayil
      Pages: 1155 - 1160
      Abstract: A survey of 7122 dromedary camels in 115 herds in Saudi Arabia was used to estimate the effects of herd size (HZ; < 25 vs. 25–49 vs. 50–100 vs. > 100 camels), herder/camels ratio (H/C; 1:< 25 vs. 1:25–50 vs. 1:> 50), manager experience (ME; < 5 vs. 5–10 vs. > 10 years), male/females ratio (M/F), housing system (HS; free vs. closed vs. mixed), length of the breeding season (winter vs. winter and spring vs. fall, winter and spring), age at first mating (3 vs. > 3 years), and time of mating after parturition (≤ 3 vs. > 3 months) and their interactions on the overall pregnancy rate. Barren females of these herds (n = 886) were examined for the causes of infertility. Results showed that herds with H/C of 1:< 25 had higher overall pregnancy rate (95.29%) than herds with H/C of 1:25–50 (79.84%) and those with H/C of 1:> 50 (72.79%) (p = 0.003). Herds having ME of > 10 years revealed greater overall pregnancy rate (94.89%) than herds with ME of 5–10 years (80.54%) and those with ME of < 5 years (72.5%) (p = 0.001). There were significant interactions between H/C × HZ (p = 0.003), H/C × HS (p = 0.006), and ME × HS (p = 0.02). The overall pregnancy rate did not significantly differ between herds bred females by age of 3 years and those bred females by age > 3 years and in females bred within 3 months after parturition and in those bred after 3 months. The mean calving interval was shorter (p = 0.008) in camels mated within 3 months of parturition (15.25 ± 2.8 months) than in those mated after that time (24.33 ± 6.5 months). Clinical endometritis, ovarian hydrobursitis, and vaginal adhesions were the common clinical findings in barren females. Thus, efforts to reduce the age at first mating and the interval after calving, increase the number of herders/camels, and control reproductive disorders could improve the reproductive performance and quality of camel herds in Saudi Arabia.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1545-3
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Evidence of subclinical foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young
           calves born from clinically recovered cow under natural condition
    • Authors: Rajeev Ranjan; Jitendra K. Biswal; Saravanan Subramaniam; Bana B. Dash; Karam P. Singh; Jonathan Arzt; Luis L. Rodriguez; Bramhadev Pattnaik
      Pages: 1167 - 1170
      Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important, transboundary viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It is known that an asymptomatic, persistent FMD virus (FMDV) infection may occur subsequent to acute or subclinical FMDV infection in adult ruminants. However, virus persistence in young calves has not been studied. In the current investigation, FMDV infection parameters were examined for calves born to FMD-clinically recovered cows (CRC), asymptomatic cows from infected herds (ASC) and cows from with no history of FMD (NHF). The study was conducted in natural condition after FMD outbreaks in two dairy herds in India. No calves described herein had any clinical signs of FMD. Six out of 12 calves born to CRC had detectable FMDV RNA in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid consistent with asymptomatic FMDV infection. Three of the 12 calves of CRC group had seroreactivity against FMDV non-structural proteins. One calf had detectable FMDV RNA at two consecutive samplings at 2 months apart. However, infectious FMDV was not isolated from any calf in the study. None of the calves in the ASC or NHF groups had any evidence of FMDV infection. Overall, these data are consistent with earlier report on calves having been infected in utero. Further investigation of FMDV persistence in calves under controlled conditions may lead to greater understanding of the viral pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1518-6
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Freedom from Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cattle in St. Kitts
    • Authors: Kimberly E. Coker; Joseph J. Lim; Rebecca L. Schleisman; Christopher Vosloo; Hilari M. French; Juan C. Samper; John J. Callanan; Robert O. Gilbert; Fortune Sithole; Chaoqun Yao; Aspinas Chapwanya
      Pages: 1171 - 1173
      Abstract: Trichomonosis is an endemic disease in cattle that are reared under extensive conditions and bred by natural mating. It causes profound economic losses to the producers by increasing calving interval, increasing embryo losses, and decreasing pregnancy rates. The aim of this study was to determine whether Tritrichomonas foetus infections were absent from cattle in St. Kitts. Using the modified hypergeometric method, preputial samples from bulls (n = 78) were tested using the InPouch™ culture for presence of T. foetus. Results highlighted an absence of trichomoniasis in bulls on St. Kitts with a 95% confidence.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1537-3
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2018)
  • Effect of energy density of diet on growth performance of Thai indigenous
           (50% crossbred) Korat chickens from hatch to 42 days of age
    • Authors: Pratpot Maliwan; Sutisa Khempaka; Wittawat Molee; Jan Thomas Schonewille
      Abstract: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of the energy density of diet on the growth performance of Thai indigenous crossbred (50%) chickens known as Korat chicken (KRC). A total of 1440 mixed-sex KRC (720 birds in each phase) were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments containing 2750, 2900, 3050, or 3200 kcal ME/kg diet with 6 replicates of each treatment in a completely randomized design. The experimental diets were tested from hatch to 21 days and from 22 to 42 days of age. In both age groups, body weight gain was not affected (P > 0.05) by the ME density of the diets. Feed intake however decreased with increasing (metabolizable energy) ME (P < 0.05), thereby significantly improving the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Broken-line analysis was performed to estimate the ME content of feed to obtain minimum FCR and maximum protein efficiency ratio (PER) values. Minimum FCR and maximum PER values were found when the diet contained 3000 kcal ME/kg from hatch to 21 days of age and 3175 kcal ME/kg from 22 to 42 days of age, respectively, using diets containing 7.5 and 6.6 g of protein/100 kcal ME, respectively. In conclusion, we established that the ME requirements of KRC from hatch to 21 days and 22 to 42 days of age were 3000 and 3175 kcal/kg, respectively.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1628-1
  • Mini review on photosensitization by plants in grazing herbivores
    • Authors: Syeda M. Hussain; Valdo Rodrigues Herling; Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues; Ishrat Naz; Hamayun Khan; Muhammad Tahir Khan
      Abstract: Photosensitization is severe dermatitis or oxidative/chemical changes in the epidermal tissues activated by the light-induced excitation of molecules within the tissue. It is a series of reactions mediated through light receptors and is more common when the plant-produced metabolites are heterocyclic/polyphenols in nature. The areas affected are exposed body parts and mostly non-pigmented areas with least ultraviolet protection. Similarly, cellular alteration also occurs in the affected animal’s dermal tissues and body parts and grazing animals by the accumulation and activation of photodynamic molecules. Photo-oxidation can also occur within the plant due to the generation of reactive oxygen species causing damage and degradation in the form of free radicals and DNA. During the last few decades, many new tropical grass species have been introduced in the grazing lands which are genetically modified, and the animals grazing on them are facing various forms of toxicity including photosensitization. The plant’s secondary metabolites/drugs may cause toxicity when bacteria, viral agents, fungi (Pithomyces chartarum), or neoplasia injures the liver and prevents the phylloerythrin excretion. All these may disturb the liver enzymes and blood profile causing a decrease in weight and production (wool and milk etc.) with severe dermal, digestive, and nervous problems. Recent advancements in OMICS (cellomics, ethomics, metabolomics, metabonomics, and glycomics) have enabled us to detect and identify the plants’ secondary metabolites and changes in the animal’s physiology and histopathology as a causative of photosensitivity. The review focuses on types of photosensitization, reasons, secondary metabolic compounds, chemistry, and environmental effect on plants.
      PubDate: 2018-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1583-x
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