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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 861 journals)
Showing 201 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted alphabetically
Empedocles : European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
En Líneas Generales     Open Access  
Endeavour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Éndoxa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enrahonar : An International Journal of Theoretical and Practical Reason     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Entelekya Logico-Metaphysical Review     Open Access  
Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Episteme     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Episteme NS     Open Access  
Epistēmēs Metron Logos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Epistemología e Historia de la Ciencia     Open Access  
Epistemology & Philosophy of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Epoché : A Journal for the History of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Erasmus Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ergo, an Open Access Journal of Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Erkenntnis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Escritos     Open Access  
Essays in Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Estética     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios de Filosofía     Open Access  
Estudios de Filosofía     Open Access  
Estudios de Filosofía Práctica e Historia de las Ideas     Open Access  
Estudos Nietzsche     Open Access  
Etcétera : Revista del Área de Ciencias Sociales del CIFFyH     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ethical Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57)
Ethics & Bioethics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethics in Progress     Open Access  
Ethics, Medicine and Public Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Éthique en éducation et en formation : Les Dossiers du GREE     Open Access  
Éthique publique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethische Perspectieven     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Etikk i praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études de lettres     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Études phénoménologiques : Phenomenological Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Études Platoniciennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études Ricoeuriennes / Ricoeur Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal for Philosophy of Science     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of Islamic Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and History     Open Access  
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Faith and Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
FALAH : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access  
Feminist Philosophy Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fichte-Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fikr-o Nazar     Open Access  
Film-Philosophy Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Filosofia e Educação     Open Access  
Filosofia Theoretica : Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Filosofia Unisinos     Open Access  
Filosofia. Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto     Open Access  
Filozofia Chrześcijańska     Open Access  
Filozofia Publiczna i Edukacja Demokratyczna     Open Access  
Filozofija i društvo / Philosophy and Society     Open Access  
FLEKS : Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FOKUS : Jurnal Kajian Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Folios     Open Access  
Food Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forum Philosophicum     Full-text available via subscription  
Franciscan Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Franciscanum. Revista de las ciencias del espíritu     Open Access  
Frónesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fronteiras : Revista de Teologia da Unicap     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Philosophy in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Funes. Journal of Narratives and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Gestalt Theory. An International Multidisciplinary Journal     Open Access  
Global Bioethics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Forum on Arts and Christian Faith     Open Access  
Gogoa     Open Access  
Governare la paura. Journal of interdisciplinary studies     Open Access  
Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Grafía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Granì     Open Access  
Grazer Philosophische Studien     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Griot : Revista de Filosofia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Grotiana     Hybrid Journal  
GSTF Journal of General Philosophy (JPhilo)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Review of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hegel-Jahrbuch     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Heidegger Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Heroism Science     Open Access  
Hic Rhodus : Crisis capitalista, polémica y controversias     Open Access  
HiN : Alexander von Humboldt im Netz. Internationale Zeitschrift für Humboldt-Studien     Open Access  
History and Philosophy of Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
History of Communism in Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hobbes Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
HOPOS : The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Horizons philosophiques     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Horizonte : Revista de Estudos de Teologia e Ciências da Religião     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Horizontes Filosóficos : Revista de Filosofía, Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Horizontes y Raíces     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Horyzonty Wychowania     Open Access  
HTS Theological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Human Rights Education Review     Open Access  
Humanidades em diálogo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Humanidades Médicas     Open Access  
Humanist Studies & the Digital Age     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Humanistic Management Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Hume Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Husserl Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Hypnos. Revista do Centro de Estudos da Antiguidade     Open Access  
IBDA' : Jurnal Kebudayaan Islam     Open Access  
Idealistic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Idéias     Open Access  
Ignis (Revista de estudiantes)     Open Access  
IJIBE (International Journal of Islamic Business Ethics)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ijtimaiyya : Jurnal Pengembangan Masyarakat Islam     Open Access  
Ikonomika : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access  
Impact : The Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain     Free   (Followers: 5)
Informal Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ingenium. Revista Electrónica de Pensamiento Moderno y Metodología en Historia de la Ideas     Open Access  
Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Inquiry : Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Intellèctus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interações : Cultura e Comunidade     Open Access  
Interespe. Interdisciplinaridade e Espiritualidade na Educação     Open Access  
International Corporate Responsibility Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Gramsci Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Philosophy of Religion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
International Journal for the Study of Skepticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Transformative Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ethics Education     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Fiqh and Usul al-Fiqh Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Philosophy & Social Values     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Philosophy and Theology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Philosophy Study     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Social Quality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Platonic Tradition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Zakat     Open Access  
International Journal of Žižek Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Philosophical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Studies in Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Studies in Philosophy Monograph Series     Full-text available via subscription  
International Studies in the Philosophy of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Yearbook of Futurism Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Internationales Jahrbuch für philosophische Anthropologie     Hybrid Journal  
Intuitio     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iqtishoduna : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
IRIS European Journal of Philosophy and Public Debate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Isegoría     Open Access  
Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ÍSTMICA. Revista de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ítaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Itinera     Open Access  
Ius Humani: Revista de derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft und Ethik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
JOHME : Journal of Holistic Mathematics Education     Open Access  
Journal for Peace and Justice Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Aesthetic Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Analytic Divinity     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Hermeneutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Bentham Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Business Ethics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Catalan Intellectual History     Open Access  
Journal of Catholic Social Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chinese Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Critical Realism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Dharma Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Early Modern Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Educational Thought / Revue de la Pensée Educative     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Evolution and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Friends of Lutheran Archives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Graduate Studies Review     Open Access  
Journal of Humanistic Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Humanities of Valparaiso     Open Access  
Journal of Indian Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Japanese Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Literature and Trauma Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Media Ethics : Exploring Questions of Media Morality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Medical Ethics     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Medical Law and Ethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)

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Similar Journals
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Food Ethics
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2364-6853 - ISSN (Online) 2364-6861
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Let them Eat Promises: Global Policy Incoherence, Unmet Pledges, and
           Misplaced Priorities Undercut Progress on SDG 2
    • Abstract: Abstract The international community has adopted and endorsed an ambitious global development agenda for the period 2015–2030 in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDG 2 seeks to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. This reflects a broad international consensus on the unacceptability of hunger articulated previously at the 1996 World Food Summit and reiterated at the 2008 High-Level Conference on World Food Security. In 2009, at their L’Aquila Summit, the G8 heads of state and government pledged a significant expansion of aid to agriculture, in order to address the global food-price spike of the preceding year. However, serious global policy incoherence severely undermines this apparent political will to end hunger and boost developing-country agriculture. In particular, although official development assistance to agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (hunger’s center of gravity) doubled between 2003 and 2012, the share of total global aid going to agriculture, at just 5% in 2014, is well below the 20% share of the mid-1980s. In addition, donor-country agricultural trade and security policies often undercut support for agricultural development in the Global South. Furthermore, there is incoherence within donor policies on aid to agriculture, which tend to focus more on promoting commercialization and exports than on boosting smallholder productivity and the economic empowerment of women farmers. For their part, developing-country governments have not fulfilled pledges to increase their own agricultural development budgets (as seen in the African Union Declarations of Maputo and Malabo), and the bulk of those budgets go to recurrent expenditure rather than development investments. In Sub-Saharan Africa, military expenditures account for a greater share of public funds. This paper suggests that while policy makers in both the Global South and North treat food security and agricultural development as priorities, these remain in a relatively low position on policy agendas because other concerns respond to much stronger constituencies.
      PubDate: 2019-08-23
       
  • Famine Ethics
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper revitalizes the debate of an ethics of contemporary famine. Famine constitutes a distinct development challenge that has only received moderate public and academic attention. Singer’s Famine Relief Argument from 1972 emphasizing a strong obligation of charitable benevolence towards victims of famine, for example, continues to constitute the dominant ethical principle of famine. The paper argues this revisionary principle still constitutes a strong and convincing ethical argument. However, the dynamics of contemporary famine makes it necessary to expand this ethical obligation outside the realm of pure philanthropy. Concretely, the paper argues for the obligation of criminalizing famine and prosecuting the perpetrators of famine that have either callously allowed famine to unfold or have intentionally created and exacerbated the conditions for famine. While such an obligation is not void of ethical dilemmas, a famine ethics relying on obligations of charity as well as obligations of criminal prosecution constitutes a superior ethical principle for the alleviation of famine.
      PubDate: 2019-08-16
       
  • Professionals in Food Chains
    • PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Inclusion of Animal Ethics into the Consumer Value-Attitude System Using
           the Example of Game Meat Consumption
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent decades, the demand for ethically acceptable treatment of animals – especially in case of livestock animals – has increased significantly in western societies and can thus have a significant impact on the consumption of animal products. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the influence and the mode of action of animal-ethical values. In consumer research, the consumer value-attitude system consisting of global values, domain-specific values and attitudes is essential in many studies. However, there have been no attempts so far to operationalise domain-specific values in the context of human-animal relationship empirically. This means that an essential component for the analysis of animal product consumption behaviour is missing. Therefore, the present study includes animal ethics into the consumer value-attitude system as domain-specific values. The aim is, to analyse the influence of animal-ethical values on consumer behaviour concerning animal products. As a concrete example, the consumption of game meat is chosen in this study, because the consumption of game meat is often judged in a contradictory way in terms of animal welfare. This offers the possibility to cover the entire spectrum of societal animal-ethical values. The study is based on a virtually representative online survey with 523 German participants. A structural equation model is used for analysis. It was found, that animal ethics can be perfectly integrated into the value system as domain-specific values. Furthermore, the results show that especially the two extreme positions in animal ethics, original anthropocentrism and abolitionism, have a significant influence on consumer behaviour – in this case on the consumption of game meat. Overall, this first study on domain-specific values in the context of human-animal relationship contributes to a deeper understanding of which animal-ethical values affect the behaviour of consumers. This is of great importance for marketing and consumer theory concerning animal products.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Connecting Parties for Change; a Qualitative Study into Communicative
           Drivers for Animal Welfare in the Food Industry
    • Abstract: Abstract One of the optional topics of Corporate (Social) Responsibility (CSR) is animal welfare. This exploratory qualitative study reveals which communicative factors stimulate an attitude of responsibility towards animals in companies in the animal-based food industry. It shows that a manager who is made responsible for animal welfare can strengthen the company’s ethical position in two ways using communication. The first one is to connect with stakeholders within and outside the company. The second way is to facilitate, as a moderator, communicative connections between these stakeholders in which the manager is not involved per se. In both cases, if these connections take the form of personal meetings, this is extra helpful for a responsible attitude, because in that way insight, trust and collaboration are gained and sustained. We present a model outlining all supportive communicative connections, a summary of communication channels that are used to effectuate them, and practical advice for managers.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Normative Concepts of Nature in the GMO Protest. A Qualitative Content
           Analysis of Position Papers Criticizing Green Genetic Engineering in
           Germany
    • Abstract: Abstract New Breeding Techniques such as CRISPR-Cas9 are revolutionizing plant breeding and food production. Experts believe that the social debate about these technologies could be similar to those on green genetic engineering: emotional and highly controversial. Future debate about Genome Editing could benefit from a better understanding of the GMO (genetically modified organism) controversy. Against this background, this paper (a) presents results of a content analysis of position papers criticizing green genetic engineering in Germany. In particular, (b) it focuses on the controversy as a place where normative concepts of nature are debated and become visible. Hence, the study complements existing interpretations by showing that the emerging concepts are more diverse than the familiar reductionist breakdown of the debate into anthropocentric vs. non-anthropocentric conceptions suggests.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Veterinary Responsibilities within the One Health Framework
    • Abstract: Abstract Veterinarians play an essential role in the animal-based food chain. They are professionally responsible for the health of farm animals to secure food safety and public health. In the last decades, food scandals and zoonotic disease outbreaks have shown how much animal and human health are entangled. Therefore, the concept of One Health is broadly promoted within veterinary medicine. The profession embraces this idea that the health of humans, animals and the environment is inextricably linked and supports the related call for transdisciplinary collaboration. Especially in zoonotic disease control, the benefits of the cooperation between veterinarians and human doctors seem evident. However, applying a One Health approach also makes moral problems explicit. For instance, how should veterinarians deal with situations in which measures to protect public health negatively affect animal health' This creates a conflict of professional responsibilities. To deal with such moral problems and to strengthen the veterinarian’s position, the starting point is a holistic perspective on One Health. We will argue for an ‘encapsulated health’ argument: the best way to safeguard human health is to promote the health of animals and the environment. This also holds for the responsibility of the veterinary profession: to serve public health, the central responsibility of veterinarians should be to be experts in animal health and welfare. We elaborate this point by using a case study on the role of the veterinary profession in antimicrobial resistance policies in the Netherlands.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Action Patterns of Organic Inspectors and their Importance for Saving the
           Integrity of Organic Farming
    • Abstract: Abstract Certification is a crucial part of the organic farming system to protect the integrity of the whole organic sector. Process-oriented on-site auditing by skilled inspectors is the central element of the certification procedure to protect the organic sector against fraud. However, little is known about the role of the inspectors in the certification scheme. In recent years, the requirements and challenges for the organic certification system have changed significantly. The aim of the present study is to get insights into strategies and action patterns used by organic inspectors and thus to better understand their behaviour. Due to the exploratory character of the study, a qualitative approach was chosen. Twenty narrative expert interviews with organic inspectors were conducted. The evaluation was carried out with the narration analysis, which was basis for a typology analysis. The results of the study show that all organic inspectors develop strategies and behavioural patterns, which can be structured in two levels: an interpersonal and a professional level. On the interpersonal level, the results indicate that the inspectors’ behaviour patterns lie between goodwill and demonstration of power. At the professional level, the organic inspectors work with a risk or a checklist-oriented control approach. A risk-oriented control is characterised by the intrinsic motivation of the organic inspector to maintain the integrity of the organic sector. Risk-oriented inspectors set a control focus on the detection of fraud. The aspect of personal ethical involvement and interpersonal actions in control systems should be included when considering improvements in the organic sector.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Animal Welfare Law, Policy and the Threat of “Ag-gag”: One
           Step Forward, Two Steps Back
    • Abstract: Abstract As has been the case in Europe, increasing consumer demand for higher welfare products has resulted in improved conditions for farm animals raised for slaughter in the USA and Australia. Consumer awareness has been significantly aided by investigations of farm and slaughterhouse conditions by animal welfare organizations, often working undercover. These gains are now under very serious threat. In eleven states in the USA, and three in Australia, new legislation, coined “Ag-gag” law, has been enacted prohibiting public dissemination of material depicting on farm animal use. In both countries, media corporations and private citizens are liable to up to three years’ imprisonment for publishing photographs or recordings depicting the conditions of animals on farms or at slaughter. Controls on the publication of information documenting animal use compromises transparency in the food chain, erodes the accountability of those involved in the management of animals and undermines the case for enhanced legislation and policy reform. This paper describes recent legal challenges in the USA to the constitutionality of “Ag-gag” laws and evaluates “Ag-gag” laws’ impact on animal welfare in agricultural facilities in the USA and Australia.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Veterinarians between the Frontlines'! The Concept of One Health and
           Three Frames of Health in Veterinary Medicine
    • Abstract: Abstract The “One Health” initiative promises to combine different health-related issues concerning humans and animals in an overarching concept and in related practices to the benefit of both humans and animals. Far from dismissing One Health, this paper nevertheless argues that different veterinary interventions are determined by social practices and connected expectations and are, thus, hardly compliant with only one single conceptualization of health, as the One Health concept suggests. One Health relies on a naturalistic understanding of health focusing on similar bodies that show a similar etiology. However, logics, normativity, and practices exhibit differences when it comes to combatting infectious diseases, maintaining productivity of livestock animals or preventing companion animals from suffering. Therefore, drawing from Charles Rosenberg’s groundbreaking texts on framing disease, we suggest to conceive of health as dispersed in different frames. Thus, this paper proposes to interpret health as complex and multi-layered concept. We distinguish and introduce an objectivist, a functional, and a sentientistic frame of health. Instead of reducing the differential veterinary practices to one paradigmatic understanding, health is seen as a model case of Wittgenstein’s concept of family resemblance. Different and distinct perspectives on veterinary medicine show sufficient overlapping that allows for a common conceptualization, but there is not one single underlying logic suitable to understand and ethically reflect all veterinary interventions. This differentiability promises to reduce moral stress in veterinary professionals since it allows the interpretation of various, seemingly contradicting practices as dependent on multi-layered and socially determined scopes of responsibility.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Food Retailers as Mediating Gatekeepers between Farmers and Consumers in
           the Supply Chain of Animal Welfare Meat - Studying Retailers’ Motives in
           Marketing Pasture-Based Beef
    • Abstract: Abstract Although there is increasing public criticism of intensive livestock production, the market share of meat with an animal welfare standard exceeding legal requirements remains small. Food retailers, in their role as gatekeepers, can influence changes in production and consumption patterns. Their strategic role between farmers and consumers allows them to control commodity, information and value flow and therefore places them into a key position when it comes to the distribution of meat with a higher animal welfare standard. The aim of this explorative study is to identify factors which motivate food retailers to take on the marketing of products of increased animal welfare standards, in this case, pasture-based beef. Nine in depth-interviews were conducted with representatives of the food retail industry. The interviews took place in June 2018, followed a structured guideline and were transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were categorized and evaluated using qualitative content analysis. Results showed that food retailers are driven by both extrinsic and intrinsic motives. The main extrinsic motive is the perceived customer demand. Consciousness for animal welfare and the regional production cycles, including close connection between farmers and retailers are inherently intrinsic motives. Interestingly, the interviewed retailers show a high personal interest and moral obligation with regard to sourcing and marketing pasture-based beef. As such, this research finds innovative retailers, who take on a new role in sustainable food systems which exceed classical distribution functions and may have a considerable effect in transforming the food system.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
       
  • Vegetable Diversity, Productivity, and Weekly Nutrient Supply from
           Improved Home Gardens Managed by Ethnic Families - a Pilot Study in
           Northwest Vietnam
    • Abstract: Abstract Assess to quality diets is a basic human right. Geographical challenges and cultural traditions have contributed to the widespread malnutrition present among ethnic minorities of mountainous areas in Northwest Vietnam. Home gardens can play a role in increased diet diversity and micronutrient intakes. However, low production yields and plant diversity in ethnic home gardens have limited their contributions to household food security and nutrition. The pilot study tested a home garden intervention in weekly vegetable harvests and increasing household production and consumption of diverse vegetables year-round. Food ethics issues encountered included limited access to quality food by resource-poor groups, conflicts arising from low preference and value given to some nutritious foods, limited access to information and technology for food production and consumption, each of which were addressed in the study design. The intervention includes: (1) nutrition-focused home garden training and (2) locally-adapted home garden packages consisting of garden planning, technical assistance, and high-yielding seed varieties. Twenty households from two ethnic villages in Son La province participated in the study and were randomly assigned into two groups (intervention and non-intervention). The total vegetable supply from weekly harvests of home garden produce was significantly higher in the intervention households (226 kg) compared to the non-intervention households (39 kg). The intervention group yielded 5.8 and 1.7 times more vegetables by weight and weight per area than those without the intervention. The vegetables were mainly consumed at home for both groups, but the intervention households gave more vegetables as gifts to neighbors. The intervention group cultivated a higher diversity of vegetables with a total of 42 different vegetables compared to 24 in the non-intervention group, which is reflected in an overall higher nutritional yield of vitamin A, iron, other micronutrients and phytochemicals. The home garden training significantly improved the amount, diversity and continuity of household food and nutrient supply. The home garden model is effective and could be scaled up to improve household vegetable supply and consumption, particularly in Northwest Vietnam.
      PubDate: 2019-07-27
       
  • A Wicked Fairy in the Woods - how would People alter their Animal Product
           Consumption if they were affected by the Consequences of their
           Choices'
    • Abstract: Abstract The ambivalence of human-animal-relationships culminates in our eating habits; most people disapprove of factory farming, but most animal products that are consumed come from factory farming. While psychology and sociology offer several theoretical explanations for this phenomenon our study presents an experimental approach: an attempt to challenge people’s attitude by confronting them with the animals’ perspective of the consumption process. We confronted our participants with a fictional scenario that could result in them being turned into an animal. In the scenario, a wicked fairy forces them to choose a ticket. Depending on their choice of ticket they have equal chances of becoming a human being with a certain consumption behaviour (meat eater, organic eater, vegetarian, vegan) or, correspondingly, becoming a certain kind of animal (factory farmed meat animal, organically farmed meat animal, animal for dairy/egg production, free living animal). Our results indicate a strong discrepancy between people’s actual consumption habits (mostly regular meat eaters) and their choices in the experiment (strong preferences for the organic or vegan life style). The data reveal a broad spectrum of explanations for people’s decisions in the experiment. We investigated the influence of four different factors on the participant’s choices in addition to reasons they gave as open-ended answers. Correspondingly, different coping strategies to overcome the tension (cognitive dissonance) between real-life consumption choices and attitudes towards nonhuman animals could be detected. Furthermore, many participants indicated a lack of knowledge concerning living conditions in farming but also concerning capacities and properties of nonhuman animals.
      PubDate: 2019-07-23
       
  • When the Working Environment is Bad, you Take it out on the Animals –
           How Employees on Danish Farms Perceive Animal Welfare
    • Abstract: Abstract Little is known about how employees on husbandry farms perceive animal welfare and the factors influencing the relationship between them and the animals they engage with in their daily work. Reporting the findings of qualitative interviews with 23 employees on five Danish farms (mink, dairy and pig production), this paper describes how the employees viewed animal welfare, and discusses how they dealt with animal welfare issues in their daily work. Four distinct rationales for animal welfare were identified. 1) Animal welfare was supported by concerns about production and health, and could be negotiated – especially when it came to the ability of the animals to perform natural behaviour. 2) Animal welfare was connected with the working conditions on the farm. 3) The employees’ views about animal welfare were affected by working conditions over which they had no influence. 4) An awareness of the condition of the animals was seen as obviously needed in relation to production, but a deeper attachment to some animals was also seen. A specific challenge is presented by the increasingly diverse workforce in farming, with one third of the employees on Danish farms coming from abroad. If farm owners are not able to integrate these employees, there is a risk of creating a second-tier of foreign workers who are isolated. Furthermore, it was seen that negative working conditions can be taken out on the animals, or that animal welfare can come to be seen as unimportant as compared with human welfare.
      PubDate: 2019-07-16
       
  • Food Systems for Sustainable Terrestrial Ecosystems (SDG 15)
    • Abstract: Abstract The United Nation’s (UN) 3rd Annual Multi-stakeholder Forum on ‘Science, Technology and Innovation for the Sustainable Development Goals (STI Forum) - Transformation Towards Sustainable and Resilient Societies’ was held at the UN Headquarters in New York on 5th and 6th of June, 2018. This STI Forum set out to discuss a suit of the sustainable development goals, namely sustainable management of water and sanitation for all (SDG 6), sustainable consumption and production patterns (SDG 12), and sustainable terrestrial ecosystems (SDG 15). It also discussed how to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all (SDG 7) and how to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable (SDG 11). I participated in the panel debate on ‘Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Terrestrial Ecosystems (SDG 15)’ – emphasizing the importance of food systems in the context of SDG 15. My statement is summarized below. The panel debate aimed at helping to identify good practices and policy recommendations, as well as challenges and needs, especially as they relate to international cooperation, innovation and capacity-building, with a view to facilitate the development, scaling up adoption and dissemination of relevant technologies for SDG 15. A food system can be described as a system that embraces all the elements (environment, people, inputs, processes, institutions, infrastructure, markets and trade) and activities that relate to the production, processing, distribution and marketing, preparation and consumption of food and the outputs of these activities, including socio-economic and environmental outcomes. A sustainable food system delivers food and nutrition security for all in such a way that the economic, social and environmental bases to generate food security and nutrition for future generations are not compromised.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
       
  • Equilibrium of the Food Marketing System: a Debate of an Ethical
           Consumption Performance Based on Alternative Hedonism
    • Abstract: Abstract Discussions about the impacts of marketing systems on society have been strongly encouraged in the field of macromarketing. However, these studies have focused on analyzing human and organizational actors, neglecting, to a large extent, the impacts of practices of marketing systems on other non-human stakeholders, such as those associated with or materialized in the form of a product. This article debates the material basis of the product of animal origin based on the concepts of justice, stakeholder theory, and externalities. An argument was developed attributing the status of a moral agent to the animals used to make products and focusing on this debate, arguing for the establishment of a consumption pattern that morally considers animals. This was made feasible by new alternatives for food performances exemplified by the conduct of vegetarian and vegan consumers.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
       
  • The Ethics of Labeling Food Safety Risks
    • Abstract: Abstract Food producers have answered increasing consumer demand for transparency through disclosure of information on food labels. Food safety labels act as a signal to consumers that certain products may pose a risk to human health. These labels are based on developments in microbiology and/or represent a required response to foodborne illness outbreaks. However, the scope of the risk posed by product consumption, as well as who is most vulnerable to harm, varies based on the ethical reasoning underlying the presence of the label on the package. This paper applies Thompson (International Journal of Food Science and Technology 36: 833–843, 2001)‘s theory on two contrasting ethical approaches to risk communication – choice optimization and informed consent – to evaluate the four most common food safety labels in the US: i) unpasteurized juice warnings; ii) egg carton safe handling instructions; iii) consumer advisories on restaurant menus; and iv) date labeling. While the choice optimization approach dictates that food safety labels are a necessary tool to equip consumers with specific information that will promote public health (i.e., egg carton safe handling instructions), informed consent obliges producers to disclose all relevant risk information so consumers can choose one product or another based on its adherence to individual values (e.g., unpasteurized juice; undercooked animal products). This paper finds that the US food safety regime represents a blending of these two ethical foundations, leading to substantial variation in risk consumer tolerance and/or aversion. One effect of the intermingling of these two ethical approaches is choice overload among consumers for newer food safety labels (e.g., date labels). This paper concludes with a discussion of policy prioritization in the context of an increasingly crowded food label marketplace.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
       
  • Against Inefficacy Objections: the Real Economic Impact of Individual
           Consumer Choices on Animal Agriculture
    • Abstract: Abstract When consumers choose to abstain from purchasing meat, they face some uncertainty about whether their decisions will have an impact on the number of animals raised and killed. Consequentialists have argued that this uncertainty should not dissuade consumers from a vegetarian diet because the “expected” impact, or average impact, will be predictable. Recently, however, critics have argued that the expected marginal impact of a consumer change is likely to be much smaller or more radically unpredictable than previously thought. This objection to the consequentialist case for vegetarianism is known as the “causal inefficacy” (or “causal impotence”) objection. In this paper, we argue that the inefficacy objection fails. First, we summarize the contours of the objection and the standard “expected impact” response to it. Second, we examine and rebut two contemporary attempts (by Mark Budolfson and Ted Warfield) to defeat the expected impact reply through alleged demonstrations of the inefficacy of abstaining from meat consumption. Third, we argue that there are good reasons to believe that single individual consumers—not just consumers in aggregate—really do make a positive difference when they choose to abstain from meat consumption. Our case rests on three economic observations: (i) animal producers operate in a highly competitive environment, (ii) complex supply chains efficiently communicate some information about product demand, and (iii) consumers of plant-based meat alternatives have positive consumption spillover effects on other consumers.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
       
  • Consumers’ Recognition of Multifunctionality in Agriculture and Price
           Premiums for Environmentally Friendly Agricultural Products: Evidence from
           a Survey Experiment
    • Abstract: Abstract We conduct an online survey experiment to determine the influence of multifunctionality recognition in agriculture on the price premiums of environmental-friendly agricultural products. We use the case of fish-friendly rice produced in Shiga prefecture, Japan, which contributes to the conservation of the water and ecosystem in rural areas around Lake Biwa by setting up fish ways and reducing the use of herbicides. We assume two conditions for consumers to pay premiums on environmental-friendly agricultural products. The first is that consumers recognize multifunctionality in agriculture. The second condition is that consumers have a correct understanding of environment-friendly agricultural products. We thus examine the effects of respondents’ attributes on their responses to two types of visual stimuli: one associated with the multifunctionality of agriculture and information about environment-friendly agricultural products. In the analysis of the respondents; willingness to pay, the price premium of the group with both the stimulus and information is significantly higher than the price premium of the control group with no interventions. However, the price premium of the group with only the stimulus is not statistically different for the control group. The policy implication of this research is that consumers are more likely to support agri-environmental policies if they recognize both the multifunctionality of agriculture and the properties of environmental-friendly agricultural products. The two types of stimuli have complimentary effects on increasing price premiums. Promoting the recognition of multifunctionality is especially important for those who do not usually access information on agriculture.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
       
  • The Quantified Animal: Precision Livestock Farming and the Ethical
           Implications of Objectification
    • Abstract: Precision livestock farming (PLF) is the management of livestock using the principles and technology of process engineering. Key to PLF is the dense monitoring of variegated parameters, including animal growth, output of produce (e.g. milk, eggs), diseases, animal behaviour, and the physical environment (e.g. thermal micro-environment, ammonia emissions). While its proponents consider PLF a win-win strategy that combines production efficiency with sustainability goals and animal welfare, critics emphasise, inter alia, the potential interruption of human-animal relationships. This paper discusses the notion that the objectification of animals by PLF influences the developmental pathways of conventional industrial farming. We conduct a conceptual analysis of objectification by comparing discussions in feminist ethics and animal ethics. We find that in animal ethics, objectification includes deontological arguments regarding instrumentalisation, de-animalisation, alienation, commodification and quantification of animals. The focus on socio-political context and relationality connects these debates to central ideas in care ethics. We adopt a care ethics perspective to assess the implications of the objectification of animals in livestock farming. The basic claim is that sensory knowledge symbolised by the farmers’ unity of hand, head and heart would make it harder to objectify animals than abstract and instrumental reasoning where the pursuit of knowledge is intertwined with the pursuit of control, as in mainstream PLF. Despite of what can be considered as a good caring relationship between farmers and animals that is mediated by PLF, people involved in conventional industrial farming still seem to become further detached from farmers and animals, because the PLF system itself is objectifying. PLF redefines the notion of care, in terms of data transparency, standardisation of methods for analysis, real-time collection and processing of data, remote control, and the use of digital platforms. This creates new expectations and requires a redistribution of responsibilities within a wider scope of relations in the value chain.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
       
 
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