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  Subjects -> PHILOSOPHY (Total: 849 journals)
Showing 401 - 135 of 135 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Philosophical investigations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Philosophical Logic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Philosophical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Philosophy : A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Philosophy in Schools     Open Access  
Journal of Philosophy, Culture and Religion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Political Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Religion and Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Religion and Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Scottish Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Speculative Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the American Philosophical Association     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the History of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of the Philosophy of Games     Open Access  
Journal of the Philosophy of History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Sociology and Theory of Religion     Open Access  
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of World Philosophies     Open Access  
Journal on Computational Thinking (JCThink)     Open Access  
Juris (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Jurnal Dinamika Penelitian : Media Komunikasi Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam (Journal of Islamic Economics and Business)     Open Access  
Jurnal Filsafat     Open Access  
Jurnal Konseling Gusjigang     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Living Hadis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Theologia     Open Access  
Jurnal Ushuluddin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jus Cogens : A Critical Journal of Philosophy of Law and Politics     Hybrid Journal  
Kader     Open Access  
Kairos. Journal of Philosophy & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kalagatos : Philosophical Journal     Open Access  
KALAM     Open Access  
Kant Yearbook     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Kant-Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Kantian Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies     Open Access  
Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Kirke og Kultur     Full-text available via subscription  
Kodifikasia     Open Access  
Kontemplasi : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin     Open Access  
Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
KÜLLİYAT Osmanlı Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Kultura i Wartości     Open Access  
Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal     Open Access  
Labyrinth : An International Journal for Philosophy, Value Theory and Sociocultural Hermeneutics     Open Access  
Labyrinthe     Open Access  
Las Torres de Lucca : Revista Internacional de Filosofía Política     Open Access  
Lato Sensu : Revue de la Société de philosophie des sciences     Open Access  
Laval théologique et philosophique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Law, Ethics and Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Le foucaldien     Open Access  
Le Portique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Leadership and the Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Lebenswelt : Aesthetics and philosophy of experience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Les ateliers de l’éthique : The Ethics Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Les Cahiers philosophiques de Strasbourg     Open Access  
Letras : Órgano de la Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Huamans     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Levinas Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Lexicon Philosophicum : International Journal for the History of Texts and Ideas     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Library Philosophy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Límite : Revista Interdisciplinaria de Filosofía y Psicología     Open Access  
Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Linguistics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Locke Studies     Open Access  
Logic and Logical Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Logique et Analyse     Full-text available via subscription  
Logos & Episteme     Full-text available via subscription  
Logos i Ethos     Open Access  
Logos. Anales del Seminario de Metafísica     Open Access  
Logos: Revista de Lingüística, Filosofía y Literatura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Macalester Journal of Philosophy     Open Access  
Manuscrito     Open Access  
Marwah : Jurnal Perempuan, Agama dan Jender     Open Access  
Mayéutica     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mediterranea : International Journal on the Transfer of Knowledge     Open Access  
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences     Open Access  
MELINTAS     Open Access  
Metafísica y persona     Open Access  
Metaphilosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Metaphor and Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Metaphysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metaphysics     Open Access  
Méthexis International Journal for Ancient Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Methodos     Open Access  
Midéo : Mélanges de l'Institut dominicain d'études orientales     Open Access  
Midwest Studies In Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Millennium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mind     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Miscellanea Anthropologica et Sociologica     Open Access  
Mises : Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy, Law and Economics     Open Access  
Mizar : Costellazione di pensieri     Open Access  
Modernos & Contemporâneos : International Journal of Philosophy     Open Access  
Moral Philosophy and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Mouseion: Journal of the Classical Association of Canada     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Muslim Heritage     Open Access  
Mutatis Mutandis : Revista Internacional de Filosofía     Open Access  
Myth & Symbol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Naturaleza y Libertad : Revista de estudios interdisciplinares     Open Access  
New Nietzsche Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Newman Studies Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Nietzsche-Studien     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nietzscheforschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Noctua. La tradizione filosofica dall'antico al moderno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nóema     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Noesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nordic Journal of Aesthetics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Nordic Wittgenstein Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nordisk Judaistik / Scandinavian Jewish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Norsk filosofisk tidsskrift     Open Access  
Nous     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
NTU Philosophical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nuansa : Jurnal Penelitian Ilmu Sosial dan Keagamaan Islam     Open Access  
O Que Nos Faz Pensar : Cadernos do Departamento de Filosofia da PUC-Rio     Open Access  
Oksident     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Health Ethics     Open Access  
Open Journal of Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Open Philosophy     Open Access  
Outlines. Critical Practice Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Overheard in Seville : Bulletin of the Santayana Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Oxímora : Revista Internacional de Ética y Política     Open Access  
Pacific Philosophical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Páginas de Filosofía     Open Access  
PAN: Philosophy Activism Nature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Paradigmi     Full-text available via subscription  
Paragrana - Internationale Zeitschrift für Historische Anthropologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Paralaxe     Open Access  
Patristica et Mediævalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pelícano     Open Access  
Pensamiento Actual     Open Access  
Pensamiento y Cultura     Open Access  
Pensamiento. Revista de Investigación e Información Filosófica     Open Access  
Pensar : Revista Eletrônica da FAJE     Open Access  
Performance Philosophy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies     Hybrid Journal  
Persona Studies     Open Access  
Persona y Bioetica     Open Access  
Perspectivas : Revista de Filosofia da Universidade Federal do Tocantins     Open Access  
Perspectives. International Postgraduate Journal of Philosophy     Open Access  
PhaenEx     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Phenomenology and Mind     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Philia&Filia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Philo : A Journal of Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Philonsorbonne     Open Access  
Philosophers' Imprint     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
philoSOPHIA     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Philosophia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Philosophia Africana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Philosophia Reformata     Hybrid Journal  
Philosophia Scientiæ     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Philosophic Exchange     Open Access  
Philosophical Books     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Philosophical Explorations: An International Journal for the Philosophy of Mind and Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Philosophical Inquiry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Philosophical Inquiry in Education     Open Access  
Philosophical Investigations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Philosophical Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Philosophical Magazine Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Philosophical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Philosophical Papers and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Philosophical Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce)     Open Access  
Philosophical Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Philosophical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57)
Philosophical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Philosophical Topics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Philosophie antique : Problèmes, Renaissances, Usages     Full-text available via subscription  
Philosophies     Open Access  
Philosophique     Open Access  
Philosophiques     Open Access  
Philosophische Rundschau     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Philósophos : Revista de Filosofia     Open Access  
Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Philosophy & Public Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Philosophy & Social Criticism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Philosophy & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Philosophy & Public Policy Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Philosophy & Theory in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Philosophy and Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Philosophy and Phenomenological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Philosophy and Progress     Open Access  
Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia e Questioni Pubbliche     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Philosophy and Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Philosophy and Theology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Philosophy Compass     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Philosophy East and West     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Philosophy in Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Philosophy in the Contemporary World     Full-text available via subscription  
Philosophy Now     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Phronimon
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1561-4018 - ISSN (Online) 2413-3086
Published by UNISA Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Phronimon: The philosophical conception of Mariology and the notion of
           Theotokos in the teachings of Saint Ambrose

    • Authors: Nicolaides; Angelo
      Abstract: Saint Ambrose (339-397 BCE) was bishop of the Italian city of Milan and was a leading writer in the Western Christian Church during the 4th century. He was an outspoken believer in the notion of Christian female virginity and succeeded in communicating prominent conceptions of God and of the Christian quest for a virtuous life. Central to Ambrose's teachings is the virginity of Mary and her role as the Theotokos (God bearer/Mother of God). This article discusses the Mariology of Ambrose of Milan, which greatly influenced the thinking of contemporary Popes including Damasus, Siricius and Leo the Great. In uncovering the Mariology of Ambrose, the researcher used various sources and went back to the official Marian pronouncements of Ambrose and also accentuated Scripture within the overall context of both Catholic and Orthodox Church teachings. A historical text-critical analysis was used and understood in terms the historic and socio-cultural context in which Ambrose lived. Biblical hermeneutics was applied to assist in the analysis of the relation between Biblical statements on Mary, Ambrosian writings and the early Church fathers, so as to arrive at a philosophical conception of Mariology and the notion of Theotokos in the teachings of Saint Ambrose.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T13:13:41Z
       
  • Phronimon: The phronesis of conservation criminology phraseology : a
           genealogical and dialectical narrative

    • Authors: Herbig; Friedo J.W.
      Abstract: During the last decade natural resource crime and criminality have received growing attention from criminological scholars. There remains, however, a spirited subterranean and unresolved debate regarding the most appropriate nomenclature/diction to portray this form of crime and its study. Varying views exist among criminological scholars regarding the most appropriate terminology to describe the study of crime in the natural resource arena which has, over the years, produced somewhat of a semantical farrago. It appears therefore that the time is ripe to interrogate this issue more methodically in an attempt to lobby criminological scholars and conservation protagonists alike to galvanise behind one cognate indicator that passes onomastical muster. An apposite truism attributed to Socrates, which can be related to the issue at hand, was in fact: "Η αρχή της σοφίας είναι ο καθορισμός των όρων", literally translated as "The beginning of wisdom is the definition of terms", encapsulating the intrinsic thrust of this narrative. In order to probe this linguistic issue and ruminate on its constituents, it was deemed prudent to seek guidance from the wisdom of certain ancient Hellenic philosophers, the prominent Spinozian, Gilles Deleuze, the Cartesian and father of modern Western philosophy, René Descartes, as well as customary English language conventions. In the form of a four-pronged alliance these resources were marshalled to underscore and unravel the present-day diachronic dichotomies and, to a certain extent, resolve the ossifying impasse. An attempt is made to dispel the factoids and ersatz definitions/terminology permeating the criminological discourse in relation to the study of natural resource crime and criminality, to wit, green, environmental and ecological criminology. Moreover, a case is made for the recognition and entrenchment of an unambiguous sub-field of study, namely conservation criminology.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T13:13:41Z
       
  • Phronimon: Heraclitus' usage of ὅστις in
           fragments DK B 5 and B 27

    • Authors: Mason; Andrew J.
      Abstract: In their basic senses the difference between ὅστις and ὅς is straightforward, corresponding to that between whichsoever/whosoever and which/who. But in usage it is often much subtler and at times negligible, both because ὅστις can like ὅς be used for a definite referent and because in certain constructions ὅς can like ὅστις denote an indefinite one. There are five certain uses of ὅστις in Heraclitus' surviving fragments, and it is notable that in each case translators do not render the term in its basic, indefinite sense but in a sense akin to ὅς. While in most cases this is clearly right, I question it with regard to B 5 and B 27, and explore what these fragments may have to say to us beyond prevailing interpretations if ὅστις is read as a true indefinite pronoun. In the case of B 27 this may, I argue, force us to revise our understanding quite radically. The paper also examines Heraclitus' use of other terms with a similarly indefinite reference (ὅς with ἄν, ὁκόςος, ὁκοῖος, ὅςος), for the purpose of establishing whether he would have used one of these in B 5 and B 27 instead of ὅστις if he intended indefinite objects there. I argue against this, since the connotations of these terms would be inapposite in these fragments in comparison with the root sense of ὅστις.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T13:13:40Z
       
  • Phronimon: Sophokles' Philoktetes and the ascent to political friendship

    • Authors: Kalimtzis; Kostas
      Abstract: Sophokles' Philoktetes was produced in 409 BC. The dominant theme that reveals itself in the play's imagery is Philoktetes' incurable illness, his nosos. This paper aims to shed light on the relationship between the play's nosos theme and the political and moral unravelling that was leading Athens to an impasse. From this vantage point, Philoktetes may be viewed as a tragedy about stasis, to be understood in its ancient meaning of a "disease", where the polis' functions become arrested and its naturally cooperating elements turn against each other with hatred. The catharsis of the play, which occurs with Herakles' epiphany, may then be interpreted as Sophokles' positing of homonoia or political friendship as the path for his polis' salvation. homonoia is a new concept that will later find its philosophical elaboration in the works of Plato and Aristotle, but Sophokles has already described its core elements: it is a friendship that is forged from grand values of great consequence, and its consummation is an athlos that calls for sacred dedication and exertion so that the passions and actions of citizens may be brought into accord with these values.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T13:13:40Z
       
  • Phronimon: The sensible and the reasonable : Plato and Rawls

    • Authors: Zistakis; Alexander
      Abstract: The problem of the relationship between the individual and the collective with respect to freedom and within the framework of democracy has been the central subject and issue of some of the liveliest theoretical debates in the last couple of decades. It mostly took the shape of the debate about and around the individualistic, liberal political theory (or theory of freedom, good and justice). However, as this text claims, this renewed interest in the relationship between the individual and the collective and the debate around it seem to remain within the boundaries set by Plato, and therefore it is one of the basic assumptions of this text that the analysis of Plato's political theory is indispensable, highly beneficial and instructive for coming to terms with this debate, as well as with those concerning democratic theory in general. To that effect, this text analyses and compares one of the central concepts of Platonic political theory - the concept of σωφροσύνη (sophrosyne), or sensibleness - with the concept of the reasonable as it has been put forward by the liberal (Rawlsian) political theory in the context of the required and desired consensus upon which a liberal political community should be established. In doing that, we try to show the striking similarities between the two and thus support the claim about the actuality and relevance of Platonic thought for democratic theory.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18T13:13:39Z
       
  • Phronimon: Ethics, politics and law in ancient Greece and contemporary
           South Africa

    • Authors: Bizos; George
      Abstract: This article juxtaposes ancient Greek and contemporary South African notions of democratic constitutions and just laws. Solon and Cleisthenes' democratic reforms are thus compared with the new South African constitution, whereas Plato's hierarchical proposal for an ideal state was influential on some apartheid verligtes. A crucial question concerns the relationship between law and ethics, i.e. whether unjust laws are to be obeyed by citizens. On the one hand is Socrates, who insists on respecting the laws of Athens in facing his death sentence; on the other hand is Bram Fischer, who refuses to obey laws that are unjust. The difference between just and illegitimate laws is further illustrated with examples from Pericles' Funeral Oration in Thucydides and Sophocles' Antigone.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:48Z
       
  • Phronimon: Receiving the ethics of power : Ficino, Plato and the education
           of a Prince

    • Authors: Dambe; Sira
      Abstract: In this paper I offer a preliminary investigation of the modalities of Plato's reception as evidenced in Marsilio Ficino's Letters to Lorenzo De' Medici. I examine some features of the genre speculum principis, which emerge from a study of this correspondence, in the light of Renaissance modes of reception, not only in relation to considerations of ethical principles, but also of specific vocabulary. In this instance, a vocabulary evocative of subjection and subservience. I hope to show how fruitful a detailed study of Ficino's correspondence might be to understand better both the significance of Plato's reception in the Renaissance and the influence that Ficino exerted on literature and the figurative arts in the 16th century and beyond.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:47Z
       
  • Phronimon: The ethics of labour : the notion of competitiveness and ethics
           in Hesiod's work

    • Authors: Boudouris; Konstantine
      Abstract: This paper will investigate Hesiod's (8th century B.C.) ethical ideas about labour, competitiveness (rivalry) and economic activity in connection with the state of affairs in the contemporary world. To this effect the following concepts will be considered :1. The socio-political and enterprising framework of Hesiod's era within which human creativity has been expressed through labour, and how this is relevant to what is happening today.. 2. The form of economic activity in Hesiod's time (and in periods after him), and the form economic activity has today.. 3. How Hesiod understood the ethical framework through which human creativity is expressed by work, and how this relates to modern times.. 4. The purpose of labour, and why labour as such is one of the main constitutive principles of political society.. 5. Hesiod's meaning in proclaiming Justice (Dikē) the supreme ethical principle of political society and how Justice is globally understood today.. 6. Respect for and the enabling of human creativity, industriousness, and a virtuous life, is important for the well-being of political society, apart from individual happiness.. 7. The way in which meaning can be given to our being and a just life through honest work, and what could this mean for political societies of the 21st century.What becomes clear through the analysis of Hesiod's thought is the value of poets' and socio-political philosophers' ideas today, within the free and competitive society in which we live, regardless of reasonable changes that could occur.. Taking this as our starting and main point, reference to the ancient Greek thought and philosophy is of the utmost importance for elucidation of problems of individual and public ethics.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:47Z
       
  • Phronimon: The retreat of the individual into private life, the decline of
           public life and the role of education

    • Authors: Theodoridis; Alexandros
      Abstract: The protracted crisis afflicting western societies, their inability to present themselves as a source of meaning and value, is leading to a decline in the public sphere of life. Within this context the individual tends to regard society as a form of compulsion imposed on him from outside, and retreats into the private sphere; he hopes to enclose himself within his own private world, and yet inexorably the same decline and decadence seeps into that private world from the wider society beyond. This "privatised" individual is an anthropological type which seems to embody the most important value of the contemporary West, none other than the unfettered expansion of power, of domination, in the form, first and foremost, of a rampant consumerism. The pursuit of selfish interests, this cutting the individual off from the society around him, which gives rise to this new anthropological model, can have no other result but to fragment, to reduce to its component parts in an abyss of disintegration, any form of collective being. In essence, its effect is to utterly annihilate that being. A central role in this process is played, obviously, by our upbringing and education, as they are conceived and affected by their main providers "the family and the school" in their conveying of the predominant spirit of the age, the spirit of nihilism.. The contemporary western world is already confronting the consequences of this state of affairs, however much post-modern thinkers would like to persuade us of the contrary. Were we in the West to ask ourselves what is required to escape from this situation, we would realize that the change that is needed is quite enormous in its magnitude. For the answer can only lie in the creation of a society in which the life of man is structured around ideals different from the pursuit of wealth, power and consumption. Yet we must never forget that such a society cannot overlook the necessary statutory framework - for the freedom of the individual has huge statutory dimensions. And this objective cannot be attained without a democratic system. Nevertheless, western civilization remains stubbornly committed to the separation of morality and politics, the separation of the inner man and the public man, thereby embodying a legacy which has its roots in Plato and descends - via the Cynics, the Epicureans and, especially, the Stoics - to Christianity.. Assuming that the creation of a new society is now necessary if the West is to rise from its moral bankruptcy, we must also remind ourselves that freedom under democracy cannot automatically resolve all issues thrown up by human existence, for human life has always involved elements of tragedy and can only be lived in this framework.. Whether the contemporary societies of the West will ever wish to shake off the spectre of power and domination and invest their energies in a truly collective existence, one defined very differently from the situation today - this, of course, we have no way of knowing. Yet should they decide to do so, it is impossible to conceive of any other path they might follow towards this goal than the path of education, an education which will develop and shape its charges as democratic citizens, as beings who cultivate their self-awareness and exercise their mental faculties and phronesis in both public and private life.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:46Z
       
  • Phronimon: Beyond the Ivory Tower : the public role of the intellectual
           today

    • Authors: Hofmeyr; A.B. (Benda)
      Abstract: In this paper, I attempt to contextualise the question regarding the public role of the academic as intellectual in terms of the present, global, neo-liberal "govern-mentality". With the aid of thinkers such as Bourdieu, Foucault, Sennett, Arendt, but also social geographer, David Harvey, it becomes clear that neo-liberalism radically attenuates the individual's capacity to enter the public sphere. This incapacitation leads to the inevitable depoliticisation of intellectual labour through the increasing individualisation of the self, on the one hand, and the rampant privatisation of the public, on the other hand. This is explained by laying bare the corrosive impact and pervasive nature of neoliberalism. Foucault and Bourdieu nevertheless believe in the possibility of resistance, which they locate in the individual and in his / her capacity as politicised intellectual. However, the repoliticisation of intellectuals and their role in the political sphere presupposes a more fundamental recovery of the public sphere. The tactical question regarding the possibilities of and means to resistance is therefore rooted in the ontological question regarding the freedom of the self that comes into being in the social space between the self and the other. In the final analysis, the thought of Levinas is used to argue that fidelity to the self is not realised through the pursuit of limitless freedom (although our freedom is undeniably at stake), but in the social dimension, which enables the self - via the other - to re-enter the public and eventually the political sphere.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:45Z
       
  • Phronimon: Traditional African spirituality and ethics - a panacea to
           leadership crisis and corruption in Africa?

    • Authors: Udeani; Chibueze C.
      Abstract: Africa, today like the rest of the world in the age of globalisation, is being confronted with diverse issues of ethical nature. The issue of the problem of leadership and corruption within the African continental leadership is a known factor. A close look reveals that these problems within the African set-up are of monumental proportions. As such it is evident that nobody who is seriously concerned about the welfare of Africa can afford not to address the issues of African leadership crisis and that of the corruption in Africa.. The idea of trying to pose the traditional African spirituality and ethics as a panacea to the leadership crisis and corruption in Africa has to do with, among other things, trying to open other perspectives within the scope of the search for solutions to these problems of Africa.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:45Z
       
  • Phronimon: One more time : Plato's conception of the immortality of the
           soul

    • Authors: Ladikos; Anastasios
      Abstract: This article discusses the immortality of the soul as Plato demonstrates it mainly in the final argument of his dialogue "Phaedo". Plato raises four different arguments for the immortality of the soul : The Argument from Opposites, the Theory of Recollection, the Argument from Affinity, and the Final Argument, given as a response to Cebes' objection. He does not seem to place equal weight on all four of these arguments. For instance, it is suggested that the Argument from Affinity by no means proves the immortality of the soul, but only shows that it is quite likely. The Theory of Recollection and the Final Argument seem to be given the greatest importance, as both of them follow directly from the Theory of Forms. But while the Theory of Recollection can only show that the soul existed before birth, and not that it will also exist after death, the Final Argument purports to fully establish the immortality of the soul, and is considered by Plato to be unobjectionable and certain. Like his third argument Plato's Final Argument addresses the question of what the relation is between the seemingly divine and immortal ideas and the soul. With reference to the Final argument's successful conclusion the soul must be shown to be immortal and indestructible as highlighted by the discussion of certain elements such a the distinction between partial immortality and full immortality, the redefinition of death, the promise to consider "coming-into-being and passing-away" and the alternative "withdraw or perish". The argument from opposite forms succeeds only in showing that the soul is immortal. The soul is characterized by life and the opposite of life is death. The soul therefore is immortal, in just the way in which fire is not-cold and three is not-even. Plato supposes that the only time when the soul could perish would be at the time of separation from the body. The argument from opposite forms and the distinction of accidental and essential predication shows that the soul always survives separation from the body. The soul therefore is being always immortal and indestructible. Socrates argues that the soul is not merely similar to the immortal ideas but that the soul always possesses within itself the immortal idea of life. Consequently, he concludes that the soul is not merely "completely" or "almost so" but that "the soul is immortal".
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:44Z
       
  • Phronimon: From 'man is the measure of all things' to money is the measure
           of all things : a dialogue between Protagoras and African philosophy

    • Authors: Ajei; M., Ramose, M.B.
      Abstract: Protagoras' declaration that "man is the measure of all things" is conventionally discussed in the context of epistemology. There was, however, a communal or social dimension to this even in ancient Greece. In the unfolding process of time, this latter dimension assumed greater intensity and expanded systematically into all aspects of human relations. The centrality of money in these relations speaks to the transition from "man is the measure of all things" to money is the measure of all things. It is precisely this thesis that the present essay proposes to defend.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:43Z
       
  • Phronimon: The humanities, technology, and universities

    • Authors: Olivier; Bert
      Abstract: This article is an attempt to put forward a persuasive argument concerning the urgent need, in the present era, for creating the necessary space at universities - particularly 'technological universities' - for humanities such as philosophy, literature, history, and so on, to be able to counteract the tendency, to regard technology as the only legitimate way of approaching reality. Considerable attention is given to Martin Heidegger's analysis of technology, in particular to his notion of Enframing (the essence of technology), as well as accompanying concepts such as 'standing-reserve' and 'ordering', in so far as these explain what happens when other, equally legitimate, manifestations of the real are suppressed in favour of technologically reducing nature as well as people to mere 'resources'. An attempt is also made to make Heidegger's esoteric language more accessible through the work of other thinkers, as well as via the use of illuminating instances of the manner in which art (for example cinema) can unmask the pretensions of technology.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:43Z
       
  • Phronimon: Platonic temperance as an ethical norm in modern business

    • Authors: Domanski; Andrew
      Abstract: Plato's voice of reason lies at the heart of the Western tradition. His ethical teaching, founded on the cardinal virtues of justice, temperance, wisdom and courage, is of universal and unchanging validity, for it transcends all differences of time, place, religion, ethnic origin, political persuasion and the like. Of these four virtues, the one most easily overlooked is temperance. Plato's notion of temperance, as elaborated in his dialogues the Laws and the Republic, is far removed from conventional modern ideas on the subject : it's manifold meanings include restraint, order, moderation, equilibrium, harmony, measure, self-control and balance. Temperance in one or other of these guises, has a vital part to play in government : the rule of law, the social contract and the doctrine of separation of powers are all demonstrably Platonic in origin. Equally important is the operation of Platonic temperance in modern business. Through the use of empirical examples, this paper studies both affirmations and violations of temperance in business practice, ancient as well as modern. The aim is to show that Platonic temperance is capable of healing the mistrust and resentment that too often cloud the relationships between a business, its employees, its customers and the public at large.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:42Z
       
  • Phronimon: Aristotle in the modern corporation : from codes of ethics to
           ethical culture

    • Authors: Rossouw; Deon
      Abstract: After a number of spectacular moral failures in corporations despite them having had codes of ethics and ethics programmes, it has become clear that a mere reliance on codes of ethics and ethics compliance programmes is not sufficient to safeguard organisations against serious ethical failures. The insight has dawned that transformation on the deeper level of organisational culture is required. This emphasis on corporate ethical culture is evident in the revised American Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Organisations as well as in the draft of the Third King Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa.. The shift from an emphasis on corporate compliance to an emphasis on corporate culture represents a shift from an act-based approach to ethics to an actor-based approach to ethics. Instead of focussing on rules of behaviour, the focus shifts to virtues of actors in the latter approach. This brings the tradition of philosophical virtue ethics into play. The question that will be addressed in this article is : 'Can a neo-Aristotelian approach to virtue ethics be accommodated in modern capitalist corporations?'. Drawing on Alisdaire MacIntyre's interpretation of the Aristotelian virtue ethics tradition as well as his critique of late capitalist organisations the possibilities and constraints of neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics for the cultivation of corporate ethical culture will be explored.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:41Z
       
  • Phronimon: Ethics qua the Divine : inflections of otherness in Socrates

    • Authors: Michaelides; Pavlos
      Abstract: Socrates' passion for questioning directly ensues from his aporetic relation to daimonion and to the god to whom he offers his obeisance and allegiance. His relation to the divine recurrently initiates aporia and questioning regarding both the nature and boundaries of human wisdom; ultimately, it is a questioning of what human knowledge might accomplish in the moral domain when empowered by theion ti, daimonion ti. This article argues against all rationalist interpretations of the Socratic daimonion and maintains that Socrates' aporetic relation to divinity is central to his commitment to questioning, it highlights the primacy of his faith in the divine over all rational deliberations and cognitively derived aporias. True, Socrates' elenctic questioning comes to the god's aid and assistance by initiating aporia on a rational level. However, it is argued here that essentially his commitment to questioning opens the possibility of self-knowledge through an aporetic relation to divinity that purely transcends the rational as well as the irrational. For Socrates, the gods have an unfettered scope of activity in the incomprehensible sphere that is other to the life of reason.. Socrates' singularity is highlighted by the remoteness of the puzzling ambiguity of the god's riddle reinforced by the enigmatic otherness of the preventive voice of daimonion, both of which foreground his ethical relation to others and otherness. The alleged wisdom and ethos of every person (every other) he encounters establishes his relation to otherness qua the divine; it is essentially a relation with the radical otherness of the other. It is a pre-ontological relation with daimonion with that which is other than reason in all ways superceding it but not in conflict with it. The aim of Socrates' elenctic questioning is to ascertain in the moral domain the nature of what is virtuous (what is bioteon) in relation to theion ti, manifesting itself vis-à-vis the apotreptic gaze or voice of divinity. Today, Socrates would continue to play the role of gadfly, to stir, urge, cajole and encourage us to reason and examine our lives but above all, he would counsel us to become well established in the divine because only then can we truly ethicize our existence.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:41Z
       
  • Phronimon: Paul, the Stoics and human rights

    • Authors: Strijdom; Johan
      Abstract: Two recent arguments trace the genealogy of human rights back to either Paul on the one hand or the Stoics on the other. First, Crossan and Reed (2004) suggest that although Paul intended his egalitarian vision and program for Christian communities in the first place, his wish that all humanity should convert to a Christian world of egalitarian justice would logically imply a basic continuity with the ideals of universal human rights. Secondly, the classicist Richard Sorabji (2002) considers whether the concept of human rights is to be found in the Stoic ideas of oikeiosis and natural law. My purpose will be to relate these two archaeological arguments, in the light of recent comparisons between Paul and the Stoics, and to hermeneutically problematize the discourse with reference to Hannah Arendt's perplexities on human rights.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:40Z
       
  • Phronimon: Plato and the modern African state : some thoughts on the
           question of justice

    • Authors: Cloete; Michael
      Abstract: The influence of the Platonic metaphysical tradition on the development of modern Western political institutions, and the modern state in particular has been quite significant. The influence of the modern Western state on the formation of the modern African state has been no less significant. In both political traditions the principles of human freedom and dignity have provided the moral impetus in the struggle for democracy and political independence. The African political experience of modernity, however, has, been less than salutary, given the devastating impact of European colonial domination and racism, as well as current neo-liberal projects of globalization. For Plato, the ideal of the good life is inseparable from the historical possibility of economic (material) well-being, without which there can be no talk of justice. Given this argument, this paper seeks to reflect upon the idea and possibility of justice in the modern African state.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:40Z
       
  • Phronimon: Beyond empiricism : on the Platonic conception of time

    • Authors: Zistakis; Alexander H.
      Abstract: Plato exposes and develops his conception of time most clearly in the Parmenides and the Timaeus. Whereas the former takes the issue of time from an ontological point of view, thus situating the concepts of temporality, eternity and infinity within his general theory of ideas and deriving it from and through the "dialectical workout" performed in the dialogue; the latter picks up the problems of time from a more cosmological perspective, thus providing a much needed determination of the relationship between the pure speculative ideas of temporality and the empirical notions and representations of the perceived physical time. This paper examines the major aspects emphasized in each dialogue as integral parts of the Platonic conception of time and thereby reconstructs this conception as a unique whole. To that effect, a comparison and contrast between the Platonic and the Aristotelian understanding of time is also provided.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:39Z
       
  • Phronimon: Proclus on the common education of men and women in the
           Republic

    • Authors: Xirogianni; Panagiota
      Abstract: In the fifth book of the Republic Plato introduces his proposal for the common education of the guardians of the ideal state by means of an analogy between dogs and humans. In the relevant section of his commentary on the republic Proclus provides an argument for this proposed common education of men and women. I explore the deductive form of the argument and the supplementary support that Proclus provides for its main premiss.. The argument is basically an application of modus ponens for establishing the natural similarity of all humans irrespectively of sex; it is further supported by Proclus' claim that all members of a species share a common way of life.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:38Z
       
  • Phronimon: Reading elements of the later Heidegger as myth

    • Authors: Griffiths; Dominic
      Abstract: This paper reads themes in Martin Heidegger's later philosophy such as the fourfold as mythical, arguing that this approach is perhaps more tenable than a purely philosophical reading.. Briefly, Heidegger describes the fourfold of mortals, divinities, the sky and the earth. For mortals to dwell poetically (live a meaningful, holistic life) they must recognise and assume guardianship of Being. This guardianship is a natural extension of our existence, once we realise the sacredness of Being as such. Thus, the fourfold represents the possibility of existing in a harmonious, saving relationship with Being. In reality, Heidegger warns, this conception of holistic existence is hindered by rampant technological enframing.. Conceptually, Ricoeur's conception of myth provides a tenable reading of Heidegger's conception. For Ricoeur, myth has a symbolic function in its power to reveal; it discloses other unprecedented worlds which transcend the established limits of our actual world. Applying these characterisations of myth yields a coherent interpretation of the fourfold, and demonstrates the centrality of this concept in Heidegger's later thought, which a more strictly philosophical approach may undervalue.. Thus this paper suggests the usefulness of a mythological approach to the later Heidegger and demonstrates myth's vitality as a profoundly human paradigm which simultaneously complements and transcends more restricted rational endeavours.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:38Z
       
  • Phronimon: Socrates' conception of justice : beyond Aristotle and Rawls

    • Authors: Evangeliou; Christos
      Abstract: In this occasion, I would like to draw attention to certain passages in the works of Plato and Xenophon, which are indicative of the Socratic novel conception of justice as a virtue (arete) and harmony of the human soul (psyche) of individual citizens of Hellenic city-states (poleis). It will become clear that Socrates' paradoxical politics of the human soul, in its search for true happiness (eudaimonia) through a virtuous life, and the conception of justice as an internal personal affair, contrasts sharply with the external, relational, and contractual or "social contract theory" of justice. The latter theory has had a long career in the history of philosophy that extends from Aristotle to John Rawls. It was known to Socrates also, but was not valued by him as much as the other, the internal.. I will argue that, if we were to listen carefully to Socrates' voice, as echoed by Plato and Xenophon, we may be able to grasp the point of urgency of the Socratic call to "take care of the soul" first, before we try to rule and be ruled with justice. It persistently invites us to turn our attention away from the external chaotic discord and towards an inner possible harmony of the human soul. It also invites us to turn away from the so-called goods, promised by the Sophistic greedy pursuit of bodily pleasure and political power, and towards the one thing inside, the most valuable and, usually, the least taken care of, the restless human soul in search for happiness. For him true human happiness is connected to justice and harmony, internally realized first and externally manifested also.. Inwardly, if anywhere, Socrates seems to suggest, from the depths of his personal experience as a Hellenic ethical philosopher, mortal man can discover a way to happiness through virtue, especially the most perfect virtue of all the ethical virtues, the virtue of justice (δίκη, δικαιοσύνη). I would like to submit that the discovery of "the inner person," is the Socratic secret, the Socratic "revaluation of values" if you wish, that sets him apart from all the Sophists of his time, as his concern with human affairs distinguishes him from the other Pre-Socratic and natural philosophers.. This Socratic conception of justice became also the basis for the Stoic conception of the Greco-Roman Cosmopolis and the Neoplatonic cosmopolitan ideal. It would seem that it is most needed in our time of globalization and should be revived and promoted.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:37Z
       
  • Phronimon: Magnesians, us, dialectic : the pre-eminence of hearing in
           Plato's Laws

    • Authors: Goff; Alastair
      Abstract: In this paper, I argue that Plato, in his final dialogue, is particularly concerned to re-examine the notion of dialectic which he develops in his earlier writings. I suggest that the shift which takes place in the Laws is away from an active dialectic of speaking and towards a dialectic of hearing founded on receptiveness to numerous and different logoi. This argument develops out of an understanding of the "real audience" of the Laws. On apprehending the mixed character of the audience of the Laws, by recognizing that it is both fictional and internal to the dialogue and flesh-and-blood and external to it, it becomes apparent that Plato's notion of dialectic, and consequently his understanding of philosophy, undergo radical alteration in the Laws.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:37Z
       
  • Phronimon: Is daar dood na die lewe?

    • Authors: Visker; Rudi
      Abstract: If we wish to understand the place of death in our contemporary societies, we need to understand first what we mean by death : what sort of entity it is or even whether it is an entity at all. A number of proposals from philosophy, religion and ordinary life are examined, and the relation between death and anxiety is used as a pointer toward an answer to the first question : death neither is nor is not, but essentially escapes the law of the excluded third. Concrete examples are developed to further explore this odd mè-ontological character of death (horror movies, pain, the desire for a-mortality, brain death etc.) with a positive bias toward the customs and mores of ordinary people (the people the philosophers try to convert). Without taking the position of the religious believer, the author finally turns toward the religious approach to death and raises the question as to how one can understand its apparent crisis (secularisation).
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:36Z
       
  • Phronimon: The trials of Socrates and Jesus Christ : a comparison

    • Authors: Ladikos; Anastasios
      Abstract: History records many controversial trials in which religious issues have been involved. In 399 BC Socrates was tried and condemned in Athens for introducing strange gods and corrupting the Athenian youth. The case was presented by Plato and Xenophon as a travesty of justice, with Socrates as a martyr to truth against superstition and prejudice. The trial of Jesus Christ of Nazareth is viewed by many as the most notable in world history and its effect on human history has been incalculable. The spiritual significance of the trial and death of Jesus is dramatically presented in the four gospels and although the nature of this significance is hard to define with exactness since the gospels are narratives and not theological treatises, it may fairly be described as residing in the evaluation of the trial and death of Jesus as the vicarious sacrifice of the son of God for humanity. Socrates' relentless pursuit of truth and irritating habit of pointing out the ignorance of others led to his trial and death and as considered by many, in this respect he foreshadowed the life and death of Jesus. By accepting the hemlock rather than submitting to exile, Socrates demonstrated that he shared both the mission and the final destiny of the prophets and the righteous.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:36Z
       
  • Phronimon: Do the humanities still have a critical and emancipatory role
           today?

    • Authors: Olivier; Bert
      Abstract: It is no exaggeration to say that the humanities are under threat today. This paper is intended to explore some of the ways in which the inalienable critical-philosophical function of the humanities is threatened at present, and turns to Julia Kristeva's notion of 'revolt', as well as comparable ideas in the work of Lacan (the ethical) and Foucault ('error' and the 'marginal'), among others, for suggestions regarding the continued relevance, and indeed, the indispensable role of the humanities concerning the existence of a world which is recognizably human.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:35Z
       
  • Phronimon: Eleatic Monism and Advaita Vedanta : two philosophies or
           one?

    • Authors: Domanski; Andrew
      Abstract: In this article, the monistic ontology of the Eleatic school of ancient Greece is examined in juxtaposition with the nondualistic Advaita Vedanta philosophy of India. The Eleatic ontology is studied through the texts of, firstly, Melissus of Samos, and, secondly, Parmenides of Elea. The characteristic features of Advaita doctrine are gathered from Upanishadic texts and the writings of Sankara. This comparative treatment demonstrates that Being, as described in the Eleatic fragments, is practically identical to the Self (or atman) which lies at the heart of Advaita doctrine. So close is this identity that the two ontologies, the Western and the Eastern, can for all practical purposes be treated as one. In the absence of convincing historical evidence to show that the one ontology exerted a direct influence upon the other, the ineluctable conclusion is that knowledge of the One Being or Self, the immortal essence and true common identity of every creature, was attained independently if not indeed contemporaneously by sages in archaic Greece and in ancient India. This conclusion, moreover, has vital practical significance at the present time: the Eleatic-Vedantic ontology is arguably the key to healing many ills which beset our age.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:34Z
       
  • Phronimon: Citizenship of the world - the Cynic way

    • Authors: Bosman; Philip R.
      Abstract: The article investigates the self-designation of Diogenes the Cynic as 'citizen of the world'. It appears, contrary to scholarly opinion, that positive content can indeed be attached to the term. However, the Cynic emphasis differs from Stoic and modern definitions of cosmopolitanism. A state with moral obligations to a common humanity does not feature largely in Cynic philosophy; instead, the Cynic's primary allegiance is to the rules of the cosmos, which call for a life of individual simplicity, self-sufficiency, moral integrity, and freedom.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:34Z
       
  • Phronimon: Stoic against the City

    • Authors: Mabille; Louise
      Abstract: In these decadent times, it is tempting to turn to Stoicism for alternative inspiration. It is misleading, however, to think that Stoicism possess a genuinely political dimension; in fact it is inimical to politics as understood in the classical sense. Drawing on Hannah Arendt and Friedrich Nietzsche, it is shown that Stoicism could be as anti-polis as the rest of the metaphysical tradition.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:33Z
       
  • Phronimon: The pedagogic act as a personal relation in the Neoplatonic
           Proclus

    • Authors: Terezis; Christos, Stavropoulou, Olga
      Abstract: This article discusses some aspects of the philosophy of education in Proclus. Based on a small part of his work Εις τον Πλάτωνος Πρώτον Αλκιβιάδην, we describe the way in which this Neoplatonic philosopher perceives Socrates' pedagogic relation to Alcibiades. The conclusions to which we were led are the following :. According to Proclus, firstly pedagogics is connected to ethics, since the former leads in a dialectical manner to the comprehension of the latter's principles; secondly, pedagogic intervention can have no results, if the young man's psychic world is not at the same time explored; thirdly, the pedagogic relation comprises an encounter of people, the lover and the beloved, in the frame of a reciprocity that is constantly broadened; fourthly, pedagogics is defined by metaphysics. Based on divine archetypes, it attempts to render the person a divine citizen of a supernatural state.. Hereupon we should remark that the Proclus syllogism not only refers to ontological matters but also to how the pupil will assimilate the virtues. It aims, in other words, to show that moral completion is connected with the knowledge of ontological metaphysical states. Thus, we may say that the person, with the virtues that he/she acquires, is a reflection of divine archetypes and the harmony that characterizes them.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:33Z
       
  • Phronimon: The dialectical method in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics

    • Authors: Finnigan; Bronwyn
      Abstract: This paper will investigate Aristotle's methodology in the Nicomachean Ethics [EN]. It is widely agreed that Aristotle's explicit account of his methodology in EN is the method of dialectic. However, it has been argued that Aristotle does not consistently practice this method and often appeals to metaphysical principles in his other texts to construct his moral theory. As a result, it has been claimed that Aristotle not only diverges from his dialectical method, but also contradicts his doctrine of the autonomy of distinct branches of philosophical enquiry.. In this paper, I will investigate what it would mean for Aristotle's account to be dialectical and will show that, although Aristotle's explicit methodology is dialectical he nonetheless diverges from this method in presenting his ergon argument. However, though he diverges from his dialectical method, I will argue that we can understand this divergence as a response to the definitive problem of EN; namely, how can we actually achieve the highest good in our actions. Thus, I will conclude that although Aristotle does in fact diverge from his dialectical method, we can understand this divergence as consistent with the claim that EN is an autonomous enquiry.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:32Z
       
  • Phronimon: Hellenic Philosophy: Origin and character, Christos C.
           Evangeliou : review

    • Authors: Antonites; Alex
      Abstract: It is not every day that a book can be described as a "must read". This one is a case in point. A good philosopher does not hesitate to puncture accepted ideas - not for the sake of becoming a sceptic or cynic - but to be critical in a positive fashion. This certainly applies to Evangeliou.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:32Z
       
  • Phronimon: Difference, συμπλοκή
           and the hierarchy of ideas in Plato's Sophist

    • Authors: Zistakis; Alexandar H.
      Abstract: Starting from the dialectic of intertwinement, the weaving together (συμπλοκή) of ideas in the Sophist, this paper tries to determine the place, function and significance of Difference and Hierarchy among platonic ideas. To that effect, it is first established that and how the notion of difference becomes the fundamental and even substantial structural principle of the dialectic of being and non-being, motion and rest, and finally of the notions of unity and identity themselves. In the second instance, the question of the hierarchy among ideas is interpreted and understood as the question of liberty. Namely, that very hierarchy is understood as an intrinsic and an innate one, i.e. as the set of dialectical relationships between ideas that follow from their own essence and being, which therefore is not nor cannot be externally imposed or forced upon them. Such a character of hierarchy is, then, recognized and exemplified in the case of the individual and the collective, where it turns out not only that there exists a clear idea of individuality in Plato, but also that every individual necessarily belongs to some collective and indeed seeks to unite with the collective in the same way and for the same reasons every thing or idea tends towards its form, or its own proper good.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:31Z
       
  • Phronimon: Was Plato's Socrates convicted by a biased jury?

    • Authors: Ackah; Kofi
      Abstract: It is a matter of scholarly controversy how much of Socrates' conviction for impiety and for corrupting the youth could be blamed on Socrates' own defence, on the strength of the prosecution's argument, which has not survived, and on prejudicial pre-trial slanders against Socrates. At a point in his trial Socrates was convinced, and he effectively told the jury this, that he has ably disposed of the charges brought against him and that if he is convicted, it would be the result of judicial bias, namely, of the enduring prejudicial pre-trial slanders against him. The burden of this paper is to examine the verifiability of Socrates' claim that he was convicted by a biased jury.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:31Z
       
  • Phronimon: Women as containers in classical and African / Yoruba cultures

    • Authors: Onayemi; Folake
      Abstract: The association of women with containers in agricultural terms is a universal phenomenon for the earth was the mother of every man's village and community.. The obstacles to the positive enhancement of women in both the Classical and African societies are hydra-headed. The situations of women in these societies have been compounded by factors arising from the over-romanticisation of women's role as mothers in patriarchal set-ups. This role is mythicised and symbolically represented. One of such a symbolical representation is that of a container - the earth, womb, box, and jar. Although this is a universal phenomenon, this paper examines the symbolical representation in the cultures of the ancient Greek, Roman and African / Yoruba cultures. It examines how this representation is effected in each case and shows its effects on women's empowerment in these cultures. It concludes that over-emphasising the mother-role in representing women as containers can be a demeaning factor that makes women struggle against multiple disadvantages in these societies.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:30Z
       
  • Phronimon: The journey of the soul in Parmenides and the Katha Upanishad

    • Authors: Domanski; Andrew
      Abstract: In the terse and compressed language of poetry, the Presocratic philosopher Parmenides of Elea expressed, for the first time in the West, the deepest ideas of nondualistic metaphysics. These ideas bear a close resemblance to, but are not necessarily derived from, the Vedantic philosophy which informs the Upanishads and other metaphysical texts of ancient India. The prooemium to the poem of Parmenides contains a graphic metaphor in which the soul's progress towards ultimate truth is represented by the journey of a chariot. In developing his metaphor, Parmenides shows how it is Justice which determines the progress of the soul. His vision of Justice is both individual and universal.. This article examines Parmenides's parable of the chariot in comparison with a remarkably similar image which occurs in the Katha Upanishad.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:30Z
       
  • Phronimon: The pursuit of justice in Plato's Republic

    • Authors: Ladikos; Anastasios
      Abstract: The pursuit of justice in the Republic commences when the elderly, wealthy Cephalus suggests that justice involves nothing more than telling the truth and repaying one's debts. But Socrates points out that by following these simple rules without exception could have dire consequences. In an effort to avoid such difficulties, Polemarchus offers a refinement of the definition by suggesting that justice means "giving to each what is owed". The new definition codifies formally our deeply-entrenched practice of seeking always to help our friends and harm our enemies. Thrasymachus recommends that justice should be seen as the advantage of the stronger because those in positions of power simply use their might to decree what shall be right. Glaucon and Adeimantus continue with the challenge concerning the meaning and the nature of justice. According to Glaucon the pursuit of justice disadvantages the just when they are deprived of the social rewards for their behaviour because justice is a social compromise. It is well known that people ignore the demands of justice when certain opportunities arise. Adeimantus places the emphasis on the condition of the individual soul, and of the individual himself, rather than the strength of justice over injustice. However not everyone will agree that justice should be defended as praiseworthy for its own sake, rather than for the extrinsic advantages that may result from its practice. Socrates expounds on the importance of justice in a simple though ambiguous sense, pointing to the fact that true justice must also contribute to the self-fulfilment of the just man. The just city serves the primary purpose of illuminating the just soul which is liberated from the subjection of injustice.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:29Z
       
  • Phronimon: Is man by nature a political and good animal, according to
           Aristotle?

    • Authors: Papadis; Dimitris
      Abstract: According to Aristotle a person is by nature a political animal. He / she is namely predestined to live as a socio-political being. He / she belongs to those gregarious and "political" animals who share a common activity. A person's politability-sociability certainly reaches its peak with his participation in the political society of the polis where his rational nature is fully realised. However a person is by nature a good animal. This of course applies to all physical beings. All beings as beings are good, since nature in its entirety is in Aristotle's view good and purposeful. But not only are all beings good but they also pursue good whether this is actually good or it only seems to be good. In each case the good is identified with purpose and constitutes the fullness of its natural appetite thereof. A person is good ontologically in two ways : He / she is good and desires to do good and only the good.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:28Z
       
  • Phronimon: Autonomy, authority, and law-abiding : Aristotle EN v. 1-2

    • Authors: Benitez; Eugenio
      Abstract: Scholars disagree about Aristotle's views on political obligation. Most treat Aristotle as a kind of authoritarian, but a few think he was a proponent of individual autonomy. Aristotle never presents any arguments explicitly for or against political obligation, however, so his views have to be inferred. The most recent works have tended to piece together Aristotle's argument from what he tells us in the Politics about the political and legislative activity of a good citizen. But we ought to look at places where Aristotle's ethical and political theory overlap. A good text for this examination is EN V.1-2 where Aristotle describes justice as law-abiding. A close look here shows that Aristotle takes law-abiding to be the essence of justice. Thus he appears to think that political authority is more fundamental than individual autonomy. An argument can be made, however, that Aristotle takes it to be in an individual's best interest to have this attitude towards law. Thus he may believe that although conflicts between individual and civic interest should generally be resolved in favour of the city, the decision, by a just person, to resolve them this way, is at least consistent with autonomy, and grounded in prudence.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:28Z
       
  • Phronimon: The portrayal of Socrates by Damascius

    • Authors: Kalogiratou; Androniki
      Abstract: In this paper I propose to investigate Damascius and his relation to Socrates. Late antique Hellenistic philosophy has occasionally proven to be an area riddled with a fascinating array of syncreticism, mystery and inconsistency. My aim is to see how the image of Socrates has been preserved but also altered to fit the conceptions of the time. I started my investigation with the suspicion that Socrates would have been reduced to a puppet, a non-entity, crushed by a thousand year absence. Instead he emerged almost unscathed and re-invented : a symbol of pagan resistance against Christian oppression, a speculative philosopher, carrying the Platonic and Neoplatonic thought firmly on his shoulders, but also an exemplary teacher, mentor and exponent of practical wisdom.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:27Z
       
  • Phronimon: Real resemblances : falsity and the kinds of being

    • Authors: Galgut; Elisa
      Abstract: This paper examines the discussion of the kinds in Plato's Sophist. The kinds are posited as ways of allowing for the possibility of speaking about negation and difference. In order to claim that certain kinds of activities speak falsely, it is necessary to illustrate that speaking of what is not does not involve a logical contradiction. This discussion also has important consequences for a view of the arts that is representational in essence.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:27Z
       
  • Phronimon: MUTHOS, LOGOS, NOUS : in pursuit of the ultimate in human
           thought

    • Authors: De Beer; C.S.
      Abstract: The aim of this essay is to explore as far as possible the full meaning of the three terms muthos, logos, and nous (myth, reason, thoughtfulness) as expressions of human self-understanding and then to link these three terms in an attempt to give an account of the validity and essential place and function of each of them in human discourse, in meaning-giving exercises, and in the understanding of the world, in the hope of revealing in the process the indispensable significance of each of these terms for human life.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:26Z
       
  • Phronimon: Security and happiness in Aristotle's polis

    • Authors: Ranger; Jean-Philippe
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the telos of Aristotle's polis and on the laws' effectiveness in achieving this end. The polis aims to make citizens happy. However, I argue that due to the means the polis possesses, it can only provide security through an imitation of virtue. Aristotle wants citizens to find happiness in a polis, but emphasizes the good of the polis over the happiness of individual citizens. I show Aristotle does not oppose the individual and the common good since the latter is composed of individual goods. Yet at the same time, Aristotle's analysis of the acquisition of aretè in the Nicomachean Ethics reveals the laws' inability to make citizens happy. As guidelines for action and instruments for correcting deviant behaviour, laws provide means by which citizens habituate themselves to virtuous actions. However, there is a difference between virtuous actions and true virtuous character. Good laws aim to make citizens virtuous, thus happy, yet may only succeed in ensuring virtuous action. In reality, a law-abiding citizen more closely resembles a continent agent than a virtuous one. Therefore, Aristotle's polis may not necessarily make citizens truly virtuous and, therefore, not necessarily happy.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:25Z
       
  • Phronimon: Aristotle and the South African Constitution : the presence of
           the past

    • Authors: Okharedia; Akhabue A.
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show how Aristotle's early scholarly thoughts and writings influenced the present democratic constitution of South Africa. His ideas on the concept of justice classified into (a) distributive justice (b) commutative justice and (c) retributive justice were found to be useful in the drafting of the new South African Constitution of 1996. Chapter Two of the new constitution exhibits a remarkable similarity with Aristotle's suggestions about the implementation of democratic principles. In this paper much attention is paid to chapter two of the new constitution (Bill of Rights) and its implementation in the new South Africa. For instance, in terms of distributive justice, he advocates the distribution of offices, rights, honours and goods to members of the community on the basis of geometrical equality and equality which takes into account the peculiar inequality of the subjects considered for the distribution. The criterion which should be used to determine equality is personal merit and not race. This issue is well emphasized in the Equality Clause of the new South African Constitution. A host of Aristotle's other early scholarly thoughts and ideas are discussed in this paper in relation to the new South African Constitution.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:25Z
       
  • Phronimon: Nietzsche, violence and justice : towards a rehabilitation of
           dike

    • Authors: Mabille; Louise
      Abstract: At the risk of engaging in a gross generalization, it can be argued that post-WWII philosophy, and in particular post-structuralist thought, tends to adhere to a passive model of justice that emphasizes phenomena like the Other (in its various forms), forgiveness, and the undermining of traditional metaphysics. In employing themes like 'undecidability', thinkers like Jacques Derrida often refer to a certain Nietzsche: the Nietzsche who set himself against the metaphysical tradition. There is, however, another Nietzsche, a Nietzsche that prized the human capacity for judging. I argue that the position of this Nietzsche seems to have drawn his inspiration from the ancient concept of dike, rather than the gentler notion of epiekia.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:20Z
       
  • Phronimon: Environment as common good and ecological crimes

    • Authors: Boudouris; Sophia K.
      Abstract: Certain human activities have a bad effect on the environment and result in a serious ecological imbalance, which can surely bring very dangerous consequences for the subsistence of human beings and risk the lives of other beings on the globe. In fact, there is a list of human activities that can be regarded as ecological crimes or crimes against nature. I will shortly mention the disposal of domestic or industrial waste in illegal landfill sites, direct disposal of wastewater in the sea or rivers, illegal trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora or other pollution incidents. What we should care about more is not to try to prevent environmental crimes by prosecuting those committing them or dealing with environmental damages, but to define our basic view of nature and the place of human beings within it, as well as our stance towards the environment itself. . The integrity of the natural environment is of paramount importance, not only as a background of human activities but also due to the fact that the primary resources, such as air, water and soil, are the conditions human lives directly depend on. In this paper, I discuss the view that the environment is a universal common good for human beings, and in fact it may be a liberal common good. Seeing things from the liberal point of view, it is easier to present convincing arguments against the view that some disparity exists between the natural world and the human beings that live within it. The natural environment as universal common good to every person has a higher-order value, which requires respect and concern. The commonality and the universality of nature as a common good imposes enduringly certain obligations to the present and the future generations, to anyone who lives or may live on this planet. Within this Rawlsian liberal perspective of the common good, I will try to elucidate how I understand an adequate distribution of rights and obligations towards the nature. Evoking a sustained and widespread commitment to "the common good" does not imply sacrificing personal freedom or individual rights. On the contrary, in a liberal community, where there is an equal distribution of rights and obligations, one is free to pursue one's own personal ends, as long as one does not cause harm to someone else and respect the other.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:20Z
       
  • Phronimon: Did the cynics condone theft? Possession and dispossession
           in the diogenes tradition

    • Authors: Bosman; Phlip
      Abstract: In this paper, I explore the evidence in the Diogenes tradition on the issue of theft. A line in Diogenes Laertius suggests that the Cynic approved of temple theft. However, before that can be taken as proof, various other factors need to be taken into account: Cynic philosophical principles, their view of the gods, and their adherence to begging and voluntary poverty. Finally, the Diogenic anecdotes dealing with theft should be considered. It appears that the Cynics could have constructed a case for legitimising theft, but that they probably neither drew the conclusion, nor put it into practice themselves. The claim that Diogenes condoned temple theft may have found its way into his Life from a hostile source, but it more probably goes back to Bion of Borysthenes.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:19Z
       
  • Phronimon: Plato's views on capital punishment

    • Authors: Ladikos; Anastasios
      Abstract: Plato's theory of punishment distinguishes scientifically administered measures, which may or may not take the form of actual punishment designed to cure a criminal of his offence which is a disease of the soul, not something which is an inseparable part of the concrete criminal act. He is aversive to retributive punishment which is designed merely to make the criminal suffer as a kind of primitive compensation for his crime. Plato does not commit himself to the view that all forms of punishment benefits the criminal as he reasons that only just punishment has this effect. Capital punishment in Plato's penology is reserved for the incurable and the bad men themselves would seem better candidates for this penalty than those who in spite of propensities to vice yet succeed in avoiding the greatest judgement. The mere infliction of suffering (timoria) makes people worse than they already were; they will not be cured or deterred as they will go from bad to worse, ultimately become incorrigible and bound to be executed as an example to others. Curing or rehabilitating the criminal in practice will mean the reshaping of his character to a pattern approved by the authorities. The death penalty is imposed for the worst offenders but in Plato's opinion it is not considered to be an extreme penalty. This paradox can only be understood when pondered through Platonic assumptions about morality, happiness and existence after death.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:19Z
       
  • Phronimon: Address by Father Smangaliso Mkhatshwa, Executive Mayor of the
           City of Tshwane, at the South African Society for Greek Philosophy and the
           Humanities Conference on "Ethics, Politics, Criminality : Perspectives
           from Greek Philosophy and Africa", Tshwane, 4 May 2005

    • Authors: Mkhatshwa; S.
      Abstract: Director of Ceremonies - Dr Ladikos, Your Excellency Mr Economides - Greek Ambassador to our Country, Academics, Honoured Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen.. I am delighted that the Universities of South Africa and Pretoria are hosting a conference on issues which are often viewed as rather theoretical when they are in fact an important basis of societal transformation. Particularly pleasing is the fact that our universities are facilitating a colloquium in a discipline which is often erroneously associated with exoticism. I am, therefore, honoured to welcome you to the pre-eminent city of scholarship in Africa. Let me say upfront that we are discussing tonight perspectives of Greek philosophy and Africa - not contrasting two systems of philosophy. Africa would be at disadvantage.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:18Z
       
  • Phronimon: Editorial

    • Authors: Mkhatshwa; S.
      Abstract: The Fourth International Conference on "Ethics, Politics, Criminality : Perspectives from Greek Philosophy and Africa" was organised by the South African Society for Greek Philosophy and the Humanities in cooperation with the International Association for Greek Philosophy, the University of Pretoria the University of South Africa and various other local communities and associations.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:18Z
       
  • Phronimon: The common good, moral education and criminality

    • Authors: Boudouris; Konstantine
      Abstract: In this article we support the view that putting the common Good above the right and the private is the necessary element of proper political philosophy that moves within the framework of liberal, open and democratic societies. Common Good does not only concern the society, but the wider political community as well. This common Good needs to be considered according to the prescriptions of Greek political philosophy (Plato and Aristotle) and not in the limited, narrow sense of contemporary communitarians. Thus, the most important common good for the state is education, which should be provided to all free of charge and based upon the ethical character of the Good, and not simply upon the putative social-political correctness. Such education, especially during the first years of one's life, unites the state and presents a strong preventive and averting weapon against every kind of criminality. However, such education cannot be provided by a morally neutral and allegedly impartial and non-committed state. That is why the principle of neutrality of the state in contemporary political philosophy seems like a medicine given to the patient only in order to preserve her/him in life and not to cure her/him. Of course, such political community is not capable of dealing with any kind of criminality as long as the main body of the state remains eroded by the private and by misconceived personal interest.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:17Z
       
  • Phronimon: Is Protagoras' moral relativism unavoidable today?

    • Authors: Antonites; Alex
      Abstract: Serious problems on crime, environment etc. exist today which can only be addressed successfully on an international scale. This is only possible if humans worldwide share many values of right and wrong. Protagoras (481BC) would have denied this downright. He claimed that the existence of universal valid truths and moral values as well as the capacity to find them is impossible. This view, for not exactly the same reasons, is also prevalent today. For Protagoras and other Sophists who focussed rather on ethics, arête = virtue was a wide concept. They claimed that they could teach a more virtuous life. This in a time when traditional ethical norms for Athenians collapsed : universal norms of good and right, and its religious foundations, were lost. It had no general validity. Nothing was put in its place. Protagoras' sceptical approach was derived from his epistemological approach. In place was individual moral relativism : what is good for me, is good for me. Callicles claimed eventually that right is the right of the strongest. The possibility of foundations was denied (e.g. religious foundations) - about the gods we can say nothing. The foundations are human devices depending on subjective and contingent conditions. Today several value systems, each with its own norms as to good and bad, is well known. We have no quick fix recipes and answers for serious worldwide problems like crime (terrorism, drugs, enslaving of children, etc), animal ethics, environment, cloning, and euthanasia. For the solving of these, worldwide action is logical. But it is hardly possible if common values are absent. To what will we appeal to combat crime like terrorism? Is this possible or shall we have to fall back on Protagoras' dictum of individual moral relativism? The possibility of a common shared foundation for morality had been seriously challenged in ethics. This in the name of anti-foundationalism. Like Protagoras, it is denied that there can be absolutely secure insights grounding our moral (and epistemological) knowledge. Like Protagoras, it is argued that insight is rather based on purely subjective and contingent experience. I also argue that a universal absolute secure foundation for morality is unlikely. However, I argue that a limited common foundation is quite possible. Substratums in an infinite regress (foundationalism) can be avoided. However, the term "foundation" can be used without a foundationalist connotation. I argue for foundations in a limited sense as providing good reasons for accepting a conclusion. This involves a limited basis of universally accepted shared values. These shared values can be known directly by any rational being.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:17Z
       
  • Phronimon: Ethics, politics, and criminality : Plato's cosmological
           perspective

    • Authors: Naddaf; Gerard
      Abstract: In the Laws Plato argues that no one who believes in the gods would voluntarily commit a crime. Plato's view on the nature of the gods is radically different from the traditional Greek view which portrays the gods as human beings writ large. He advanced the opinion that the gods are not jealous, vindictive, greedy, and corruptible, but rather morally virtuous, incorruptible, and happy. This is reflected in Plato's law on impiety in Laws 10, which contends that any lawless, impious, or criminal act is due to one of three possible misunderstandings about the gods : 1. that the gods do not exist; 2. that the gods exist, but do not care for us; 3. that the gods are corruptible. While Plato is of the opinion that the third heresy is the worse of all, since the gods are (or must be) the models of virtue and happiness for the political community, he must first demonstrate that the gods exist and then that they care for us. The atheism that Plato confronts was a consequence of natural philosophy or more precisely, of the way it developed following the birth of philosophy. While the notion of divinity was inherent in the concept of "phusis" (nature) from the very first Greek cosmologies, the fact remains that for the "phusiologoi" the order that makes our world a cosmos is natural, that is, immanent in nature, and thus explicable without recourse to an intentional cause. In the Laws, Plato asserts that atheism is a disease that recurs periodically and that afflicts a certain number of minds. The cause of atheism is not, according to Plato, the inability to master pleasures and desires but rather the "phusiologoi" and their writings, which contend that the law and morality guaranteed by the gods do not exist by nature but derive from convention. An influential part of the intelligentsia seized upon these theories and concluded in word and deed that one's egoistic passions should not be restricted and that the behaviour of the gods of traditional religion did indeed constitute models to follow. In this article, an attempt is made to show how Plato's ethics, politics, and cure for crime in the Laws are grounded in his counter-cosmological perspective, which he feels is based on arguments that will be acceptable to all.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:16Z
       
  • Phronimon: Plato's ethical values : what lessons for today?

    • Authors: Domanski; Andrew
      Abstract: In this article is postulated a set of ethical guidelines, derived from Plato's philosophy, capable of serving as a template or model for everyday conduct and decision-making by modern business persons and professionals. This Platonic Model ('PM') of ethical conduct is founded on the key values and virtues of reason, lawfulness, justice, temperance, wisdom, and courage. These are the universal values and virtues which Plato presents in his dialogues as the foundation of ethical human conduct at all times and in all places. While the ethical norms contained in the PM never change, their application must of course be tailored to meet the needs of a particular age and society. Thus this article gives empirical examples to illustrate the role which the PM can play in the modern African business world.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:16Z
       
  • Phronimon: Plato and Vedanta

    • Authors: Ram; Indranie
      Abstract: The relationship between Plato's conception of the existence of a soul as compared to the Vedantic view of a soul will be analysed. Vedanta philosophy holds in agreement with Plato that there is a magazine of knowledge and power within us already. By amalgamating the thinking of Plato and Vedic philosophy I will attempt to show how philosophical thinking is universal. This universality allows one to critically appraise knowledge from multiple perspectives providing a lever for a new understanding of oneself and thereby challenging one to broaden his/her own perspective, enabling one to see, whether one likes it or not, what s/he has become, and can through self-analysis become. My purpose in this paper is to develop a capacity to see the world multi-dimensionally, integrating, enlarging, and expanding our artificially restricted horizons. A combination of methods and a receptive attitude toward knowledge has widespread implications for the interpretation of the lives we live. It is my purpose to demonstrate the validity and necessity of an examination of multi-cultural dimensions of reality, in this instance the Greek and Hindu perspectives and teachings. The ability to make moral distinctions can be linked to an evolutionary progression of one's soul's journey. The implicit, intrinsic nature of consciousness to the mind - body duality will be analysed. I will propose that the elevation of one's consciousness in the search for a perfect state of being is the common thread in both Plato and Vedanta.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:15Z
       
  • Phronimon: The special world of Cavafy's poetry : from symbol to reality :
           A lecture presented at the University of Michigan sponsored by the Cavafy
           Professorship, Ann Arbor, Michigan. October 8, 2003

    • Authors: Anton; John P.
      Abstract: The essay focuses on the literary theme of nostos, as it was handled in post-Homeric poetry, especially the nostos of Odysseus concerning "the sweet day of return" and the pangs of nostalgia. The occasion in this essay is C. P. Cavafy's well known poem "Ithaka." It shows how the central emotion of nostos has been altered in leading works of post-classical poetry and replaced with a quest for the post-Ithaka voyage of Odysseus ending for Dante in the Purgatorium and for Tennyson in unspecified transatlantic explorations. Nor was Kazantzakis an exception to this altering of nostos when he had Odysseus' last move end with his death on the iceberg. The post-Homeric rejection of Ithaka as the center of nostos and of Odysseus' voyage has dominated the "Ulysses theme." It also transformed the hero's post-Ithaka adventures by placing the legendary hero outside the original Greek perimeter. Cavafy undertook to "repatriate" Odysseus by reintroducing the idea of nostos in a number of poems, all centered on a selective and original poetic intuition related to the quest of hedone, whereby the classical virtue of andreia was now recast and made central to a new "brave man of pleasure." The pursuit of hedone is expected to take place as the end of the hedonic voyage in the environment of a universalized conception of Ithaka. In essence it is a Grecian response to nostos promising new vistas of the splendors of the Mediterranean. Such was Cavafy's celebrated repatriation of Odysseus to his native land as fulfillment of an enriched idea of nostos.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:14Z
       
  • Phronimon: One more time : views on Aristotle's philosophy and
           intercultural philosophy

    • Authors: Van Der Westhuizen; Jacob
      Abstract: In my view a philosopher is a person of wisdom who produces a guide to life, providing us with some tools for dealing with practical problems and survival issues on at least five adaptation domains. These are a) metaphysics : man's relationship to the cosmos; b) politics : man's relationship with others; c) ethics : man's relationship with himself and his behaviour toward others; d) epistemology : man's relationship with his mind and his method of thinking; and e) aesthetics : man's relationship with and appreciation of beauty. This paper is destined to mainly present an unshackled response to the informed and well-versed papers by Anastasios Ladikos titled Revisiting the virtue of courage in Aristotle; and Murray Hofmeyer : The Promise and Problems of Intercultural Philosophy; (Phronimon - Journal of the South African Society for Greek Philosophy and the Humanities - Volume 5(2) 2004). My concern with Aristotle's ideas stems from the fact that his propositions are connected to ancient battlefield circumstances and conditions, as well as the Spartan Culture of his time. If juxtaposed with scenes of violence in our time we can draw many parallel behavioral patterns that can pass as valid and reliable characteristics of modern-day soldiers in mortal, face-to-face combat or victims of crime in violent confrontation with rapists, murderers and assaulters.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:14Z
       
  • Phronimon: Do animals have moral worth? The contemporary debate with
           special reference to Aristotle

    • Authors: Antonites; Alex
      Abstract: This paper examines reasons why animal existences can be regarded as subjects of moral concern. This debate is examined in conjunction with contemporary discussion on this issue, with Aristotle's thinking on animals in the background. The change in thought brought about by thinking on sentience is taken account of. The issue whether animals are moral agents like humans, as argued in Aristotle and contemporary thinkers, is addressed. In particular the recent views of Bekoff and Cohen are examined. With reference to Irvin and Bekoff, the moral relevance of cognitive capacities in animals is considered. The article concludes that higher capacities, especially self consciousness, are indeed morally relevant to the issue.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:13Z
       
  • Phronimon: The sangoma and the MD : the clash of western medical science
           and traditional medicine in South Africa

    • Authors: Botha; C.F.
      Abstract: The clash between traditional methods of healing and Western medical science in places like South Africa requires that we ask questions like "What is health?" "What does healing mean?" and "What is science?" This paper will first outline the presuppositions contained in the approach of Western medical science towards health and healing, and contrast it with the radically different vision of human being that emerges from some traditional South African medical practices. The author contends that the contemporary move towards the recognition of alternative medicine is concurrent with a shift in Western thinking on the nature of science, healing and human being. Some ideas on how the sangoma and the MD can work together, rather than against each other, are explored.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:12Z
       
  • Phronimon: Revisiting the virtue of courage in Aristotle

    • Authors: Ladikos; Anastasios
      Abstract: Aristotle views the courageous man as someone who endures and fears the right things, for the right motive, in the right manner, and at the right time, given that a courageous man feels and acts according to the merits of each case and as reason directs him. Aristotle is guided to some degree by distinctions inherent in ordinary terms but his methodology allows him to recognize states of courage for which no names exist. This paper also deals with Aristotle's unique emphasis on courage as linked to the battlefield for he considers the concept of courage as one of those many terms that are ambiguous. His insistence that the mean is a "relative mean" and not an objectively calculated mathematical mean, indicates his inclination towards practicality and empiricism. Developing the virtue, courage, in his view remains the shared responsibility of all citizens.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:11Z
       
  • Phronimon: The promise and problems of intercultural philosophy

    • Authors: Hofmeyr; Murray
      Abstract: In this paper I sketch the main elements of Heinz Kimmerle's conceptualisation of intercultural philosophy : a new concept of difference that makes possible a new take on "different and equal", which is the foundation for real dialogue. I interrogate the concept of culture in intercultural philosophy, and argue that for the South African context sufficient emphasis must be placed on power relations as they impact on cultures and the legacy of a history of cultural domination. I try to show that Kimmerle's notion of the equality of cultures implies that a particular context is taken seriously as a valid instance of the human condition, and in that sense it is of equal status with all other situations. All "localities" are linked in some way or another. It thus belongs to adequately conceptualising the thoughts and feelings of a specific locality that the need for dialogue should be reflected. A philosophy that negates these shifts would be disqualified as inadequate. The fact that it seeks dialogue is indicative of the experience of an aporia. It is lack, incompleteness, which is universal. I also tentatively propose "contextual philosophy" as a more appropriate name for intercultural philosophy in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:11Z
       
  • Phronimon: Difference and participation in Plato's Parmenides

    • Authors: Zistakis; Alexandar H.
      Abstract: In this paper we are examining two crucial conceptions, and therefore also problems, of the Platonic corpus; conceptions of difference and participation that establish, constitute and structure his entire thought (regardless of relative differences between particular phases of its historical development). These conceptions are examined in their intertwinement starting from the Parmenides as the primary evidence of their status and relationship in Plato. In the course of our examination, that is through the analysis of the concept of the Sudden or the Instant, a third extremely important conception emerges and acquires shape : the Platonic conception of time, which we take to be representative of the overall Greek notion and understanding of temporality. Finally, from within such conceptual framework one recognizes and acknowledges the totality of Platonic philosophy as above all the thought of liberty.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:10Z
       
  • Phronimon: Images of love and politics : Plato's conscious manipulation of
           myths

    • Authors: Strijdom; Johan
      Abstract: This paper offers a comparative analysis of the ways in which Plato used mythical language in order to convey his views on love and politics. For politics, the myth of the metals in the Republic and of Atlantis in the Timaeus / Critias will be analysed. For love, the function of myths in the Symposium and Phaedrus will be compared and contrasted. The emphasis will be on the self-conscious and subtle ways in which Plato manipulated imaginative constructs in order to serve his philosophical views.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:09Z
       
  • Phronimon: The operation of Platonic justice in the South African
           Constitution

    • Authors: Domanski; A.
      Abstract: Justice is one of the four Platonic or cardinal virtues. In his dialogues the Republic and the Laws, Plato presents a concept of justice far broader than the predominantly legalistic notions which we have received from Justinian's Roman law and from modern Western jurisprudence. This article examines Plato's notion of justice and shows that, far from being anachronistic, it plays a vital part in the South African Constitution. The operation of Platonic justice in a number of specific provisions of the Constitution is observed.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:08Z
       
  • Phronimon: Nietzsche se beskouings oor die deugde van matigheid en
           generositeit

    • Authors: Schoeman; Marinus
      Abstract: Nietzsche's views on the virtues of temperance and magnanimity The concepts of temperance and magnanimity (generosity) play a central role in Nietzsche's ethic, which is basically an ethic of virtue. In his own unique way, and in accordance with his extra-moral view of life, Nietzsche recovers and re-appropriates these virtues. Considerable attention is paid to Nietzsche's "aristocratism", which is closely tied up with his reconceptualisation ("rehabilitation") of the virtues in terms of virtù (virtuosity and vitality), to which he also refers as his "moraline-free'' conception of the virtues. . According to Nietzsche, the truly noble or virtuous person is one who lives beyond resentment and feelings of remorse and guilt. He lives his life from the fullness of his own being and what he can bestow on others. Such a person is characterised, first of all, by temperance - a sense of measure and proportion.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:08Z
       
  • Phronimon: Nietzsche and Arendt in Casterbridge : on the burden of History

    • Authors: Mabille; L.
      Abstract: The article raises the question whether postmodern attempts to re-write history does not, despite its best efforts, fall back into the homogeneity of metanarrative. By doing this, Nietzsche's critique of monumental and antiquarian history is addressed, as well as Gadamer's dialogical model of history writing and the rise of the museum, or archive as a modern phenomenon. In addition, I ask whether metanarrative is avoidable at all, and, by referring to Walter Benjamin and Hannah Arendt's image of the pearl diver, make a plea for a critical engagement with the past.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:07Z
       
  • Phronimon: Ethics in policing

    • Authors: Prinsloo; Johan, Kingshot, Brian
      Abstract: A number of ethical issues and dilemmas are to be found in policing. Police officers do engage in unethical behaviour which often originates from the norms of the organisational culture. However, the working in the world of policing provides officers with the ability to rationalise excuse and justify unethical behaviour, while maintaining a moral self image. . Culture, values and norms as unconscious and conscious feelings are terms which have different, though not unrelated meanings and manifest themselves in human behaviour. In this article the significance of tensions between the organisational culture and the dynamics of ethical dilemmas inherent to public policing are discussed. . However, and despite evidence provided by structural and procedural theories, it is important to understand that accountability, especially individual level accountability, has profound implications for the development and sustenance of police culture and ethics. Firstly, it misdirects problems away from organisational sources towards the individual. The intense focus on individual responsibility prohibits organisational assessments of problems that might create conditions for their resolution. Secondly, it is argued that to protect themselves officers will develop strategies that obstruct external enquiry into their personal affairs. Then efforts aimed at the external imposition of accountability will always engender the paradox of personal accountability. The more officers are held responsible for the outcome of police-public interactions, the more difficult it will be to hold them administratively accountable. . Ethics provide the theoretical basis for the principles of moral behaviour and sustain both the boundaries for morality and the pathways for proper thinking about real life choices. Both ethics and morality are concerned with the distinction between right and wrong. The difference between the terms is similar to the difference between thought and action. Ethics are concerned with analysis and reflection on the problems of human conduct. Morality is more about the nature of the conduct itself. There should be a clear relationship between an appropriate ethical system, individual and organisational moral values, judgement and decision-making. Ethics are, therefore, concerned with making the right judgements and do things right (rather than ritualistically doing the right things) for the rights reasons. . The outlined principles provide a comprehensive ethical framework in which a balanced way of thinking about policing, the need to consider problems applying all the approaches and the consideration of a wider set of arguments can be realised.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:06Z
       
  • Phronimon: The Platonic pair ''limit - infinitude'' according to the
           Neo-Platonist Damascius

    • Authors: Terezis; C.
      Abstract: Damascius maintains that according to the Platonic text the cause and principle of Intelligence is the Limit, whereas that of Pleasure is Infinitude. By using the logical principle of analogy, he points out that any relationship which exists between causes-principles also exists between their products. By arguing regarding the content of Limit and Infinitude Damascius introduces an ontological monism. Therefore his explanations are based on the favourite distinction of the Neoplatonic Philosophers between Unity and Dyad and, thereby, between Unity and Plurality. . Furthermore he develops a syllogism on the basis of analogies which exist among the causes in order to make a reliable presentation of the priorities. He pursues another syllogism dealing with the meaning of production which means that he excludes its mechanistic operation in a quest spread upon theories which support the absolute metaphysical foundation of the physical world. . Damascius proposes a common methodology and one theory as everything which exists is created or is going to be created. In his view ontology includes teleology as an inherent element. Despite his attempt to interpret the metaphysical world rationally, he remains attached to the principles of negativismus.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:05Z
       
  • Phronimon: Aristotle's Stoichiology : its rejection and revivals

    • Authors: Bargeliotes; L.C.
      Abstract: Aristotle's rejection and reconstruction of the Pythagorean mathematization of things, of the Democritean and Platonic atomism, and the "materialism" of the pre-Aristotelian cosmologies, in general, are mostly based on his strikingly original theory of stoichiological opposites (έναντία στοιχεΐα), that is, the basic triadic set of principles, which, though ontologically distinct, are, intimately related. The theory involves : (a) the subject-in-process, which is continuous throughout the process of change or the substrate matter or the potentially perceptible body, (b) the four perceptible contrarities, hot, cold, wet, and dry, which form the prime pair of contraries of the chemical elements, and (c) the four primary, actually perceptible bodies, fire, air, water and earth, which are subject to destruction and generation, also designated by the terms : "the first bodies" (τά πρωτα σώματα), "the simple bodies" (τά άπλά σώματα), and which are distinguished from the traditional, the "so-called elements" (τά καλούμενα στοιχεΐα).
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:04Z
       
  • Phronimon: The Greek philosophers and the development of science. Will
           their influence also lead to the completion of science?

    • Authors: Antonites; A.J.
      Abstract: In this paper it will be argued that Ancient Greek Philosophy, seen from the point of view of contemporary science is not only important but also of guiding influence. Many scholars are of the opinion that science has, in many aspects, reached its final success, that the truth has already been attained and further research in all the fields of science is not deemed necessary. The best that may happen is that very small modifications may occur, but still no new substantial discoveries could in principle be made because we have reached the limits of what is to be known. What is more, is that this possible dramatic event, even though far off in time from the the Greeks, may have something important to do with them. In this respect, a few questions will come under consideration such as : Were the basic scientific guidelines that came from the Greeks, ways of thinking which led science to this high mark and end limit? Could it be claimed that the influence on science is in all aspects related to the Greeks? What about so many other cultures and technological civilizations? What would the important influence of Greek thinking be on contemporary scientific thinking? Is it really the case that the Greek influence would bring science to its completion and end? These questions immediately brings two issues to the fore a) the possibility of other technological civilizations that influenced the development of science until today and b) the possible end of science. Although these two issues, are distinguishable issues, the first one is a necessary condition for the second one. The article is designed by taking this conditionality into account.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:04Z
       
  • Phronimon: Søren Kierkegaard se keusevryheid as invloed op die
           eksistensiële fenomenologie

    • Authors: Duffey; K.S.
      Abstract: A specific analysis of the work of Søren Kierkegaard pertaining to the freedom of making choices shows that the later tradition of phenomenology and existentialism can be judged in terms of their relevance to this aspect of Kierkegaard's work. In this regard the ideas of the early founders of the discerning movements (Brentano, Husserl, Jaspers and Sartre) are examined.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:03Z
       
  • Phronimon: Information strategies and democracy

    • Authors: Gericke; J.D.
      Abstract: Many attempts have been made to define the concept of democracy. These definitions are usually accompanied by certain basic ideas such as that of self-government by and for the people (i.e the state is a res publica and not the dominium of the people). The problem with this and similar definitions is that they don't reflect a true and valid picture of a political reality, but rather something like an abstract ideal for which a working realization is envisaged. To this could be added that experience with democratic systems have shown that the formal system of determining the formation of the collective will is not sufficient for guaranteeing democratic life as such. One of the consequences from this recognition is that the formal rule of voting and holding elections is not by itself sufficient for granting the realization of democratic ideals; it must be accompanied by an effective system of discourse about political and social questions, by transparency of public relations and by appropriate access to relevant information. It is the intention of the author to indicate what relevant information in a true democracy is and the negative results of withholding such information.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:02Z
       
  • Phronimon: Plotinus' defense of the platonic cosmos and its demiurge

    • Authors: Evangeliou; C.C.
      Abstract: In the histories of Philosophy, Plotinus is usually portrayed as an otherworldly philosopher whose ideal was "a life taking no pleasure in the things of earth," so much so that "he seemed ashamed of being in the body." Yet, a careful reading of the Enneads and Porphyry's Vita Plotini reveals a different picture of this extraordinary man. For example, in his effort to revive Platonism and defend the Hellenic heritage in philosophy and culture, Plotinus was compelled to engage in polemics against Gnosticism which, in the circle of the philosophers, was considered to be a form of Barbarism. It is difficult for us to imagine the calm Plotinus in the role of a passionate advocate of Platonic doctrines and the Hellenic way of living in harmony with the world. Yet, that is exactly what we find in his Against the Gnostics. The purpose of this study is, through a critical examination of the above treatise and other relevant evidence, to provide an answer to the following related questions : How did the Gnostics, in Plotinus' view, use or abuse Plato? Who were these Gnostic opponents of Plotinus and why did he find it necessary to write against them himself and to instruct his students to do the same? What is the bearing of Plotinus' anti-Gnostic polemics on the problem of the relationship of Greek philosophy, and Platonism in particular, to Gnosticism as a religious movement? I shall begin with the question of the identity of Plotinus' Gnostic opponents; I shall proceed with their use and abuse of Plato in Plotinus' view; and I shall conclude with some remarks pertaining to the problem of the relationship between Platonism and Gnosticism.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:02Z
       
  • Phronimon: Reading nature through culture in Plato and Aristotle's works
           on law

    • Authors: Junker; K.W.
      Abstract: In the human and natural sciences there are many ways of examining nature. While archaeologists, anthropologists and other scientists prefer to examine nature empirically, philosophers and other humanists are more likely to examine texts in order to arrive at an idea of, for example, the Greek world's understanding of nature. Among the scholarly treatises that we typically consider to be sources for research into Greek philosophy of nature and the environment, I selected, for the purposes of this paper, Plato's The Laws and Aristotle's Constitutions of Athens. In this paper I will argue that if we want to understand ecology or environment as cultural concepts, and we look to the law of Classical Greece, or at least Athens, we find that knowing the law is not the direct process of the present day - that is to say, we cannot simply look to written codes to understand the legal practices. Plato in The Laws, points to a comportment toward nature, through the law, which can be based upon objectively-obtained values, without resulting in material scientism. With this in mind, we citizens can determine environmental policy and law, without pretending that it is dictated by earth, air and water.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:01Z
       
  • Phronimon: Christianity and the state : towards a liberal politics

    • Authors: Langley; J.
      Abstract: The basic argument of this paper runs as follows : Using a combination of the doctrine of free will as found in Milton's Areopagitica and the Biblical doctrine of Grace as a Christian philosophical basis, Christianity is shown to support freedom, rather than prohibition, both in terms of temporal and eternal results that such political action might achieve. The primary role of the Church is one of caring for the spiritual need in people, by facilitating salvation. The secondary role is caring for the physical needs of people, through concern for their physical welfare. These two concerns may be symbolised in Jesus' injunction to Christians to be Light and Salt respectively. Some current Christian political action (as exemplified in the activities of the New Right in the U.S.A. and similar attitudes in South Africa), in terms of the aforementioned Biblical-Philosophical basis, is not justifiable, and actually harmful to the Christian cause. It creates damaging impressions of Christians on society, as well by diverting attention, manpower, prayer and finance away from more important issues. Christian political activity is very necessary, but should not be linked to the often irrelevant and non-scriptural agendas of the political Right. Rather, it should be focused on issues of Liberty, Social Welfare, and most importantly, salvation of as many souls as possible, in line with the doctrines of Grace and Free Will.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:46:00Z
       
  • Phronimon: The question of Plato's notion of 'leadership' in the Republic

    • Authors: Philippoussis; John
      Abstract: There is obviously no question that the notion of "leadership" is central in Plato's Republic, nor is there apparently any question that it is crucial, since it is foundational for Plato's society. Writing his Republic, Plato's aim as he says, was to write a "theoretical constitution" (or to critically present the theoretical framework and principles for a constitution - logô politeian) in order to "establish a good society" (aristên polin oikizein). A good society, according to Plato's theory, is the one which is founded on a good principle and grounded on a good leadership, that is to say the principle of justice and the leadership of the philosopher. However, along with his notions of "society" and "justice", Plato's notion of "leadership" has been questioned and challenged by many (often quite vehemently, especially in the 20th c. and particularly after the Second World War) and seen as a totalitarian State under a dictatorial justice of an authoritarian ruler. Therefore, the trilogy of Society, Justice and Leadership, as the core of the Platonic Republic, demands and invites again a critical re-examination : What does Plato mean by "society", "justice" and "leadership" and what does he mean by "good" (aristê) as applied to them? Does Plato consider the holistic State as the best kind of Society and the hierarchical Jurisprudence as the perfect Principle? Does he consider the autocratic Potentate as the required Philosopher-king? What does he mean by the philosophical leader under the principle of justice which, in his view, is the bedrock for his constitutionally founded society? The present article proposes to re-examine this question relating to Plato's enigmatic and controversial notion of "leadership".
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:45:59Z
       
  • Phronimon: Ancient scepticism : a chance for happiness

    • Authors: Wilkinson; L.
      Abstract: In this paper, an attempt will be made to examine the concept ataraxia as it appears in the works of Pyrro of Elis, Sextus Empiricus and other philosophers belonging to the ancient sceptical tradition. This school of thought is primarily concerned with the avoidance of disturbance (ataraxia), and they do this by suspending judgment. But the suspension of judgment is only possible given the suspension of belief. They wish to avoid disturbances which arise not only in the act of disputing judgments, but also those which arise by virtue of believing the premises involved in the dispute. The sceptic says that ataraxia comes by chance where "chance" means that ataraxia is inexplicable and naturally so. Just as the sceptics will not engage in a language of essences because they question the possibility of presenting nature in such a language, neither will they engage in the pursuit of something which cannot, in principle, be pursued - absence from trouble. For exactly how does one pursue an "absence"? Whether we agree with the ancient sceptic's way or not, there is a degree of wisdom in their recommendations that we suspend judgment on what is, in principle, not judgeable. If human happiness is such a matter, we cannot fault the sceptics for questioning philosophical attempts to arbitrate what happiness is, especially if happiness stands over and against nature.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:45:58Z
       
  • Phronimon: Postethnophilosophy : discourses of modernity and the future of
           African philosophy

    • Authors: Mungwini; Pascah
      Abstract: This work examines how the so-called postethnophilosophical phase in African philosophy - propounded by Osha (2011) - fits into the perceived trajectory of the discipline and its overriding emancipatory mandate. The work appropriates ideas from arguably the two most popular "posts": postmodernism and postcolonialism. This is done to analyse how the postethnophilosophic turn (in its attempt to transcend the discourses of ethnophilosophy and to be postethnophilosophy) opens up new possibilities for African agency and the creation of knowledge. The work argues that postethnophilosophy should concern itself with the analytic task of unmasking the darker side of modernity in order to open up those horizons and experiences once held hostage by modernity and coloniality. It is within this context that a truly global and polycentric knowledge landscape can emerge. In its quest to expose and dismantle hegemonic discourses of colonial modernity, postethnophilosophy finds itself located within the same theoretical horizon occupied by postmodernism and postcolonialism, ready to benefit from their auto-critical habit.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:45:57Z
       
  • Phronimon: Towards an ethical recontextualisation of Freud's theory of
           personality

    • Authors: Koenane; Mojalefa L.J.
      Abstract: This paper explores the possibilities of complementing Freud's theory of human nature with the doctrine of St Thomas Aquinas on the virtue of prudence (phronesis). The paper builds on the foundation laid down by Freud's theory of the id, the ego, and the superego in relation to moral behaviour. However, it takes a rather different approach to moral decision-making and behaviour, culminating in the author's creation of the concept of the moral-ego. What is being raised in this paper is a concern that Freud's theory reduces morality to the dictates of the superego.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:45:57Z
       
  • Phronimon: Hylozoism and hylomorphism : a lasting legacy of Greek
           philosophy

    • Authors: Strauss; Danie
      Abstract: Apparently philosophical reflection commenced when the awareness of diversity prompted the contemplation of an underlying unity. Thales found this principle of origination in water. Alongside elements such as water, air and fire as well as the apeiron (the infinite-unbounded) Greek philosophy successively explores different modes of explanation. Number, space and movement were succeeded by hulè and morphè, where these two terms at once captured a connection between the (material) world of becoming and the world of organic life. The combination of matter and form (life) gave rise to the two terms of our investigation: hylozoism and hylomorphism. These terms are also related to the act-potency scheme and they also presuppose the relation between primary matter and substantial form. In the thought of Aristotle one can also identify energeia with entelecheia. As soon as one of the two elements present in the two terms hylozoism and hylomorphism is elevated, a monistic perspective ensues, such as found in the opposition of mechanism and vitalism. These extremes sometimes surface in the shape of physicalism and the idea of an immaterial vital force. During and after the Renaissance, the idea of the mechanisation of the universe emerged, while vitalism continued its after-effect within biology, articularly seen in the legacy of idealist morphology (Ray and Linnaeus). The Aristotelian-Thomistic substance-concept appeared to have inherent problems. On the basis of experimental data Driesch revived vitalism (and Aristotle's view of an entelechie), but did not succeed in coming to terms with the physical law of non-decreasing entropy - he had to assign the ability to his entelechie to suspend physical laws in order to account for the increasing order found in growing living entities. However, his neo-vitalist followers further explored Von Bertalanffy's generalisation of the second main law of thermodynamics to open systems. Most recently the idea of a Workmaster (Demiurge) resurfaced in theories of Intelligent Design. These developments are explained by briefly referring to Michael Behe and Stephen Meyer. The historical lines discussed demonstrate how one-sided ismic orientations may make a positive contribution to the identification of unique and irreducible modes of explanation from which scholarly research could still benefit.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:45:56Z
       
  • Phronimon: Dying a hundred deaths : Socrates on truth and justice

    • Authors: Ramose; Mogobe
      Abstract: The well-known history of the life and death of Socrates continues to attract attention. This essay examines Socrates' commitment to truth and justice. For Socrates, justice is inseparable from ethical commitment to truth. He gave up his life in the name of truth and justice. We will explore the meaning of the "internal", "external" dichotomy of truth. The proffered meaning of this dichotomy of truth will be considered from the point of view of African philosophy. The relevance of Socrates to African philosophy will be discussed as a prelude to our argument that Socrates' commitment to truth and justice is crucial for political leadership and vital for the realisation of justice in Africa and the world.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T08:45:55Z
       
 
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