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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 197 journals)
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Journal Cover Science and Public Policy
  [SJR: 0.623]   [H-I: 42]   [41 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0302-3427 - ISSN (Online) 1471-5430
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [363 journals]
  • Guest editorial: Comparing low-carbon innovation paths in Asia and Europe
    • Authors: Guest Editors:, Altenburg, T; Sagar, A, Schmitz, H, Xue, L.
      Pages: 451 - 453
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv073
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • Innovation paths in Europe and Asia: Divergence or convergence?
    • Authors: Schmitz, H; Altenburg, T.
      Pages: 454 - 463
      Abstract: This paper asks what insights the literature provides on divergence versus convergence of innovation paths in Europe and Asia. It contrasts the abundant literature on determinants of innovation paths with the scarcity of studies that are explicitly comparative across countries or continents. Implicit conclusions however emerge from several lines of work including evolutionary perspectives which stress differences in national conditions, and other perspectives which stress latecomer and globalisation effects. This paper distils and draws together the main conclusions on why innovation paths can be expected to diverge or converge. Its contribution lies in spelling out and bringing together implicit and explicit insights from a wide range of literatures. It also provides an analytical backdrop for some of the other papers in this special issue of Science and Public Policy which provide comparative empirical analyses of low carbon innovation paths.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv053
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • The emergence of electromobility: Comparing technological pathways in
           France, Germany, China and India
    • Authors: Altenburg, T; Schamp, E. W, Chaudhary, A.
      Pages: 464 - 475
      Abstract: Globally, new forms of electromobility are challenging established transport technologies based on internal combustion engines. We explore how this transition is simultaneously unfolding in four countries, enabling us to shed some light on the dynamics and determinants of technological path creation. Our analysis covers two old industrialized countries (France and Germany) and two newly industrialized countries (China and India) with very different market conditions and policy frameworks. It reveals enormously different choices of technologies and business models and traces them back to four main drivers of divergence: technological capabilities, demand conditions, political priorities and economic governance.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:43-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv054
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • Comparing the knowledge bases of wind turbine firms in Asia and Europe:
           Patent trajectories, networks, and globalisation
    • Authors: Zhou, Y; Li, X, Lema, R, Urban, F.
      Pages: 476 - 491
      Abstract: This study uses patent analyses to compare the knowledge bases of leading wind turbine firms in Asia and Europe. It concentrates on the following three aspects: the trajectories of key technologies, external knowledge networks, and the globalisation of knowledge application. Our analyses suggest that the knowledge bases differ significantly between leading wind turbine firms in Europe and Asia. Europe’s leading firms have broader and deeper knowledge bases than their Asian counterparts. In contrast, the leading Chinese firms, with their unidirectional knowledge networks, are highly domestic in orientation with respect to the application of new knowledge. However, Suzlon, the leading Indian firm, has a better knowledge position. While our quantitative analysis validates prior qualitative studies it also brings new insights. The study suggests that European firms are still leaders in this industry, and leading Asian firms are unlikely to create new pathways that will disrupt the incumbents in the near future.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv055
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • Divergent technological strategies among leading electric vehicle firms in
           China: Multiplicity of institutional logics and responses of firms
    • Authors: Shen, Q; Feng, K, Zhang, X.
      Pages: 492 - 504
      Abstract: This paper aims to explain the divergence in technological strategies among leading electric vehicle (EV) firms in China. EVs, with their prospect of energy efficiency and emission reduction, have attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, EV development still faces technological challenges. While these challenges are similar for all firms, their coping strategies are highly divergent. One of the main reasons is that the policy environment for Chinese EV developers is shaped by a multiplicity of institutional logics which are sometimes incoherent. This allows firms to selectively build on those institutional logics that meet their needs and priorities. This strategic behavior results in divergent technological paths.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv056
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • Skills and social insurance: Evidence from the relative persistence of
           innovation during the financial crisis in Europe
    • Authors: Filippetti, A; Guy, F.
      Pages: 505 - 517
      Abstract: We study private sector investments in innovation in the early days of the financial crisis (between mid 2008 and mid 2009), using a survey covering more than 5,000 firms across 21 European countries. Our interest is in how the stock of skilled labour affects the persistence of investment in innovation during a macroeconomic downturn. We infer differences in skill from national levels of participation in vocational education and training (VET) programmes interacted with levels of employment protection (EP) and unemployment insurance (RR). These forms of insurance should lead VET students to undertake training for skills which are more risky as human capital investments, but potentially more productive. We show that the strongest sustained investment in innovation is associated with a combination of high VET with either strong EP or strong RR. The result supports the view that the supply of skills makes an important contribution to innovation, and that social insurance can encourage socially beneficial risk-taking in educational choices.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv036
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • Research funding and national academic performance: Examination of a
           Danish success story
    • Authors: Aagaard, K; Schneider, J. W.
      Pages: 518 - 531
      Abstract: The relationship between research policy and academic performance is highly relevant to policy. Yet our knowledge of the effects of different systemic factors is still limited and inconclusive. In an explorative, single country case study covering a timespan of three decades this study examines the effects of changes in selected funding factors based on the notion that funding plays a decisive role in defining the scope, content and direction of public research. The analysis reveals that Denmark, which today is a top research nation, experienced a turning point in impact in the early 1990s which coincided with a number of systemic policy changes. However, the analysis also shows that even at this detailed, long-term level of analysis the relationships are far from straightforward. A number of explanations for the difficulties related to opening the black box of national research performance are discussed in the concluding section.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv058
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • Are 'the best foreign subsidiaries cooperating for innovation with local
           partners? The case of an intermediate country
    • Authors: Garcia Sanchez, A; Molero, J, Rama, R.
      Pages: 532 - 545
      Abstract: We analyse a sample of firms that are representative of Spanish manufacturing industry, in order to understand the relationship between foreign status and local cooperation for innovation. We focus on foreign subsidiaries (FS) displaying innovation intensity, newness of technology or the ability to build complex networks with local innovators. Foreign status increases the probability of local cooperation for innovation. However, FS displaying these characteristics are not necessarily more prone to cooperate locally for innovation than similar affiliated domestic firms. The distribution of cooperative FS tends to be even across sectors and this is confirmed for advanced FS. This suggests that FS look for general capabilities in local partnerships, rather than for specific expertise. The strategies of domestic affiliated firms seem to influence the relationship between foreign status and local cooperation for innovation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv057
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • The Emperors clothes and the Pied Piper: Bureaucracy and scientific
    • Authors: Fernandez-Carro, R; Lapuente-Gine, V.
      Pages: 546 - 561
      Abstract: For some scholars, bureaucratic contracts (i.e. low-powered and highly regulated) mitigate problems of time inconsistency between public employees who have undertaken costly asset-specific investments, and potentially opportunistic governments. For others, bureaucratic contracts exacerbate information asymmetries between bureaucratic experts and political dilettantes. This paper aims to reconcile these views by proposing two testable propositions: while bureaucratic impartiality has a positive effect because it reduces time inconsistency problems in the relationship between principals (governments) and agents (public employees), a bureaucratic career has, on the contrary, a negative effect because it reduces incentives. We test these hypotheses with three samples of countries (worldwide, OECD and EU) using scientific productivity as a proxy for public employees’ performance that can be compared across countries. The results show how, controlling for levels of development and investment, proxies for bureaucratic impartiality show a significant positive effect on scientific productivity while the existence of bureaucratic careers significantly diminishes scientists’ performance.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv060
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • How smart is specialisation? An analysis of specialisation patterns in
           knowledge production
    • Authors: Heimeriks, G; Balland, P.-A.
      Pages: 562 - 574
      Abstract: To understand how the specialisation patterns of cities differ among scientific fields, we study patterns of knowledge production in Astrophysics, Biotechnology, Nanotechnology and Organic Chemistry in the period 1996–2012. Using keywords from journal publications, we find systematic differences across scientific fields, but remarkable similarities across cities within each field. Biotechnology shows a turbulent pattern with comparative advantages that are short lasting, and with few related topics are available for research locations. Astrophysics—and in later years Nanotechnology—show a pattern of stable rankings, comparative advantages that last longer, and many related topics potentially available for research locations. Organic Chemistry has an intermediate position. Thus, fields of knowledge production have fundamentally different characteristics that require different smart specialisation strategies taking into account the differences in accumulation and relatedness.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv061
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • Practical reason
    • Authors: Gutzeit S.
      Pages: 575 - 576
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv071
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • Corporate Venturing: Organizing for Innovation by Jessica van den Bosch
           and Geert Duysters
    • Authors: Mote J.
      Pages: 576 - 578
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv066
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • Africa: Why Economists Get it Wrong By Morten Jerven
    • Authors: Woodson T. S.
      Pages: 578 - 579
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv067
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
  • Erratum
    • Authors: Lema, R; Sagar, A, Zhou, Y.
      Pages: 580 - 580
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T04:21:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw070
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 4 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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