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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 198 journals)
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Journal Cover Science and Public Policy
  [SJR: 0.623]   [H-I: 42]   [49 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0302-3427 - ISSN (Online) 1471-5430
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Lyme disease in the Dutch policy context: patient consultation in
           government research agenda setting
    • Authors: den Oudendammer WM; Broerse JW.
      First page: 303
      Abstract: AbstractPrevalence of Lyme disease (LD) is increasing in the Netherlands. The Dutch Association for Lyme Disease Patients (NVLP) presented a petition to the Dutch Parliament for more LD research and political attention. The Parliament requested advice from the Health Council of the Netherlands, which among others initiated a stakeholder consultation process to identify experiences and research needs. This article presents patients’ consultation results, including their research agenda, and compares it to the advisory report. Patients ascribed high research priority to improved diagnostic tools, new treatment options, and improving fundamental knowledge. Including patients’ research needs in the advisory report reflected patients’ perspectives in agenda setting to be valued by political and patient institutions. Some issues were not included, leading to criticism by the NVLP. This study suggests that organising a multi-stakeholder dialogue, particularly focusing on further exploring differences in opinion and creating mutual understanding, might have a beneficial effect on stakeholder satisfaction.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw056
       
  • Mapping the human brain: comparing the US and EU Grand Challenges†
    • Authors: Modic D; Feldman MP.
      First page: 440
      Abstract: AbstractThe US Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies Grand Challenge and the EU Human Brain Project Future and Emerging Technologies Flagship, though seemingly similar in many dimensions, have distinct features that have been shaped by politics and institutional systems. This article documents the history of the two projects and compares their organization and funding mechanisms. While there is a call for Grand Challenges to motivate science, organizational factors and the mechanisms for allocating funding will have a great influence on the ultimate project outcomes. These two divergent examples suggest alternative strategies to consider when organizing future Grand Challenges, and provide context that should be considered when evaluating the outcomes of large public investments in science.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw085
       
  • Nanoscientists and political involvement: Which characteristics make
           scientists more likely to support engagement in political debates'
    • Authors: Kim Y; Corley EA, Scheufele DA.
      First page: 317
      Abstract: AbstractThe scientific community is increasingly called upon to provide scientific advice to policy-makers (de Kerckhove, D. T., Rennie, M. D., and Cormier, R., 2015, EMBO Reports, 6, 263–6). However, scientists’ perceptions about political involvement vary based on their individual beliefs, values, and backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptual factors that are associated with US nanoscientists’ perceptions about political involvement. To examine this, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading US nanoscientists. Our results indicate that the scientists are generally supportive of involvement in political debates. Yet, we find some differences across scientists with respect to their perceptions about political involvement. For example, Caucasian respondents are more supportive of scientists’ political involvement than their peers. Also, scientists with higher risk perceptions of nanotechnology are more likely to support political involvement. In addition, scientists who pay more attention to the wishes of the public are more likely to support scientists’ involvement in political debates. Lastly, scientists’ degree of religious faith is inversely associated with the likelihood of agreeing with their political involvement.
      PubDate: 2016-09-28
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw065
       
  • Can Research, Development, and Innovation Policies Cross Borders' The
           Case of Nordic–Baltic Region
    • Authors: Tõnurist P; Kattel R.
      First page: 328
      Abstract: AbstractResearch, development and innovation (RDI) collaboration across countries has become a widely-discussed topic. At the same time, the RDI policy convergence mechanisms are neither explicitly outlined nor systematically discussed. The article tries to fill the gap by using advances from regional innovation systems literature, economic geography, and policy convergence discussions. Based on the developed analytical framework, current trends in RDI policy making in Europe are discussed and the case of Nordic–Baltic region is highlighted. The empirical analysis of the region is based on the meta-analysis of evaluations of Nordic policy cooperation, data of supra-regional program participation, and seventeen semi-structured interviews with RDI agency executives from the region. The article finds that RDI policies can indeed cross border, but under very specific conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-22
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw066
       
  • Invisible Constraints: The Relationship among Non-Competition Agreements,
           Inventor Mobility, and Patent Commercialization
    • Authors: Huang H.
      First page: 341
      Abstract: AbstractTo advance our understanding of the institutional-level influence of intellectual property policies on innovation, this article investigates a set of hypotheses questioning the links between state-level non-competition agreements, inventor mobility, and patent commercialization. It uses US inventor survey data covering a sample of 1,900 triadic patents. Results provide some evidence in support of the prevalent, yet under-researched, proposition that mobile inventors perform better than non-mobile ones in terms of commercialization activity. This article also finds that the severity of judicial enforcement of non-competition agreements has hampered the positive contribution of inventor mobility to invention commercialization and concludes that legal infrastructure is a crucial factor in innovation and invention success stories. Findings, therefore, have considerable policy implications with respect to the role of the judiciary in the enforcement of non-competition agreements.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw067
       
  • Unfolding policies for innovation intermediaries in China: A discourse
           network analysis
    • Authors: Wang C; Wang L.
      First page: 354
      Abstract: AbstractChina initiated the innovation intermediaries’ policies as early as the reform of the science and technology regime in the 1980s, but it is still difficult to figure out how these policies worked. Incubator policies are employed to test this hypothesis, while articles in People’s Daily (1995–2014) are used to explore the interactive mechanism between central and local government in the context of policy experimentation and tournament system. Behind all continuity and discontinuity, it is found that the invitation-oriented idea is never changed, and the incubators are framed to be the panacea to achieve similar economic output when falling behind even with the input of the same policies. The problem roots deeply in the diffusion of ‘model experience’ advocated by the central government, where the conduct and creativity of local governments are so profoundly shaped or even constrained during the benchmarking, that it is forgotten that adjustments must be made for local conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw068
       
  • Ethics of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies On the
           implementation of responsible research and innovation
    • Authors: Stahl B; Timmermans J, Flick C.
      First page: 369
      Abstract: AbstractResearch and innovation in emerging technologies can have great benefits but also raise ethical and social concerns. The current discourse on Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is a novel attempt to come to conceptual and practical ways of dealing with such concerns. In order to effectively understand and address possible ethical and social issues, stakeholders need to have an understanding of what such issues might be. This article explores ethical issues related to the field of emerging information and communication technologies (ICTs). Based on a foresight study of ICT that led to the identification of eleven emerging technologies, we outline the field of ethical and social issues of these technologies. This overview of possible problems can serve as an important sensitising device to these issues. We describe how such awareness can contribute to the successful deployment of responsible practice in research and innovation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw069
       
  • Policy learning and smart specialization: balancing policy change and
           continuity for new regional industrial paths
    • Authors: Moodysson J; Trippl M, Zukauskaite E.
      First page: 382
      Abstract: AbstractThis article seeks to explain what policy approaches and policy measures are best suited for promoting new regional industrial path development and what needs and possibilities there are for such policy to change and adapt to new conditions in order to remain efficient. The article departs from the notion of Smart Specialization and discusses how regional strategies that are inspired by this approach influence path renewal and new path creation and how they are related to and aligned with policy strategies implemented at other scales (local, regional, national, supranational). Our main argument is that new regional industrial growth paths require both continuity and change within the support structure of the innovation system. Unless smart specialization strategies are able to combine such adaptation and continuity, they fail to promote path renewal and new path creation. Our arguments are illustrated with empirical findings from the regional innovation system of Scania, South Sweden.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw071
       
  • Make it work!—a study of user innovation in Russia
    • Authors: Fursov K; Thurner T.
      First page: 392
      Abstract: AbstractThis article studies the specificities of Russian user innovators on a sample of 1,670 home interviews. The percentage of end users who innovate and their willingness to share ideas is much higher in comparison to western countries and rooted in community activities which spread during Soviet times. We identify two groups of user innovators: urban, male, well educated, and financially better-situated vs a much more diverse group of small town folks who innovate out of necessity. The first group confirms previous findings, the second group is unique to developing markets and to Russia in particular. As these user innovators are reluctant to commercialise their innovations and would rather keep them for themselves or share with their peers on a voluntary basis, a great source of ideas and commercial opportunity remains untouched.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw072
       
  • Comparative Analysis of R&D-Based Innovation Capabilities in SMEs to
           Design Innovation Policy
    • Authors: Cho C; Park S, Son J, et al.
      First page: 403
      Abstract: AbstractThis study suggests a novel approach to assessing research and development (R&D) innovation capabilities and devises solutions to support the strengthening innovation capabilities of technology-based SMEs. An assessment framework is developed using top-down and bottom-up approaches simultaneously to identify the critical capabilities required for R&D-based innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The data envelopment analysis (DEA) is adopted as a method for the assessment of capabilities, and the suggested approach is applied to Korean SMEs to verify its feasibility. The assessment results indicate that different types of core R&D-based innovation capabilities can be identified based on a comparative analysis of SMEs. These findings can help understand SMEs’ innovation capabilities and are expected to be used widely in practices to support SMEs’ innovation activities.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw073
       
  • Policy coordination challenges in governments’ innovation policy—The
           case of Ontario, Canada
    • Authors: Tamtik M.
      First page: 417
      Abstract: AbstractPolicy coordination to support coherent approaches in innovation policy has become a major governance puzzle for most countries. Recognizing the diversity of stakeholders involved in the innovation system, it is the synchronized actions of government policy makers that determine the coherence and support for a country’s innovation agenda. By interviewing 30 experts from the federal and provincial governments, industry, and higher education sectors in Ontario, this study examines the relationship between the provincial and federal government in facilitating Canada’s innovation agenda. The Canadian case reveals the factors that shape policy coordination and provides insights on mechanisms that could enhance collaboration in a decentralized innovation systems such as in Canada.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw074
       
  • Handbook for Science Public Information Officers
    • Authors: Laidlaw T.
      First page: 428
      Abstract: Handbook for Science Public Information OfficersBy ShipmanW. Matthew, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2015, 176 pages, US$25 (paperback), ISBN 9780226179469
      PubDate: 2016-09-08
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw059
       
  • The Rise of the City: Spatial Dynamics in the Urban Century (New Horizons
           in Regional Science series)
    • Authors: Swayamprakash R.
      First page: 429
      Abstract: The Rise of the City: Spatial Dynamics in the Urban Century (New Horizons in Regional Science series)Edited by KourtitKarima, NijkampPeter and StoughRoger R.. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 2015, 392 pages, £95.00 (hardback), ISBN 9781783475353
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw060
       
  • Big Pharma, Women and the Labour of Love
    • Authors: Johnson E.
      First page: 431
      Abstract: Big Pharma, Women and the Labour of LoveBy CacchioniThea, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 176 pages, Can$16.46 (paperback), ISBN 9781442611375
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw061
       
  • National Innovation Systems, Social Inclusion And Development: The Latin
           American Experience
    • Authors: Matos S.
      First page: 432
      Abstract: National Innovation Systems, Social Inclusion And Development: The Latin American Experience Edited by DutrénitGabriela and SutzJudith2014448 pp Hardback 978 1 78254 867 6 Regular Price $160.00
      PubDate: 2016-10-12
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw080
       
  • Enhancing research with Plenary Labs
    • Authors: Sinha P; Bex P, Kjelgaard M, et al.
      First page: 434
      Abstract: AbstractThe two most evident crises in the advanced research ecosystem in the USA are scarcity of funds and scarcity of jobs. We argue that both of these are outcomes of a flawed resource usage model and propose an alternative approach that can help alleviate these challenges. Named ‘Plenary Labs’, this approach is designed to act as a counterpoint to the traditional schema wherein each laboratory acts as a self-contained silo with a full complement of equipment and personnel to advance the principal investigator’s research program. This schema results in redundancy across labs, as well as an inflated need for research assistants. Plenary Labs ameliorate both of these issues by consolidating equipment and technical manpower. By democratizing access to cutting edge resources, reducing the time and costs involved in experimental research, and reducing the imbalance between supply and demand for jobs, Plenary Labs have the potential to significantly enhance research.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scw051
       
 
 
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