-> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE
(Total: 196 journals)
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- Academic inventors, allocation of patent rights and knowledge diffusion:
Subnetwork structures in university-owned and university-invented patents
in two Italian universities
- Authors: Capellari S; De Stefano D.
Abstract: The role of academics in patenting activity is not limited to patents owned by universities (university-owned patents) as academics often contribute to inventions patented by other organizations (university-invented patents). Moreover, it has been shown that academics play central roles inside the patenting network and that appropriability rules can interfere with the pattern of knowledge diffusion. In this study, we use social network analysis to analyze university-owned and university-invented patents in two Italian universities. We investigate the quality of the ties and the reasons why academics patent with their universities or with external organizations. We identify three subnetwork typologies. Two out of three subnetworks well exemplify the conditions for university ownership and for professor privilege, but the most complex structure, stemming from academic gatekeepers, need more flexible property attribution arrangements. In this contexts, aggressive policies toward university ownership can damage the networks with the highest grade of science-industry cross-fertilisation.
- The new face of university–business cooperation in Finland
- Authors: Ranga M; Perälampi J, Kansikas J.
Abstract: This paper analyses the development of university–business cooperation (UBC) in Finland in the context of the University Reform Act of 2009, drawing on the experience of four universities: Aalto University, University of Jyväskylä, University of Turku, and Lappeenranta University of Technology. Six UBC dimensions are examined: institutional context, stakeholders, motivations, facilitators/inhibitors, benefits, and drawbacks. We find that UBC, while a relatively recent process, is growing fast in dynamic local innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystems. The University Act of 2009 had an uneven effect on the six UBC dimensions, with the most visible impact being manifested on motivations. Aalto University’s leading position in UBC and strong capacity to raise public and private funding has a dual effect: while being a major achievement, it also tends to polarize the Finnish universities financially, through a Matthew effect that may slow down UBC development in other universities.
- Introduction to the special issue: Universities as interactive partners
- Authors: Carvalho de Mello J; De Fuentes C, Iacobucci D.
Abstract: In a knowledge economy universities are expected to play a more active role in the creation and dissemination of new knowledge. The effectiveness of universities in playing this role is highly dependent on the country-specific institutional context and on the regional framework. Despite the abundant literature on technology transfer by universities, there is still room for a better understanding of how these specificities impact on the ability of universities to engage in effective interactions with industry and how policy-makers may favor these interactions. The main aim of this special section is to fill this gap by providing empirical analysis referring to an array of developed and emerging countries (Brazil, Italy, Finland, Sweden, and Thailand) which are trying to increase the ability of the university system to interact with industry.
- A chip off the old block: Case studies of university influence on academic
- Authors: Renault T; Carvalho de Mello J, de Araújo Fonseca M, et al.
Abstract: Spin-offs are an important aspect of the process of technology transfer from academia to the business sector. A key issue in the study of the spin-off formation process is the influence of the parent research organization on the profile of the spin-offs that are created. Following this direction, our study seeks to analyze how the previous academic trajectory of the founding team affects the business model and performance of academic spin-offs. We performed our analysis drawing on a resource-based view and a business model perspective. Our findings show that the spin-offs inherit their initial resource base from the academic environment and that the business model adopted by these companies is influenced by their initial resource base.
- The ‘third mission’ and ‘triple helix mission’ of universities as
evolutionary processes in the development of the network of knowledge
production: Reflections on SME experiences in Thailand
- Authors: Nakwa K; Zawdie G.
Abstract: This paper explores the ‘third mission’ and ‘triple helix mission’ of universities in Thailand. These functions of universities are often conflated, whereas conceptually they represent separate stages in the evolution of the sphere of knowledge production. The ‘third mission’ concept is presented as the antecedent to the ‘triple helix mission’, and involves relationships between institutional spheres, with the boundaries clearly delineated. In the ‘triple helix system’, institutional spheres converge and boundaries are blurred. The transition from the ‘third mission’ to the ‘triple helix system’—and the subsequent emergence of entrepreneurial universities—is expedited by the intervention of intermediary organisations that span boundaries and broker between institutional spheres to promote knowledge exchange. Analysis of experience in Thailand shows that the transition from the ‘third mission’ to the ‘triple helix system’ has been constrained by limited networking experience and weak social capital among the actors, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises.
- A proactive approach to the utilization of academic research: The case of
Uppsala University’s AIMday
- Authors: Baraldi E; Lindahl M, Severinsson K.
Abstract: While most research on university–industry interactions focuses on established collaborations, this paper focuses on those interactions that occur before the emergence of a concrete relationship. Uppsala University, Sweden, applies this ‘proactive’ approach, based on creating university–industry cooperation platforms before, or irrespectively of, the creation of commercializable knowledge. This study aims to analyze the structure, processes and effects of proactive approaches to utilize academic research commercially. It focuses on a conference, Academy Industry Meeting day (AIMday) and addresses three main questions: first, how does this mechanism work? Second, why do different actors, such as researchers, small and large companies, participate? Third, what values and concrete effects do they obtain from it? Our case study reflects the perspectives of industry, academia and the administrative units organizing the event. We find that some reasons to participate and values are important to all participants, but that there are also considerable differences.
- Venture capital and its French exception: Explaining performance through
human capital, policy and institutional failures
- Authors: Milosevic M; Fendt J.
Abstract: We examine the venture capital (VC) industry and its French exception. While it is evident that French funds underperform in comparison to both their Anglo-Saxon counterparts and their immediate neighboring countries, the determinants of this phenomenon are unclear. Through an exploratory, inductive study among French expert venture capitalists we conceptualize VC agency as a process of construction of expertise through deliberate practice. We show how the specificities of the French VC market, first, the dominance of banking/finance professionals, grounded in the industry’s banking antecedents; and second, the prevailing public funding and numerous front-end tax incentives, hamper this process of deliberate practice and act as mutually reinforcing levers of inefficiency. We discuss the implications for scholars, practitioners and policy-makers.
- Moving from trust to trustworthiness: Experiences of public engagement in
the Scottish Health Informatics Programme
- Authors: Aitken M; Cunningham-Burley S, Pagliari C.
Abstract: The Scottish Health Informatics Programme (SHIP) was a Scotland-wide research programme exploring ways of collecting, managing and analysing electronic patient records for health research. As part of the SHIP public engagement work stream, a series of eight focus groups and a stakeholder workshop were conducted to explore perceptions of the role, relevance and functions of trust (or trustworthiness) in relation to research practices. The findings demonstrate that the public’s relationships of trust and/or mistrust in science and research are not straightforward. This paper aims to move beyond simple descriptions of whether publics trust researchers, or in whom members of the public place their trust, and to explore more fully the bases of public trust/mistrust in science, what trust implies and equally what it means for research/researchers to be trustworthy. This has important implications for public engagement in interdisciplinary projects.
- The Ecological Footprint: New Developments in Policy and Practice, by
Andrea Collins and Andrew Flynn
- Authors: Lusk G.
Abstract: The Ecological Footprint: New Developments in Policy and Practice by CollinsAndrea and FlynnAndrewEdward Elgar, Northampton, MA, 2015, 232 pages, US$120 (hardcover), ISBN 9780857936950.
- Environmental Taxation and Green Fiscal Reforms: Theory and Impact, edited
by Larry Kreiser, Soocheol Lee, Kazuhiro Ueta, Janet E. Milne and Hope
- Authors: Su X.
Abstract: Environmental Taxation and Green Fiscal Reforms: Theory and Impact, edited by KreiserLarry, LeeSoocheol, UetaKazuhiro, MilneJanet E. and AshiaborHope, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 2014, 336 pages, £85.00 (hardback), ISBN 9781783478163
- The Climate Resilient Organization: Adaptation and Resilience to Climate
Change and Weather Extremes by Martina K. Linnenluecke and Andrew
- Authors: Kennedy EB.
Abstract: The Climate Resilient Organization: Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change and Weather Extremes by LinnenlueckeMartina K. and GriffithsAndrew, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 2015, 240 pages, £67.50 (hardback), ISBN 9781782545828.
- Transforming U.S. Energy Innovation edited by Laura Diaz Anadon, Matthew
Bunn and Venkatesh Narayanamurti
- Authors: Delina LL.
Abstract: Transforming U.S. Energy Innovation edited by AnadonLaura Diaz, BunnMatthew and NarayanamurtiVenkateshCambridge University Press, New York, 2014, 241 pages, US$90, ISBN 9781107043718
- University–industry knowledge transfer in an emerging economy:
Evidence from Kazakhstan
- Authors: Smirnova YV.
Abstract: Although developing economies are observed to possess some similar characteristics, interactions between academia and industry are expected to have unique attributes in each country. This paper explores the channels of knowledge transfer, obstacles to collaboration and benefits of university–industry interactions in the context of Kazakhstan. The study builds upon the analysis of data collected from surveys of 24 universities and 28 telecommunications firms. The results suggest some discrepancy between the modes of interactions used and the channels rated the most important. There are also significant differences in agents’ perceptions of obstacles. Benefits associated with short-term production activities are priority-driven for firms.
- Tapping into intra- and international collaborations of the Organization
of Islamic Cooperation states across science and technology disciplines
- Authors: Hassan S; Sarwar R, Muazzam A.
Abstract: This study analyzes the intra- and international collaboration of 11 member states of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) in science and technology (S&T) disciplines in the period 1996–2010, by applying various bibliometric indicators along with publication and citation counts and our proposed average collaboration strength index, that measures the intra-collaboration strength of a region. The quantitative and qualitative findings indicate that the OIC states are making impressive progress in all S&T disciplines, but it is still low compared to the EU and Association of Southeast Asian Nations regions. The OIC states must come up with short- and long-term plans to become more progressive and competitive with the rest of the world. Moreover, special attention needs to be given to improving the status of international collaboration with the outside world. This study provides useful information for the scientific community, as well as for technology and innovation policy-makers.
- Towards a new innovation policy in Cuba: Proposal for the introduction of
a R&D fiscal incentive program
- Authors: Castellacci F; Pons S.
Abstract: An increasing number of emerging economies (among others China, India, Russia, South Africa, and Brazil) have recently introduced R&D tax credit schemes to support the innovative activities of their domestic firms. Drawing insights from these international experiences, this paper proposes a new R&D fiscal incentive system in Cuba. We argue that, to take the specific characteristics of a transition economy like that of Cuba into account, the new program should have a mixed character: it should be volume-based for large State-owned enterprises and incremental for the emerging group of smaller private companies. The fiscal incentive system should allow firms to receive relatively high super-deductions in order to provide an effective stimulus to their innovation and imitation activities. The new R&D policy would contribute to addressing the structural weaknesses which characterize the Cuban national innovation system, and thus enable firms to reap the opportunities provided by the changing international context.
- Social capital of academics and their engagement in technology and
- Authors: Kalar B; Antoncic B.
Abstract: This paper aims to develop and empirically test a model which examines the relationships between academics’ social capital and their engagement in technology and knowledge transfer via entrepreneurial and traditional activity. Social capital is assessed through individuals’ orientation, desire, and willingness to work with others. The data gathered from academics at four different European universities are used to test the proposed relationships by performing structural equation modeling. Overall, our findings reveal that academics’ social capital is significantly related to their engagement in technology and knowledge transfer. Being oriented to teamwork stimulates academics’ desire to participate in interdisciplinary projects with industry and partially stimulates multidisciplinary research. Both interdisciplinary projects with industry and multidisciplinary research are positively related to industry interactions, which are significantly related to academics’ further engagement in patenting, business activity, and scientific publishing.
- Quantitative analysis of technology futures: A review of techniques, uses
- Authors: Ciarli T; Coad A, Rafols I.
Abstract: A variety of quantitative techniques have been used in the past in future-oriented technology analysis (FTA). In recent years, increased computational power and data availability have led to the emergence of new techniques that are potentially useful for foresight and forecasting. As a result, there are now many techniques that might be used in FTA exercises. This paper reviews and qualifies quantitative methods for FTA in order to help users to make choices among alternative techniques, including new techniques that have not yet been integrated into the FTA literature and practice. We first provide a working definition of FTA and discuss its role, uses, and popularity over recent decades. Second, we select the most important quantitative FTA techniques, discuss their main contexts and uses, and classify them into groups with common characteristics, positioning them along key dimensions: descriptive/prescriptive, extrapolative/normative, data gathering/inference, and forecasting/foresight.