for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 196 journals)
The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Journal Cover Science and Public Policy
  [SJR: 0.623]   [H-I: 42]   [41 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0302-3427 - ISSN (Online) 1471-5430
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [363 journals]
  • The combined effects of age and seniority on research performance of full
    • Authors: Abramo, G; DAngelo, C. A, Murgia, G.
      Pages: 301 - 319
      Abstract: In this paper we examine the relationship between research performance, age, and seniority in academic rank of full professors in the Italian academic system. Differently from a large part of the literature, our results generally show a negative monotonic relationship between age and research performance, in all the disciplines under analysis. We also highlight a positive relationship between seniority in rank and performance, occurring particularly in certain disciplines. While in medicine, biology, and chemistry this result could be explained by the ‘accumulative advantage’ effect, in other disciplines, like civil engineering, and pedagogy and psychology, it could be due to the existence of a large performance differential between young and mature researchers, at the moment of the promotion to full professors. These results, witnessed both generally and at the level of the individual disciplines, offer useful insights for policy makers and administrators in academia on the role of older professors.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv037
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • Gender and patterns of temporary mobility among researchers
    • Authors: Canibano, C; Fox, M. F, Otamendi, F. J.
      Pages: 320 - 331
      Abstract: This article addresses the patterns of gender and temporary international research visits among researchers, using data from a population of 10,349 Spanish doctorate holders in nine research fields. It analyzes rates of international mobility, and the frequency, duration, and destinations of temporary visits, by gender, with implications for scientific careers. We find that in their overall rates of mobility across fields, women are more internationally mobile than men. But compared to men: first, women’s frequency of international visits is lower; second, their visits occur at earlier ages and stages in their careers; third, their visits are shorter; and finally, their destinations are closer to home. Given the paucity of empirical research on gender and international research mobility, the patterns reported here are sound data points for continuing comparative, cross-national investigations, and point to consequential considerations for gender equity and science and public policy.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv042
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • Too big to innovate? Exploring organizational size and innovation
           processes in scientific research
    • Authors: Mote, J; Jordan, G, Hage, J, Hadden, W, Clark, A.
      Pages: 332 - 337
      Abstract: We explore the impact of organizational size in six federally funded research organizations on a range of organizational processes related to the pursuit of innovation. The data utilized consisted of 266 scientists drawn from 64 research projects across five programmatic research areas: alternative energies, biology, chemistry, geophysical sciences, and material sciences. A sixth project category was added to accommodate the highly interdisciplinary character of a handful of projects. Although the data had some limitations, it was found that organizational size had a negative impact on three categories of innovation processes: the amount of time spent in research and professional activities, how research time is spent, and exchanges of technical knowledge. In addition, some potential advantages of larger size, such as: greater research resources, better perceived managerial quality or a visionary strategy, were not found to be significant.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv045
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • Signaling and accrediting new technology: Use of procurement for
           innovation in China
    • Authors: Li, Y; Georghiou, L.
      Pages: 338 - 351
      Abstract: In China the use of public procurement as an innovation policy instrument has been closely associated with the drive to promote indigenous innovation. Implementation was largely through the use of catalogues intended to signal and to formally accredit the supply and demand of technologically-oriented products. This paper reviews these experiences by examining the wider context and three case studies. Accreditation is shown to carry a risk of protectionism. Signaling performs a function analogous to a technology roadmap and was assisted by giving listed technologies priority for public procurement. For both types of instrument the intended mechanism did not work as planned but the broader role they sought to fill was an important factor in bringing innovations to market. The appropriateness and effectiveness of such instruments are shown to be dependent upon the state of both the innovation and the procurement systems in which they are set.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv044
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • Moral hazard and adverse selection in research funding: Centres of
           excellence in Norway and Sweden
    • Authors: Borlaug; S. B.
      Pages: 352 - 362
      Abstract: The past two decades have seen an increase in the use of funding schemes such as ‘centres of excellence’. This paper examines how centre of excellence schemes have been adapted to two distinct national public research systems (Norway and Sweden) and the role of the schemes in the systems. It develops a conceptual framework involving three impact dimensions of the centres: organisational, social and international. Together with principal–agent theory the conceptual framework is used to investigate and explain which dimensions are given the most emphasis in the two countries. The main findings are that, in a country with a highly competitive funding system (Sweden), funding agencies emphasise organisational impact to overcome the problem of moral hazard, while a country characterised by relatively high block grant funding of the universities (Norway) tends to emphasise international impact, and invests in strategies to overcome the problem of adverse selection.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv048
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • Resilient science: The civic epistemology of disaster risk reduction
    • Authors: Donovan, A; Oppenheimer, C.
      Pages: 363 - 374
      Abstract: In this paper, we use insights from science studies to elucidate the nature of advisory science in the context of disasters, particularly those involving geophysical hazards. We argue that there are some key differences between disaster advisory science and the issues that are most discussed in science studies: they are both time- and space-specific and they constitute major social, economic and scientific shocks. We suggest that disasters require flexible advisory structures that maximise the co-production of science and social order, and present a framework for this. We argue that the aim of increasing resilience to natural hazards requires that sociology of scientific knowledge play a part in the application of scientific advice: disaster studies has focused on the reduction of vulnerability as a reaction against technical-rational models of scientific advice, but in doing so has restricted the potential role of the social sciences in the framing of scientific advice and expertise.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv039
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • How venture capitalists decide which new medical technologies come to
    • Authors: Lehoux, P; Miller, F. A, Daudelin, G, Urbach, D. R.
      Pages: 375 - 385
      Abstract: To encourage the commercial translation of biomedical discoveries, public policies increasingly seek to stimulate the venture capital industry. Very little is known, however, about the way venture capitalists assess the likely benefits new technologies may bring to clinical practice and healthcare systems. Drawing on a five-year fieldwork conducted in Quebec (Canada), which included in-depth interviews and document analysis, we explore why capital investors choose to invest in certain health technology-based ventures and how they influence the innovation process. Our findings clarify how capital investors: first, use market-oriented valuations when they pick and ‘coach’ technology entrepreneurs; second, act to transform and protect their investments; and finally, exert their authority along the technology development process. Current innovation policies should be carefully examined because capital investors’ understanding of the world in which they operate largely determines which health technologies make their way into healthcare systems and which may never come into existence.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv051
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • Limits to meritocracy? Gender in academic recruitment and promotion
    • Authors: Nielsen; M. W.
      Pages: 386 - 399
      Abstract: According to the literature, women researchers are sometimes at a disadvantage in academic recruitment due to insufficient network ties and subtle gender biases among evaluators. But how exactly do highly formal recruitment procedures allow space for mobilizing informal, potentially gendered, network ties? Focusing on the preliminary stages of recruitment, this study covers an underexposed aspect of women’s underrepresentation in academia. By combining recruitment statistics and interviews with department heads at a Danish university, it identifies a discrepancy between the institutionalized beliefs among managers in the meritocracy and the de facto functioning of the recruitment procedures. Of the vacancies for associate- and full professorships, 40% have one applicant, and 19% are announced under closed procedures with clear implications for gender stratification. The interviews reveal a myriad of factors explaining these patterns showing how department heads sometimes exploit decoupling processes to reduce external constraints on management function and ensure organizational certainty.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv052
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • Convergence or divergence? Wind power innovation paths in Europe and
    • Authors: Lema, R; Sagar, A, Zhou, Y.
      Pages: 400 - 413
      Abstract: Wind power is increasingly vital for meeting energy challenges and mitigating global climate change and is therefore an important part of renewable energy portfolios in many countries. Given the key and evolving roles of European and Asian countries in driving this sector, this article focuses on two sets of key questions: first, do wind power innovation paths differ between Europe and Asia? If so, how do they differ? Second, do innovation paths reflect different initial conditions in Europe and Asia? Can we expect divergence in the future? We find that although national paths are shaped by a range of national characteristics and therefore differ along key dimensions, the increasing roles of cross-national firm interactions amplify tendencies towards global convergence. These patterns of divergence and convergence can potentially enhance the contribution of wind power to the low-carbon transition but also have implications for the competitive dynamics of the wind power industry.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv049
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • Incentives and barriers for R&D-based SMEs to participate in European
           research programs: An empirical assessment for the Netherlands
    • Authors: Faber, J; van Dijk, J, van Rijnsoever, F.
      Pages: 414 - 428
      Abstract: As participation by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in European collaboration research programs is less than has been striven for, this study investigates the motives of R&D-based SMEs for (non)participation in these programs. Based on the resource-based view, we formulate a set of hypotheses about incentives and barriers that influence the likelihood of participation by SMEs. These hypotheses are empirically tested using a survey of 247 Dutch R&D-based SMEs. We find that European collaborative research programs attract the participation of rather limited numbers of especially science-based SMEs having prior experience with international collaboration, based on the incentives of cost sharing and knowledge sharing and the barrier formed by the costs of participating in these programs. Policy measures are derived that might improve the participation of SMEs in European collaborative research programs are derived from our results.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv050
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • Innovating in Urban Economies: Economic Transformation in Canadian
           City-Regions edited by David A. Wolfe
    • Authors: Keelor; B.
      Pages: 429 - 430
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv063
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • Chemicals without Harm: Policies for a Sustainable World by Ken Geiser
    • Authors: Ferguson; S.
      Pages: 430 - 431
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv065
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
  • Twenty challenges for innovation studies
    • Authors: Martin; B. R.
      Pages: 432 - 450
      Abstract: With the field of innovation studies (IS) now half a century old, the occasion has been marked by several studies looking back to identify the main advances made over its lifetime. Starting from a list of 20 advances over the field’s history, this discussion paper sets out 20 challenges for coming decades. The intention is to prompt a debate within the IS community on what are, or should be, the key challenges, and more generally on what sort of field we aspire to be. It is argued that the empirical focus of our studies has failed to keep pace with the fast changing world, especially the shift from manufacturing to services and the increasingly urgent need for sustainability. The way we conceptualise, define, operationalise and analyse ‘innovation’ seems somewhat rooted in the past, leaving us less able to grapple with other less visible or ‘dark’ forms of innovation.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:45:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv077
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 3 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016