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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 198 journals)
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Journal Cover Science and Public Policy
  [SJR: 0.597]   [H-I: 33]   [28 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0302-3427 - ISSN (Online) 1471-5430
   Published by Oxford University Press (OUP) Homepage  [358 journals]
  • Individual inventors and market potentials: Evidence from US patents
    • Authors: Agiakloglou, C; Drivas, K, Karamanis, D.
      Pages: 147 - 156
      Abstract: This paper examines the propensity for patents by individual inventors to be commercialized. By exploiting a peculiarity of the US patent system, concerning the different patent renewal fees paid in order to obtain small or large entity status, we are able to distinguish patents that become part of a large corporation’s patent portfolio. Using an extensive dataset of US patents, for both domestic and foreign individual inventors, we find that patent characteristics, size of research teams, prior patenting experience and past corporate patenting activity are positively associated with an increased likelihood of transferring patent rights to large corporations.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv022
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • The magicians hat: Evidence and openness in policy making
    • Authors: Porteous; M.
      Pages: 157 - 168
      Abstract: This paper focuses on evidence and openness in policy making, drawing primarily on hands-on experience in innovation and industrial policy in the UK. We suggest that much of the current debates use unhelpful juxtapositions and are insufficiently focused on what is happening in the darkness of the policy making ‘magician’s hat’. We use a post-positivist perspective to tease open key features of openness and evidence in policy making, showing similar and intertwined social processes at work in the supposedly distinct worlds of political, administrative officialdom and expertise. From there we map out a range of external influences on policy making, putting evidence, expert knowledge and other inputs into context. We then focus on knowledge generation and what we term the breadth and depth of policy definition to introduce a novel typology of policy making. This helps us to identify the different forms that openness and the use of evidence and expertise take.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv024
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • Aligning innovation with grand societal challenges: Inside the European
           Technology Platforms in wind, and carbon capture and storage
    • Authors: Ricard; L. M.
      Pages: 169 - 183
      Abstract: This paper investigates the European Technology Platforms (ETPs) in wind power and in CO2 capture and storage supported by the European Commission (EC). It examines the role of these Platforms in shaping the trajectory of European energy technology policy, and shows that the EC’s support for the ETPs marks a change from a solely evidence-based policy approach to the use of bottom-up policies designed to mobilize human capital based on social actors’ expectations, uncertainties and visions. These two ETPs include hitherto missing ‘key players’ who can enhance commercial legitimacy on both the input and output sides of the system. This constitutes an important, though narrow, type of legitimacy in regard to specific technology developments, and questions remain about the performance of the ETPs in relation to small and medium-sized enterprises and social representation. This paper provides a valuable first qualitative analysis of this phenomenon which is emerging as a new policy instrument.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv025
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • The value of the issue context approach for scientific policy advice
    • Authors: Tholen; B.
      Pages: 184 - 191
      Abstract: Scientific policy advice, and research for such advice, involves making a broad set of choices, for instance on research strategy and on the presentation of results. The issue context approach offers guidelines for individual advisors and advisory bodies (and their designers) to deal with these decisions. It distinguishes types of problems and connects particular strategies to each type. The issue context approach is critically assessed in this paper. Can this approach be of help for responsible scientific advisors and for designers of advisory bodies? We conclude that, for empirical and logical reasons, the issue context approach cannot live up to its promise. This assessment helps to determine the limits of the ambitions of the public administration to make policy-making more scientific.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv029
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • Return on investment for open source scientific hardware development
    • Authors: Pearce; J. M.
      Pages: 192 - 195
      Abstract: The availability of free and open source hardware designs that can be replicated with low-cost 3D printers provides large values to scientists who need highly-customized low-volume production scientific equipment. Digital manufacturing technologies have only recently become widespread and the return on investment (ROI) was not clear, so funding for open hardware development was historically sparse. This paper clarifies a method for determining an ROI for the development of scientific free and open source hardware (FOSH). By using an open source hardware design that can be manufactured digitally, the relatively minor development costs result in enormous ROIs for the scientific community. A case study is presented of a syringe pump released under open license, which results in ROIs for funders ranging from hundreds to thousands of percent after only a few months. It is clear that policies encouraging FOSH scientific hardware development should be adopted by organizations interested in maximizing return on public investments for science.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv034
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • Attitudinal gaps: How experts and lay audiences form policy attitudes
           toward controversial science
    • Authors: Su, L. Y.-F; Cacciatore, M. A, Brossard, D, Corley, E. A, Scheufele, D. A, Xenos, M. A.
      Pages: 196 - 206
      Abstract: Input from scientific experts and lay audiences plays an important role in the realization of scientific advances and scientific policymaking. This study examines factors influencing expert and public attitudes toward the regulation of academic and commercial nanotechnology. Compared to scientific experts, lay publics are more likely to support the regulation of academic nanotechnology, with value predispositions playing a critical role in impacting such opinions. Among lay audiences, liberals and respondents reporting higher levels of religiosity were more likely to support regulation of both academic and commercial nanotechnology research, while those who paid greater attention to the media were more supportive of regulations for commercial research. Across the two groups, perceptions of risks relative to benefits consistently predicted attitudes toward regulation. Importantly, scientists rely less upon their value predispositions when forming regulatory attitudes, instead basing such attitudes on perceptions of regulatory impacts on scientific progress. The regulatory implications of these findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv031
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • Knowledge and rent spillovers through government-sponsored R&D consortia
    • Authors: Nishimura, J; Okamuro, H.
      Pages: 207 - 225
      Abstract: This paper empirically examines the spillover effects through government-sponsored R&D consortia (collaborative R&D projects among private firms, universities, and public research institutes) using firm-level data and the propensity score matching method. The participants in R&D consortia are expected to enhance their performance as a result of direct knowledge spillovers. The business partners of the consortia members may also enjoy indirect effects including rent spillovers through their business transactions. Focusing on a major support program for R&D consortia in Japan, the Consortium R&D Project for Regional Revitalization, we confirm that there are both direct (knowledge) spillover effects from the firms’ participation in this program as well as indirect spillover effects on the customer firms of the consortia members. Moreover, by comparing large firms and small and medium-sized enterprises, we find that only the latter benefit from knowledge spillovers in the R&D consortia; among their customers, only large firms enjoy indirect spillover effects.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv028
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • Research collaboration experiences, good and bad: Dispatches from the
           front lines
    • Authors: Bozeman, B; Gaughan, M, Youtie, J, Slade, C. P, Rimes, H.
      Pages: 226 - 244
      Abstract: The scant literature on individual scientists collaboration dynamics is used to develop a provisional model of research collaboration effectiveness. It incorporates external, collaborator, and team management factors, forming the basis for our theoretically informed qualitative analysis. We use this provisional model to guide semi-structured interview themes, deriving data from 60 US academic researchers, selected from a range of scientific and engineering disciplines as well as one social sciences discipline (economics). We present our findings in the form of respondent quotations related to the provisional model. We then conduct a further content analysis on the organizing constructs of respondent-assessed good and bad collaboration responses. The results of this second thematic coding of the interview data form the basis for the refinement of our model to include additional indicators, and to discuss some preliminary expectations about the associative relationships among the external, collaborator, and team management factors that contribute to scientist collaboration.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv035
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • Financing patterns of R&D in small and medium-sized enterprises and the
           perception of innovation barriers in Germany
    • Authors: Belitz, H; Lejpras, A.
      Pages: 245 - 261
      Abstract: We analyze the role public support plays in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) R&D financing as well as these firms’ assessments of financing conditions in the context of other framework conditions for innovation. Using the sample of 2,708 German SMEs that participated in public R&D promotion programs during 2005–10, we identify four unique types of R&D financing. Firms are generally positive about public financing of R&D in Germany, although a group of R&D companies without a track record that wish to introduce an innovation to the market find it difficult to procure a loan. SMEs perceive obstacles to innovation primarily in the non-financial sphere, namely, the supply of skilled personnel, market regulation, and competition conditions. Therefore, future work on innovation policies for SMEs should place greater emphasis on the non-financial external framework conditions for firm R&D and innovative activity.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv027
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • What determines researchers scientific impact? A case study of Quebec
    • Authors: Mirnezami, S. R; Beaudry, C, Lariviere, V.
      Pages: 262 - 274
      Abstract: Using a data set integrating information about researchers’ funding and publications in Quebec (Canada), this paper identifies the main determinants of citation counts as one measure of research impact. Using two-stage least square regressions to control for endogeneity, the results confirm the significant and positive relationship between the number of articles and citation counts. Our results also show that scientists with more articles in higher impact factor journals generally receive more citations and so do scientists who publish with a larger team of authors. Hence the greater visibility provided by a more prolific scientific production, better journals, and more co-authors, all contribute to increasing the perceived impact of articles. All else being equal, male and female receive the same number of citations. These results suggest that the most important determinants of researchers’ citations are the journals in which they publish, as well the collaborative nature of their research.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv038
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • Modeling selection criteria of R&D projects for awarding direct subsidies
           to the private sector
    • Authors: Victorio, C. J. M; Costa, H. G, Souza, C. G. d.
      Pages: 275 - 287
      Abstract: This paper aims to model selection criteria of R&D projects for awarding direct subsidies to the private sector, in order to assist government agencies in improving the way in which they allocate the subsidies. The modeling involved three steps. The first step was a literature review of the criteria used to make the decisions. The second step involved structuring the revised criteria into a hierarchical matrix. The third step involved evaluating the proposed matrix by weighting the criteria using the analytic hierarchy process. The results obtained allowed the elucidation of these criteria, the proposal of a valid and detailed hierarchical matrix and the integration of the personal perceptions of the decision-makers with the specific objectives of a public organization. Thus, this model was demonstrated to be an appropriate tool for structuring these criteria.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scu088
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • Governance of technological change: How to define it without reducing
           it? * The Governance of Socio-Technical Systems: Explaining Change
           edited by Susana Borras and Jakob Edler
    • Authors: Musiani; F.
      Pages: 288 - 289
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv064
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • Leveling the entrepreneurial playing field * Womens Entrepreneurship in
           the 21st Century: An International Multi-Level Research Analysis edited by
           Kate V. Lewis, Colette Henry, Elizabeth J. Gatewood and John Watson
    • Authors: Fitzpatrick, S. M; McDonnell, J. S.
      Pages: 289 - 290
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv070
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
  • Science-policy intermediaries from a practitioners perspective: The
           Lenfest Ocean Program experience
    • Authors: Bednarek, A. T; Shouse, B, Hudson, C. G, Goldburg, R.
      Pages: 291 - 300
      Abstract: Scientists often lament their lack of influence on environmental policy-making. Some proposed solutions, like teaching scientists to communicate more effectively, can be helpful, but are not necessarily sufficient. Instead, connecting science and policy may often require a separate kind of expert: full-time intermediaries who facilitate the complicated exchange of information among scientists, policy-makers, and other stakeholders. In this paper, we describe intermediary efforts by the Lenfest Ocean Program, a grant-making program that funds peer-reviewed research and connects scientists and decision-makers who can take action on an issue. We present case studies of intermediary work on three topics: first, sustainable methods of harvesting bull kelp in the US Pacific Northwest; second, the design of catch share programs in US fisheries; and third, management of forage fish. These case studies suggest that science-policy intermediaries can help scientists make meaningful contributions to public discourse.
      PubDate: 2016-04-12T23:56:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scv008
      Issue No: Vol. 43, No. 2 (2016)
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