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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 198 journals)
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Journal Cover Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
  [SJR: 0.861]   [H-I: 50]   [32 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-7162 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3349
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [842 journals]
  • Twenty-First-Century Globalization and Illegal Migration
    • Authors: Donato, K. M; Massey, D. S.
      Pages: 7 - 26
      Abstract: Also labeled undocumented, irregular, and unauthorized migration, illegal migration places immigrants in tenuous legal circumstances with limited rights and protections. We argue that illegal migration emerged as a structural feature of the second era of capitalist globalization, which emerged in the late twentieth century and was characterized by international market integration. Unlike the first era of capitalist globalization (1800 to 1929), the second era sees countries limiting and controlling international migration and creating a global economy in which all markets are globalized except for labor and human capital, giving rise to the relatively new phenomenon of illegal migration. Yet despite rampant inequalities in wealth and income between nations, only 3.1 percent of all people lived outside their country of birth in 2010. We expect this to change: threat evasion is replacing opportunity seeking as a motivation for international migration because of climate change and rising levels of civil violence in the world’s poorer nations. The potential for illegal migration is thus greater now than in the past, and more nations will be forced to grapple with growing populations in liminal legal statuses.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T21:00:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216653563
      Issue No: Vol. 666, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • The Potential and Limitations of Cross-Context Comparative Research on
           Migration
    • Authors: Riosmena; F.
      Pages: 28 - 45
      Abstract: This article discusses major methodological challenges in the comparative study of the drivers of international mobility (between different times and places) when using household surveys. Noting the difference between the study of coterminous and stage-specific drivers of migration, I highlight the problems of obtaining data with adequate representation across periods and geographies, which are pressing for all social science research but especially for cross-local comparative endeavors. I discuss the advantages and drawbacks of a broad constellation of prospective and retrospective approaches, paying particular attention to the migration ethnosurvey. After briefly describing the general commonalities and differences of ethnosurvey approaches adopted around the world, I suggest how post hoc case selection and other adjustments can help to ameliorate retrospective biases and comparability problems. I conclude with ideas on a priori case selection that can help to bolster comparative migration studies.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T21:00:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216650629
      Issue No: Vol. 666, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Social Capital in Polish-German Migration Decision-Making: Complementing
           the Ethnosurvey with a Prospective View
    • Authors: Kalter, F; Will, G.
      Pages: 46 - 63
      Abstract: In this article we use a combination of retrospective and prospective data from the Polish Migration Project to examine the effect of social capital on the likelihood of migrating to Germany. We derive hypotheses from social capital theory about how personal connections to people with migratory experience affect the probability of migration, and we specify models to be estimated using both the retrospective and prospective data. Estimates of retrospective event history models confirm prior findings about social capital’s influence on migration decisions, and these findings are also generally confirmed using prospective data, even when potentially confounding variables are controlled. The prospective data also enable estimation of a two-stage decision model in which people first come to consider migration as an option and then rationally consider whether to depart. The estimates suggest that weak social ties are especially influential in predicting whether migration is considered, while strong ties are important in the decision to move.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T21:00:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216643506
      Issue No: Vol. 666, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • How Representative Are Snowball Samples? Using the Ethnosurvey to
           Study Guatemala-U.S. Migration
    • Authors: Lindstrom; D. P.
      Pages: 64 - 76
      Abstract: This analysis draws on binational data from an ethnosurvey conducted in Guatemala and in the United States in Providence, Rhode Island, to develop a refinement of the weighting scheme that the Mexican Migration Project (MMP) uses. The alternative weighting procedure distinguishes between temporary and settled migrants by using a question on household location in the Guatemala questionnaire that is not used in the MMP. Demographic characteristics and integration experiences of the most recent U.S. trip are used to assess the composition and representativeness of the U.S. sample. Using a composite index of migrant integration to compare the impact of alternative U.S. sample weights on point estimates, I find that although the U.S. sample is broadly representative across a range of background characteristics, the MMP sample weighting procedure biases estimates of migrant integration downward.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T21:00:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216646568
      Issue No: Vol. 666, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Double Disadvantage: Unauthorized Mexicans in the U.S. Labor Market
    • Authors: Durand, J; Massey, D. S, Pren, K. A.
      Pages: 78 - 90
      Abstract: From 1988 to 2008, the United States’ undocumented population grew from 2 million to 12 million persons. It has since stabilized at around 11 million, a majority of whom are Mexican. As of this writing, some 60 percent of all Mexican immigrants in the United States are in the country illegally. This article analyzes the effect of being undocumented on sector of employment and wages earned in the United States. We show that illegal migrants are disproportionately channeled into the secondary labor market, where they experience a double disadvantage, earning systematically lower wages by virtue of working in the secondary sector and receiving an additional economic penalty because they are undocumented. Mexican immigrants, in particular, experienced a substantial decline in real wages between 1970 and 2010 attributable to their rising share of undocumented migrants in U.S. labor markets during a time when undocumented hiring was criminalized.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T21:00:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216643507
      Issue No: Vol. 666, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • The Precarious Position of Latino Immigrants in the United States: A
           Comparative Analysis of Ethnosurvey Data
    • Authors: Massey, D. S; Durand, J, Pren, K. A.
      Pages: 91 - 109
      Abstract: A majority of Mexican and Central Americans living in the United States today are undocumented or living in a marginal, temporary legal status. This article is a comparative analysis of how Mexican and non-Mexican Latino immigrants fare in the U.S. labor market. We show that despite higher levels of human capital and a higher class background among non-Mexican migrants, neither they nor Mexican migrants have fared very well in the United States. Over the past four decades, the real value of their wages has fallen across the board, and both Mexican and non-Mexican migrant workers experience wage penalties because they are in liminal legal categories. With Latinos now composing 17 percent of the U.S. population and 25 percent of births, the precariousness of their labor market position should be a great concern among those attending to the nation’s future.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T21:00:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216648999
      Issue No: Vol. 666, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Shadow Labor: Work and Wages among Immigrant Hispanic Women in Durham,
           North Carolina
    • Authors: Flippen; C. A.
      Pages: 110 - 130
      Abstract: This article examines the forces shaping the labor supply and wages of immigrant Hispanic women in new destinations. The analysis draws on data collected in Durham, North Carolina, and evaluates how labor market outcomes are influenced by variables including human capital, immigration characteristics (including legal status), family structure, and immigrant-specific labor market conditions such as subcontracting. Findings indicate that the main determinants of labor supply among immigrant Hispanic women in Durham relate to family structure, with human capital playing a relatively minor role. Important variation is observed in the degree of work-family conflict across occupations. For wages, human capital and immigration characteristics (including documentation) are more important than family structure. Results show that the position of immigrant Hispanic women in Durham’s low-wage labor market is extremely precarious, with multiple, overlapping sources of disadvantage, particularly related to legal status and family structure.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T21:00:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216644423
      Issue No: Vol. 666, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • The Departed: Deportations and Out-Migration among Latino Immigrants in
           North Carolina after the Great Recession
    • Authors: Parrado, E. A; Flippen, C. A.
      Pages: 131 - 147
      Abstract: This article explores the impact of the 2007 recession and immigration enforcement policies on Latin American immigrants’ out-migration from the Durham, North Carolina, area—a new immigrant destination. Drawing on an original ethnosurvey collected in 2011, the analysis assesses the extent of out-migration over time, what precipitated the move, and whether individuals returned to their country of origin or migrated within the United States. We find that out-migration more than doubled after the 2007 recession and that migrants overwhelmingly returned to their home countries. While family considerations and accidents accounted for most of the departures before the recession, economic considerations became the dominant drivers of out-migration after 2007. Deportations also grew in number but accounted for a negligible share of all out-migration. Departures were more prevalent among immigrants from Mexico and those with lower educational attainment. Latin American migration, especially from Mexico, continues to be circular, and deportation is a relatively ineffective strategy for immigrant population control when compared to voluntary returns.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T21:00:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216646563
      Issue No: Vol. 666, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • The Effects of Legal Status on Employment and Health Outcomes among
           Low-Skilled Chinese Immigrants in New York City
    • Authors: Liang, Z; Zhou, B.
      Pages: 150 - 163
      Abstract: Using a 2004 survey done in New York City’s Chinese community, we explore the extent to which legal status affects immigrants’ labor market performance and health status. We focus on five issues related to legal status of immigrants: wages, weekly working hours, employment location, self-rated health, and health care utilization. Our results show that undocumented immigrants are more likely to work for exceptionally long hours and are less likely to see a doctor when they get sick. However, we also find that current legal status does not have a significant effect on current health status. This work contributes to a growing literature on how legal status is linked to labor market and health consequences.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T21:00:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216650632
      Issue No: Vol. 666, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Legal Status, Gender, and Labor Market Participation of Senegalese
           Migrants in France, Italy, and Spain
    • Authors: Vickstrom, E. R; Gonzalez-Ferrer, A.
      Pages: 164 - 202
      Abstract: Policymakers are understandably concerned about the integration of migrants into labor markets. This article draws on retrospective data from the MAFE-Senegal (Migration between Africa and Europe) survey to show that the effect of legal status on Senegalese migrants’ labor market participation in France, Italy, and Spain differs for men and women because of gendered immigration policies. We find that there is little association between Senegalese men’s legal status and their labor force participation. For Senegalese women, however, those who legally migrate to these countries for family reunification are more likely to be economically inactive upon arrival than women with other legal statuses. Family reunification does not preclude labor market participation entirely, however, as some of these women eventually transition into economic activity.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T21:00:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216643555
      Issue No: Vol. 666, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Different but the Same: How Legal Status Affects International Migration
           from Bangladesh
    • Authors: Donato, K. M; Carrico, A. R, Sisk, B, Piya, B.
      Pages: 203 - 218
      Abstract: This article builds on prior studies that document how legal status stratifies society, specifically in outcomes related to international migration. Here, we study such outcomes in Bangladesh, a low-lying nation that has experienced dramatic environmental changes in recent decades and high rates of out-migration. We do event history analyses of a new and unique dataset that includes information from approximately eighteen hundred households in nine villages to investigate whether and how legal status differentiates out-migration from Bangladesh. We find substantial variation in legal status among the women and men who make an initial international trip and that unauthorized migration affects other labor market and economic outcomes: it reduces the number of hours that migrants work in destination countries, lowers the odds that migrants pay taxes or open a bank account, and increases the odds that migrants use social contacts to find jobs.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T21:00:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216650843
      Issue No: Vol. 666, No. 1 (2016)
       
 
 
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