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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 197 journals)
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Journal Cover Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
  [SJR: 1.164]   [H-I: 64]   [29 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-7162 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3349
   Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [853 journals]
  • Terrorism in Perspective: A Review for the Next American President
    • Authors: Clarke, R. A; Papadopoulos, E.
      Pages: 8 - 18
      Abstract: The next American president will encounter a landscape with regard to terrorism, and specifically violent Islamist extremism, that is challenging and also much changed from eight years ago, when President Obama took office. The changes relate to failed and failing states in the Middle East and surrounding region, the terrorist organizations themselves, how the United States has dealt with the problem of terrorism, and how the problem has manifested in Europe. Even if the United States and its allies continue to retake territory from Daesh (or ISIS) and are able to disrupt other terrorist organizations, the problems of violent Islamist extremism and the societal and demographic conditions that enable it will persist. This volume seeks to define the problem and set it in context, and to offer some paths and priorities for the next president and her or his administration, including in the emerging and promising field of countering violent extremism (CVE).
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216672896
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Region in Transition
    • Authors: Salem P.
      Pages: 20 - 23
      Abstract: This article serves as an introduction to the first section of this volume, a section that focuses on the drivers of instability and radicalization in the Middle East and ways to counter them. This introduction provides a brief sketch of some of the key issues that are dealt with in more detail in this section and a brief précis of what each author addresses in his or her individual article.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216671908
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Failed States and Ungoverned Spaces
    • Authors: Lynch M.
      Pages: 24 - 35
      Abstract: State failure and proxy war have consumed key Arab states such as Iraq, Libya, Syria, and Yemen, with massive humanitarian consequences. Local power struggles have been exacerbated by regional and international interventions. The next American administration must act to resolve these wars and assist the reconstruction of shattered states. Rather than new military interventions, the United States should focus on the international enforcement of military de-escalation to accomplish these goals. This article explores the distinctive challenges for U.S. policy in each of these conflicts.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216666028
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Working toward a Stable Regional Order
    • Authors: Salem P.
      Pages: 36 - 52
      Abstract: Conditions in the Arab world since 2011 have brought about a perfect storm of national and regional instability: the Arab revolts challenged the authoritarian order in six Arab countries, and intense competition among regional powers has flared into an open proxy war. The combination has caused four Arab states to fully or partially fail. Their failure has created the ungoverned space and sociopolitical chaos that has allowed al-Qaeda to resurge and enabled the formation and spread of ISIS. This article examines the elements of today’s unstable Middle East regional order and suggests steps that the next U.S. president can take to help re-create a stable and less conflictual regional order, including in key states such as Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Iran. This is key to ending civil wars, rebuilding failed states, and reclaiming ungoverned space from terrorist groups and denying ungoverned space to them in the future.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216666263
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Competition among Violent Islamist Extremists: Combating an Unprecedented
    • Authors: Lister C.
      Pages: 53 - 70
      Abstract: The jihadist threat emanating from the Middle East has transformed dramatically in the past five years due to unprecedented levels of sociopolitical instability. While the region and much of the world around it previously faced a threat dominated by al-Qaeda, developments in the heart of the Middle East since 2014 have given birth to a new and more dangerous dynamic—two international jihadist movements competing to outdo each other on an increasingly brutal and complex world stage. In recent years, al-Qaeda has undergone a consequential strategic evolution: increasingly autonomous affiliates have begun to adopt a patient, long-game approach to operations, while ISIS has sought to attain rapid results. As two divergent models of jihad develop, different threats result, with the one universal factor being the exploitation of political failure, failing states, and sociopolitical instability to further extremist narratives. It is now more important than ever to develop tailor-made policies designed not just to combat jihadism itself but to ameliorate underlying conditions that have allowed it to thrive.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216668500
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • ISIS and al-Qaeda--What Are They Thinking? Understanding the Adversary
    • Authors: Haykel B.
      Pages: 71 - 81
      Abstract: The ideologies of al-Qaeda and the Islamic State are rooted in larger historical trends that have to do with the rise of Islamism in the Arab world and its authoritarian politics. This article provides the basic history and ideological composition of these two militant movements, how they differ from each other, and what accounts for their initial political success and more recent failure. It also offers policy recommendations for how to more effectively counter these groups.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216672649
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Grand Strategy versus Unending Extremism: Lessons from the United States
           and Coalition Experience
    • Authors: Allen J. R.
      Pages: 82 - 92
      Abstract: This article focuses on the lessons learned from American and coalition experience in dealing with extremist groups such as al-Qaeda and the so-called Islamic State or ISIL. It also deals more generally with extremist networks, which increasingly have the capacity to function as nonstate actors, not only threatening the existence of a growing number of fragile states but increasingly acting as proto-states themselves. I raise issues that should be considered as the United States and its allies and partners gird themselves for the long-term struggle against violent extremism. I also address the challenges faced after long years of war, the general considerations in forming a coalition, the means for establishing and implementing a strategy, and thoughts on a way ahead in a negatively trending security environment. I focus on what needs to be done and avoid specifically praising or condemning successes and failures of the past.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216668813
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Approaches for Countering Violent Extremism at Home and Abroad
    • Authors: Selim G.
      Pages: 94 - 101
      Abstract: As the struggle against violent extremism continues 15 years after 9/11, practitioners of counterterrorism note that law enforcement and military approaches alone cannot break the cycle of violence, and new threats emerge as existing threats are defeated. This article provides an overview of post-9/11 efforts related to countering violent extremism (CVE), or the prevention, intervention, and rehabilitative efforts to provide a noncoercive, nonkinetic pathway toward preventing recruitment and radicalization to extreme violence. Specifically, this article explores the spread of the ISIS ideology and the Obama administration’s CVE efforts, and provides an overview of subsequent articles in this series that expand on particular CVE approaches.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216672866
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Radicalization to Extremism and Mobilization to Violence: What Have We
           Learned and What Can We Do about It?
    • Authors: Stern J.
      Pages: 102 - 117
      Abstract: This article discusses individual mobilization to extremist violence from the perspective of a researcher and analyst, exploring what we know about the psychological and social factors motivating young people to join extremist groups and how that knowledge relates to the recruitment of individuals into ISIS. The biggest threat to the West, at least for now, is not core ISIS (or any jihadi group operating in the Middle East and North Africa region), but Westerners who self-mobilize for attacks at home or who return, trained to fight, from the "jihad" abroad. Finally, the article suggests specific ways for governments to respond to this threat, noting the limits of what government can do, and arguing that they join forces with the private sector. Mobilization to extremism must be addressed with broad, multi-institutional social strategies.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216673807
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • The Next Generation of Government CVE Strategies at Home: Expanding
           Opportunities for Intervention
    • Authors: Cohen J. D.
      Pages: 118 - 128
      Abstract: Using social media and other Internet-based communication platforms, groups such as ISIS have become effective at influencing vulnerable, disaffected young people who are in search of some sense of social connection and greater life purpose and encouraging them to commit acts of violence on behalf of their extremist cause. Traditional counterterrorism-related investigative strategies are insufficient to prevent these acts of targeted violence by lone offenders. Accordingly, we must expand the use of behavioral risk assessment methodologies as part of investigative protocols. We must empower local partnerships among law enforcement; the communities they serve; and others such as mental health professionals, educators, and faith leaders. Countering the terrorist narrative is not enough; we must adapt our efforts and prioritize holistic and collaborative ways to detect, assess, and intervene in situations where individuals may exhibit the behaviors and indicators of violent extremism in order to prevent a violent attack.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216669933
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Building Resilience against Violent Extremism: A Community-Based Approach
    • Authors: Mirahmadi H.
      Pages: 129 - 144
      Abstract: Building Resilience Against Violent Extremism (BRAVE), the World Organization for Resource Development and Education (WORDE)’s community-based approach to countering violent extremism (CVE), has gained international recognition for its approach to CVE and its emphasis on research-driven strategies. This article provides an overview of the BRAVE model and suggests practical steps for how to structure an effective, research-based CVE program, based on the BRAVE experience.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216671303
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • School-Based CVE Strategies
    • Authors: Moffett, K; Sgro, T.
      Pages: 145 - 164
      Abstract: The Peer to Peer (P2P): Challenging Extremism initiative, which counters violent extremism through youth engagement, is a partnership between an interagency government team and EdVenture Partners, a private organization that manages experiential learning initiatives using a peer-to-peer approach. The initiative tasks university students across the globe to counter extremism among their peers and in their communities, by creating and implementing, over the course of a school term, a social or digital initiative, product, or tool designed to empower their peers and counter hate. At the time of writing, more than two thousand students from more than ninety-five universities in more than thirty countries have been involved in the initiative, which is specifically designed to capitalize on public-private partnerships.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216672435
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Counter-Radicalization via the Internet
    • Authors: Greenberg K. J.
      Pages: 165 - 179
      Abstract: ISIS and other international terrorist organizations rely on the Internet to disseminate their extremist rhetoric and to recruit people to their cause, particularly through popular online social media applications. Any meaningful counterterrorism strategy must, therefore, account for the ways in which terrorist organizations use the Internet to prey on young, manipulable minds who are drawn to radical ideas and propaganda and to the desire to serve a cause larger than themselves. This article outlines the ways in which extremist organizations use the Internet to ensnare new recruits, analyzes the implications of cyber-recruitment on existing counterterrorism techniques, and suggests ways in which the U.S. government can work with Internet service providers and other major cyber corporations to better address this growing threat.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216672635
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • European CVE Strategies from a Practitioners Perspective
    • Authors: Korn J.
      Pages: 180 - 197
      Abstract: Countering violent extremism (CVE) is a widely used and defined term. From a practitioner’s perspective, it works on three levels: prevention of radicalization, intervention with individuals in danger of radicalization, and de-radicalization. The European Union pursues a holistic approach, which includes transnational collaboration and eliminating possible root causes of radicalization. The focus is not exclusively on national security concerns but also on prevention, de-radicalization, and rehabilitation. European states have developed a variety of CVE strategies, some of which are perceived as centrally controlled, while others are characterized by participative and cooperative structures. At both the European and national levels, collaborative approaches that encompass incorporation of civil society organizations and governmental programs are seen as the most effective in CVE.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216671888
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Countering Violent Extremism Strategies in the Muslim World
    • Authors: Kruse M.
      Pages: 198 - 209
      Abstract: The first part of the article provides an overview of the efforts, initiatives, and contributions led by the Muslim World to confront the threats of violent extremism. I explore these efforts by highlighting contemporary key initiatives in two major categories: (1) global cooperation and (2) national strategies. The second part of the article provides an analysis of what is required to support the Muslim World in its efforts in countering violent extremism and what is the best approach to integrate these efforts into the wider global commitment to defeat violent extremism. These initiatives need continued support, and I argue that non-Muslim nations must continue to consider the Muslim World a strategic partner in the global efforts to prevent and counter violent extremism.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216671706
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Conclusion: Key Themes for the Next President
    • Authors: Clarke, R. A; Papadopoulos, E.
      Pages: 212 - 217
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216675825
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
  • Corrigendum
    • Pages: 218 - 218
      Abstract: "The Electoral Landscape of 2016," published in The ANNALS 667, pp. 50–71, by John Sides, Michael Tesler, and Lynn Vavreck.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T05:45:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1177/0002716216670125
      Issue No: Vol. 668, No. 1 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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