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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 203 journals)
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Journal Cover Social Justice Research
  [SJR: 0.692]   [H-I: 41]   [21 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6725 - ISSN (Online) 0885-7466
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Relational and Group Collective Self Responses to Observed Victimization
           Across Cultures
    • Authors: Zoe Magraw-Mickelson; Mario Gollwitzer
      Abstract: Mental representations of the “self” consist of both individual aspects (i.e., how one differs from other people) and collective aspects (i.e., how one relates to other people), with collective aspects further consisting of interpersonal relations (the “relational” self) and of memberships in social groups (the “group collective” self). Some researchers assume that there is a universal motivational hierarchy in self-representations (with the relational self being more relevant than the group collective self). Other research suggests that the relative importance of self-representations varies across cultures. This paper tests the motivational hierarchy hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. Emotional reactions (anger, outrage, vengeful intentions) to observed victimization of a collective or relational group member were assessed in Germany, Japan, and the USA. In line with the motivational hierarchy hypothesis, we found, across all three countries, evidence for the primacy of the relational self over the group collective self.
      PubDate: 2018-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-018-0304-y
  • The Role of Perceived Justice, Political Ideology, and Individual or
           Collective Framing in Support for Environmental Policies
    • Authors: Susan Clayton
      Abstract: Effectively addressing environmental challenges such as climate change will require adopting policy measures that have some impact on collective human behavior. The present research examined attitudes toward different environmental policies, specifically focusing on the role of perceived justice. Justice was measured in two ways: as an assessment of the fairness of a particular policy and as a general tendency to endorse statements related to environmental justice. Because justice judgments can be context specific, policies were presented in four conditions, in a 2 × 2 design manipulating the type of impact described, ecological or societal, and the level of focus, individual or collective. The roles of political ideology and environmentalism were also investigated. Results from an online sample of 162 US residents showed that non-coercive policies, overall, were rated as more acceptable. Environmental justice statements were strongly endorsed, and justice in both its specific and general forms was a determinant of policy acceptance. In particular, ratings of the fairness of specific policies were a stronger determinant of acceptability than perceived effectiveness of the policy. Type of impact had little effect, but policies tended to be rated as more acceptable when they were framed in terms of the collective rather than the individual. Although a liberal ideology was associated with acceptance of environmental policies in general and with endorsement of environmental justice, controlling for endorsement of environmental justice eliminated the effect of political ideology in most, but not all, cases. Implications for policy support are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-018-0303-z
  • The Neurobiology of Fairness and Social Justice: An Introduction
    • Authors: H. Hannah Nam; John T. Jost; Stanley Feldman
      Pages: 289 - 299
      Abstract: The study of social justice has always been an interdisciplinary undertaking, but in recent years neurobiologists have joined scholars and scientists from other areas to tackle complex questions concerning fairness, empathy, equality, hierarchy, and ideological conflict and polarization. By synthesizing insights from multiple, mutually informative levels of analysis, it is possible to shed new light on basic biological processes that reflect, inspire, and inhibit the pursuit of a more just society. With this special issue we highlight groundbreaking research on the neurobiology of fairness and social justice, bringing together six articles that address core themes of social justice, including individual variability in definitions of fairness, the genetic basis of economic egalitarianism, neural bases of empathy in environmental and intergroup domains, and the neural and genetic correlates of ideological polarization. Taken in conjunction, these diverse contributions bring multiple theoretical perspectives and research methods to bear on the shared goal of understanding and promoting social justice.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0296-z
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Observing Environmental Destruction Stimulates Neural Activation in
           Networks Associated with Empathic Responses
    • Authors: Nathaniel Geiger; Caitlin R. Bowman; Tracy L. Clouthier; Anthony J. Nelson; Reginald B. Adams
      Pages: 300 - 322
      Abstract: The negative impacts of environmental disruption disproportionately affect marginalized and underprivileged communities; thus, the degree to which society is complicit in allowing unchecked environmental destruction to occur has important social justice applications. Although decades of research have sought to understand factors which determine acceptance of environmental destruction, most of this research has been based on self-report surveys. In the present work, we used neuroimaging techniques to examine the neural correlates of environmental concern. To do this, we compared responses to observing suffering dogs with responses to observing suffering ecosystems. Our results extend previous findings which had shown largely overlapping neural response patterns to observing animal and human suffering. Critically, we found activation in regions previously identified as active in empathy processes in response to viewing harm to ecosystems (i.e., without any animals present in the images). We also found relative differences in response patterns between the two types of stimuli: witnessing harm to environments (vs. dog suffering) led to reduced activation in some regions, but similar activation in others. We discuss these findings in terms of their potential implications for behavioral interventions and possibilities for continued neuroimaging research examining neural responses to environmental ecosystems and other nonhuman entities.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0298-x
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • A Genetic Basis of Economic Egalitarianism
    • Authors: Nemanja Batrićević; Levente Littvay
      Pages: 408 - 437
      Abstract: Studies of political attitudes and ideologies have sought to explain their origin. They have been assumed to be a result of political values ingrained during the process of socialization until early adulthood, as well as personal political experience, party affiliation, social strata, etc. As a consequence of these environment-dominated explanations, most biology-based accounts of political preference have never been considered. However, in the light of evidence accumulated in recent years, the view that political attitudes are detached from any physical properties became unsustainable. In this paper, we investigate the origins of social justice attitudes, with special focus on economic egalitarianism and its potential genetic basis. We use Minnesota Twin Study data from 2008, collected from samples of monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (n = 573) in order to estimate the additive genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental components of social justice attitudes. Our results show that the large portion of the variance in a four-item economic egalitarianism scale can be attributed to genetic factor. At the same time, shared environment, as a socializing factor, has no significant effect. The effect of environment seems to be fully reserved for unique personal experience. Our findings further problematize a long-standing view that social justice attitudes are dominantly determined by socialization.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0297-y
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 4 (2017)
  • Russian Adaptations of General and Personal Belief in a Just World Scales:
           Validation and Psychometric Properties
    • Authors: Sofya Nartova-Bochaver; Matthias Donat; Nadezhda Astanina; Claudia Rüprich
      Abstract: In a questionnaire study, Russian versions of the General and Personal belief in a just world (BJW) Scales were validated. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Personal BJW Scale could be empirically differentiated from the General BJW Scale; however, both scales correlated positively. Good internal consistencies of both scales were demonstrated. Age was positively correlated with personal BJW but not with general BJW. Gender differences were found neither in personal nor in general BJW. Personal BJW was found to be stronger than general BJW. Convergent validity was tested by inspecting correlations of BJW scales with the Basic World Assumptions Scale. Divergent validity was examined by inspecting correlations with Markers for the Big Five Factor Structure Scale and Justice Sensitivity Scales. Both personal and general BJW showed positive connections with all subscales of the Basic World Assumptions Scale (self-worth, benevolence of world, justice, luck, and control). We demonstrated divergent validity of personal BJW regarding intellect, agreeableness, conscientiousness, beneficiary and perpetrator sensitivity, and divergent validity of general BJW regarding intellect, beneficiary, perpetrator, and observer sensitivity. Both BJW dimensions were unrelated to beneficiary and perpetrator sensitivity. In addition, general BJW was not related to observer sensitivity. Results give evidence for satisfactory psychometric properties and validation of the Russian versions of BJW scales.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0302-5
  • Brazilian Adolescents’ Just World Beliefs and Its Relationships with
           School Fairness, Student Conduct, and Legal Authorities
    • Authors: Kendra J. Thomas; Winnie M. Mucherah
      Abstract: Prior research has demonstrated that adolescence is a sensitive period to develop their belief in a just world (BJW), both general and personal. Research has found significant relationships between BJW, perceptions of school fairness, student conduct, and perceptions of legal authorities. However, no research has combined these constructs in one model to get a broader picture of how adolescents construct their worldview of fairness and how this influences their compliance with authorities. This study analyzed 475 Brazilian adolescents across three schools. A partially mediated and a mediated model were tested to determine if students’ BJW relate directly or indirectly to student conduct and perceptions of legal authorities through school fairness. The partially mediated model best fit the data. Personal BJW predicted students’ perceptions of the school fairness, which predicted student conduct. General BJW and school fairness predicted adolescents’ perceptions of legal authorities. Perceptions of school fairness are influenced by Personal BJW and are predictive of students’ conduct and opinions of legal authorities. By analyzing multiple constructs simultaneously, this study provides a picture of how these overlapping conceptualizations of justice interact. Students who do not believe their school is fair are less likely to respect and abide by the rules and are more likely to also expect unfair treatment from law enforcement and judicial officials. This study points to the importance of students’ perceptions of justice at school and highlights the far-reaching implications of students who do not perceive or expect justice in their lives.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0301-6
  • Recalling an Unfair Experience Reduces Adolescents’ Dishonest Behavioral
           Intentions: The Mediating Role of Justice Sensitivity
    • Authors: Ilaria Giovannelli; Maria Giuseppina Pacilli; Stefano Pagliaro; Carlo Tomasetto; Manuela Barreto
      Abstract: Injustice experiences are likely to have a strong impact on—adolescents' life. However, individuals differ in how they perceive and respond to injustice depending on their justice sensitivity. Whereas several studies analyzed the relationships between justice sensitivity and antisocial behaviors in adult samples, little is known about this relationship among adolescents. The aim of the present experimental study is to expand knowledge on the antecedents and effects of justice sensitivity from the Victim (i.e., JS-Victim) and Others (i.e., JS-Observer, Perpetrator, and Beneficiary) perspective, particularly with regard to its relationship to willingness to act in dishonest behavioral intentions (e.g., stealing money or objects from classmates, teachers, or strangers). The study involved 369 Italian students (52% males; M age = 16.64, SD = 1.78). We examined the role of justice sensitivity in the relationship between the recall of unfair, fair, or neutral episodes, and the consequent willingness to perform dishonest behaviors. Results demonstrate that recalling unfair (vs. fair or neutral) episodes leads to an increase in JS-Others, which in turn decreased willingness to behave dishonestly. Conversely, JS-Victim did not mediate the relationship between the recall of unfair episodes and intentions to behave dishonestly. The present findings suggest that during adolescence JS-Others might act as a protective factor against dishonest behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0299-9
  • Justice Sensitivity and Cooperation Dynamics in Repeated Public Good Games
    • Authors: Thomas Schlösser; Sebastian Berger; Detlef Fetchenhauer
      Abstract: It is frequently observed that despite individual incentives to free ride, humans decide to cooperate with each other to increase social payoffs. In the current research, we address the effects of individual differences in justice sensitivity on cooperation. Using incentivized repeated public good games, we find that individual differences in justice sensitivity—the ease of perceiving, remembering, and reacting to injustice from the perspectives of an observer, beneficiary, or perpetrator, but not victim—substantially predicts cooperation in the absence of a punishment option. In contrast, when costly punishment is allowed for, cooperation becomes strategic as it also aims at avoiding subsequent punishment. If such a sanctioning mechanism is in place, justice sensitivity no longer predicts cooperation. The results regarding the degree of cooperation as reaction to initial non-cooperation of one’s counterparts highlight the role of justice-concerning personality traits for the sufficient provision of public goods, as sanctioning institutions are not always possible, effective, or suitable.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0300-7
  • Putting Ourselves in Another’s Skin: Using the Plasticity of
           Self-Perception to Enhance Empathy and Decrease Prejudice
    • Authors: Harry Farmer; Lara Maister
      Abstract: The self is one the most important concepts in social cognition and plays a crucial role in determining questions such as which social groups we view ourselves as belonging to and how we relate to others. In the past decade, the self has also become an important topic within cognitive neuroscience with an explosion in the number of studies seeking to understand how different aspects of the self are represented within the brain. In this paper, we first outline the recent research on the neurocognitive basis of the self and highlight a key distinction between two forms of self-representation. The first is the “bodily” self, which is thought to be the basis of subjective experience and is grounded in the processing of sensorimotor signals. The second is the “conceptual” self, which develops through our interactions of other and is formed of a rich network of associative and semantic information. We then investigate how both the bodily and conceptual self are related to social cognition with an emphasis on how self-representations are involved in the processing and creation of prejudice. We then highlight new research demonstrating that the bodily and conceptual self are both malleable and that this malleability can be harnessed in order to achieve a reduction in social prejudice. In particular, we will outline strong evidence that modulating people’s perceptions of the bodily self can lead to changes in attitudes at the conceptual level. We will highlight a series of studies demonstrating that social attitudes towards various social out-groups (e.g. racial groups) can lead to a reduction in prejudice towards that group. Finally, we seek to place these findings in a broader social context by considering how innovations in virtual reality technology can allow experiences of taking on another’s identity are likely to become both more commonplace and more convincing in the future and the various opportunities and risks associated with using such technology to reduce prejudice.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0294-1
  • Who Can Deviate from the Party Line' Political Ideology Moderates
           Evaluation of Incongruent Policy Positions in Insula and Anterior
           Cingulate Cortex
    • Authors: Ingrid Johnsen Haas; Melissa N. Baker; Frank J. Gonzalez
      Abstract: Political polarization at the elite level is a major concern in many contemporary democracies, which is argued to alienate large swaths of the electorate and prevent meaningful social change from occurring, yet little is known about how individuals respond to political candidates who deviate from the party line and express policy positions incongruent with their party affiliations. This experiment examines the neural underpinnings of such evaluations using functional MRI (fMRI). During fMRI, participants completed an experimental task where they evaluated policy positions attributed to hypothetical political candidates. Each block of trials focused on one candidate (Democrat or Republican), but all participants saw two candidates from each party in a randomized order. On each trial, participants received information about whether the candidate supported or opposed a specific policy issue. These issue positions varied in terms of congruence between issue position and candidate party affiliation. We modeled neural activity as a function of incongruence and whether participants were viewing ingroup or outgroup party candidates. Results suggest that neural activity in brain regions previously implicated in both evaluative processing and work on ideological differences (insula and anterior cingulate cortex) differed as a function of the interaction between incongruence, candidate type (ingroup versus outgroup), and political ideology. More liberal participants showed greater activation to incongruent versus congruent trials in insula and ACC, primarily when viewing ingroup candidates. Implications for the study of democratic representation and linkages between citizens’ calls for social change and policy implementation are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0295-0
  • Contributive Justice: An Exploration of a Wider Provision of Meaningful
    • Authors: Cristian Timmermann
      Abstract: Extreme inequality of opportunity leads to a number of social tensions, inefficiencies and injustices. One issue of increasing concern is the effect inequality is having on people’s fair chances of attaining meaningful work, thus limiting opportunities to make a significant positive contribution to society and reducing the chances of living a flourishing life and developing their potential. On a global scale, we can observe an increasingly uneven provision of meaningful work, raising a series of ethical concerns that need detailed examination. The aim of this article is to explore the potential of a normative framework based upon the idea of contributive justice to defend a fairer provision of meaningful work.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0293-2
  • The Role of Genes and Environments in Linking the Need to Evaluate with
           Political Ideology and Political Extremity
    • Authors: Aleksander Ksiazkiewicz; Robert F. Krueger
      Abstract: Understanding the origins of political ideology and political extremity at the individual level is becoming increasingly pressing in the face of polarization in the political domain. Building upon the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, we propose a motivated cognition approach to the study of political extremity with the need to evaluate as a key epistemic motive that contributes to political extremity. Moreover, we hypothesize that the link between the need to evaluate and political extremity may rest largely on shared genetic effects. This hypothesis builds upon existing biology and politics research, which has convincingly demonstrated that genes influence the direction of ideology, but has been largely silent on the role of genes in political extremity. To test our hypothesis, we consider several types of ideological, affective, and partisan extremity alongside conventional measures of political ideology and the need to evaluate in a behavioral genetic framework. Using a twin study methodology, we show for the first that the need to evaluate is heritable, that its phenotypic relationships with ideological extremity and strength are rooted in shared genetic influences, and, unexpectedly, that the relationship between the need to evaluate and some forms of political extremity is largely environmental. In examining the genetic and environmental components of the covariation of the need to evaluate with political ideology and right wing authoritarianism, we find limited support for shared genetic influences. Taken together, these results illustrate the value of adopting a biologically informed motivated cognition approach to the study of political ideology and political extremity.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0292-3
  • Who Sees What as Fair' Mapping Individual Differences in Valuation of
           Reciprocity, Charity, and Impartiality
    • Authors: Laura Niemi; Liane Young
      Abstract: When scarce resources are allocated, different criteria may be considered: impersonal allocation (impartiality), the needs of specific individuals (charity), or the relational ties between individuals (reciprocity). In the present research, we investigated how people’s perspectives on fairness relate to individual differences in interpersonal orientations. Participants evaluated the fairness of allocations based on (a) impartiality, (b) charity, and (c) reciprocity. To assess interpersonal orientations, we administered measures of dispositional empathy (i.e., empathic concern and perspective taking) and Machiavellianism. Across two studies, Machiavellianism correlated with higher ratings of reciprocity as fair, whereas empathic concern and perspective taking correlated with higher ratings of charity as fair. We discuss these findings in relation to recent neuroscientific research on empathy, fairness, and moral evaluations of resource allocations.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0291-4
  • Observing Others’ Anger and Guilt Can Make You Feel Unfairly Treated:
           The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions on Justice-Related Reactions
    • Abstract: Drawing upon emotions as social information theory, we propose that others’ emotions can influence individuals’ justice judgments, outcome satisfaction, and behaviors even when individuals are not unfairly treated themselves and in the absence of explicit information about the fairness of others’ treatment. Study 1 demonstrated that individuals make inferences about the outcome favorability and procedural justice encountered by others based on others’ expressions of guilt and anger, which also influence individuals’ judgments of others’ overall justice and outcome satisfaction. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that others’ emotions can influence individuals’ own judgments of procedural justice and overall justice. Specifically, individuals perceive lower levels of justice when another person expresses guilt or anger relative to no emotion. Moreover, others’ emotions influence individuals’ outcome satisfaction and behaviors (i.e., helping intentions and retaliation); these effects are mediated by individuals’ own justice judgments (i.e., procedural and overall justice). Theoretical implications related to the role of emotions as antecedents to justice judgments, the social function of emotions, and the impact of emotions on third-party observers are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0290-5
  • Socioeconomic Status and the Relationship Between Under-Reward and
           Distress: Buffering-Resource or Status-Disconfirmation'
    • Authors: Atsushi Narisada
      Abstract: A central feature of the sociological study of justice is its emphasis on how individuals’ positions in the social structure intersect with justice processes. This study examines how individuals’ socioeconomic status—as assessed by education and income—moderates any observed associations between perceived under-reward and three forms of distress: anger, depression, and physical symptoms. Using data from a national sample of American workers from diverse occupations, sectors, and social statuses, I test two competing hypotheses that articulate those contingencies: buffering-resource and status-disconfirmation. Results indicate distinct patterns for education and income that are mostly consistent across different forms of distress. The moderation patterns for income are more in line with the buffering-resource hypothesis, such that the relationships between perceived under-reward and all three forms of distress are weaker among those with higher income. The moderation patterns for education, however, suggest evidence that supports both dynamics: higher education buffers the effect of slight under-reward on the three distress outcomes, but does not buffer the effect of severe under-reward. I integrate theories from the sociology of stress and distributive justice in an effort to better understand how the stress of under-reward and social statuses intersect to shape distress. These discoveries speak to broader concerns about status-based contingencies embedded in the social psychology of inequality and its distribution in the population.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0288-z
  • ‘Selvations’ in Social Motivation
    • Authors: Claire Prendergast; Lotte Thomsen
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0289-y
  • The ‘Complex Human Problem’ that is Prejudice: A Review of the
           Cambridge Handbook of the Psychology of Prejudice
    • Authors: Becky L. Choma; Arvin Jagayat; David Sumantry; Vashisht Asrani
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0287-0
  • Justice Concerns After School Attacks: Belief in a Just World and Support
           for Perpetrator Punishment Among Chinese Adults and Adolescents
    • Authors: Michael Shengtao Wu; Adam B. Cohen
      Abstract: School attacks against children seriously threaten the belief that the world is a just place, in which good people get rewarded and bad people get punished. However, to what extent and in which way belief in a just world (BJW) plays a role in reaction to school attacks have not been investigated, especially in the Chinese context, in which people are traditionally expected to prize harmony over justice. Two studies examined how Chinese people varying in BJW differ in supporting punishment for the perpetrators of school attacks in China in 2010. In Study 1, general BJW among Chinese adults predicted support for perpetrator punishment, and those who paid more attention to the crime news also reported a higher level of punishment support. Study 2 revealed a similar pattern among Chinese adolescents, whose previously measured higher general BJW predicted increasing support for perpetrator punishment, and this effect was mediated via personal distress. In summary, general just-world belief facilitates punishment support among parents and adolescents in the Chinese context.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0286-1
  • Organizational Justice Comes of Age: Review of the Oxford Handbook of
    • Authors: Maja Graso; Steven L. Grover
      Abstract: The subfield of organizational justice has entered young adulthood. Its scientific achievements from conception to contemporary applications are represented in The Oxford Handbook of Justice in the Workplace, edited by Russell Cropanzano and Maureen Ambrose. The Handbook highlights advances in the field’s theoretical foundations, measurements, and applications. This Handbook follows a decade on the heels of its predecessor, Handbook of Organizational Justice, edited by Jerald Greenberg and Jason Colquitt. In 2005 the justice field was dominated by developmental debates over esoteric definitions of various facets of organizational justice, whereas the present Handbook reflects construct refinement, orientation to detail, and theoretical nuance that comes with maturation. This timely release therefore offers a fitting opportunity to reflect on key trends over the last 10 years and to consider the future of organizational justice research. This collection of comprehensive chapters meticulously compiled by the luminaries of organizational justice shows that organizational justice is still young, developing, and full of potential to influence the world.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0282-5
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