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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 198 journals)
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Journal Cover Social Justice Research
  [SJR: 0.692]   [H-I: 41]   [21 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6725 - ISSN (Online) 0885-7466
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Putting Ourselves in Another’s Skin: Using the Plasticity of
           Self-Perception to Enhance Empathy and Decrease Prejudice
    • Authors: Harry Farmer; Lara Maister
      Abstract: The self is one the most important concepts in social cognition and plays a crucial role in determining questions such as which social groups we view ourselves as belonging to and how we relate to others. In the past decade, the self has also become an important topic within cognitive neuroscience with an explosion in the number of studies seeking to understand how different aspects of the self are represented within the brain. In this paper, we first outline the recent research on the neurocognitive basis of the self and highlight a key distinction between two forms of self-representation. The first is the “bodily” self, which is thought to be the basis of subjective experience and is grounded in the processing of sensorimotor signals. The second is the “conceptual” self, which develops through our interactions of other and is formed of a rich network of associative and semantic information. We then investigate how both the bodily and conceptual self are related to social cognition with an emphasis on how self-representations are involved in the processing and creation of prejudice. We then highlight new research demonstrating that the bodily and conceptual self are both malleable and that this malleability can be harnessed in order to achieve a reduction in social prejudice. In particular, we will outline strong evidence that modulating people’s perceptions of the bodily self can lead to changes in attitudes at the conceptual level. We will highlight a series of studies demonstrating that social attitudes towards various social out-groups (e.g. racial groups) can lead to a reduction in prejudice towards that group. Finally, we seek to place these findings in a broader social context by considering how innovations in virtual reality technology can allow experiences of taking on another’s identity are likely to become both more commonplace and more convincing in the future and the various opportunities and risks associated with using such technology to reduce prejudice.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0294-1
  • Who Can Deviate from the Party Line' Political Ideology Moderates
           Evaluation of Incongruent Policy Positions in Insula and Anterior
           Cingulate Cortex
    • Authors: Ingrid Johnsen Haas; Melissa N. Baker; Frank J. Gonzalez
      Abstract: Political polarization at the elite level is a major concern in many contemporary democracies, which is argued to alienate large swaths of the electorate and prevent meaningful social change from occurring, yet little is known about how individuals respond to political candidates who deviate from the party line and express policy positions incongruent with their party affiliations. This experiment examines the neural underpinnings of such evaluations using functional MRI (fMRI). During fMRI, participants completed an experimental task where they evaluated policy positions attributed to hypothetical political candidates. Each block of trials focused on one candidate (Democrat or Republican), but all participants saw two candidates from each party in a randomized order. On each trial, participants received information about whether the candidate supported or opposed a specific policy issue. These issue positions varied in terms of congruence between issue position and candidate party affiliation. We modeled neural activity as a function of incongruence and whether participants were viewing ingroup or outgroup party candidates. Results suggest that neural activity in brain regions previously implicated in both evaluative processing and work on ideological differences (insula and anterior cingulate cortex) differed as a function of the interaction between incongruence, candidate type (ingroup versus outgroup), and political ideology. More liberal participants showed greater activation to incongruent versus congruent trials in insula and ACC, primarily when viewing ingroup candidates. Implications for the study of democratic representation and linkages between citizens’ calls for social change and policy implementation are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0295-0
  • Contributive Justice: An Exploration of a Wider Provision of Meaningful
    • Authors: Cristian Timmermann
      Abstract: Extreme inequality of opportunity leads to a number of social tensions, inefficiencies and injustices. One issue of increasing concern is the effect inequality is having on people’s fair chances of attaining meaningful work, thus limiting opportunities to make a significant positive contribution to society and reducing the chances of living a flourishing life and developing their potential. On a global scale, we can observe an increasingly uneven provision of meaningful work, raising a series of ethical concerns that need detailed examination. The aim of this article is to explore the potential of a normative framework based upon the idea of contributive justice to defend a fairer provision of meaningful work.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0293-2
  • The Role of Genes and Environments in Linking the Need to Evaluate with
           Political Ideology and Political Extremity
    • Authors: Aleksander Ksiazkiewicz; Robert F. Krueger
      Abstract: Understanding the origins of political ideology and political extremity at the individual level is becoming increasingly pressing in the face of polarization in the political domain. Building upon the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, we propose a motivated cognition approach to the study of political extremity with the need to evaluate as a key epistemic motive that contributes to political extremity. Moreover, we hypothesize that the link between the need to evaluate and political extremity may rest largely on shared genetic effects. This hypothesis builds upon existing biology and politics research, which has convincingly demonstrated that genes influence the direction of ideology, but has been largely silent on the role of genes in political extremity. To test our hypothesis, we consider several types of ideological, affective, and partisan extremity alongside conventional measures of political ideology and the need to evaluate in a behavioral genetic framework. Using a twin study methodology, we show for the first that the need to evaluate is heritable, that its phenotypic relationships with ideological extremity and strength are rooted in shared genetic influences, and, unexpectedly, that the relationship between the need to evaluate and some forms of political extremity is largely environmental. In examining the genetic and environmental components of the covariation of the need to evaluate with political ideology and right wing authoritarianism, we find limited support for shared genetic influences. Taken together, these results illustrate the value of adopting a biologically informed motivated cognition approach to the study of political ideology and political extremity.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0292-3
  • Who Sees What as Fair' Mapping Individual Differences in Valuation of
           Reciprocity, Charity, and Impartiality
    • Authors: Laura Niemi; Liane Young
      Abstract: When scarce resources are allocated, different criteria may be considered: impersonal allocation (impartiality), the needs of specific individuals (charity), or the relational ties between individuals (reciprocity). In the present research, we investigated how people’s perspectives on fairness relate to individual differences in interpersonal orientations. Participants evaluated the fairness of allocations based on (a) impartiality, (b) charity, and (c) reciprocity. To assess interpersonal orientations, we administered measures of dispositional empathy (i.e., empathic concern and perspective taking) and Machiavellianism. Across two studies, Machiavellianism correlated with higher ratings of reciprocity as fair, whereas empathic concern and perspective taking correlated with higher ratings of charity as fair. We discuss these findings in relation to recent neuroscientific research on empathy, fairness, and moral evaluations of resource allocations.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0291-4
  • Observing Others’ Anger and Guilt Can Make You Feel Unfairly Treated:
           The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions on Justice-Related Reactions
    • Abstract: Drawing upon emotions as social information theory, we propose that others’ emotions can influence individuals’ justice judgments, outcome satisfaction, and behaviors even when individuals are not unfairly treated themselves and in the absence of explicit information about the fairness of others’ treatment. Study 1 demonstrated that individuals make inferences about the outcome favorability and procedural justice encountered by others based on others’ expressions of guilt and anger, which also influence individuals’ judgments of others’ overall justice and outcome satisfaction. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that others’ emotions can influence individuals’ own judgments of procedural justice and overall justice. Specifically, individuals perceive lower levels of justice when another person expresses guilt or anger relative to no emotion. Moreover, others’ emotions influence individuals’ outcome satisfaction and behaviors (i.e., helping intentions and retaliation); these effects are mediated by individuals’ own justice judgments (i.e., procedural and overall justice). Theoretical implications related to the role of emotions as antecedents to justice judgments, the social function of emotions, and the impact of emotions on third-party observers are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0290-5
  • Socioeconomic Status and the Relationship Between Under-Reward and
           Distress: Buffering-Resource or Status-Disconfirmation'
    • Authors: Atsushi Narisada
      Abstract: A central feature of the sociological study of justice is its emphasis on how individuals’ positions in the social structure intersect with justice processes. This study examines how individuals’ socioeconomic status—as assessed by education and income—moderates any observed associations between perceived under-reward and three forms of distress: anger, depression, and physical symptoms. Using data from a national sample of American workers from diverse occupations, sectors, and social statuses, I test two competing hypotheses that articulate those contingencies: buffering-resource and status-disconfirmation. Results indicate distinct patterns for education and income that are mostly consistent across different forms of distress. The moderation patterns for income are more in line with the buffering-resource hypothesis, such that the relationships between perceived under-reward and all three forms of distress are weaker among those with higher income. The moderation patterns for education, however, suggest evidence that supports both dynamics: higher education buffers the effect of slight under-reward on the three distress outcomes, but does not buffer the effect of severe under-reward. I integrate theories from the sociology of stress and distributive justice in an effort to better understand how the stress of under-reward and social statuses intersect to shape distress. These discoveries speak to broader concerns about status-based contingencies embedded in the social psychology of inequality and its distribution in the population.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0288-z
  • ‘Selvations’ in Social Motivation
    • Authors: Claire Prendergast; Lotte Thomsen
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0289-y
  • The ‘Complex Human Problem’ that is Prejudice: A Review of the
           Cambridge Handbook of the Psychology of Prejudice
    • Authors: Becky L. Choma; Arvin Jagayat; David Sumantry; Vashisht Asrani
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0287-0
  • Justice Concerns After School Attacks: Belief in a Just World and Support
           for Perpetrator Punishment Among Chinese Adults and Adolescents
    • Authors: Michael Shengtao Wu; Adam B. Cohen
      Abstract: School attacks against children seriously threaten the belief that the world is a just place, in which good people get rewarded and bad people get punished. However, to what extent and in which way belief in a just world (BJW) plays a role in reaction to school attacks have not been investigated, especially in the Chinese context, in which people are traditionally expected to prize harmony over justice. Two studies examined how Chinese people varying in BJW differ in supporting punishment for the perpetrators of school attacks in China in 2010. In Study 1, general BJW among Chinese adults predicted support for perpetrator punishment, and those who paid more attention to the crime news also reported a higher level of punishment support. Study 2 revealed a similar pattern among Chinese adolescents, whose previously measured higher general BJW predicted increasing support for perpetrator punishment, and this effect was mediated via personal distress. In summary, general just-world belief facilitates punishment support among parents and adolescents in the Chinese context.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0286-1
  • “It’s All About Something We Call Wasta”: A Motivated Moralization
           Approach to Favoritism in the Jordanian Workplace
    • Authors: Kea S. Brahms; Manfred Schmitt
      Abstract: There has been a limited focus on the construal of justice judgments in contexts where norms are potentially conflicting, despite the relevance of norms in justice research. The present study aimed to close this gap by looking at the case of favoritism in Jordan where such conflicting norms are highly salient. A qualitative approach was chosen to facilitate ample exploration of the contextual complexities of the study’s setting. The main data basis were 22 problem-centered interviews conducted with managers and employees in Jordanian non-profit organizations. Data collection and analysis were guided by grounded theory methodology. The resulting theoretical framework of motivated moralization demonstrated that people flexibly construed favoritism as either unjust or justifiable to pursue a number of goals. Instead of relying on a single norm or standard, people strategically adopted the norms that were best suited to substantiate or legitimize a desired position. The norm conflict surrounding favoritism in Jordan facilitated this process by providing a selection of fitting norms for appropriation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0285-2
  • Development of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale-2 (SIAS-2)
    • Authors: Jacob M. Marszalek; Carolyn Barber; Johanna E. Nilsson
      Abstract: The 21-item Social Issues Advocacy Scale (SIAS; Nilsson, Marszalek et al. in Educ Psychol Meas 71(1):258–275, 2011) was developed as a concise measure of social justice advocacy for people in the helping and health professions. Recent scholarship has indicated a need for a broader measure. The present study seeks to continue development of the SIAS into an expanded version, the SIAS-2. A sample of 284 helping and health professionals and college students in related fields was administered 117 items, which was reduced to 78 items for the final instrument through item analysis and exploratory factor analysis. Eight factors emerged explaining 61.5% of the item variance. Corresponding subscales ranged in reliability from .88 to .94. Additional validity evidence is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0284-3
  • On Moral Thoughts, Feelings and Actions—A Review of The Social
           Psychology of Morality by Joseph Forgas, Lee Jussim, and Paul van Lange
    • Authors: Udo Rudolph
      PubDate: 2017-05-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0283-4
  • Organizational Justice Comes of Age: Review of the Oxford Handbook of
    • Authors: Maja Graso; Steven L. Grover
      Abstract: The subfield of organizational justice has entered young adulthood. Its scientific achievements from conception to contemporary applications are represented in The Oxford Handbook of Justice in the Workplace, edited by Russell Cropanzano and Maureen Ambrose. The Handbook highlights advances in the field’s theoretical foundations, measurements, and applications. This Handbook follows a decade on the heels of its predecessor, Handbook of Organizational Justice, edited by Jerald Greenberg and Jason Colquitt. In 2005 the justice field was dominated by developmental debates over esoteric definitions of various facets of organizational justice, whereas the present Handbook reflects construct refinement, orientation to detail, and theoretical nuance that comes with maturation. This timely release therefore offers a fitting opportunity to reflect on key trends over the last 10 years and to consider the future of organizational justice research. This collection of comprehensive chapters meticulously compiled by the luminaries of organizational justice shows that organizational justice is still young, developing, and full of potential to influence the world.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0282-5
  • Discrimination Towards Ethnic Minorities: How Does it Relate to Majority
           Group Members’ Outgroup Attitudes and Support for Multiculturalism
    • Authors: Sabahat Cigdem Bagci; Elif Çelebi; Selin Karaköse
      Abstract: We examined how ethnic discrimination targeting ethnic minority group members would affect majority group members’ attitudes and multiculturalism towards ethnic minority groups in the context of Turkish–Kurdish interethnic conflict. Study 1 (N = 356) demonstrated that the extent to which majorities (Turkish) believed there was ethnic discrimination towards minorities (Kurdish) in the Turkish society was associated with positive outgroup attitudes and support for multiculturalism through decreased levels of perceived threat from the outgroup. Study 2 (N = 82) showed that Turkish participants who read bogus news reports about the prevalence of ethnic discrimination towards the Kurdish were more positive towards this ethnic group (higher levels of support for multiculturalism, culture maintenance, and intergroup contact) compared to participants in the neutral condition. Furthermore, participants who were presented with lower levels of discrimination (few companies have been discriminatory against the Kurdish) were more positive towards Kurdish people than participants who were presented with higher levels of discrimination (most companies have been discriminatory against the Kurdish). Regardless of the intensity of discrimination, information about the prevalence of ethnic discrimination improved majority members’ attitudes towards ethnic minority groups. Practical and theoretical implications of the studies were discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0281-6
  • Justice Concerns Can Feed Nationalistic Concerns and Impede Solidarity in
           the Euro Crisis: How Victim Sensitivity Translates into Political
    • Authors: Tobias Rothmund; Olga Stavrova; Thomas Schlösser
      Abstract: We investigated how victim sensitivity and news media exposure conjointly contribute to the formation of political attitudes in the context of the euro crisis. Study 1 (N = 208) showed that observer-sensitive individuals were more likely and victim-sensitive individuals were less likely to support solidarity with countries in need of financial support. These correlations were mediated by affective components of political attitudes, namely nationalistic concerns, resentment about and empathic concerns with debtor countries. In Study 2 (N = 51), using a pre–post within-subjects design, we showed that framing the euro crisis in an ‘exploitation frame” (compared to a ‘solidarity frame’) in news media reports was more likely to trigger nationalistic concerns and, consequently, decrease support of solidarity in victim-sensitive individuals compared to their less victim-sensitive counterparts. These results are in line with the SeMI model and previous findings that victim sensitivity is linked to fear of being exploited in intergroup relations.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0280-7
  • Sex Discrimination, Personal Denial, and Collateral Damage
    • Authors: Faye J. Crosby
      Abstract: Many social scientists, especially those interested in social justice, have bemoaned the election of Donald Trump as president of the USA and have decried similar right-wing victories around the globe. We wish our research would have more of an impact. I argue that if we want our conclusions to have more application outside academia, we must first put our own house in order. As illustrated by a personal narrative, we are guilty of the sexism that we decry in others, although we can see that with clarity only in hindsight. Connected to our sexism are some epistemological shortcomings: our false insistence on the primacy of basic research and our false claim to conduct “value-free” research.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0279-0
  • Social Justice Through Multidisciplinary Lenses: A Review Essay
    • Authors: Barry Markovsky
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0278-1
  • Voter Turnout, Felon Disenfranchisement and Partisan Outcomes in
           Presidential Elections, 1988–2012
    • Authors: Edward M. Burmila
      Abstract: States vary in their treatment of the voting rights of convicted felons through incarceration, probation, parole, and beyond. A few states permit even incarcerated felons to vote, while others rescind the right permanently, with most states’ policies located between those extremes. This paper analyzes the relationship among voter turnout, election outcomes, and levels of felon disenfranchisement by state. The results show a pattern of divergence around the 2000 election before which turnout, disenfranchisement, crime rates, and Republican or Democratic success in elections were unrelated and since which strong correlations are found. Disenfranchisement rates no longer bear a significant relationship to crime rates, and states won by Republicans have both lower overall turnout and higher levels of ineligible felons in the voting-age population. Partisan control of state legislatures does not predict these patterns, but there is a strong regional component to the data with disenfranchisement notably higher in Southern states regardless of partisan control. Overall the data support a need for further research on the disparate treatment of felon voting rights among states which may be contributing to broader trends emerging in political science research of a growing relationship between lower voter turnout and Republican electoral success.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-017-0277-2
  • Is Income Inequality Related to Tolerance for Inequality?
    • Authors: Martin Schröder
      Abstract: Data from the International Social Survey Programme that includes individual respondents from 34 countries surveyed at four different times show that populations of countries with more actual income inequality also tolerate more income inequality, even after controlling for numerous individual- and country-level variables. Comparisons over time show that actual income inequality predicts later tolerance for income inequality, within 3–4 years, but earlier tolerance for income inequality does not predict later actual income inequality. These analyses therefore indicate that people adapt how much income inequality they tolerate to actual inequality. They contribute to a long-standing theoretical and empirical discussion about whether material structures influence or result from social norms.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0276-8
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