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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SERVICES AND WELFARE (Total: 201 journals)
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Zeitschrift für Hochschulrecht, Hochschulmanagement und Hochschulpolitik: zfhr     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Social Justice Research
  [SJR: 0.414]   [H-I: 30]   [19 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-6725 - ISSN (Online) 0885-7466
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2334 journals]
  • Understanding Perceptions of Racism in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina:
           The Roles of System and Group Justification
    • Authors: Alison Blodorn; Laurie T. O’Brien; Sapna Cheryan; S. Brooke Vick
      Pages: 139 - 158
      Abstract: Abstract The present study examined perceptions of racism in events that occurred during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina among a community sample of New Orleans area residents. Drawing on system justification theory, we examined system justification motives (i.e., meritocracy beliefs) and group justification motives (i.e., group identity) as predictors of perceptions of racism among African Americans and European Americans. Compared to African Americans, European Americans perceived much lower levels of racism in Katrina-related events. Furthermore, meritocracy beliefs were negatively related to perceptions of racism among both African Americans and European Americans. However, private regard (a component of group identity) was positively related to perceptions of racism among African Americans, but negatively related to perceptions of racism among European Americans. The results suggest that both system and group justification motives independently predict perceptions of racism in an important real-world event. Furthermore, system and group justification motives appear to operate in opposition for African Americans, but in tandem for European Americans.
      PubDate: 2016-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0259-9
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Hierarchy-Legitimizing Ideologies Reduce Behavioral Obligations and Blame
           for Implicit Attitudes and Resulting Discrimination
    • Authors: Liz Redford; Kate A. Ratliff
      Pages: 159 - 185
      Abstract: Abstract Three preregistered studies investigated people’s judgments of whether someone with implicit racial bias is obligated to change their bias and to avoid discrimination based on that bias. Two studies showed that hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies—Belief in a Just World, Social Dominance Orientation, and political conservatism—predict lower obligation judgments. One study showed that hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies predicted greater protection of a potential discriminator; in another, they also predicted lower protection of a person who may be discriminated against. Lastly, one study showed that greater obligation judgments predicted greater blame of a person who discriminated based on implicit bias. Taken together, these four studies address how people’s ideologies relate to their obligation judgments for implicit racial bias and how those obligation judgments are related to blame for discrimination resulting from implicit racial bias.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0260-3
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Different Developmental Pathways from Parental Warmth to
           Adolescents’ Trust in Peers and Politicians: Mediating Roles of
           Adolescent–Parent Attachment and Belief in a Just World
    • Authors: Tomo Umemura; Jan Šerek
      Pages: 186 - 205
      Abstract: Abstract The development of trust has its origin in parenting. However, it can be misleading to lump together all types of trust and to suppose that they are formed through similar developmental processes. Therefore, this research examined different developmental pathways of adolescents’ trust in individuals close to them (peers in this study) and those that are distant (politicians in this study). The study used longitudinal data collected from Czech adolescents (N = 904; 50 % of the participants were females). When adolescents were 13 years old, they and their parents reported parental warmth. Adolescents rated their trust in their parents and their beliefs in a just world at age 15 as well as their trust in peers and politicians at age 17. Both maternal and paternal warmth predicted adolescents’ trust in their parents, which in turn led to later trust in peers but not to later trust in politicians. However, maternal and paternal warmth only predicted their trust in politicians through the mediation of their personal belief in a just world. Our findings highlighted that although parents are important in the development of adolescents’ trust, mediating pathways differ depending on the types of relationships involved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0258-x
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Preference for the Diversity Policy Label Versus the Affirmative Action
           Policy Label
    • Authors: Madeleine A. Fugère; Christie Cathey; Raena Beetham; Molly Haynes; Rachel A. Schaedler
      Pages: 206 - 227
      Abstract: Abstract Study 1 assessed associations with the labels “diversity policy” (DP) and “affirmative action policy” (AAP) and perceptions of potential policy components. Student and community participants (N = 143) completed a survey assessing associations with one of the policy labels. Both policies evoked similar associations such as “race/minorities” and “equality/equal opportunity,” but the AAP was more often associated with “bias/inequality/discrimination,” “unfairness,” and “racism/prejudice.” When rating potential policy components, reverse discrimination was considered more likely under the AAP. In Study 2 we explored the evaluation of equivalent policy components associated with different policy labels. Student participants (N = 126) rated the policy labeled as the DP more favorably than the AAP. Both studies suggest more favorable attitudes toward the DP label.
      PubDate: 2016-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0265-y
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Mr. Winterkorn’s Pay: A Typology of Justification Patterns of Income
           Inequality
    • Authors: Julian Bank
      Pages: 228 - 252
      Abstract: Abstract This article develops a typology of justification patterns of income inequality by means of analysing the discourse surrounding executive pay in Germany. The case of a public debate about the record salary of the car manufacturer VW’s CEO, Martin Winterkorn, in 2012 and 2013, is identified as a rich source for a reconstruction of specific argumentative patterns and their underlying premises. The typology presents five justification patterns, (1) equality of opportunity, (2) desert, (3) procedure of salary determination, (4) harmful consequences of income inequality and (5) need. Further cross-patterns are identified. A key finding is the crucial—but often not explicit—role of factual, definitional or behavioural premises. It is argued that unveiling the structure of justification patterns of income inequality can provide a key tool in scrutinizing as well as in further analysing public debates about income inequality.
      PubDate: 2016-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0264-z
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Vulnerabilities in China’s Legal System
    • Authors: Kai Chen
      Pages: 253 - 256
      PubDate: 2016-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0267-9
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Unfolding Justice Research in the Realm of Education
    • Authors: Clara Sabbagh; Nura Resh
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Abstract This introduction to the SJR current special issue on Justice and Education, attempts to further depict the realm of education as a field of justice research. Leaning on Walzer’s (1983) seminal book Spheres of Justice, we first provide a general mapping of education as a “sphere of justice” and then describe and exemplify some of the salient justice paradigms that have guided educational research. Finally, we shortly describe the contributions to the special issue and situate them within the existing research, concluding with some recommendations for future justice research in the realm of education.
      PubDate: 2016-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0262-1
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • The Unfulfillable Promise of Meritocracy: Three Lessons and Their
           Implications for Justice in Education
    • Authors: Jonathan J. B. Mijs
      Pages: 14 - 34
      Abstract: Abstract This paper draws on a literature in sociology, psychology and economics that has extensively documented the unfulfilled promise of meritocracy in education. I argue that the lesson learned from this literature is threefold: (1) educational institutions in practice significantly distort the ideal meritocratic process; (2) opportunities for merit are themselves determined by non-meritocratic factors; (3) any definition of merit must favor some groups in society while putting others at a disadvantage. Taken together, these conclusions give reason to understand meritocracy not just as an unfulfilled promise, but as an unfulfillable promise. Having problematized meritocracy as an ideal worth striving for, I argue that the pervasiveness of meritocratic policies in education threatens to crowd out as principles of justice, need and equality. As such, it may pose a barrier rather than a route to equality of opportunity. Furthermore, meritocratic discourse legitimates societal inequalities as justly deserved such as when misfortune is understood as personal failure. The paper concludes by setting a research agenda that asks how citizens come to hold meritocratic beliefs; addresses the persistence of (unintended) meritocratic imperfections in schools; analyzes the construction of a legitimizing discourse in educational policy; and investigates how education selects and labels winners and losers.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-014-0228-0
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Distributive Justice Antecedents of Race and Gender Disparities in
           First-Year College Performance
    • Authors: Martha Cecilia Bottia; Jason Giersch; Roslyn Arlin Mickelson; Elizabeth Stearns; Stephanie Moller
      Pages: 35 - 72
      Abstract: Abstract Public education is a sphere of society in which distributive justice with respect to the allocation of opportunities to learn can have profound and lasting effects on students’ educational outcomes. We frame our study in the distributive justice literature, and define just outcomes specifically from a meritocratic and strict egalitarian perspectives in order to investigate how assignment to academic tracks and the availability of opportunities to learn during high school are associated with students’ academic achievement during college. We examine the role of “just” placement into high school academic tracks, “just” access to high-quality teachers, and “just” assignment of secondary schools’ resources in high school, in relation to college freshmen’s grade point averages (GPA). We utilize longitudinal data from a unique dataset with over 15,000 students who spent their academic careers in North Carolina public secondary schools and then attended North Carolina public universities. Our results suggest that “unjust” assignment of students to certain high schools, access to high-quality teachers, and assignment to learn in specific academic tracks result in long-lasting consequences that are reflected in freshman college GPA. Importantly, findings also show that the direction and magnitude of the relationship between distributional injustice at schools and college performance is moderated by students’ own gender and race. Race and gender interact with the high schools’ institutional contexts operationalized by tracking practices, teacher quality, and by school racial and socioeconomic composition. Results show that similar settings do not affect all students in the same ways.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-015-0242-x
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • The Meaning of Students’ Personal Belief in a Just World for
           Positive and Negative Aspects of School-Specific Well-Being
    • Authors: Matthias Donat; Felix Peter; Claudia Dalbert; Shanmukh V. Kamble
      Pages: 73 - 102
      Abstract: Abstract In two cross-sectional questionnaire studies with N = 1792 German and Indian students, aged between 12 and 17 years, we investigated the relation between personal belief in a just world (BJW) and positive as well as negative dimensions of school-specific well-being. Furthermore, we considered students’ personal experience of teacher justice as possible mediator in this relation and controlled for confounding effects of gender, neuroticism, and locus of control. In Study 1, we used multilevel modeling to analyze the German data and to control for class-level effects. In accordance with our hypotheses, Study 1 showed that the more students believed in a personal just world, the better their positive attitudes toward school, their academic self-esteem, and their enjoyment in school were, and the less somatic complaints in school, social problems in school, and worries toward school they experienced. These associations partly differed between classes, but generally persisted when controlled for sex, neuroticism, and locus of control. Finally, the association between personal BJW and well-being was at least partly mediated by students’ personal experience of teacher justice. In Study 2, we focused on the generalizability of the pattern of results across different cultural contexts. However, we did not aim to carry out comparative research. Results from bootstrap mediation analyses were predominantly the same as in Study 1. The adaptive functions of BJW and implications for future school research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-015-0247-5
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Examining the Interplay of Justice Perceptions, Motivation, and School
           Achievement among Secondary School Students
    • Authors: Ali Kazemi
      Pages: 103 - 118
      Abstract: Abstract There is a paucity of empirical research on the social psychology of justice in educational settings. A few previous studies have predominantly focused on distributive and procedural justice concerns, and knowledge about the role of what have been called informational and interpersonal justice for school outcomes is very scarce. In the present study, data from 227 eighth- and ninth-grade students who participated in a survey study were analyzed to examine the interplay between relational justice concerns (decomposed into procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice), motivation to study, and school achievement. A comprehensive theoretically grounded multi-item measure of informational justice was developed and validated. The results showed that informational justice significantly predicts school grades, and that motivation to study fully mediates this effect. Neither procedural nor interpersonal justice was associated with school grades. The implications of these results for research and practice are discussed in detail.
      PubDate: 2016-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0261-2
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Injustice in School and Students’ Emotions, Well-Being, and
           Behavior: A Longitudinal study
    • Authors: Johanna Pretsch; Natalie Ehrhardt; Lisa Engl; Björn Risch; Jürgen Roth; Stefan Schumacher; Manfred Schmitt
      Pages: 119 - 138
      Abstract: Abstract School can be regarded as an important factor in the development of children’s values and attitudes. Given this great importance of justice experiences for students’ development, this study aimed at examining the influence of perceived injustice in school on students’ emotions, well-being, and behavior with an experimental longitudinal design. In total, 196 students participated in this study and came to the university with their classes to receive extra teaching once a week for six consecutive weeks. To manipulate justice perceptions, a scenario of arbitrary privilege was chosen to lead students of the experimental group to experience injustice from a beneficiary perspective. We found that students in the experimental group reported higher well-being and a higher appreciation of the opportunity to learn than the control group did. Additionally, they showed an increase in justice-related negative emotions over time; that is, they expressed more of a bad conscience and stronger feelings of anger the more they became aware of their privilege. This study shows that even subtle experiences of injustice in school can have an impact on students’ outcomes. These results are discussed with regard to practical implications.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-015-0234-x
      Issue No: Vol. 29, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Neither Fair nor Unchangeable But Part of the Natural Order: Orientations
           Towards Inequality in the Face of Criticism of the Economic System
    • Authors: Sarah Becker; Paul Sparks
      Abstract: Abstract The magnitude of climate change threats to life on the planet is not matched by the level of current mitigation strategies. To contribute to our understanding of inaction in the face of climate change, the reported study draws upon the pro status quo motivations encapsulated within System Justification Theory. In an online questionnaire study, participants (N = 136) initially completed a measure of General System Justification. Participants in a “System-critical” condition were then exposed to information linking environmental problems to the current economic system; participants in a Control condition were exposed to information unrelated to either environmental problems or the economic system. A measure of Economic System Justification was subsequently administered. Regressions of Economic System Justification revealed interactions between General System Justification and Information Type: higher general system justifiers in the System-critical condition rated the economic system as less fair than did their counterparts in the Control condition. However, they also indicated inequality as more natural than did their counterparts in the Control condition. The groups did not differ in terms of beliefs about the economic system being open to change. The results are discussed in terms of how reassurance about the maintenance of the status quo may be bolstered by recourse to beliefs in a natural order.
      PubDate: 2016-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0270-1
       
  • Intergroup Identities, Moral Foundations, and Their Political
           Consequences: A Review of Social Psychology of Political
           Polarization by Piercarlo Valdesolo and Jesse Graham (Eds)
    • Authors: Julie Wronski
      PubDate: 2016-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0271-0
       
  • Two Types of Justice Reasoning About Good Fortune and Misfortune: A
           Replication and Beyond
    • Authors: Aya Murayama; Asako Miura
      Abstract: Abstract While research into justice reasoning has progressed extensively, the findings and implications have been mainly limited to Western cultures. This study investigated the relationship between immanent and ultimate justice reasoning about others’ misfortune and good fortune in Japanese participants. The effects of goal focus and religiosity, which previously have been found to foster justice reasoning, were also tested. Participants were randomly assigned to one condition of a 2 (goal focus: long term or short term) × 2 (target person’s moral value: respected or thief) × 2 (type of luck: misfortune or good fortune) design. For immanent justice reasoning, the results revealed that a “bad” person’s misfortune was attributed to their past misdeeds, while a “good” person’s good fortune was attributed to their past good deeds. Regarding ultimate justice reasoning, it was found that a good person’s misfortune was connected more to future compensation than their good fortune, whereas a bad person’s misfortune was not reasoned about using ultimate justice. There was no significant effect of religiosity or goal focus on justice reasoning, which is inconsistent with the findings of previous studies. The necessity of directly examining cultural differences is discussed in relation to extending and strengthening the theory of justice reasoning.
      PubDate: 2016-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0269-7
       
  • Respectful Inter-Group Interactions: A Method for Revising Group
           Attachment?
    • Authors: Laura Davies; Diane Sivasubramaniam
      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, we investigated whether respectful treatment shaped participants’ perceptions of procedural justice during interactions with out-group authorities, and whether the effects of respectful treatment would extend to participants’ attachment to their in-group and to the authority’s social group. We hypothesised that the nature of the relationship between the out-group and a participant’s social group (diametrically opposed vs. not opposed to one another) would moderate the effect of respect on participants’ procedural justice judgements, attachment to the in-group, and attachment to the out-group. Participants (n = 186) read a short, fictitious news story describing an interaction between a fellow in-group member (the subordinate) and an authority. As predicted, respectful treatment increased perceptions of procedural justice and also led participants to feel more attached to the authority’s social group. Contrary to expectation, participants’ attachment to their in-group was not affected by treatment, but instead by authority group membership: interactions with an authority from a social group diametrically opposed to the participant’s social group led participants to become significantly more attached to their in-group, regardless of the authority’s behaviour (respectful vs. disrespectful) in the interaction. Results are discussed in terms of practical strategies for authorities to effectively manage interactions with out-group subordinates.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0268-8
       
  • The Impact of Unpunished Hate Crimes: When Derogating the Victim Extends
           into Derogating the Group
    • Authors: Alison C. Sullivan; Aaron C. H. Ong; Stephen T. La Macchia; Winnifred R. Louis
      Abstract: Abstract Just world research has shown that observers derogate victims more for their misfortunes if the perpetrator is not harshly punished (Lerner in J Personal Soc Psychol 1(4):355–360, 1980). However, few studies have investigated minority group derogation as a just world preservation strategy after instances of intergroup harm-doing. This study is among the first to demonstrate the derogation of both individual victims and of the victim’s minority group experimentally, using the context of a racist hate crime in Australia. In the present experiment, participants (N = 110) read a news article describing a hate crime against an Aboriginal Australian teenager and were informed that the perpetrator was harshly or leniently punished (secure vs. justice threat condition). Our results show that in the justice threat condition, participants not only derogated the individual Aboriginal Australian victim more after his death, they also expressed greater racism toward the victim’s group. An indirect effect of the justice threat condition on modern racism via individual victim derogation was observed, along with moderating effects of individual differences in belief in a just world. These findings provide support for the alarming hypothesis that racist hate crimes are not only the manifestation of a racist society, but may also bolster racial prejudices if leniently treated. The results highlight the important role of political and judicial authorities, whose response or non-response to a hate crime can exacerbate or ameliorate existing prejudices.
      PubDate: 2016-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0266-x
       
  • Organizational Justice Across Cultures: A Systematic Review of Four
           Decades of Research and Some Directions for the Future
    • Authors: Maria Rita Silva; António Caetano
      Abstract: Abstract This review aims to provide an overview of the main frameworks and findings of cross-cultural organizational justice research and some directions for future research. We systematically reviewed the literature and analysed 74 papers, which include more than one country, from the justice receiver perspective. We contribute to the literature in two ways. First, our analysis of methodological aspects highlights some limitations: most studies compare two countries, mainly China and the USA; cross-cultural equivalence checks are rare; and most studies do not directly measure culture, rather tend to use collectivism and power distance as post hoc explanations of country differences. Second, we offer a broad view of country differences by investigating contextual effects that go beyond national values. Our analysis of the influence of sociocultural influence levels shows that culture, socioeconomic development, organizational, situational, and individual characteristics interact to predict the development of and reactions to (in)justice across countries. A greater integration of levels is important for the advancement of research. Across cultures, more positive justice perceptions are related to positive outcomes, but are achieved differently, so organizations should be aware of sociocultural influences on employees’ perceptions of justice.
      PubDate: 2016-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-016-0263-0
       
  • Anxiety-Based Personal Values and Perceived Organizational Justice
    • Authors: Elisabeth Enoksen; Gro Mjeldheim Sandal
      Pages: 479 - 492
      Abstract: Abstract This study examined the influence of personal values on employees’ perceptions of organizational justice. Specifically, we tested whether anxiety-based values explain greater variance in perceived organizational justice compared to anxiety-free values. Employees of a health organization (N = 224) in Norway completed the Organizational Justice Scale and the Portrait Values Questionnaire. Results from multiple regression analysis showed that anxiety-based values (power, achievement, security, conformity, and tradition) explained a significant portion of the variance in employees’ perceptions of organizational justice, whereas anxiety-free values did not (hedonism, stimulation, self-direction, universalism, and benevolence). Power and tradition were the only anxiety-based values that significantly contributed to explain variance in justice perceptions. People with a high score on these values tended to score high on organizational justice. Taken together, the present findings suggest that employees may perceive and interpret organizational processes differently based on their value schema.
      PubDate: 2015-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-015-0251-9
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Social Identification Predicts Desires and Expectations for Voice
    • Authors: Michael J. Platow; Yuen J. Huo; Li Lim; Hayley Tapper; Tom R. Tyler
      Pages: 526 - 549
      Abstract: Abstract Although a large body of empirical and theoretical work in procedural justice points to the positive consequences of providing voice to people, it remains unclear whether, and to what degree, people may desire voice in the first instance. The current paper presents two studies in which we directly measure people’s relative levels of voice desires and expectations. We hypothesized that any variability in these outcomes would be predicted, at least in part, by people’s relative levels of social identification with salient voice-relevant in-groups. We confirmed this hypothesis in one correlational study with pre-existing groups (Australia and participants’ workplaces) and one study with experimentally created, minimal groups. Results revealed that people do desire and expect voice, but these are neither necessarily extreme nor uniform. Moreover, consistent with our hypothesis, variability in these desires and expectations was associated in a systematic manner with the relative levels of social identification related to a salient in-group that is relevant to the voice context. We consider the implications of these findings with regard to theories of procedural justice, as well as critical directions for future empirical and theoretical work.
      PubDate: 2015-10-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11211-015-0254-6
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2015)
       
 
 
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