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    - ZOOLOGY (136 journals)

ZOOLOGY (136 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 0 of 0 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Herpetologica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Theriologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Zoologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia     Free   (Followers: 2)
Acta zoológica mexicana     Open Access  
Advances in Zoology     Open Access  
Advances in Zoology and Botany     Open Access  
African Invertebrates     Open Access  
African Journal of Herpetology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Wildlife Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Zoology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Zoological Research     Open Access  
animal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
Animal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Animal Biology & Animal Husbandry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Animal Biotelemetry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Animal Migration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annales Zoologici     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales Zoologici Fennici     Open Access  
Annals of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anthrozoos : A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Animal Behaviour Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Entomology and Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Mammals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR     Open Access  
Arthropod Management Tests     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Zoology     Hybrid Journal  
Bangladesh Journal of Zoology     Open Access  
Bioacoustics : The International Journal of Animal Sound and its Recording     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Bird Conservation International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Bird Study     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
British Birds     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Contributions to Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Der Zoologische Garten     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ecology of Freshwater Fish     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Taxonomy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Euscorpius     Open Access  
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fish and Fisheries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Frontiers in Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Graellsia     Open Access  
Herpetology Notes     Open Access  
Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy     Open Access  
i-Perception     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iheringia. Série Zoologia     Open Access  
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Integrative Zoology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Odonatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Zoological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Studies on Sparrows     Open Access  
International Zoo Yearbook     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Invertebrate Reproduction & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Italian Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Italian Journal of Zoology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agrobiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Animal Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Apicultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Animal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B : Molecular and Developmental Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Freshwater Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Herpetology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Insects     Open Access  
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases     Open Access  
Journal of Wildlife Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Zoology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Laboratory Animals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Mammalia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Memorias de la Conferencia Interna en Medicina y Aprovechamiento de Fauna Silvestre, Exótica y no Convencional     Open Access  
Monographs of the Transvaal Museum     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural History Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
New Zealand Journal of Zoology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia     Open Access  
Parasite     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Physiological and Biochemical Zoology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Polish Journal of Entomology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Primate Biology     Open Access  
Protist Genomics     Open Access  
Redia : Journal of Zoology     Open Access  
Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Research in Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Reprodução Animal     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia     Open Access  
Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía     Open Access  
Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Revista de Zoologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Herpetology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Journal of Animal Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientific Journal of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Skeletal Muscle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South American Journal of Herpetology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Travaux du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle “Grigore Antipa”     Open Access  
Tropical Zoology     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Zoology     Open Access  
University Journal of Zoology, Rajshahi University     Open Access  
Veterinária e Zootecnia     Open Access  
Waterbirds     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Wildlife Society Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
World Rabbit Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Zoo Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Zoo Indonesia : Jurnal Fauna Tropika     Open Access  
ZooKeys     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Zoologia (Curitiba)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zoologica Poloniae : The Journal of Polish Zoological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zoologica Scripta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Zoological Letters     Open Access  
Zoological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Zoological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zoologische Mededelingen     Open Access  
Zoologischer Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology     Hybrid Journal  
Zoologist (The)     Full-text available via subscription  
Zoology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Zoology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Zoomorphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zoosystematics and Evolution - Mitteilungen Aus Dem Museum Fur Naturkunde Zu Berlin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zootecnia     Open Access  

           

Journal Cover Journal of Animal Ecology
  [SJR: 3.074]   [H-I: 102]   [51 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0021-8790 - ISSN (Online) 1365-2656
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Hoverfly preference for high honeydew amounts creates enemy‐free
           space for aphids colonizing novel host plants
    • Authors: Ilka Vosteen; Jonathan Gershenzon, Grit Kunert
      Abstract: The existence of an enemy‐free space can play an important role in aphid host race formation processes, but little is known about the mechanisms that create an area of low predation pressure on particular host plants. In this paper we identify a mechanism generating lower predation pressure that promotes the maintenance of the different host races of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) complex, a well‐studied model for ecological speciation. The pea aphid consists of at least 15 genetically distinct host races which are native to specific host plants of the legume family, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Previous work showed that hoverfly (Episyrphus balteatus) oviposition preferences contribute to the enemy‐free space that helps to maintain the different pea aphid host races, and that higher amounts of honeydew are more attractive to ovipositing hoverflies. Here we demonstrated that aphid honeydew is produced in large amounts when aphid reproduction rate was highest, and so is an important oviposition cue for hoverflies under field conditions. However, on less suitable host plants, where honeydew production is reduced, pea aphids enjoy lower predation rates. A reduction in enemy pressure can mitigate the performance disadvantages of aphids colonizing a novel host, and probably plays an important role in pea aphid host race formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-22T03:00:26.364936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12564
       
  • The dominant detritus‐feeding invertebrate in arctic peat soils
           derives its essential amino acids from gut symbionts
    • Abstract: Supplementation of nutrients by symbionts enables consumers to thrive on resources that might otherwise be insufficient to meet nutritional demands. Such nutritional subsidies by intracellular symbionts has been well studied; however, supplementation of de novo synthesized nutrients to hosts by extracellular gut symbionts is poorly documented, especially for generalists with relatively undifferentiated intestinal tracts. Although gut symbionts facilitate degradation of resources that would otherwise remain inaccessible to the host, such digestive actions alone cannot make up for dietary insufficiencies of macronutrients such as essential amino acids (EAA). Documenting whether gut symbionts also function as partners for symbiotic EAA supplementation is important because the question of how some detritivores are able to subsist on nutritionally insufficient diets has remained unresolved. To answer this poorly‐understood nutritional aspect of symbiont‐host interactions, we studied the enchytraeid worm, a bulk soil feeder that thrives in arctic peatlands. In a combined field and laboratory study, we employed stable isotope fingerprinting of amino acids to identify the biosynthetic origins of amino acids to bacteria, fungi and plants in enchytraeids. Enchytraeids collected from arctic peatlands derived more than 80% of their EAA from bacteria. In a controlled feeding study with the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus, EAA derived almost exclusively from gut bacteria when the worms fed on higher fiber diets, whereas most of the enchytraeids’ EAA derived from dietary sources when fed on lower fiber diets. Our gene sequencing results of gut microbiota showed that the worms harbor several taxa in their gut lumen absent from their diets and substrates. Almost all gut taxa are candidates for EAA supplementation because almost all belong to clades capable of biosynthesizing EAA. Our study provides the first evidence of extensive symbiotic supplementation of EAA by microbial gut symbionts, and demonstrate that symbiotic bacteria in the gut lumen appear to function as partners for both symbiotic EAA supplementation as well as for digestion of insoluble plant fibers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20T10:20:27.337915-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12563
       
  • Diet preferences as the cause of individual differences rather than the
           consequence
    • Authors: Thomas Oudman; Allert I. Bijleveld, Marwa M. Kavelaars, Anne Dekinga, John Cluderay, Theunis Piersma, Jan A. Gils
      Abstract: Behavioural variation within a species is usually explained as the consequence of individual variation in physiology. However, new evidence suggests that the arrow of causality may well be in the reverse direction: behaviours such as diet preferences cause the differences in physiological and morphological traits. Recently, diet preferences were proposed to underlie consistent differences in digestive organ mass and movement patterns (patch residence times) in red knots (Calidris canutus islandica). Red knots are molluscivorous and migrant shorebirds for which the size of the muscular stomach (gizzard) is critical for the food processing rate. In this study, red knots (C. c. canutus, n = 46) were caught at Banc d'Arguin, an intertidal flat ecosystem in Mauritania, and released with radio‐tags after the measurement of gizzard mass. Using a novel tracking system (time‐of‐arrival), patch residence times were measured over a period of three weeks. Whether or not gizzard mass determined patch residence times was tested experimentally by offering 12 of the 46 tagged red knots soft diets prior to release; this reduced an individual's gizzard mass by 20–60%. To validate whether the observed range of patch residence times would be expected from individual diet preferences, we simulated patch residence times as a function of diet preferences via a simple departure rule. Consistent with previous empirical studies, patch residence times in the field were positively correlated with gizzard mass. The slope of this correlation, as well as the observed range of patch residence times, was in accordance with the simulated values. The 12 birds with reduced gizzard masses did not decrease patch residence times in response to the reduction in gizzard mass. These findings suggest that diet preferences can indeed cause the observed among‐individual variation in gizzard mass and patch residence times. We discuss how early diet experiences can have cascading effects on the individual expression of both behavioural and physiomorphic traits. This emphasizes that to understand the ecological consequences of individual differences, knowledge of the environment during development is required. Behavioural differences between animals are often explained by their physiology or morphology. The authors studied the causality between physiomorphic and behavioural differences in red knots, migratory shorebirds that feed on bivalves. They show that differences in gut size and movement patterns are likely caused by diet preferences, rather than vice versa. Photo credit: Jeroen Onrust.
      PubDate: 2016-06-16T02:45:33.960849-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12549
       
  • Erratum
    • PubDate: 2016-06-15T07:10:24.558451-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12553
       
  • Prey size and scramble vs. contest competition in a social spider:
           implications for population dynamics
    • Abstract: 1.There are many benefits of group living, but also substantial costs, one of which is competition for resources. How scarce food resources are distributed among different members of a population or social group—whether via scramble or contest competition— can influence not only the variance in individual fitness, but also the stability and therefore survival of the group or population. 2.Attributes of the food resources themselves, such as their size, may also influence the type of intraspecific competition that occurs, and therefore the intrinsic stability of a group or population. 3.By experimentally manipulating the size of prey fed to artificial colonies of the social spider Anelosimus eximius, we investigated whether prey size could alter the degree of scramble vs. contest competition that takes place and, thus, potentially, influence colony population dynamics. 4.We found that large prey were shared more evenly than small prey, and that individuals in poor condition were more likely to feed when prey were large than when prey were small. Additionally we show that individuals participating in prey capture are also more likely to feed on the captured prey. 5.We developed a simple mathematical model to explore the prey sizes that would be energetically worth defending, i.e. “economically defendable”. The model shows that neither very small, nor prey above a certain size is worth monopolizing, with only intermediate size prey being “economically defendable”. We therefore suggest the small and large prey in our experiment corresponds to our model's intermediate and large prey categories respectively. 6.As the size of prey captured by social spider colonies increases with colony size, our findings suggest that scramble competition may predominate in large colonies. Scramble competition, combined with the fact that prey biomass per capita declines as colonies grow beyond a certain size, would then explain why extremely large colonies of this social spider may suddenly go extinct. Our project thus illustrates the potential triple link between characteristics of the resources, individual behaviour, and population dynamics, a link rarely considered in an empirical setting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-14T09:25:26.960416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12559
       
  • Street lighting: sex‐independent impacts on moth movement
    • Abstract: 1.Artificial lights have become an integral and welcome part of our urban and peri‐urban environments. However, recent research has highlighted the potentially negative ecological consequences of ubiquitous artificial light. In particular, insects, especially moths, are expected to be negatively impacted by the presence of artificial lights. Previous research with light traps has shown a male‐biased attraction to light in moths. 2.In this study, we sought to determine if street lights could limit moth dispersal and if there was any sex bias in attraction to light. More specifically, we aimed to determine sex specific attraction radii for moths to street lights. 3.We tested these hypotheses by collecting moths for two years at an experimental setup. To estimate the attraction radii we developed a Markov model and related it to the acquired data. 4.Utilizing multinomial statistics, we found that attraction rates to lights in the middle of the matrix were substantially lower than predicted by the null hypothesis of equal attraction level (0.44 times). With the Markov model, we estimated that a corner‐light was 2.77 times more attractive than a wing‐light with an equivalent attraction radius of c. 23m around each light. We found neither sexual differences in the attraction rate nor in the attraction radius of males and females. Since we captured three times more males than females, we conclude that sex ratios are representative of operational sex ratios or of different flight activities. 5.These results provide evidence for street lights to limit moth dispersal, and that they seem to act equally on male and female moths. Consequently, public lighting might divide a suitable landscape into many small habitats. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume i) that public lighting near hedges and bushes or field margins reduces the quality of these important habitat structures, and ii) that public lighting near important habitat structures but not interfering with local movement may affect moth movement between patches. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:30:26.84133-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12540
       
  • Simple settlement decisions explain common dispersal patterns in
           territorial species
    • Authors: James J. Gilroy; Julie L. Lockwood
      Abstract: Dispersal is one of the least‐understood aspects of animal behaviour. For example, little is known of the mechanisms that determine how individuals express different dispersal behaviours in different circumstances. Uncovering these mechanisms is important for our understanding of spatial population dynamics. Using agent‐based simulations, we examine how simple decision rules generate individual‐level dispersal plasticity, and how this can influence population‐scale dispersal dynamics. We model a territorial, monogamous population inhabiting a completely homogeneous environment. Dispersal variability therefore emerges solely as a result of between‐individual interactions (competition, settlement, reproduction), which are governed by simple decision‐making algorithms. We show that complex dispersal dynamics, including sex biases and strong density dependence, emerge naturally from simple rule‐based behaviours. Dispersal is particularly sensitive to the inclusion of mate availability as a criterion for settlement: if neither sex evaluates mate availability, dispersal distances tend to decline at low densities, leading to a strong Allee effect from reduced pairing success. If one sex evaluates mate availability (females), Allee effects are largely avoided, but female‐biased dispersal generates increasingly male‐biased adult sex ratios at low densities. Sex biases are eliminated if both sexes evaluate mate availability, but population growth rates tend to be reduced due to survival costs and reduced pairing success. Our models suggest that simple decision mechanisms can explain several dynamic patterns that are commonly observed among territorial species. Importantly, these patterns emerge in the absence of environmental heterogeneity or between‐individual variation in dispersal phenotypes, two conditions that are often invoked to explain dispersal heterogeneity in nature. This has implications for studies seeking to examine the causes of dispersal variability in wild populations, suggesting that observed patterns could be largely driven by the social and demographic conditions experienced by sampled individuals. Further insights could be gained by examining how selection operates on decision rules in different life‐history and environmental circumstances, and how this might interact with selection on other demographic traits. Uncovering the decision‐rules used during settlement should be a priority for those wishing to understand and predict dispersal patterns in nature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:25:40.845164-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12545
       
  • Trade‐offs and mixed infections in an obligate‐killing insect
           pathogen
    • Authors: Elizabeth M. Redman; Kenneth Wilson, Jenny S. Cory
      Abstract: Natural populations of pathogens are frequently composed of numerous interacting strains. Understanding what maintains this diversity remains a key focus of research in disease ecology. In addition, within‐host pathogen dynamics can have a strong impact on both infection outcome and the evolution of pathogen virulence and thus understanding the impact of pathogen diversity is important for disease management. We compared eight genetically distinguishable variants from Spodoptera exempta nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpexNPV) isolated from the African armyworm, Spodoptera exempta. NPVs are obligate killers and the vast majority of transmission‐stages are not released until after the host has died. The NPV variants differed significantly in their virulence and could be clustered into two groups based on their dose‐response curves. They also differed in their speed of kill and productivity (transmission potential) for S. exempta. The mixed‐genotype wild‐type SpexNPV, from which each variant was isolated, was significantly more virulent than any individual variant and its mean mortality rate was within the fastest group of individual variants. However, the wild‐type virus produced fewer new infectious stages than any single variant, which might reflect competition among the variants. A survival analysis, combining the mortality and speed of kill data, confirmed the superiority of the genetically‐mixed wild‐type virus over any single variant. S. exempta larvae infected with wild‐type SpexNPV were predicted to die 2.7 and 1.9 times faster than insects infected with isolates from either of the two clusters of genotypes. Theory suggests that there are likely to be trade‐offs between pathogen fitness traits. Across all larvae, there was a negative linear relationship between virus yield and speed of kill, such that more rapid host death carried the cost of producing fewer transmission stages. We also found a near‐significant relationship for the same trend at the inter‐variant level. However, there was no evidence for a significant relationship between the induced level of mortality and transmission potential (virus yield) or speed of kill. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-13T07:25:31.175242-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12547
       
  • Field‐based experimental acidification alters fouling community
           structure and reduces diversity
    • Authors: Norah E. M. Brown; Thomas W. Therriault, Christopher D. G. Harley
      Abstract: 1.Increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are affecting ocean chemistry, leading to increased acidification (i.e., decreased pH) and reductions in calcium carbonate saturation state. 2.Many species are likely to respond to acidification, but the direction and magnitude of these responses will be based on interspecific and ontogenetic variation in physiology and the relative importance of calcification. Differential responses to ocean acidification among species will likely result in important changes in community structure and diversity. 3.To characterize potential impacts of ocean acidification on community composition and structure, we examined the response of a marine fouling community to experimental CO2 enrichment in field‐deployed flow‐through mesocosm systems. 4.Acidification significantly altered community structure by altering the relative abundances of species and reduced community variability, resulting in more homogenous biofouling communities from one experimental tile to the next both among and within the acidified mesocosms. Mussel (Mytilus trossulus) recruitment was reduced by over 30% in the elevated CO2 treatment compared to the ambient treatment by the end of the experiment. Strong differences in mussel cover (up to 40% lower in acidified conditions) developed over the second half of the 10‐week experiment. Acidification did not appear to affect mussel growth, as average mussel sizes were similar between treatments at the end of the experiment. Hydroid (Obelia dichotoma) cover was significantly reduced in the elevated CO2 treatment after eight weeks. Conversely, the percent cover of bryozoan colonies (Mebranipora membranacea) was higher under acidified conditions with differences becoming apparent after six weeks. Neither recruitment nor final size of barnacles (Balanus crenatus) was affected by acidification. By the end of the experiment, diversity was 41% lower in the acidified treatment relative to ambient conditions. 5.Overall, our findings support the general expectation that OA will simplify marine communities by acting on important ecological processes that ultimately determine community structure and diversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T10:45:27.185783-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12557
       
  • Fitness costs of animal medication: anti‐parasitic plant chemicals
           reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts
    • Authors: Leiling Tao; Kevin M. Hoang, Mark D. Hunter, Jacobus C. de Roode
      Abstract: 1.The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defense against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defenses. However, the costs of non‐immunological defenses, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defense strategies. 2.Many animals have evolved medication behaviors, whereby they use anti‐parasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviors is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. 3.In the current study, we explore costs of the usage of anti‐parasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of anti‐parasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these anti‐parasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. 4.Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although nonpolar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump‐shaped curve between cardenolide non‐polarity and the life span of infected butterflies. 5.Overall, our results suggest that the use of anti‐parasitic compounds carries substantial costs, which could constrain host investment in medication behaviors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T10:01:43.673494-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12558
       
  • Coupled range dynamics of brood parasites and their hosts responding to
           climate and vegetation changes
    • Abstract: As populations shift their ranges in response to global change, local species assemblages can change, setting the stage for new ecological interactions, community equilibria, and evolutionary responses. Here we focus on the range dynamics of four avian brood parasite species and their hosts in southern Africa, in a context of bush encroachment (increase in woody vegetation density in places previously occupied by savanna‐grassland mosaics) favouring some species at the expense of others. We first tested whether hosts and parasites constrained each other's ability to expand or maintain their ranges. Second, we investigated whether range shifts represented an opportunity for new host‐parasite and parasite‐parasite interactions. We used multi‐species dynamic occupancy models with interactions, fitted to citizen‐science data, to estimate the contribution of interspecific interactions to range shifts and to quantify the change in species co‐occurrence probability over a 25‐year period. Parasites were able to track their hosts’ range shifts. We detected no deleterious effect of the parasites’ presence on either the local population viability of host species or the hosts’ ability to colonize newly suitable areas. In the recently diversified indigobird radiation (Vidua spp.), following bush encroachment, the new assemblages presented more potential opportunities for speciation via host switch, but also more potential for hybridization between extant lineages, also via host switch. Multi‐species dynamic occupancy models with interactions brought new insights into the feedbacks between range shifts, biotic interactions, and local demography: brood parasitism had little detected impact on extinction or colonization processes, but inversely the latter processes affected biotic interactions via the modification of co‐occurrence patterns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T06:57:38.069097-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12546
       
  • Parasite specialization in a unique habitat: hummingbirds as reservoirs of
           generalist blood parasites of Andean birds
    • Abstract: 1.Understanding how parasites fill their ecological niches requires information on the processes involved in the colonization and exploitation of unique host species. Switching to hosts with atypical attributes may favour generalists broadening their niches, or may promote specialization and parasite diversification as the consequence. 2.We analysed which blood parasites have successfully colonized hummingbirds, and how they have evolved to exploit such a unique habitat. We specifically asked (i) if the assemblage of Haemoproteus parasites of hummingbirds is the result of single or multiple colonization events, (ii) to what extent these parasites are specialized in hummingbirds or shared with other birds, and (iii) how hummingbirds contribute to sustain the populations of these parasites, in terms of both prevalence and infection intensity. 3.We sampled 169 hummingbirds of 19 species along an elevation gradient in Southern Ecuador to analyse the host specificity, diversity and infection intensity of Haemoproteus by molecular and microscopy techniques. In addition 736 birds of 112 species were analysed to explore if hummingbird parasites are shared with other birds. 4.Hummingbirds hosted a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of generalist Haemoproteus lineages shared with other host orders, indicating multiple colonization events. Among these parasites, Haemoproteus witti stood out as the most generalized. Interestingly, we found that infection intensities of this parasite were extremely low in passerines (with no detectable gametocytes) but very high in hummingbirds, with many gametocytes seen. Moreover, infection intensities of H. witti were positively correlated with prevalence across host species. 5.Our results show that hummingbirds have been colonised by generalist Haemoproteus lineages in multiple occasions. However, one of these generalist parasites (H. witti) seems to be highly dependent on hummingbirds, which arise as the most relevant reservoirs in terms of both prevalence and gametocytaemia. From this perspective, this generalist parasite may be viewed as a hummingbird specialist. This challenges the current paradigm of how to measure host specialization in these parasites, which has important implications to understand disease ecology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T06:57:27.910713-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12550
       
  • Alternative prey use affects helminth parasite infections in gray wolves
    • Authors: Olwyn C. Friesen; James D. Roth
      Abstract: Predators affect prey populations not only through direct predation, but also by acting as definitive hosts for their parasites and completing parasite life cycles. Understanding the affects of parasitism on prey population dynamics requires knowing how their predators’ parasite community is affected by diet and prey availability. Ungulates, such as moose (Alces americanus) and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), are often important prey for wolves (Canis lupus), but wolves also consume a variety of alternative prey, including beaver (Castor canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). The use of alternative prey, which may host different or fewer parasites than ungulates, could potentially reduce overall abundance of ungulate parasites within the ecosystem, benefiting both wolves and ungulate hosts. We examined parasites in wolf carcasses from eastern Manitoba and estimated wolf diet using stable isotope analysis. Taeniidae cestodes were present in most wolves (75%), reflecting a diet primarily comprised of ungulates, but nematodes were unexpectedly rare. Cestode abundance was negatively related to the wolf's δ13C value, indicating diet affects parasite abundance. Wolves that consumed a higher proportion of beaver and caribou (Rangifer tarandus), estimated using Bayesian mixing models, had lower cestode abundance, suggesting the use of these alternative prey can reduce parasite loads. Long‐term, the consumption of beavers may lower the abundance of adult parasites in wolves, eventually lowering parasite density in the region and ultimately benefiting ungulates that serve as intermediate hosts. Thus, alternative prey can affect both predator‐prey and host‐parasite interactions, and potentially affect food web dynamics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T04:05:33.485771-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12544
       
  • Slowing them down will make them lose: A role for attine ant crop fungus
           in defending pupae against infections'
    • Abstract: Fungus‐growing ants (Attini) have evolved an obligate dependency upon a basidiomycete fungus that they cultivate as their food. Less well known is that the crop fungus is also used by many attine species to cover their eggs, larvae and pupae. The adaptive functional significance of this brood covering is poorly understood. One hypothesis to account for this behaviour is that it is part of the pathogen protection portfolio when many thousands of sister workers live in close proximity and larvae and pupae are not protected by cells, as in bees and wasps, and are immobile. We performed behavioural observations on brood covering in the leaf‐cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and we experimentally manipulated mycelial cover on pupae and exposed them to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum to test for a role in pathogen resistance. Our results show that active mycelial brood covering by workers is a behaviourally plastic trait that varies temporally, and across life stages and castes. The presence of a fungal cover on the pupae reduced the rate at which conidia appeared and the percentage of pupal surface that produced pathogen spores, compared to pupae that had fungal cover experimentally removed or naturally had no mycelial cover. Infected pupae with mycelium had higher survival rates than infected pupae without the cover, although this depended upon the time at which adult sister workers were allowed to interact with pupae. Finally, workers employed higher rates of metapleural gland grooming to infected pupae without mycelium than to infected pupae with mycelium. Our results imply that mycelial brood covering may play a significant role in suppressing the growth and subsequent spread of disease, thus adding a novel layer of protection to their defence portfolio. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T04:05:30.479329-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12543
       
  • Phenological mismatch and ontogenetic diet shifts interactively affect
           offspring condition in a passerine
    • Authors: Jelmer M. Samplonius; Elena F. Kappers, Stef Brands, Christiaan Both
      Abstract: 1.Climate change may cause phenological asynchrony between trophic levels, which can lead to mismatched reproduction in animals. Although indirect effects of mismatch on fitness are well described, direct effects on parental prey choice are not. Moreover, direct effects of prey variation on offspring condition throughout their early development are understudied. 2.Here we used camera trap data collected over two years to study the effects of trophic mismatch and nestling age on prey choice in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Furthermore, we studied the effect of mismatch and variation in nestling diet on offspring condition. 3.Both experimentally induced and natural mismatch with the caterpillar peak negatively affected absolute and relative numbers of caterpillars and offspring condition (mass, tarsus and wing length), and positively affected absolute and relative numbers of flying insects in the nestling diet. Feeding more flying insects was negatively correlated with nestling day 12 mass. 4.Both descriptive and experimental data showed preferential feeding of spiders when nestlings were
      PubDate: 2016-06-06T07:25:40.978701-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12554
       
  • Kin effects on energy allocation in group‐living ground squirrels
    • Authors: Vincent A. Viblanc; Claire Saraux, Jan O. Murie, F. Stephen Dobson
      Abstract: The social environment has potent effects on individual phenotype and fitness in group‐living species. We asked whether the presence of kin might act on energy allocation, a central aspect of life‐history variation. Using a 22‐year data set on reproductive and somatic allocations in Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus), we tested the effects of co‐breeding and non‐breeding kin on the fitness and energy allocation balance between reproduction and personal body condition of individual females. Greater numbers of co‐breeding kin had a positive effect on the number of offspring weaned, through the mechanism of altering energy allocation patterns. On average, females with higher numbers of co‐breeding kin did not increase energy income but biased energy allocation towards reproduction. Co‐breeding female kin ground squirrels maintain close nest burrows, likely providing a social buffer against territorial invasions from non‐kin ground squirrels. Lower aggressiveness, lower risks of infanticide from female kin and greater protection of territorial boundaries may allow individual females to derive net fitness benefits via their energy allocation strategies. We demonstrated the importance of kin effects on a fundamental life‐history trade‐off. This study highlights the effects of the social environment (kin numbers) on a fundamental life history trade‐off: the allocation of energy to reproductive or somatic functions.
      PubDate: 2016-06-06T00:00:05.812116-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12541
       
  • The effects of food‐web structure on ecosystem function exceeds
           those of precipitation
    • Abstract: Ecosystems are being stressed by climate change, but few studies have tested food web responses to changes in precipitation patterns and the consequences to ecosystem function. Fewer still have considered whether results from one geographic region can be applied to other regions, given the degree of community change over large biogeographic gradients. We assembled, in one field site, three types of macroinvertebrate communities within water‐filled bromeliads. Two represented food webs containing both a fast filter feeder‐microbial and slow detritivore energy channels found in Costa Rica and Puerto Rico, and one represented the structurally simpler food webs in French Guiana, which only contained the fast filter feeder‐microbial channel. We manipulated the amount and distribution of rain entering bromeliads, and examined how food web structure mediated ecosystem responses to changes in the quantity and temporal distribution of precipitation. Food web structure affected the survival of functional groups in general, and ecosystem functions such as decomposition and the production of fine particulate organic matter. Ecosystem processes were more affected by decreased precipitation than were the abundance of microorganisms and metazoans. In our experiments, the sensitivity of the ecosystem to precipitation change was primarily revealed in the food web dominated by the single filter feeder‐microbial channel because other top‐down and bottom‐up processes were weak or absent. Our results show stronger effects of food web structure than precipitation change per se on the functioning of bromeliad ecosystems. Consequently, we predict that ecosystem function in bromeliads throughout the Americas will be more sensitive to changes in the distribution of species, rather than to the direct effects caused by changes in precipitation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T04:20:35.459175-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12538
       
  • Contrasting patterns of short‐term indirect seed‐seed
           interactions mediated by scatter‐hoarding rodents
    • Authors: Zhishu Xiao; Zhibin Zhang
      Abstract: It is well known that direct effects of seed predators or dispersers can have strong effects on seedling establishment. However, we have limited knowledge about the indirect species interactions between seeds of different species that are mediated by shared seed predators and/or dispersers and their consequences for plant demography and diversity. Because scatter‐hoarding rodents as seed dispersers may leave some hoarded seeds uneaten, scatter‐hoarding may serve to increase seed survival and dispersal. Consequently, the presence of heterospecific seeds could alter whether the indirect interactions mediated by scatter‐hoarding rodents have a net positive effect, creating apparent mutualism between seed species, or a net negative effect, creating apparent competition between seed species. We present a testable framework to measure short‐term indirect effects between co‐occurring plant species mediated by seed scatter‐hoarding rodents. We tested this framework in a subtropical forest in Southwest China using a replacement design and tracked the fate of individually‐tagged seeds in experimental patches. We manipulated the benefits to rodents by using low‐tannin dormant chestnuts as palatable food and high‐tannin non‐dormant acorns as unpalatable food. We found that seed palatability changed the amount of scatter‐hoarding that occurred when seeds co‐occurred either among or within patches. Consistent with our predictions, scatter‐hoarding rodents created apparent mutualism through increasing seed removal and seed‐caching, and enhancing survival, of both plant species in mixed patches compared with monospecific patches. However, if we ignore scatter hoarding and treat all seed harvest as seed predation (and not dispersal), then apparent competition between palatable chestnuts and unpalatable acorns was also observed. This study is the first to demonstrate that foraging decisions by scatter‐hoarding animals to scatter hoard seeds for later consumption (or loss) or consume them can influence indirect effects among co‐occurring seeds, and rodent‐mediated indirect effects vary depending on whether the harvested seeds are hoarded or eaten. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-31T04:10:28.326152-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12542
       
  • Thermal preference predicts animal personality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis
           niloticus
    • Authors: M. Cerqueira; S. Rey, T. Silva, Zoe Featherstone, Margaret Crumlish, S. MacKenzie
      Abstract: 1.Environmental temperature gradients provide habitat structure in which fish orientate and individual thermal choice may reflect an essential integrated response to the environment. The use of subtle thermal gradients likely impacts upon specific physiological and behavioural processes reflected as a suite of traits described by animal personality. In this study we examine the relationship between thermal choice, animal personality and the impact of infection upon this interaction. 2.We predicted that thermal choice in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reflects distinct personality traits and that under a challenge individuals exhibit differential thermal distribution. 3.Nile Tilapia were screened following two different protocols: 1) a suite of individual behavioural tests to screen for personality and 2) thermal choice in a custom‐built tank with a thermal gradient (TCH tank) ranging from 21 to 33 °C. A first set of fish were screened for behaviour and then thermal preference and a second set were tested in the opposite fashion; thermal then behaviour. The final thermal distribution of the fish after 48 h was assessed reflecting final thermal preferendum. Additionally, fish were then challenged using a bacterial Streptococcus iniae model infection to assess the behavioural fever response of proactive and reactive fish. 4.Results showed that individuals with preference for higher temperatures were also classified as proactive with behavioural tests and reactive contemporaries chose significantly lower water temperatures. All groups exhibited behavioural fever recovering personality‐specific thermal preferences after 5 days. 5.Our results show that thermal preference can be used as a proxy to assess personality traits in Nile tilapia and it is a central factor to understand the adaptive meaning of animal personality within a population. Importantly, response to infection by expressing behavioural fever overrides personality related thermal choice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T02:31:33.630447-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12555
       
  • Impact of changing wind conditions on foraging and incubation success in
           male and female wandering albatrosses
    • Abstract: 1.Wind is an important climatic factor for flying animals as by affecting their locomotion, it can deeply impact their life‐history characteristics. 2.In the context of globally changing wind patterns, we investigated the mechanisms underlying recently reported increase in body mass of a population of wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) with increasing wind speed over time. 3.We built a foraging model detailing the effects of wind on movement statistics and ultimately on mass gained by the forager and mass lost by the incubating partner.We then simulated the body mass of incubating pairs under varying wind scenarios.We tracked the frequency at which critical mass leading to nest abandonment was reached to assess incubation success. 4.We found that wandering albatrosses behave as time‐minimizers during incubation as mass gain was independent of any movement statistics but decreased with increasing mass at departure.Individuals forage until their energy requirements, which are determined by their body conditions, are fulfilled.This can come at the cost of their partner's condition as mass loss of the incubating partner depended on trip duration.This behaviour is consistent with strategies of long‐lived species which favoured their own survival over their current reproductive attempt.In addition, wind speed increased ground speed which in turn reduced trip duration and males foraged further away than females at high ground speed. 5.Contrasted against an independent dataset, the simulation performed sat‐isfactorily for males but less so for females under current wind conditions.The simulation predicted an increase in male body mass growth rate with increasing wind speed whereas females’ rate decreased. This trend may provide an explanation for the observed increase in mass of males but not of females.Conversely, the simulation predicted very few nest abandonments,which is in line with the high breeding success of this species and is contrary to the hypothesis that wind patterns impact incubation success by altering foraging movement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-17T08:45:49.374935-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12552
       
  • Predator identity influences metacommunity assembly
    • Authors: Nicole K. Johnston; Zhichao Pu, Lin Jiang
      Abstract: 1.Predation is among the most important biotic factors influencing natural communities, yet we have a rather rudimentary understanding of its role in modulating metacommunity assembly. 2.We experimentally examined the effects of two different predators (a generalist and a specialist) on metacommunity assembly, using protist microcosm metacommunities that varied in predator identity, dispersal among local communities, and the history of species colonization into local communities. 3.Generalist predation resulted in reduced α diversity and increased β diversity irrespective of dispersal, likely due to predation‐induced stochastic extinction of different prey species in different local communities. Dispersal, however, induced source‐sink dynamics in the presence of specialist predators, resulting in higher α diversity and marginally lower β diversity. 4.These results demonstrate the distinct effects of different predators on prey metacommunity assembly, emphasizing the need to explore the role of predator diet breadth in structuring metacommunities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-14T02:40:20.629913-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12551
       
  • Experimental Insight into the Process of Parasite Community Assembly
    • Authors: S.A. Budischak; Eric P. Hoberg, Art Abrams, A.E. Jolles, V.O. Ezenwa
      Abstract: 1.Community assembly is a fundamental process that has long been a central focus in ecology. Extending community assembly theory to communities of co‐infecting parasites, we used a gastrointestinal nematode removal experiment in free‐ranging African buffalo to examine community assembly patterns and processes. 2.We first asked whether reassembled communities differ from undisturbed communities by comparing anthelmintic‐treated and control hosts. Next, we examined the temporal dynamics of assembly using a cross‐section of communities that reassembled for different periods of time since last experimental removal. Next, we tested for evidence of assembly processes that might drive such reassembly patterns: environmental filtering based on host traits (i.e. habitat patches), interspecific interactions, priority effects, and chance dispersal from the environmental pool of infective stages (i.e. the regional species pool). 3.On average, reassembled parasite communities had lower abundances, but were more diverse and even, and these patterns varied tightly with reassembly time. Over time, the communities within treated hosts progressively resembled controls as diversity and evenness decreased while total abundance increased. Notably, experimental removal allowed us to attribute observed differences in abundance, diversity, and evenness to the process of community assembly. 4.During early reassembly, parasite accumulation was biased towards a subordinate species and, by excluding stochastic assembly processes (i.e. chance dispersal and priority effects), we were able determine that early assembly is deterministic. Later in the reassembly process, we established that host traits, as well as stochastic dispersal from the environmental pool infective stages, can affect community composition. 5.Overall, our results suggest there is a high degree of resiliency and environmental dependence to the worm communities of buffalo. More generally, our data show that both deterministic and stochastic processes may play a role in the assembly of parasite communities of wild hosts, but their relative importance may vary temporally. Consequently, the best strategy for managing reassembling parasite communities may also need to shift over time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-13T02:10:23.880302-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12548
       
  • The price of associating with breeders in the cooperatively breeding
           chestnut‐crowned babbler: foraging constraints, survival and
           sociality
    • Authors: E Sorato; S C Griffith, AF Russell
      Abstract: Understanding the costs of living with breeders might offer new insights into the factors that counter evolutionary transitions from selfish individuals to cooperative societies. While selection on early dispersal is well‐understood, it is less clear whether costs are also associated with remaining with family members during subsequent breeding; a pre‐requisite to the evolution of kin‐based cooperation. We propose and test the hypothesis that living in groups containing breeders is costly and that such costs are exacerbated by increasing group size. For example, in group‐living central‐place foragers, group members might suffer from resource depletion when foraging in a restricted area during breeding and significant costs of repeatedly travelling between foraging patches and the site of offspring. Using the cooperatively breeding chestnut‐crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), for which grouping during breeding is obligatory, we show that reproduction is associated with substantially reduced foraging areas and evidence of resource depletion, particularly in larger groups. Such effects largely persisted from the onset of incubation through to offspring independence 4‐5 months later. All group members, irrespective of their breeder or helper status, lost significant body mass over this period, and, in males, mass loss was associated with reduced inter‐annual survival. Although babblers are constrained from living outside of breeding groups due to high risks of predation and the poor success of breeding without helpers, we suggest that the effects we describe may generally select against group‐living during breeding attempts in species where constraints to independent breeding and costs of dispersal are less acute. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-02T07:46:22.229218-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12539
       
  • Within guild co‐infections influence parasite community membership:
           a longitudinal study in African Buffalo
    • Authors: Brian Henrichs; Marinda C. Oosthuizen, Milana Troskie, Erin Gorsich, Carmen Gondhalekar, Brianna Beechler, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Anna E. Jolles
      Abstract: 1.Experimental studies in laboratory settings have demonstrated a critical role of parasite interactions in shaping parasite communities. The sum of these interactions can produce diverse effects on individual hosts as well as influence disease emergence and persistence at the population level. 2.A predictive framework for the effects of parasite interactions in the wild remains elusive, largely because of limited longitudinal or experimental data on parasite communities of free‐ranging hosts. 3.This four year study followed a community of haemoparasites in free‐ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). We detected infection by 11 haemoparasite species using PCR‐based diagnostic techniques, and analyzed drivers of infection patterns using generalized linear mixed models to understand the role of host characteristics and season on infection likelihood. We tested for (1) effects of co‐infection by other haemoparasites (within guild) and (2) effects of parasites infecting different tissue types (across guild). 4.We found that within guild co‐infections were the strongest predictors of haemoparasite infections in the buffalo; but that seasonal and host characteristics also had important effects. In contrast, the evidence for across‐guild effects of parasites utilizing different tissue on haemoparasite infection was weak. 5.These results provide a nuanced view of the role of co‐infections in determining haemoparasite infection patterns in free living mammalian hosts. Our findings suggest a role for interactions among parasites infecting a single tissue type in determining infection patterns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-04-16T06:25:42.43273-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12535
       
  • Good Reasons To Leave Home: Proximate Dispersal Cues In A Social Spider
    • Abstract: 1.Natal dispersal is a successful tactic under a range of conditions in spite of significant costs. Habitat quality is a frequent proximate cause of dispersal, and studies have shown that dispersal increases both when natal habitat quality is good or poor. In social species kin competition, favoring dispersal, may be balanced by the benefits of group living, favoring philopatry. 2.We investigated the effect of changes in the local environment on natal dispersal of adult females in a social spider species, Stegodyphus dumicola (Araneae, Eresidae), with a flexible breeding system, where females can breed either within the colony or individually following dispersal. 3.We manipulated foraging opportunities in colonies by either removing the capture webs or by adding prey and recorded the number of dispersing females around each focal colony, and their survival and reproductive success. We predicted that increasing kin competition should increase dispersal of less‐competitive individuals, while reducing competition could cause either less dispersal (less competition) or more dispersal (a cue indicating better chances to establish a new colony). 4.Dispersal occurred earlier and at a higher rate in both food‐augmented and web‐removal colonies than in control colonies. Fewer dispersing females survived and reproduced in the web‐removal group than in the control or food augmented groups. 5.The results support our prediction that worsening conditions in web‐removal colonies favor dispersal, whereby increased kin competition and increased energy expenditure on web renewal cause females to leave the natal colony. By contrast, prey augmentation may serve as a habitat‐quality cue; when the surrounding habitat is expected to be of high quality, females assess the potential benefit of establishing a new colony to be greater than the costs of dispersal. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-04-16T06:20:42.722507-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12534
       
  • Dietary niche constriction when invaders meet natives: evidence from
           freshwater decapods
    • Authors: Michelle C. Jackson; Jonathan Grey, Katie Miller, J Robert Britton, Ian Donohue
      Abstract: 1.Invasive species are a key driver of global environmental change, with frequently strong negative consequences for native biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Understanding competitive interactions between invaders and functionally similar native species provides an important benchmark for predicting the consequences of invasion. However, even though having a broad dietary niche is widely considered a key factor determining invasion success, little is known about the effects of competition with functionally similar native competitors on the dietary niche breadths of invasive species. 2.We used a combination of field experiments and field surveys to examine the impacts of competition with a functionally similar native crab species on the population densities, growth rates and diet of the globally widespread invasive red swamp crayfish in an African river ecosystem. 3.The presence of native crabs triggered significant dietary niche constriction within the invasive crayfish population. Further, growth rates of both species were reduced significantly, and by a similar extent, in the presence of one another. In spite of this, crayfish maintained positive growth rates in the presence of crabs, whereas crabs lost mass in the presence of crayfish. Consequently, over the three year duration of the study, crab abundance declined at those sites invaded by the crayfish, becoming locally extinct at one. 4.The invasive crayfish had a dramatic effect on ecosystem structure and functioning, halving benthic invertebrate densities and increasing decomposition rates four‐fold compared to the crabs. This indicates that replacement of native crabs by invasive crayfish likely alters the structure and functioning of African river ecosystems significantly. 5.This study provides a novel example of the constriction of the dietary niche of a successful invasive population in the presence of competition from a functionally similar native species. This finding highlights the importance of considering both environmental and ecological contexts in order to predict and manage the impacts of invasive species on ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-04-16T06:05:40.590434-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12533
       
  • Interactions between plants and primates shape community diversity in a
           rainforest in Madagascar
    • Authors: James Paul Herrera
      Abstract: 1.Models of ecological community assembly predict how communities of interacting organisms may be shaped by abiotic and biotic factors. Competition and environmental filtering are the predominant factors hypothesized to explain community assembly. 2.This study tested the effects of habitat, phylogenetic and phenotypic trait predictors on species co‐occurrence patterns and abundances, with the endemic primates of Madagascar as an empirical system. 3.The abundance of 11 primate species was estimated along gradients of elevation, food resource abundance, and anthropogenic habitat disturbance at local scales in southeast Madagascar. Community composition was compared to null models to test for phylogenetic and functional structure, and the effects of phylogenetic relatedness of co‐occurring species, their trait similarity, and environmental variables on species’ abundances were tested using mixed models and quantile regressions. 4.Resource abundance was the strongest predictor of community structure. Where food tree abundance was high, closely related species with similar traits dominated communities. High elevation communities with lower food tree abundance consisted of species that were distantly related and had divergent traits. Closely related species had dissimilar abundances where they co‐occurred, partially driven by trait dissimilarity, indicating character displacement. 5.By integrating local‐scale variation in primate community composition, evolutionary relatedness and functional diversity, this study found strong evidence that community assembly in this system can be explained by competition and character displacement along ecological gradients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-04-16T06:00:47.301212-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12532
       
  • Energy storage and fecundity explain deviations from ecological
           stoichiometry predictions under global warming and size‐selective
           predation
    • Authors: Chao Zhang; Mieke Jansen, Luc De Meester, Robby Stoks
      Abstract: 1.A key challenge for ecologists is to predict how single and joint effects of global warming and predation risk translate from the individual level up to ecosystem functions. Recently, stoichiometric theory linked these levels through changes in body stoichiometry, predicting that both higher temperatures and predation risk induce shifts in energy storage (increases in C‐rich carbohydrates and reductions in N‐rich proteins) and body stoichiometry (increases in C:N and C:P). This promising theory, however, is rarely tested and assumes that prey will divert energy away from reproduction under predation risk, while under size‐selective predation, prey instead increase fecundity. 2.We exposed the water flea Daphnia magna to 4 °C warming and fish predation risk to test whether C‐rich carbohydrates increase and N‐rich proteins decrease and as a result C:N and C:P increase under warming and predation risk. 3.Unexpectedly, warming decreased body C:N, which was driven by reductions in C‐rich fat and sugar contents while the protein content did not change. This reflected a trade‐off where the accelerated intrinsic growth rate under warming occurred at the cost of a reduced energy storage. Warming reduced C:N less and only increased C:P and N:P in the fish‐period Daphnia. These evolved stoichiometric responses to warming were largely driven by stronger warming‐induced reductions in P than in C and N and could be explained by the better ability to deal with warming in the fish‐period Daphnia. 4.In contrast to theory predictions, body C:N decreased under predation risk due to a strong increase in the N‐rich protein content that offset the increase in C‐rich fat content. The higher investment in fecundity (more N‐rich eggs) under predation risk contributed to this stronger increase in protein content. Similarly, the lower body C:N of pre‐fish Daphnia also matched their higher fecundity. 5.Warming and predation risk independently shaped body stoichiometry, largely by changing levels of energy storage molecules. Our results highlight that two widespread patterns, the trade‐off between rapid development and energy storage and the increased investment in reproduction under size‐selective predation cause predictable deviations from current ecological stoichiometry theory. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15T00:36:29.495401-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12531
       
  • Beyond neutral and forbidden links: morphological matches and the assembly
           of mutualistic hawkmoth‐plant networks
    • Abstract: 1.A major challenge in evolutionary ecology is to understand how coevolutionary processes shape patterns of interactions between species at community level. Pollination of flowers with long corolla tubes by long‐tongued hawkmoths has been invoked as a showcase model of coevolution. Recently, optimal foraging models have predicted that there might be a close association between mouthparts length and the corolla depth of the visited flowers, thus favouring trait convergence and specialisation at community level. 2.Here, we assessed whether hawkmoths more frequently pollinate plants with floral tube lengths similar to their proboscis lengths (morphological match hypothesis) against abundance‐based processes (neutral hypothesis) and ecological trait mismatches constraints (forbidden links hypothesis), in structuring hawkmoth‐plant mutualistic networks from five communities in four biogeographical regions of South America. 3.We found convergence in morphological traits across the five communities and that the distribution of morphological differences between hawkmoths and plants is consistent with expectations under the morphological match hypothesis in three of the five communities. In the two remaining communities, which are ecotones between two distinct biogeographic areas, interactions are better predicted by the neutral hypothesis. 4.Our findings are consistent with the idea that diffuse coevolution drives the evolution of extremely long proboscises and flower tubes, and highlight the importance of morphological traits, beyond the forbidden links hypothesis, in structuring interactions between mutualistic partners, revealing that the role of niche‐based processes can be much more complex than previously known. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-02T02:45:04.321843-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12509
       
  • A bird's eye view of a deleterious recessive allele
    • Authors: Robert Ekblom
      First page: 855
      Abstract: In the endangered Scottish chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) population, a lethal blindness syndrome is found to be caused by a deleterious recessive allele. Photo: Gordon Yates. In Focus: Trask, A.E., Bignal, E.M., McCracken, D.I., Monaghan, P., Piertney, S.B. & Reid, J.M. (2016) Evidence of the phenotypic expression of a lethal recessive allele under inbreeding in a wild population of conservation concern. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 879–891. In this issue of Journal of Animal Ecology, Trask et al. () report on a strange, lethal, blindness that regularly affects chicks of an endangered bird population. The authors show that the inheritance mode of this blindness disease precisely matches the expectations of a recessive deleterious mutation. Intriguingly, there is also an indication that the disease‐causing variant might be maintained in the population by balancing selection, due to a selective advantage for heterozygotes. Could this finding have consequences for conservation actions implemented for the population' In the endangered Scottish chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) population, a lethal blindness syndrome is found to be caused by a deleterious recessive allele. Photo: Gordon Yates.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:48:51.984897-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12514
       
  • Does primary productivity modulate the indirect effects of large
           herbivores' A global meta‐analysis
    • Authors: Joshua H. Daskin; Robert M. Pringle
      First page: 857
      Abstract: 1.Indirect effects of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), while much less studied than those of apex predators, are increasingly recognized to exert powerful influences on communities and ecosystems. The strength of these effects is spatiotemporally variable, and several sets of authors have suggested that they are governed in part by primary productivity. However, prior theoretical and field studies have generated conflicting results and predictions, underscoring the need for a synthetic global analysis. 2.We conducted a meta‐analysis of the direction and magnitude of large mammalian herbivore‐initiated indirect interactions using 67 published studies comprising 456 individual responses. We georeferenced 41 of these studies (comprising 253 responses from 33 locations on 5 continents) to a satellite‐derived map of primary productivity. Because predator assemblages might also influence the impact of large herbivores, we conducted a similar analysis using a global map of large‐carnivore species richness. 3.In general, LMH reduced the abundance of other consumer species and also tended to reduce consumer richness, although the latter effect was only marginally significant. 4.There was a pronounced reduction in the strength of negative (i.e., suppressive, due e.g. to competition) indirect effects of LMH on consumer abundance in more productive ecosystems. In contrast, positive (facilitative) indirect effects were not significantly correlated with productivity, likely because these comprised a more heterogeneous array of mechanisms. We found no effect of carnivore species richness on herbivore‐initiated indirect effect strength. 5.Our findings help to resolve the fundamental problem of ecological contingency as it pertains to the strength of an under‐studied class of multi‐trophic interactions. Moreover, these results will aid in predicting the indirect effects of anthropogenic wildlife declines and irruptions, and how these effects might be mediated by climatically driven shifts in resource availability. To the extent that intact ungulate guilds help to suppress populations of small animals that act as agricultural pests and disease reservoirs, the negative impacts of large‐mammal declines on human well‐being may be relatively stronger in low‐productivity areas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T09:10:41.70089-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12522
       
  • Widespread correlations between climatic niche evolution and species
           diversification in birds
    • Authors: Christopher R. Cooney; Nathalie Seddon, Joseph A. Tobias
      First page: 869
      Abstract: 1.The adaptability of species’ climatic niches can influence the dynamics of colonisation and gene flow across climatic gradients, potentially increasing the likelihood of speciation, or reducing extinction in the face of environmental change. However, previous comparative studies have tested these ideas using geographically, taxonomically and ecologically restricted samples, yielding mixed results, and thus the processes linking climatic niche evolution with diversification remain poorly understood. 2.Focusing on birds, the largest and most widespread class of terrestrial vertebrates, we test whether variation in species diversification among clades is correlated with rates of climatic niche evolution, and the extent to which these patterns are modified by underlying gradients in biogeography and species’ ecology. 3.We quantified climatic niches, latitudinal distribution and ecological traits for 7657 (~75%) bird species based on geographical range polygons, and then used Bayesian phylogenetic analyses to test whether niche evolution was related to species richness and rates of diversification across genus and family‐level clades. 4.We found that the rate of climatic niche evolution has a positive linear relationship with both species richness and diversification rate at two different taxonomic levels (genus and family). Furthermore, this positive association between labile climatic niches and diversification was detected regardless of variation in clade latitude or key ecological traits. 5.Our findings suggest either that rapid adaptation to unoccupied areas of climatic niche space promotes avian diversification, or that diversification promotes adaptation. Either way, we propose that climatic niche evolution is a fundamental process regulating the link between climate and biodiversity at global scales, irrespective of the geographical and ecological context of speciation and extinction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-04-11T09:15:40.980765-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12530
       
  • Evidence of the phenotypic expression of a lethal recessive allele under
           inbreeding in a wild population of conservation concern
    • Authors: Amanda E. Trask; Eric M. Bignal, Davy I. McCracken, Pat Monaghan, Stuart B. Piertney, Jane M. Reid
      First page: 879
      Abstract: Deleterious recessive alleles that are masked in outbred populations are predicted to be expressed in small, inbred populations, reducing both individual fitness and population viability. However, there are few definitive examples of phenotypic expression of lethal recessive alleles under inbreeding conditions in wild populations. Studies that demonstrate the action of such alleles, and infer their distribution and dynamics, are required to understand their potential impact on population viability and inform management responses. The Scottish population of red‐billed choughs (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax), which currently totals
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T01:10:49.27152-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12503
       
  • Food availability and predation risk, rather than intrinsic attributes are
           the main factors shaping the reproductive decisions of a long‐lived
           predator
    • Authors: Sarah R. Hoy; Alexandre Millon, Steve J. Petty, D. Philip Whitfield, Xavier Lambin
      First page: 892
      Abstract: Deciphering the causes of variation in reproductive success is a fundamental issue in ecology, as the number of offspring produced is an important driver of individual fitness and population dynamics. Little is known however, about how different factors interact to drive variation in reproduction, such as whether an individual's response to extrinsic conditions (e.g. food availability or predation) varies according to its intrinsic attributes (e.g. age, previous allocation of resources towards reproduction). We used 29 years of reproductive data from marked female tawny owls and natural variation in food availability (field vole) and predator abundance (northern goshawk) to quantify the extent to which extrinsic and intrinsic factors interact to influence owl reproductive traits (breeding propensity, clutch size and nest abandonment). Extrinsic and intrinsic factors appeared to interact to affect breeding propensity (which accounted for 83% of the variation in owl reproductive success). Breeding propensity increased with vole density, although increasing goshawk abundance reduced the strength of this relationship. Owls became slightly more likely to breed as they aged, although this was only apparent for individuals who had fledged chicks the year before. Owls laid larger clutches when food was more abundant. When owls were breeding in territories less exposed to goshawk predation, 99.5% of all breeding attempts reached the fledging stage. In contrast, the probability of breeding attempts reaching the fledging stage in territories more exposed to goshawk predation depended on the amount of resources an owl had already allocated towards reproduction (averaging 87.7% for owls with clutches of 1‐2 eggs compared to 97.5% for owls with clutches of 4‐6 eggs). Overall, our results suggested that changes in extrinsic conditions (predominantly food availability, but also predator abundance) had the greatest influence on owl reproduction. In response to deteriorating extrinsic conditions (fewer voles and more goshawks) owls appeared to breed more frequently, but allocated fewer resources per breeding attempt. However, intrinsic attributes also appeared to have a relatively small influence on how an individual responded to variation in extrinsic conditions, which indicates that reproductive decisions were shaped by a complex series of extrinsic and intrinsic trade‐offs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T06:06:25.967881-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12517
       
  • Larval traits carry over to affect post‐settlement behaviour in a
           common coral reef fish
    • Authors: Andrea L. Dingeldein; J Wilson White
      First page: 903
      Abstract: 1.Most reef fishes begin life as planktonic larvae before settling to the reef, metamorphosing, and entering the benthic adult population. Different selective forces determine survival in the planktonic and benthic life stages, but traits established in the larval stage may carry over to affect post‐settlement performance. We tested the hypothesis that larval traits affect two key post‐settlement fish behaviours: social group‐joining and foraging. 2.Certain larval traits of reef fishes are permanently recorded in the rings in their otoliths. In the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum), prior work has shown that key larval traits recorded in otoliths (growth rate, energetic condition at settlement) carry‐over to affect post‐settlement survival on the reef, with higher‐larval‐condition fish experiencing less post‐settlement mortality. We hypothesized that this selective mortality is mediated by carry‐over effects on post‐settlement anti‐predator behaviours. We predicted that better‐condition fish would forage less and be more likely to join groups, both behaviours that would reduce predation risk. 3.We collected 550 recently settled bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) from three reef sites off St. Croix (USVI), and performed two analyses. First, we compared each settler's larval traits to the size of its social group to determine whether larval traits influenced group‐joining behaviour. Second, we observed foraging behaviour in a subset of focal grouped and solitary fish (n = 14) for 1‐4 days post‐settlement. We then collected the fish and tested whether larval traits influenced the proportion of time spent foraging. 4.Body length at settlement, but not condition, affected group‐joining behaviour; smaller fish were more likely to remain solitary or in smaller groups. However, both greater length and better condition were associated with greater proportions of time spent foraging over four consecutive days post‐settlement. 5.Larval traits carry‐over to affect post‐settlement behavior, though not as we expected: higher‐quality larvae join groups more frequently (safer) but then forage more. Foraging is risky but may allow faster post‐settlement growth, reducing mortality risk in the long run. This shows that behaviour likely serves as a mechanistic link connecting larval traits to post‐settlement selective mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-23T13:32:11.585206-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12506
       
  • The contribution of developmental experience vs. condition to life
           history, trait variation, and individual differences
    • First page: 915
      Abstract: 1.Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2.The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour. 3.In this study we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments. 4.Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and build safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad‐lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in aggression and web weight only. 5.Developmental experience affected the average life history, behaviour, and web structure of spiders, but also shaped the amount of phenotypic variation observed among individuals. Surprisingly, developmental experience also determined the particular way in which individuals plastically adjusted their behaviour and web structure to changes in adult condition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-24T09:20:47.95106-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12512
       
  • Fight‐flight or freeze‐hide' Personality and metabolic
           phenotype mediate physiological defence responses in flatfish
    • Authors: E.J. Rupia; S.A. Binning, D.G. Roche, W. Lu
      First page: 927
      Abstract: 1.Survival depends on appropriate behavioural and physiological responses to danger. In addition to active “fight‐flight” defence responses, a passive “freeze‐hide” response is adaptive in some contexts. However, the physiological mechanisms determining which individuals choose a given defence response remain poorly understood. 2.We examined the relationships among personality, metabolic performance and physiological stress responses across an environmental gradient in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. 3.We employed four behavioural assays to document the existence of two distinct behavioural types (“bold” and “shy”) in this species. We found consistent metabolic differences between individuals of a given behavioural type across an environmental gradient: shy individuals had overall lower aerobic scope, maximum metabolic rate and standard metabolic rate than bold individuals in both high (25ppt) and low (3ppt) salinity. 4.These behavioural and metabolic differences translated into divergent physiological responses during acute stress: shy individuals adopted a passive “freeze‐hide” response by reducing their oxygen consumption rates (akin to shallow breathing) whereas bold individuals adopted an active “fight‐flight” response by increasing their rates of respiration. These distinct defence strategies were repeatable within individuals between salinity treatments. 5.Although it has been suggested theoretically, this is the first empirical evidence that the metabolic response to stressful situations differs between bold and shy individuals. Our results emphasize the importance of incorporating physiological measures to understand the mechanisms driving persistent inter‐individual differences in animals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T01:26:01.434406-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12524
       
  • The challenges of the first migration: movement and behavior of juvenile
           versus adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality
    • Authors: Shay Rotics; Michael Kaatz, Yehezkel S Resheff, Sondra Feldman Turjeman, Damaris Zurell, Nir Sapir, Ute Eggers, Andrea Flack, Wolfgang Fiedler, Florian Jeltsch, Martin Wikelski, Ran Nathan
      First page: 938
      Abstract: 1.Migration conveys an immense challenge especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Also, juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration, presumably for navigational purposes, display much lower annual survival than adults. 2.Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age‐related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first‐year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behavior and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration, ODBA) and placed this in the context of the juveniles’ lower survival rate. 3.Juveniles used flapping flight versus soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for increased flight costs by increased refueling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. 4.Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles’ inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult‐juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants, and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-04-05T01:26:38.429253-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12525
       
  • Predator swamping reduces predation risk during nocturnal migration of
           juvenile salmon in a high‐mortality landscape
    • First page: 948
      Abstract: Animal migrations are costly and are often characterized by high predation risk for individuals. Three of the most oft‐assumed mechanisms for reducing risk for migrants are swamping predators with high densities, specific timing of migrations and increased body size. Assessing the relative importance of these mechanisms in reducing predation risk particularly for migrants is generally lacking due to the difficulties in tracking the fate of individuals and population‐level characteristics simultaneously. We used acoustic telemetry to track migration behaviour and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts released over a wide range of conspecific outmigration densities in a river associated with poor survival. The landscape was indeed high risk; smolt survival was poor (˜68%) over 13·5 km of river examined even though migration was rapid (generally
      PubDate: 2016-05-09T03:40:24.695313-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12528
       
  • Female Infidelity Is Constrained by El Niño Conditions in a
           Long‐lived Bird
    • Authors: Lynna Marie Kiere; Hugh Drummond
      First page: 960
      Abstract: Explaining the remarkable variation in socially monogamous females’ extra‐pair (EP) behaviour revealed by decades of molecular paternity testing remains an important challenge. One hypothesis proposes that restrictive environmental conditions (e.g. extreme weather, food scarcity) limit females’ resources and increase EP behaviour costs, forcing females to reduce EP reproductive behaviours. For the first time, we tested this hypothesis by directly quantifying within‐pair and EP behaviours rather than inferring behaviour from paternity. We evaluated whether warmer sea surface temperatures depress total pre‐laying reproductive behaviours, and particularly EP behaviours, in socially paired female blue‐footed boobies (Sula nebouxii). Warm waters in the Eastern Pacific are associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation and lead to decreased food availability and reproductive success in this and other marine predators. With warmer waters, females decreased their neighbourhood attendance, total copulation frequency, and laying probability, suggesting that they contend with restricted resources by prioritizing self‐maintenance and committing less to reproduction, sometimes abandoning the attempt altogether. Females were also less likely to participate in EP courtship and copulations, but when they did, rates of these behaviours were unaffected by water temperature. Females’ neighbourhood attendance, total copulation frequency, and EP courtship probability responded to temperature differences at the between‐season scale, and neighbourhood attendance and EP copulation probability were affected by within‐season fluctuations. Path analysis indicated that decreased EP participation was not attributable to reduced female time available for EP activities. Together, our results suggest that immediate time and energy constraints were not the main factors limiting females’ infidelity. Our study shows that El Niño conditions depress female boobies’ EP participation and total reproductive activity. In addition to increasing general self‐maintenance and reproductive costs, warm waters may increase costs specific to EP behaviours including divorce, reduced male parental care or pathogen exposure. Our results suggest that female boobies strategically refrained from EP behaviours to avoid these or other longer term costs, rather than being compelled by immediate constraints. This study demonstrates that current environmental conditions affect females’ mating decisions, contributing to variation in EP behaviours, even in a long‐lived, iteroparous species that can buffer against temporary adversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-31T04:10:54.594357-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12537
       
  • Foraging modality and plasticity in foraging traits determine the strength
           of competitive interactions among carnivorous plants, spiders, and toads
    • Authors: David E. Jennings; James J. Krupa, Jason R. Rohr
      First page: 973
      Abstract: 1.Foraging modalities (e.g., passive, sit‐and‐wait, active) and traits are plastic in some species, but the extent to which this plasticity affects interspecific competition remains unclear. 2.Using a long‐term laboratory mesocosm experiment, we quantified competition strength and the plasticity of foraging traits in a guild of generalist predators of arthropods with a range of foraging modalities. 3.Each mesocosm contained eight passively foraging pink sundews, and we employed an experimental design where treatments were the presence or absence of a sit‐and‐wait foraging spider and actively foraging toad crossed with five levels of prey abundance. We hypothesized that actively foraging toads would outcompete the other species at low prey abundance, but that spiders and sundews would exhibit plasticity in foraging traits to compensate for strong competition when prey were limited. 4.Results generally supported our hypotheses. Toads had a greater effect on sundews at low prey abundances, and toad presence caused spiders to locate webs higher above the ground. Additionally, the closer large spider webs were to the ground, the greater the trichome densities produced by sundews. Also, spider webs were larger with than without toads and as sundew numbers increased, and these effects were more prominent as resources became limited. Finally, spiders negatively affected toad growth only at low prey abundance. 5.These findings highlight the long‐term importance of foraging modality and plasticity of foraging traits in determining the strength of competition within and across taxonomic kingdoms. Future research should assess whether plasticity in foraging traits helps to maintain coexistence within this guild and whether foraging modality can be used as a trait to reliably predict the strength of competitive interactions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-04-08T03:01:34.125136-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12526
       
  • Experimental evidence for fundamental, and not realised, niche
           partitioning in a plant‐herbivore community interaction network
    • Authors: Willem J. Augustyn; Bruce Anderson, Allan G. Ellis
      First page: 994
      Abstract: Patterns of niche partitioning can result from local ecological interactions (e.g. interspecific competition) occurring within a contemporary time frame (realised niche partitioning). Alternatively they may represent the end‐product of historical processes acting over long time frames (fundamental niche partitioning). Niche partitioning is often detected by analysing patterns of resource use within communities, but experiments are rarely conducted to test whether patterns of non‐overlapping resource use reflect realised or fundamental niche partitioning. We studied a community of restio leafhoppers from the genus Cephalelus, and their host plants, the Restionaceae (restios). We used network and experimental approaches to determine whether network modularity (a measure of niche partitioning within local communities) reflects fundamental or realised niche partitioning. Using a weighted modularity index for two party networks (e.g. insect ‐ plant) we determined whether the network of this community is modular (i.e. consists of groups of species interacting strongly, with weak interactions between groups). We also aimed to identify specific Cephalelus ‐ restio modules (groups). Using knowledge of module membership to design experiments, we tested whether Cephalelus species from two different modules, C. uncinatus and C. pickeri, prefer and perform better on restios from their own modules versus restios from other modules. These experiments were performed under controlled conditions, eliminating the influences of competition and predation on host choices. The Cephalelus – restio community was modular, implying niche partitioning. Cephalelus also preferred and performed better on restios from their own modules in the absence of local contemporary factors. Most niche partitioning in the investigated Cephalelus community, is not caused by local interactions, and thus host use patterns represent fundamental niches. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding local community structure in the light of processes extrinsic to the local community context. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T03:35:40.418696-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12536
       
  • Experimental parasite community ecology: intraspecific variation in a
           large tapeworm affects community assembly
    • Authors: D.P Benesh; M Kalbe
      First page: 1004
      Abstract: 1.Non‐random species associations occur in naturally‐sampled parasite communities. The processes resulting in predictable community structure (e.g. particular host behaviours, cross‐immunity, interspecific competition) could be affected by traits that vary within a parasite species, like growth or antigenicity. 2.We experimentally infected three‐spined sticklebacks with a large tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) that impacts the energy needs, foraging behaviour, and immune reactions of its host. The tapeworms came from two populations, characterized by high or low growth in sticklebacks. Our goal was to evaluate how this parasite, and variation in its growth, affects the acquisition of other parasites. 3.Fish infected with S. solidus were placed into cages in a lake to expose them to the natural parasite community. We also performed a lab experiment in which infected fish were exposed to a fixed dose of a common trematode parasite. 4.In the field experiment, infection with S. solidus affected the abundance of four parasite species, relative to controls. For two of the four species, changes occurred only in fish harbouring the high‐growth S. solidus; one species increased in abundance and the other decreased. These changes did not appear to be directly linked to S. solidus growth though. The parasite exhibiting elevated abundance was the same trematode used in the lab infection. In that experiment, we found a similar infection pattern, suggesting that S. solidus affects the physiological susceptibility of fish to this trematode. 5.Associations between S. solidus and other parasites occur and vary in direction. However, some of these associations were contingent on the S. solidus population, suggesting that intraspecific variability can affect the assembly of parasite communities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-04-08T03:17:03.791584-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12527
       
  • Host and parasite thermal acclimation responses depend on the stage of
           infection
    • Authors: Karie A. Altman; Sara H. Paull, Pieter T. J. Johnson, Michelle N. Golembieski, Jeffrey P. Stephens, Bryan E. LaFonte, Thomas R. Raffel
      First page: 1014
      Abstract: Global climate change is expected to alter patterns of temperature variability, which could influence species interactions including parasitism. Species interactions can be difficult to predict in variable‐temperature environments because of thermal acclimation responses, i.e. physiological changes that allow organisms to adjust to a new temperature following a temperature shift. The goal of this study was to determine how thermal acclimation influences host resistance to infection and to test for parasite acclimation responses, which might differ from host responses in important ways. We tested predictions of three, non‐mutually exclusive hypotheses regarding thermal acclimation effects on infection of green frog tadpoles (Lithobates clamitans) by the trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae with fully replicated controlled‐temperature experiments. Trematodes or tadpoles were independently acclimated to a range of ‘acclimation temperatures’ prior to shifting them to new ‘performance temperatures’ for experimental infections. Trematodes that were acclimated to intermediate temperatures (19–22 °C) had greater encystment success across temperatures than either cold‐ or warm‐acclimated trematodes. However, host acclimation responses varied depending on the stage of infection (encystment vs. clearance): warm‐ (22–28 °C) and cold‐acclimated (13–19 °C) tadpoles had fewer parasites encyst at warm and cold performance temperatures, respectively, whereas intermediate‐acclimated tadpoles (19–25 °C) cleared the greatest proportion of parasites in the week following exposure. These results suggest that tadpoles use different immune mechanisms to resist different stages of trematode infection, and that each set of mechanisms has unique responses to temperature variability. Our results highlight the importance of considering thermal responses of both parasites and hosts when predicting disease patterns in variable‐temperature environments. Temperature variability can have complex effects on parasitism, particularly if hosts and parasites acclimate to new temperatures. The authors used replicated temperature experiments to demonstrate nonlinear thermal acclimation responses in the trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae and its tadpole host Lithobates clamitans. They tracked parasite encystment and clearance using fluorescent dye.
      PubDate: 2016-04-04T03:52:49.213894-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12510
       
  • Family morph matters: factors determining survival and recruitment in a
           long‐lived polymorphic raptor
    • Authors: P. Sumasgutner; G. J. Tate, A. Koeslag, A. Amar
      First page: 1043
      Abstract: From an evolutionary perspective recruitment into the breeding population represents one of the most important life history stages and ultimately determines the effective population size. In order to contribute to the next generation, offspring must survive to sexual maturity, secure a territory and find a mate. In this study we explore factors influencing both offspring survival and their subsequent recruitment into the local breeding population in a long‐lived urban raptor, the black sparrowhawk (Accipiter melanoleucus). Adult black sparrowhawks show discrete colour polymorphism (dark and light morphs) and in South Africa morphs are distributed clinally with the highest proportion of dark morphs (c.75%) present in our study population on the Cape Peninsula. Parental morph was associated with both survival and recruitment. For survival, parental morph combination was important – with young produced by pairs of contrasting morphs having higher survival rates than young fledged from like‐pairs. The association between recruitment and morph was more complex; with an interaction between male morph and breeding time, whereby recruitment of offspring from dark morph fathers was more likely when fledging earlier in the season. The opposite relationship was found for light morph fathers, with their offspring more likely to be recruited if fledged later in the season. This interaction may be due to differential morph‐specific hunting success of fathers (males contribute most food provisioning), linked to background matching and crypsis in different weather conditions. Dark morph males may hunt more successfully in rainier and cloudier conditions which occur more frequently earlier in the breeding season and light morph males may be more successful later on, when weather conditions become increasingly brighter and drier. Our results reveal a complex situation whereby the family morph combination influences survival, and the father morph specifically recruitment, revealing morph specific benefits dependent on the timing of breeding. These empirical data are amongst the first to support the idea that differential fitness consequence of morph combination may explain balanced polymorphism in a vertebrate population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15T05:40:49.179961-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12518
       
  • Mimicry refinement: Phenotypic variations tracking the local optimum
    • First page: 1056
      Abstract: 1.Müllerian mimicry between chemically defended preys is a textbook example of natural selection favouring phenotypic convergence onto a shared warning signal. Studies of mimicry have concentrated on deciphering the ecological and genetic underpinnings of dramatic switches in mimicry association, producing a well‐known mosaic distribution of mimicry patterns across geography. However, little is known about the accuracy of resemblance between natural co‐mimics when the local phenotypic optimum varies. 2.In this study, using analyses of wing shape, pattern and hue, we quantify multimodal phenotypic similarity between butterfly co‐mimics sharing the so‐called postman pattern in different localities with varying species composition. 3.We show that subtle but consistent variation between populations of the localised species, Heliconius timareta thelxinoe, enhance resemblance to the abundant co‐mimics which drive the mimicry in each locality. 4.Those results suggest that rarer co‐mimics track the changes in the phenotypic optimum caused by gradual changes in the composition of the mimicry community, providing insights into the process by which intra‐specific diversity of mimetic pattern may arise. Furthermore, our results suggest a multimodal evolution of similarity, with coordinated convergence in different features of the phenotype such as wing outline, pattern and hue. 5.Finally, multilocus genotyping allows estimating local hybridization rates between H. timareta and co‐mimic H. melpomene in different populations, raising the hypothesis that mimicry refinement between closely‐related co‐mimics may be enhanced by adaptive introgression at loci modifying the accuracy of resemblance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-22T08:15:49.420547-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12521
       
  • Negative relationships between population density and metabolic rates are
           not general
    • First page: 1070
      Abstract: 1.Population density has recently been suggested to be an important factor influencing metabolic rates, and to represent an important ‘third axis’ explaining variation beyond that explained by body mass and temperature. In situations where population density influences food consumption, the immediate effect on metabolism acting through specific dynamic action (SDA), and downregulation due to fasting over longer periods, is well understood. However, according to a recent review, previous studies suggest a more general effect of population density per se, even in the absence of such effects. It has been hypothesised that this results from animals performing anticipatory responses (i.e. reduced activity) to expected declines in food availability. 2.Here we test the generality of this finding by measuring density effects on metabolic rates in 10 clones from two different species of the zooplankton Daphnia (Daphnia pulex Leydig and D. magna Straus). Using fluorescence‐based respirometry we obtain high‐precision measures of metabolism. 3.We also identify additional studies on this topic that were not included in the previous review, compare the results, and evaluate the potential for measurement bias in all previous studies. 4.We demonstrate significant variation in mass‐specific metabolism among clones within both species. However, we find no evidence for a negative relationship between population density and mass‐specific metabolism. The previously reported pattern also disappeared when we extended the set of studies analysed. 5.We discuss potential reasons for the discrepancy among studies, including two main sources of potential bias (microbial respiration and declining oxygen consumption due to reduced oxygen availability). Only one of the previous studies gives sufficient information to conclude absence of such biases, and consistent with our results no effect of density on metabolism was found. We conclude that population density per se does not have a general effect on mass‐specific metabolic rate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T09:34:10.778801-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12515
       
  • Top predators negate the effect of mesopredators on prey physiology
    • Authors: Maria M. Palacios; Shaun S. Killen, Lauren E. Nadler, James R. White, Mark I. McCormick
      First page: 1078
      Abstract: Predation theory and empirical evidence suggest that top predators benefit the survival of resource prey through the suppression of mesopredators. However, whether such behavioural suppression can also affect the physiology of resource prey has yet to be examined. Using a three‐tier reef fish food web and intermittent‐flow respirometry, our study examined changes in the metabolic rate of resource prey exposed to combinations of mesopredator and top predator cues. Under experimental conditions, the mesopredator (dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus) continuously foraged and attacked resource prey (juveniles of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis) triggering an increase in prey O2 uptake by 38 ± 12·9% (mean ± SE). The visual stimulus of a top predator (coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus) restricted the foraging activity of the mesopredator, indirectly allowing resource prey to minimize stress and maintain routine O2 uptake. Although not as strong as the effect of the top predator, the sight of a large non‐predator species (thicklip wrasse, Hemigymnus melapterus) also reduced the impact of the mesopredator on prey metabolic rate. We conclude that lower trophic‐level species can benefit physiologically from the presence of top predators through the behavioural suppression that top predators impose on mesopredators. By minimizing the energy spent on mesopredator avoidance and the associated stress response to mesopredator attacks, prey may be able to invest more energy in foraging and growth, highlighting the importance of the indirect, non‐consumptive effects of top predators in marine food webs. This study provides novel empirical evidence of a cascade of indirect effects in which low trophic‐level species can benefit physiologically from the presence of top‐predators, through the behavioural suppression imposed on mesopredators. Linking behavioural and physiological effects on predation risk can help unravel the mechanisms by which top‐predators influence natural ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2016-04-25T19:01:03.024797-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12523
       
  • Antagonistic interactions between an invasive alien and a native
           coccinellid species may promote coexistence
    • Authors: William T. Hentley; Adam J. Vanbergen, Andrew P. Beckerman, Melanie N. Brien, Rosemary S. Hails, Hefin T. Jones, Scott N. Johnson
      First page: 1087
      Abstract: Despite the capacity of invasive alien species to alter ecosystems, the mechanisms underlying their impact remain only partly understood. Invasive alien predators, for example, can significantly disrupt recipient communities by consuming prey species or acting as an intraguild predator (IGP). Behavioural interactions are key components of interspecific competition between predators, yet these are often overlooked invasion processes. Here, we show how behavioural, non‐lethal IGP interactions might facilitate the establishment success of an invading alien species. 3) We experimentally assessed changes in feeding behaviour (prey preference and consumption rate) of native UK coccinellid species (Adalia bipunctata and Coccinella septempunctata), whose populations are, respectively, declining and stable, when exposed to the invasive intraguild predator, Harmonia axyridis. Using a population dynamics model parameterised with these experimental data, we predicted how intraguild predation, accommodating interspecific behavioural interactions, might impact the abundance of the native and invasive alien species over time. 4) When competing for the same aphid resource, the feeding rate of A. bipunctata significantly increased compared to the feeding in isolation, while the feeding rate of H. axyridis significantly decreased. This suggests that despite significant declines in the UK, A. bipunctata is a superior competitor to the intraguild predator H. axyridis. In contrast, the behaviour of non‐declining C. septempunctata was unaltered by the presence of H. axyridis. 5) Our experimental data show the differential behavioural plasticity of competing native and invasive alien predators, but do not explain A. bipunctata declines observed in the UK. Using behavioural plasticity as a parameter in a population dynamic model for A. bipunctata and H. axyridis, coexistence is predicted between the native and invasive alien following an initial period of decline in the native species. We demonstrate how empirical and theoretical techniques can be combined to understand better the processes and consequences of alien species invasions for native biodiversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-21T06:08:28.808892-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12519
       
  • Colonization history and clonal richness of asexual Daphnia in periglacial
           habitats of contrasting age in West Greenland
    • Authors: Tsegazeabe H Haileselasie; Joachim Mergeay, Lawrence J . Weider, Erik Jeppesen, Luc De Meester
      First page: 1108
      Abstract: 1.Due to climate change, Arctic ice sheets are retreating. This leads to the formation of numerous new periglacial ponds and lakes, which are being colonized by planktonic organisms such as the water flea Daphnia. This system provides unique opportunities to test genotype colonization dynamics and the genetic assemblage of populations. Here, we studied clonal richness of the Daphnia pulex species complex in novel periglacial habitats created by glacial retreat in the Jakobshavn Isbræ area of western Greenland. 2.Along a 10 km transect, we surveyed 73 periglacial habitats out of which 61 were colonized by Daphnia pulex. Hence for our analysis we used 21 ponds and 40 lakes in two clusters of habitats differing in age (estimated 150 years). We tested the expectation that genetic diversity would be low in recently‐formed (i.e., young), small habitats, but would increase with increasing age and size. 3.We identified a total of 42 genetically‐distinct clones belonging to two obligately asexual species of the D. pulex species complex: D. middendorffiana and the much more abundant D. pulicaria. While regional clonal richness was high, most clones were rare: 16 clones were restricted to a single habitat and the five most widespread clones accounted for 68% of all individuals sampled. On average 3.2 clones (range: 1‐12) coexisted in a given pond or lake. There was no relationship between clonal richness and habitat size when we controlled for habitat age. Whereas clonal richness was statistically higher in the cluster of older habitats when compared with the cluster of younger ponds and lakes, most young habitats were colonized by multiple genotypes. 4.Our data suggest that newly‐formed (periglacial) ponds and lakes are within decades colonized by multiple genotypes via multiple colonization events, even in the smallest of our study systems (4 m2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-08T03:15:51.251358-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12513
       
  • Phylogenetic Community Structure of North American Desert Bats: Influence
           of Environment at Multiple Spatial and Taxonomic Scales
    • Authors: Lorelei E. Patrick; Richard D. Stevens
      First page: 1118
      Abstract: 1.Numerous processes influence community structure. The relative importance of these processes are thought to vary with spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scale: density dependent interactions are thought to be most influential at small scales, at intermediate scales environmental conditions may be the most influential factor, and biogeographic processes are thought to be of greater importance at larger scales. Additionally, the stress‐dominance hypothesis suggests that communities experiencing harsher environmental conditions will be predominantly structured by habitat filtering whereas communities experiencing more favorable conditions will be structured predominantly by density dependent interactions such as competition. 2.The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of environmental factors on phylogenetic community structure (PCS) of North American desert bats at multiple spatial and taxonomic scales. We also examined if the stress‐dominance hypothesis is upheld in desert bats across an environmental gradient. 3.PCS metrics were calculated using species pools that differed in spatial (from all deserts to individual deserts) and taxonomic (all bat taxa, a single family, and a single genus) scale. We calculated mean temperature, precipitation, and seasonality for each site to determine if environmental gradients were related to degree of community structure. 4.At the largest spatial and taxonomic scales, communities were significantly phylogenetically clustered while degree of clustering decreased at the smallest spatial and taxonomic scales. Climatic data, particularly mean temperature and temperature seasonality, were important predictors of PCS at larger scales and under harsher conditions, but at smaller scales and in less stressful conditions there was a weaker relationship between PCS and climate. 5.This suggests that North American deserts, while harsh, are not uniform in the challenges they present to the faunas residing in them. Overall, the relationship between PCS and climatic data at large spatial and taxonomic scales, and in harsher conditions, suggests the influence of habitat filtering has been important in North American desert bat community assembly and that other processes have been important at smaller scales. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-04-08T03:16:33.085744-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12529
       
  • Corrigendum
    • First page: 1131
      PubDate: 2016-05-10T09:02:32.646663-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12520
       
  • Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos
           tortoises
    • Abstract: 1.Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One‐dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life history trade‐offs. 2.We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement vary over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour—giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.)—to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size. 3.We used state‐space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log‐log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics, and contrasted relationships by species and sex. 4.Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily, and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected ¼ scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates. 5.Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement, and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one‐dimensional scaling of movement, but also generates valuable insights into the movement ecology of iconic yet poorly understood Galapagos giant tortoises. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
 
 
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