Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3492 journals)
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    - BOTANY (254 journals)
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BOTANY (254 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 254 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Agrobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Botanica Brasilica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Botanica Croatica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Botanica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Botanica Malacitana     Open Access  
Acta botánica mexicana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Botánica Venezuelica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mycologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Palaeobotanica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae     Open Access  
Adansonia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Agriculture & Botanics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Zoology and Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Plant Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Plant Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AGORA : Revista do Curso de Arquivologia     Open Access  
Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Aliso : A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alpine Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Anales del Jardin Botánico de Madrid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatolian Bryology     Open Access  
Anatolian Journal of Botany     Open Access  
Annales Botanici Fennici     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annali di Botanica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Annals of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annual Review of Plant Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
AoB Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applications in Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Arabian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arnaldoa     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Plant Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Plant Disease Notes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Systematic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bangladesh Journal of Botany     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversidade     Open Access  
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Biologia Plantarum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitki Koruma Bülteni / Plant Protection Bulletin     Open Access  
Blumea - Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
BMC Plant Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México     Open Access  
Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botanica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Botanica Complutensis     Open Access  
Botanica Marina     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Botanica Orientalis : Journal of Plant Science     Open Access  
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Botanical Sciences     Open Access  
Botanical Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Botanics : Targets and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Botany Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Caldasia     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Conservación Vegetal     Open Access  
Current Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Plant Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Current Protocols in Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Curtis's Botanical Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Darwiniana     Open Access  
Doklady Botanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Economic Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Edinburgh Journal of Botany     Hybrid Journal  
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental and Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ernstia     Open Access  
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Taxonomy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Evansia     Full-text available via subscription  
Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
FLOVET - Boletim do Grupo de Pesquisa da Flora, Vegetação e Etnobotânica     Open Access  
Folia Geobotanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Folia Horticulturae     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Plant Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Functional Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Gayana. Botanica     Open Access  
Great Lakes Botanist     Open Access  
Harvard Papers in Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Hellenic Plant Protection Journal     Open Access  
Herba Polonica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hoehnea     Open Access  
Horticultural Biotechnology Research     Open Access  
Horticultural Plant Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Horticulture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Iheringia. Série Botânica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Phytopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Modern Botany     Open Access  
International Journal of Phytopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Plant Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Plant Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Plant Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Plant Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Invasive Plant Science and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Israel Journal of Plant Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Italian Botanist     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Citrus Pathology     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of General Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access  
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research     Open Access  
Journal of Native and Alien Plant Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Plant Biology & Soil Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Plant Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Plant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Plant Science and Molecular Breeding     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Plant Stress Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plant Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Turkish Phytopathology     Open Access  
Lankesteriana     Open Access  
Lekovite Sirovine     Open Access  
Lilloa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mediterranean Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Plant     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Molecular Plant Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
MycoKeys     Open Access  
Mycologia     Hybrid Journal  
Mycology : An International Journal on Fungal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mycotaxon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Native Plants Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Natural History Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nature Plants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
New Journal of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
New Zealand Journal of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nordic Journal of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Oklahoma Native Plant Record     Open Access  
Open Journal of Plant Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Phyton, International Journal of Experimental Botany     Open Access  
Phytopathologia Mediterranea     Open Access  
Plant and Fungal Systematics     Open Access  
Plant and Soil     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Plant Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology: Official Journal of the Societa Botanica Italiana     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Plant Breeding     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Plant Breeding and Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Plant Cell Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Plant Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Plant Direct     Open Access  
Plant Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Plant Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant Diversity and Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Plant Ecology & Diversity     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Plant Ecology and Evolution     Free   (Followers: 9)
Plant Growth Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Plant Health Progress     Full-text available via subscription  
Plant Knowledge Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Plant Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Plant Omics     Open Access  
Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Plant Pathology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.702
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1435-8107 - ISSN (Online) 0721-7595
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Abiotic Elicitors Influence Antioxidative Enzyme Activities and Shelf Life
           of Carrot During Storage Under Refrigerated Conditions
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the post-harvest treatments of abiotic elicitors, that is, calcium chloride (CaCl2) and salicylic acid (SA) on physicochemical and biochemical parameters in relation to activities of antioxidative enzymes in carrot to enhance shelf life. Carrot of variety Punjab Carrot Red was harvested, washed, surface dried and treated with CaCl2 (1, 1.5 and 2%) or SA (1, 1.5 and 2 mM) for 5 min, while distilled water was used as the control. Treated as well as untreated carrots were placed in open trays and stored under refrigerated (5 ± 1 °C, 90% RH) conditions for 63 days. Treatment of carrots with CaCl2 and SA showed a reduction in changes in physiological weight, color, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, total phenolics, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and TBA reactive compound as compared to untreated samples. Higher activities of antioxidative enzymes, that is, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD), dehydro-ascorbate-reductase (DHAR) and monodehydro-ascorbate-reductase (MDHAR), were found in treated carrots as compared to untreated carrots during the whole storage period. SA treatment exhibited more usefulness in maintaining the quality of carrot than CaCl2 treatment. Among all the treatments, 1.5 mM SA exhibited the highest antioxidative enzyme activities and slowest changes in biochemical quality of carrot during storage. Thus, 1.5 mM SA can be used to extend the shelf life of carrot during refrigerated storage.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
       
  • Transcriptomic Profiling of Rice Seedlings Inoculated with the Symbiotic
           Fungus Trichoderma asperellum SL2
    • Abstract: Abstract The fungal species Trichoderma is reported to have a significant impact on the growth and physiological performance of rice plants. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce these effects remain unspecified. Using next-generation sequencing technology, this study compared the differential expression of genes in rice seedlings that had been inoculated with Trichoderma asperellum SL2 with the gene expression in seedlings that had no such inoculation. The study showed that many genes related to plant growth enhancement and physiological functioning are differentially expressed in seedlings which have been symbiotically colonized by T. asperellum SL2. In these seedlings, specific genes related to photosynthesis, RNA activity, stomatal activity, and root development were found to be up-regulated as others were down-regulated. Although the exact causal mechanisms at the molecular level remain to be identified, the presence of Trichoderma versus its absence was associated with almost ten times more significant up-regulations than down-regulations for specific genes that have been identified from previous genomic mapping. Such analysis at the molecular level can help to explain observed phenotypic effects at the organismic level, and it begins to illuminate the observed beneficial relationships expressed phenotypically between crop plants and certain symbiotic microbes.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
       
  • Comparative Analysis of Tolerant and Susceptible Citrus Reveals the Role
           of Methyl Salicylate Signaling in the Response to Huanglongbing
    • Abstract: Abstract Huanglongbing (HLB), associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Tolerance to HLB has been observed in some citrus varieties, but its molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), involved in salicylic acid (SA) signaling, is a critical mobile signal for plant systematic acquired resistance (SAR). This study compared the response of tolerant sour pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and susceptible Jincheng orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) to Las infection. During 18 months of resistance evaluation, sour pomelo displayed significantly delayed and milder symptoms, and tolerated higher levels of Las growth, compared with Jincheng orange. High levels of MeSA were detected in sour pomelo and MeSA responded positively to Las infection. Little MeSA was found in Jincheng orange regardless of Las infection. Correspondingly, the SA content in sour pomelo was significantly higher than that in Jincheng orange. During Las infection, SA levels decreased significantly in sour pomelo but increased in Jincheng orange. These data indicated that MeSA was correlated with tolerance to HLB in citrus. Gene expression analysis showed that CsSAMT1 and CsSABP2-1, involved in the interconversion of MeSA and SA, were related to MeSA accumulation in sour pomelo, and sour pomelo possesses a strong SAR response. Our study indicates that MeSA-mediated SAR plays an important role in citrus tolerance to HLB. This study provides new insights into HLB tolerance in citrus and useful guidance for improving citrus resistance to HLB by manipulation of MeSA signaling in the future.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
       
  • Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Seed Filling, Endogenous Hormone
           Contents and Maize Production in Semiarid Regions
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we determined whether the application of uniconazole alone or combined with ethephon could enhance the seed-filling rates in maize by regulating the endogenous hormone contents. Uniconazole was applied to the foliage at concentrations of 0 (CK), 25 (U25), 50 (U50) and 75 (U75) mg L−1 at the 12-leaf stage. In addition, uniconazole was applied to the foliage at the 12-leaf stage and ethephon at 10 days after silking stage at concentrations of 0 (CK), 25 mg L−1 uniconazole + 100 mg L−1 ethephon (U25 + E100), 50 mg L−1 uniconazole + 200 mg L−1 ethephon (U50 + E200) and 75 mg L−1 uniconazole + 300 mg L−1 ethephon (U75 + E300). Uniconazole applied alone or in combination with ethephon significantly improved ear characters and grain yield. Uniconazole applied alone or combination with ethephon significantly improved the dry matter accumulation in seeds and seed-filling rates. Uniconazole significantly increased the abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin (Z) + zeatin riboside (ZR) contents of seeds, but reduced the gibberellic acid (GA) contents. The application of uniconazole combined with ethephon decreased the ABA, Z + ZR and GA contents in seeds. The ABA and Z + ZR contents were significantly positively correlated, whereas the GA content was negatively correlated with the maximum seed weight, maximum seed-filling rate and mean seed-filling rate. The application of uniconazole alone significantly improved the seed-filling rates in maize by regulating the endogenous hormone contents. Thus, we conclude that uniconazole application at 50 mg L−1 in the 12-leaf stage can enhance the maize production.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
       
  • Evidence for the Early Evolutionary Loss of the M20D Auxin Amidohydrolase
           Family from Mosses and Horizontal Gene Transfer from Soil Bacteria of
           Cryptic Hydrolase Orthologues to Physcomitrella patens
    • Abstract: Abstract Inactive auxin conjugates are accumulated in plants and hydrolyzed to recover phytohormone action. A family of metallopeptidase orthologues has been conserved in Plantae to help regulate auxin homeostatic levels during growth and development. This hydrolase family was recently traced back to liverwort, the most ancient extant land plant lineage. Liverwort’s auxin hydrolase has little activity against auxin conjugate substrates and does not appear to actively regulate auxin. This finding, along with data that shows moss can synthesize auxin conjugates, led to examining another bryophyte lineage, Physcomitrella patens. We have identified and isolated three M20D hydrolase paralogues from moss. The isolated enzymes strongly recognize and cleave a variety of auxin conjugates, including those of indole butyric and indole propionic acids. These P. patens hydrolases not only appear to be “cryptic”, but they are likely to have derived from soil bacteria through Horizontal Gene Transfer. Additionally, support is presented that the plant-type M20D peptidase family may have been universally lost from mosses after divergence from the common ancestor with liverwort.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
       
  • Do Fertilizers and Irrigation Disruption Change Some Physiological Traits
           of Safflower'
    • Abstract: Abstract To investigate the effects of nanofertilizers and biofertilizers on the morpho-physiological and biochemical traits of safflower under full irrigation and water deficit stress, this study was carried out as a split-plot experiment based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Urmia University in 2015. The main plot was full irrigation (control) and irrigation disruption at heading, flowering, and grain filling stages. Fertilizers, including control (without fertilizer), biofertilizer, water spray, foliar application of nanofertilizers, chemical fertilizers, and combined application of fertilizers, were assigned to the subplot. Plants under full irrigation and combined fertilizers had maximum height and chlorophyll a, whereas the lowest ones were obtained in irrigation disruption at the heading stage and control treatments. The maximum oil content (28.41%) was detected in irrigation disruption at the grain filling stage and nanofertilizer treatment, the lowest (21.96%) was obtained at irrigation disruption at the flowering stage and water spray treatment. The highest proline (397.21 µg g−1 fresh leaf) was found in irrigation disruption at the grain filling stage and water spray treatment, and the lowest (154.68 µg g−1 fresh leaf) was obtained at full irrigation and water spray treatment. Irrigation disruption at the heading stage and control treatments decreased carbohydrate content of fresh leaves by 86.54% compared to full irrigation and the combined fertilizers treatment. Irrigation disruption increases saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acid) and decreases vitamin E and linoleic acid. The combined application of fertilizers significantly increased safflower oil quality. Overall, concerning the obtained highest oil percentage (28.41%), irrigation disruption during grain filling reduced water consumption and application of combined fertilizer via improving oil quality, so it is recommended to farmers.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
       
  • Influence of Clonal Variation on the Efficiency of Arundo donax
           Propagation Methods
    • Abstract: Abstract The recent growth of interest in Arundo donax L. (Giant reed) as an energy crop is due to its great vegetative vigor and high biomass productivity. This perennial rhizomatous plant is able to grow in a wide range of pedo-climatic conditions and it has been employed by man for a great number of purposes. This has promoted its worldwide diffusion, despite its sexual sterility. Field establishment represents the most expensive phase of the whole cultivation cycle, because of the high cost of the propagules. In this work three agamic propagation methods, rhizome transplantation, hydroponic cultivation, and in vitro propagation, were compared with the aim of improving their efficiency, and reducing costs and time required. We focused our attention on in vitro and hydroponic cultivation, finding clones characterized by a high response to these propagation methods. In vitro propagation is the most widespread technique adopted in the large-scale production of propagules; according to our results hydroponic cultivation also appears to be a valid and cheap propagation method, making it possible to obtain in about 2 months, vigorous plants ready to be transplanted into the field. We found a strong effect of the clone used on the success rate of the specific propagation method, suggesting that clonal selection could be particularly useful in improving the efficiency of propagation techniques, contributing to cost reduction. Evaluation of field performance of plants propagated by tissue culture is an important matter, considering the possible residual effects of hormones on plants’ growth, and the importance of first year growth for field establishment. These experiments highlighted the lower biomass production from plants obtained by tissue culture. A novel cytokinin-like hormone, meta-topolin, was tested in vitro, in a preliminary study to evaluate its possible use for A. donax L. propagation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
       
  • Salt Stress-Induced Changes in In Vitro Cultured Stevia rebaudiana
           Bertoni: Effect on Metabolite Contents, Antioxidant Capacity and
           Expression of Steviol Glycosides-Related Biosynthetic Genes
    • Abstract: Abstract Stevia rebaudiana is an industrially and medicinally important herb, mainly due to its steviol glycoside content, which is a calorie-free natural sweetener. Moreover, it contains other phytochemicals that make this species potentially beneficial for health. Salt stress affects plant growth, development and plant metabolism. The present study was executed with the objective of evaluating the effect of different NaCl concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g L−1) on growth parameters, total soluble sugars, steviol glycosides and phenolic compounds (total soluble phenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids), as well as antioxidant capacity (with a FRAP and DPPH assay). We also analysed in this study the expression levels of genes involved in the three stages of the steviol glycosides biosynthesis pathway in S. rebaudiana. Treatment with NaCl decreased root numbers and weights (dry and fresh), while increasing antioxidant capacity (according to the FRAP assay), hydroxycinnamic acid and total soluble sugar content. Furthermore, the up-regulation of several genes (CMS, CMK, HDR and UGT76G1) encoding key enzymes of the steviol glycoside biosynthetic pathways was observed after NaCl treatments. The results provide new insights into the physiological, biochemical and molecular response mechanisms of in vitro-grown stevia plants to NaCl.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
       
  • Characterization of Top Leader Elongation in Nordmann Fir ( Abies
           nordmanniana )
    • Abstract: Abstract Our understanding of the developmental changes that occur during top leader elongation in gymnosperms lags behind that in angiosperms. We developed a semiquantitative method for determining epidermal cell size, by measuring the Feret diameter after cell wall staining of stem epidermal peels. This method allowed a large number of cells to be measured at various locations in the top leader of the Christmas tree Abies nordmanniana. Further, we have identified the growth rate of individual sections of the top leader, and the relationship between cell length and needle arrangement throughout the top leader. At bud break, all stem units begin to elongate simultaneously, but growth ceases from the base upwards during top leader elongation. Long top leaders were characterized by having up to three times as long cells at the base compared to short top leaders, whereas the cell lengths were similar in the apical region independent of the given plant growth capacity. In the basal sector, the level of auxin was much higher, whereas the levels of cytokinins were lower than in the apical sector, causing the auxin/cytokinin ratio to change from about 3 in the apical sector to more than 20 in the basal part. The Fibonacci number changed in the apical sector due to an increased cell number in the stem units and therefore longer distance between the needles. We conclude that the general growth pattern during top leader elongation in A. nordmanniana is similar to angiosperms but differs at the cellular level.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
       
  • Expressional and Functional Verification of the Involvement of CmEXPA4 in
           Chrysanthemum Root Development
    • Abstract: Abstract Expansin (EXP) plays an important role in plant root formation. The EXP genes associated with chrysanthemum roots have not yet been reported. Here we isolated a root-specific EXP gene in chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), namely CmEXPA4. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmEXPA4-encoded protein has a conserved DPPB (Double-Psi Beta-Barrel) domain in the N-terminal with a series of Cys residues, an HFD (His-Phe-Asp) motif in the central region, and a pollen allergen domain in the C-terminal. The protein also has a specific α-insertion of WCNP (Trp-Cys-Asn-Pro), which suggests that it belongs to the A-subgroup of the EXP family. In the present study, we cloned the 1,129 bp promoter region upstream of CmEXPA4, and the analysis revealed an abundance of cis-acting elements associated with hormones, light and stress-related responses, and some root-specific regulatory elements in particular. Subcellular localization results indicated that CmEXPA4 locates in the cell wall. Exogenous indole butyric acid induced the up-regulation of CmEXPA4 expression, whereas exogenous abscisic acid inhibited its expression. Tissue expression analysis showed that CmEXPA4 was preferentially expressed in the roots and was synchronized with the rapid emergence of the root. These results suggested that CmEXPA4 may act on the growth and development of chrysanthemum roots. The function of CmEXPA4 was further tested by virus-induced gene silencing, and the results showed that CmEXPA4 silencing inhibited the normal development of the chrysanthemum root system. The roots appeared thinner and shorter, and several important root parameters, including total length, average diameter, surface area, total volume, and root tip number, decreased significantly. The cortical cells of the transgenic plant roots were significantly smaller and shorter than those of the control. Collectively, our results demonstrated that CmEXPA4 gene plays a key role in the growth and development of chrysanthemum roots and affects the root system by acting on the individual cells.
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
       
  • RNA-Seq Analysis Reveals Differential Responses of Potato ( Solanum
           tuberosum L.) Plantlets Cultured in vitro to Red, Blue, Green, and White
           Light-emitting Diodes (LEDs)
    • Abstract: Abstract Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), morphological changes, and leaf ultrastructure alterations of “Zhong Shu 3” potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets in vitro cultured under red (R), blue (B), green (G), or white (W) LEDs were analyzed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) method. In total, 2160, 774, and 1335 DEGs were identified in plantlets that received R, B, and G LEDs, respectively, compared to W LEDs (the control). Higher expression of expasin, xyloglucan glycosyltransferase, actin, and tubulin genes were associated with the largest leaf area under B and W LEDs. Neatly arranged spongy and palisade cells were observed in plantlets exposed to R LEDs, accompanied by upregulated expression of all the DEGs enriched for “anatomical structure development” and “anatomical structure arrangement” biological processes. Well-developed chloroplasts with developed inner membranes in plantlets under B LEDs were associated with the upregulation of most DEGs enriched for gene ontology (GO) terms of the chloroplast and chloroplast membrane systems. In addition, different light qualities induced different gene expression patterns, many of which were involved in metabolic pathways, such as the “porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism pathway Ko00860.” Regulation of these genes might explain the higher or lower contents of photosynthetic pigments. Although R and G LEDs triggered shade stress in potato plantlets in vitro, the health index of plantlets grown under B LEDs was higher than that grown under W LEDs. Our results provide insights into the responses of potato plantlets to different light qualities at the transcriptomic level and may contribute to the improvement of potato plantlet in vitro propagation from light spectrum aspects.
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
       
  • The Role of SV Ion Channels Under the Stress of Mycotoxins Induced in
           Wheat Cells—Protective Action of Selenium Ions
    • Abstract: Abstract Mycotoxin stress, one of the currently intensively studied, was stimulated in wheat hypocotyl cells through the application of zearalenone, produced by Fusarium fungi. The differences of reactions in the activation of the SV ion channels between stress-tolerant (Parabola) and sensitive (Raweta) wheat cultivars have been studied by the patch-clamp technique. No impact of zearalenone on SV channel activity was observed in Parabola. However, in the sensitive cultivar, mycotoxin (30 µmol L−1) evoked a significant decrease in the unitary conductance of the channels—from 22 ± 0.4 pS (n = 5) in the control to 18 ± 0.5 pS (n = 7) in zearalenone-treated vacuoles (potential clamped at 100 mV). A combined treatment of zearalenone and selenium (5 µmol L−1 of Na2SeO4) abolished this effect totally, indicating the importance of this element in the defense mechanism of cells under the stress of mycotoxins. The role of differences in the membrane structure between tolerant and sensitive cultivars induced in stress conditions, as one of the main factors in mechanical stability of channels, has been discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
       
  • Silicon Alleviates Nickel-Induced Oxidative Stress by Regulating
           Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Mustard Plants
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil polluted with heavy metals is a continuous threat to global crop production. The present study deals with growth, biochemical attributes, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant responses and gyloxalase systems of mustard plants under varying concentrations of nickel (Ni) stress. Ni stress (150 µM) reduced growth (shoot length by 34.46% and root length by 52.49%), chlorophyll (57.63%), gas exchange parameters (PN by 36.84%, A by 55.61%), leaf relative water content (LRWC by 24.34%), and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 by3.23 fold) malondialdehyde (MDA by 2.07 fold), and methylglyoxal (MG by 3.32 fold) content. Si (10− 5 M) application ameliorated the negative effects of Ni on growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic traits and also elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and enzymes associated with the ascorbate glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle and glyoxylase systems. Nevertheless, Si application to Ni-stressed plants had an additive effect on the enzyme activities of antioxidants and enzymes of AsA-GSH cycle. Exogenous Si supplementation elevated endogenous Si content which decreased root to shoot Ni translocation and maintained optimum osmolyte and secondary metabolite accumulation. We conclude that Si-induced Ni stress tolerance in mustard plants could be correlated with the upregulation of enzymes associated with antioxidant defence, glyoxalase detoxification systems and sufficient primary and secondary osmoprotectant accumulation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
       
  • Study on the Physiological Mechanism of Early Flowering and Low Male
           Fertility of Limonium bicolor Mutant vrl15
    • Abstract: Abstract As biennial recretohalophytes, Limonium bicolor plants need 2 years to complete their life cycle. A growth habit mutant Vernalization Requirement Loss 15 (vrl15) was obtained by ion implantation. However, the biological characteristics of the mutant were unclear. In the current study, the related traits of vrl15 and some possible reasons for these traits were examined. Compared with wild type (WT), vrl15 can bolt and flower in approximately four months without vernalization. Moreover, vrl15 needed much less time to bolting and flowering than wild-type L. bicolor under different vernalization treatments. After 20 days’ vernalization, bolting vrl15 plants had 24 rosette leaves and bolting WT had 31 rosette leaves. Moreover, the pollen number per anther, the proportion of active pollen, the seed setting rate and the 1000 seed weight of vrl15 were all lower than those of WT. The soluble sugar content and soluble protein content in leaves of the vrl15 were much higher than those of WT sowed at the same time. In addition, the GA content in the leaves of bolting vrl15 was higher than that of the non-bolting WT sowed at the same time and non-bolting vrl15, whereas the contents of ABA and BR were much lower than that of the non-bolting WT. These results indicate that to some extent the increase of GA and decrease of ABA and BR content may be involved in the growth habit and male fertility alteration of mutant vrl15 of L. bicolor.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
       
  • Effects of S-Abscisic Acid (S-ABA) on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth,
           and Asr1 Gene Expression Under Drought Stress in Maize
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the phytohormone S-abscisic acid (S-ABA) to protect maize seedlings grown under drought stress and to measure their increased drought tolerance. The maize hybrids ‘Zhengdan 958’ (ZD958; drought tolerant) and ‘Xundan 20’ (XD20; drought sensitive) were treated with nutrient solutions of different concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 mg/kg) of S-ABA under polyethylene glycol (PEG, 15% w/v, MW 6000) simulated drought stress. Optimal concentrations of S-ABA were designed to be sprayed onto the leaves of seedlings, and their effect on endogenous ABA, malondialdehyde (MDA), osmotic substances, antioxidant enzyme activities, and Asr1 gene expression in seedlings were studied. Results indicated that, under drought stress, S-ABA treatment significantly improved maize seed germination rate (GR), germination energy (GE), and seedling biomass (p < 0.05). After spraying 4 mg/kg S-ABA onto leaves, the endogenous hormone ABA, osmotic substances, antioxidant enzyme activities, and expressive quantity of the Asr1 gene were extended and MDA content dropped significantly (p < 0.05). Moreover, ZD 958 endogenous ABA content, osmotic substances content, antioxidant enzyme activity and Asr1 gene expressive quantity were higher than that of XD 20 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, S-ABA treatment increased the content of endogenous ABA, induced an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and Asr1 gene expression level, reduced the oxidative damage caused by drought to maize leaves, and improved the adaptability of maize seedlings to withstand drought stress. The promoting effect of S-ABA on the drought-tolerant variety ZD 958 was more obvious (p < 0.05). These results serve as a reference for the use of S-ABA in mitigating drought stress in maize.
      PubDate: 2019-03-05
       
  • Alpha-Tocopherol-Induced Regulation of Growth and Metabolism in Plants
           Under Non-stress and Stress Conditions
    • Abstract: Abstract Alpha-tocopherol (α-Toc) is a member of the vitamin E family and is lipid soluble. Its biosynthesis is by the reaction of isopentyl diphosphate and homogentisic acid in plastid membranes. The putative biochemical activities of tocopherols are linked with the formation of tocopherol quinone species, which subsequently undergo degradation and recycling within cells/tissues. α-Toc plays a key role in a variety of plant metabolic processes throughout the ontogeny of plants. It can maintain the integrity and fluidity of photosynthesizing membranes. It can also neutralize lipid peroxy radicals, consequently blocking lipid peroxidation by quenching oxidative cations. It preserves membrane integrity by retaining membranous structural components under environmental constraints such as water deficiency, high salt content, toxic metals, high/low temperatures, and radiations. α-Toc also induces cellular signalling pathways within biological membranes. Its biosynthesis varies during growth and developmental stages as well as under different environmental conditions. The current review primarily focuses on how α-Toc can regulate various metabolic processes involved in promoting plant growth and development under stress and non-stress and how it can effectively counteract the stress-induced high accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, exogenous application of α-Toc has been widely reported as a potential means of promoting resistance in plants to a variety of stressful environments.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
       
  • Compatibility of Inherent Fungal Endophytes of Withania somnifera with
           
    • Abstract: Abstract Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), also known as Indian ginseng, is an important ancient medicinal plant, used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine. In view of increasing demand for roots of Ashwagandha, the present study was undertaken to investigate the compatibility of inherent fungal endophytes along with the biocontrol agent, Trichoderma viride, for enhancing W. somnifera plant growth and root secondary metabolites (withaferin A). It has frequently been emphasized by the World Health Organization the use of healthy roots of Ashwagandha for therapeutic applications. To maintain quality of W. somnifera roots, an option could be eco-friendly management of root-knot diseases and co-inoculation of native endophytes along with T. viride. The in vitro antagonistic activity of T. viride (TV) against the W. somnifera pathogens, Alternaria alternata and Sclerotium rolfsii, showed 64.3% and 69.5% growth inhibition, respectively. Here, we investigated the compatibility of TV along with the native endophytic fungi Aspergillus terreus strain 2aWF (2aWF), Penicillium oxalicum strain 5aWF (5aWF), and Sarocladium kiliense strain 10aWF (10aWF) for the cultivation of W. somnifera. The co-inoculation of TV and native endophytic fungi resulted in increased shoot, root weight, and plant height to 65–150%, 35–74.5%, and 15–35%, respectively, compared to untreated plants. Withanolide A content in leaves of TV-treated plants increased significantly by 260%, whereas in co-inoculation treatments, it was enhanced up to 109–242%. However, no considerable change was noticed with withaferin A content in leaves, except the 2aWF + TV treatment significantly increased by 27%. In contrast, withanolide A content in roots was not affected by TV alone but co-inoculation with endophyte treatments significantly increased its content (19–73%). TV alone had increased chlorophyll a by 23%; however, in combination treatments, it increased up to 115–164% compared to control. Besides secondary metabolites in roots and leaves, co-inoculation of TV and native endophytes modulated the expression of the withanolide biosynthetic pathway genes HMGR, DXR, FPPS, SQS, SQE, CAS, SMT1, STE1, and CYP710A1 compared to control treatments. Apart from withanolide biosynthetic pathway genes, co-inoculation of TV also ameliorated the host-resistant-related gene NPR1 which was upregulated by ninefold in the TV treatment and 3- to 7-fold in the combination treatment. Overall, our results show that co-inoculation of TV along with inherent endophytes of W. somnifera enhanced plant growth and withanolides accumulation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
       
  • Modelling the Effects of Water Stress and Temperature on Seed Germination
           of Radish and Cantaloupe
    • Abstract: Abstract Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) are considered as important vegetables with potential for national and international markets due to their sugars, vitamins and minerals. This study arranged, therefore, to simultaneously investigate the effect of temperature (T) and water potential (ψ) on seed germination (SG) of these plants using two hydrothermal time (HTT) models and to determine cardinal Ts and base water potential (ψb(50)) for both species. The results indicated that SG of both species was more affected by ψ than T (p ≤ 0.001). At Ts below an optimum temperature (To) the ψb(50) was constant (− 0.582 and − 0.760 MPa for radish and cantaloupe, respectively) and then increased linearly by 0.0481 and 0.0446 MPa °C−1 as T increased above To (as thermoinhibition) until 0 MPa at the ceiling temperature (Tc), respectively. As the first report, however, we observed that the T at which ψb(50) begins to change was the same here (that is, Td = To), when determined by either model for both species. This result suggests that the assumption in Rowse and Finch-Savage’s model (Td is often less and or very close to To) may be invalid in some cases. For both species, the base temperature (Tb) and To were not affected by ψ and were constant while there was an exception only for Tc for which the value declined with decreasing ψs (more negative). In general, the estimated Tb, To and Tc were 9.64, 21.3 and 33.0 °C for radish and 11.8, 28.3 and 45.7 °C for cantaloupe in the control condition (ψ = 0 MPa), respectively. The HTT models used here and their parameters, each with strengths and weaknesses, can be used as a predictive tool in both cantaloupe and radish SG simulation models. However, at first, we need to select an appropriate HTT model based on SG behavior of plant species and then use the best model for quantifying the response of SG across Ts and ψs.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
       
  • Responsiveness of Carob ( Ceratonia siliqua L.) Plants to Arbuscular
           Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Under Different Phosphate Fertilization Levels
    • Abstract: Abstract This experiment was carried out in pots in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus intraradices and Rhizophagus fasciculatus) on carob plant performance under different levels of phosphate fertilization. Non-mycorrhizal (NMyc) and mycorrhizal (Myc) carob plants were subjected to three levels of phosphate fertilization, L1 (0 mg P kg−1 soil), L2 (25 mg P kg−1 soil) and L3 (100 mg P kg−1 soil). Results showed that under L1 and L2 P-fertilization levels, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis significantly improved growth and biomass production of carob plants. Moreover, mineral nutrient (P, K, Na and Ca) acquisition, photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm), stomatal conductance, total chlorophyll content, and soluble sugar accumulation were also strongly improved in Myc plants in comparison with NMyc ones. Under L1 P-fertilization level, Myc plants showed strongly increased acid phosphatase activity in roots and in the rhizospheric soil than NMyc plants. Furthermore, Myc plants maintained high membrane integrity (over 80%) and low hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, associated with increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), and catalase (CAT) compared to NMyc plants. However, high phosphorus input (L3) negatively affected root colonization and mycorrhizal plant performance. Thus, carob plants associated with Funneliformis mosseae performed best under phosphorus deficiency and were the least sensitive to the variations of phosphorus input levels.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Performance of Bradyrhizobium and Bradyrhizobium–Azospirillum in
           Alleviating the Effects of Water-Restrictive Conditions During the Early
           Stages of Arachis hypogaea Growth
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of the work is to evaluate whether Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 and Azospirillum brasilense Az39 can be used for inoculation to mitigate the negative effect of water restriction on growth of Arachis hypogaea. In this study, nitrogenase activity was determined by measuring the H2 evolution in an open-flow system, and N and C concentration in plants were determined by Elemental Analyzer. Lipid peroxidation and polyamines (PA) levels were analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that the restrictive water condition (RWC) caused an 80% inhibition of the N fixation rate. Although both single and double inoculation favored peanut growth under RWC, the inoculation with SEMIA6144 was better. Peanut plants have higher numbers of nodules in the roots when inoculated with SEMIA6144 in the absence of Az39, although it was observed that the inoculation with Az39 favored root development thus allowing the appearance of more infection sites in peanut roots. In double inoculation, the demand for N in the peanut was met with greater effectiveness. PAs found in leaves were putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. The results show that SEMIA6144 inoculation reversed the negative effects of RWC on growth and nodulation peanut parameters. Simultaneous application of SEMIA6144 and Az39 improved early nodulation, efficiency in N fixation and total N, thus increasing the tolerance of A. hypogaea to RWC. Our findings provide new insights in the context of mixed inoculation and improvement of peanut production in a limited water environment.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
 
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