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CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 186 of 186 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 257)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)


Journal Cover Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation
  [SJR: 0.863]   [H-I: 27]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-4862 - ISSN (Online) 0195-9298
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Sparse Representations to Replace TOFD Images in Non-destructive Testing
           of Materials
    • Authors: Thouraya Merazi-Meksen; Akila Kemmouche; Malika Boudraa; Bachir Boudraa
      Abstract: Abstract This paper describes a proposed method for the selection of relevant samples of ultrasonic signals during automatic material inspection. Instead of the well-known time of flight diffraction (TOFD) images, data are stored as a sparse matrix in which the elements only indicate whether a defect has been detected. This technique avoids storage of useless signals received during probe displacement in cases of low and high signal-to-noise ratios that correspond to coarse-grained and fine-grained materials, respectively. The approach is based on comparing the positions of maximum amplitudes, which are randomly located when signals only consist of noise but are in the same signal range when a defect is detected. The matrix elements are then applied as inputs to a self organizing map by neural networks to produce a normalized sparse matrix as the output, with a constant number of elements. This approach will be beneficial to enable the use of selected data in intelligent systems requiring a fixed number of inputs to characterize defects.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0446-0
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
  • Comparison Between Different Experimental Set-Ups for Measuring the
           Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in a Deformed 1050 Steel
    • Authors: J. Capó Sánchez; M. F. de Campos; L. R. Padovese
      Abstract: Abstract The magnetic Barkhausen emission is investigated in deformed ANSI 1050 steel samples using four experimental configurations. These configurations vary according the type of magnetization (solenoid or yoke) and the recording the magnetic signal (bobbin above or around sample).The level of total strain was 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 3.0%. In all cases the same monotonous decrease dependence of emission magnetic with strain was obtained, showing that the four configurations give similar results. However, the yoke–pancake configuration was the most sensitive.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0445-1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
  • Deformation Tracking in 3D Point Clouds Via Statistical Sampling of Direct
           Cloud-to-Cloud Distances
    • Authors: Bahman Jafari; Ali Khaloo; David Lattanzi
      Abstract: Abstract Dense three-dimensional (3D) point clouds of infrastructure systems, generated from laser scanners or through multi-view photogrammetry, have significant potential as a source of nondestructive evaluation information. The growing maturity of these techniques make them capable of reconstructing photorealistic 3D models with accuracy on the millimeter scale, adequate for inspection and evaluation practices. Manual analysis of these point clouds is often time consuming and labor intensive and does not provide explicit information on structural performance and health conditions, highlighting the need for new techniques to efficiently analyze these models. This paper presents a new 3D point cloud change analysis approach for tracking small movements over time through localized spatial analytics. This technique uses a combination of a direct point-wise distance metric in conjunction with statistical sampling to extract structural deformations. By identifying and tracking these changes, mechanical deformations can be quantified along with the associated strains and stresses. These measurements can then be used to assess both service conditions and remaining system capacity. The results of a series of laboratory experiments designed to test the proposed approach are presented as well. The findings indicate measurement accuracy on the order of +/− 0.2 mm (95% confidence interval), making it suitable for accurate and automatic geometrical analyses and change detection in a variety of infrastructure inspection scenarios. Ongoing work seeks to connect this technique to automated finite element model updating, and to field test the measurement technique.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0444-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
  • Simplified Ultrasonic Damage Detection in Fluid-Filled Pipes
    • Authors: Bouko Vogelaar; Michael Golombok
      Abstract: Abstract The location and extent of damage in a pipe can be remotely determined from weld and internal damage reflections using a single acoustic emitter/sensor pair. The use of normalised reflections yields single numbers enabling long distance data collection techniques such as wireless hopping. The attenuation is twice as high for opposite inner and outer fluids (whether air and water, or water and air) as compared to identical inner and outer fluids. The absolute recorded signals in the water-filled pipe are attenuated by a factor two compared to the empty pipe. The axial length of detection is reduced by a half. The reduction of >90% in sensors and the longer axial detection (>10 \(\times \) current state-of- the-art- technology) means that permanent fixed sensor pairs for whole pipelines are on the horizon of possibility. The greatest advantage is envisioned in submersed pipelines.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0443-3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
  • Application of Different X-ray Techniques to Improve In-Service Carbon
           Fiber Reinforced Rope Inspection
    • Authors: David Schumacher; Kim-Niklas Antin; Uwe Zscherpel; Pedro Vilaça
      Abstract: Abstract Carbon fiber reinforced polymer ropes are gaining in significance in the fields of civil engineering and hoisting applications. Thus, methods of non-destructive testing (NDT) need to be developed and evaluated with respect to new challenges and types of defects. Particularly important is the development of in-service testing solutions which allow the integration in global online monitoring systems. Conventional methods like electrical resistivity or strain measurements using optical fibers are already in use. This study investigates the possibility of using various X-ray techniques to increase the reliability and significance of NDT and their applicability to in-service testing. Conventional film radiography is the most common technique; however, even after image enhancement of the digitized film, this technique lacks contrast sensitivity and dynamic range compared to digital detector array (DDA) radiography. The DDA radiography is a highly sensitive method; yet, the limitation is that it delivers 2D images of 3D objects. By the use of co-planar translational laminography the detectability of planar defects is superior to 2D methods due to multiple projection angles. Apart from this, it can be used on-site due to a rather simple setup and robust equipment. In this work two photon counting detectors (PCD) with different sensor materials (Si and CdTe) were used. The results show that the resolution and defect recognition is lower in case of DDA radiography and laminography using PCDs compared to high-resolution computed tomography. However, the DDA radiography and laminography are sensitive enough to both fiber breakage and delaminations and can be significantly advantageous in terms of measurement time and adaptability for on-site monitoring.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0441-5
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
  • Embedded PZT Sensor for Monitoring Mechanical Impedance of Hydrating
           Cementitious Materials
    • Authors: Arun Narayanan; Amarteja Kocherla; Kolluru V. L. Subramaniam
      Abstract: Abstract An embedded PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate)-based sensor is developed for real-time, continuous, in-situ monitoring of hydrating cementitious materials after casting. The development of a multi-layer protection for a PZT patch, which provides a physical barrier with the surrounding medium while ensuring the sensitivity of measurement is described. Electrical impedance measurements from the sensor embedded inside mortar mixtures of different compositions are shown to sensitively provide an indication of changes in the state and the mechanical impedance of the material during periods associated with setting and early strength gain. An analytical procedure is developed for extracting the mechanical impedance of the surrounding cementitious material from the electromechanical measurements of the embedded PZT sensor. Changes in the mechanical impedance of mortars through periods of setting and early strength gain obtained from the embedded PZT sensor are validated using pin penetration, isothermal calorimetry and vibration-based measurements. Kinetics of hydration reaction obtained from isothermal calorimetry and increase in the penetration resistance during the setting behavior in the material, are accurately reflected in the increase in the mechanical impedance of the surrounding mortar obtained from the embedded PZT sensor. The continued increase in the mechanical impedance of the mortar after setting, up to 28 days, correlates well with the increase in elastic modulus of material obtained from vibration-based measurements. The durability of the sensor protection scheme is verified by evaluating the performance of sensors recovered from inside the mortar after long-term embedment. The embedded PZT sensor offers the potential for monitoring the local property development in a cementitious material from within the bulk of the structure and for use in quality assessment.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0442-4
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
  • Modelling and Analysis of Power Distribution of Electromagnetic Waves on
           Plane Surfaces Using Lock-in IR Thermography
    • Authors: Khalid Muzaffar; Krishnendu Chatterjee; Lalat Indu Giri; Shiban Koul; Suneet Tuli
      Abstract: Abstract The electric field distribution (magnitude only) near a radiating source (antenna) can be easily determined using infrared thermography. A thin screen (made of carbon fiber reinforced polymers) is placed in front of a microwave source. The electromagnetic waves impinging on the screen are partially absorbed, resulting in temperature rise of the screen. This temperature rise is monitored by an infrared camera. The temperature distribution thus observed is mapped to the electric field strength (magnitude of electric field) of the electromagnetic waves. Points on the screen where the temperature rise is low correspond to weak electromagnetic fields whereas points with high temperature rise correspond to strong electromagnetic fields. In this paper electro-thermal modelling is done so as to obtain the temperature distribution over the screen, when an electromagnetic field is incident on it. This model can conversely be used for finding electromagnetic field distributions from IR thermal images.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0439-z
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • A Procedure for Detecting Hidden Surface Defects in a Thin Plate by Means
           of Active Thermography
    • Authors: Gabriele Inglese; Roberto Olmi; Saverio Priori
      Abstract: Abstract Let \(\varOmega _\epsilon \) be a metallic plate whose top inaccessible surface has been damaged by some chemical or mechanical agent. We heat the opposite side and collect a sequence of temperature maps \(u^\epsilon \) . Here, we construct a formal explicit approximation of the damage \(\epsilon \theta \) by solving a nonlinear inverse problem for the heat equation in three steps: (i) smoothing of temperature maps, (ii) domain derivative of the temperature, (iii) thin plate approximation of the model and perturbation theory. Our inversion formula is tested with realistic synthetic data and used in a real laboratory experiment.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0440-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Excitation Mechanism of Flexural-Guided Wave Modes F(1, 2) and F(1, 3) in
    • Authors: Liguo Tang; Bingzheng Wu
      Abstract: Abstract The L(0, 2) and T(0, 1) modes are the two most commonly used modes in a pipe inspection; however, they are insensitive to axial cracks in the pipe. Therefore, it is meaningful to explore the excitation and utilization of the guided wave modes, which are different from the L(0, 2) and T(0, 1) modes. In this study, the excitation mechanism of two kinds of flexural-guided wave modes, F(1, 2) and F(1, 3), in a pipe is discussed in detail. The discussion is based on the dynamic response solution, which is obtained by the eigenfunction expansion method. Either mode can be excited by employing two transducer arrays. Each array is composed of sixteen elements. Moreover, the position, vibration direction, and phase of each element should be appropriately chosen. The validity of the excitation method is demonstrated by the numerical results obtained using the finite element method.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0438-0
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Validation of Model Order Assumption and Noise Reduction Method for the
           Impact Resonance Testing of Asphalt Concrete
    • Authors: Ilker Boz; Korkut Bekiroglu; Mansour Solaimanian; Pezhouhan Tavassoti-Kheiry; Constantino Lagoa
      Abstract: Abstract The impact resonance test is a free vibration-based nondestructive test method that has been increasingly used in evaluation and characterization of asphalt concrete for the past two decades. The rheological modeling of the impact resonance test is conceptualized by a linear viscous damping mechanism having single degree of freedom whose equation of the motion is assumed to be second order. In this study, the second order equation of motion assumption in the modeling of the impact resonance test response was evaluated for asphalt concrete testing. A set of asphalt concrete specimens was tested with the impact resonance test, and the obtained signals at a range of temperatures were evaluated by means of the Hankel matrix method. The results showed that the assumption is violated for asphalt concrete testing especially at high temperatures, mainly due to the presence of noise in the obtained response. However, the Hankel method was employed to filter out the noise. It was seen that the assumption could be employed for asphalt concrete at a range of temperatures including high temperatures, provided that the filtering is performed on the obtained signal. The results also showed that the employed filtering procedure produced improvements for the impact resonance test material dependent responses, resonant frequency and especially damping ratio calculations.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0436-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effect of Defect Size on Subsurface Defect Detectability and Defect Depth
           Estimation for Concrete Structures by Infrared Thermography
    • Authors: Shuhei Hiasa; Recep Birgul; F. Necati Catbas
      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to reveal the effect and correlation of delamination size and defect shape for using infrared thermography (IRT) through FE modeling to enhance the reliability and applicability of IRT for effective structural inspections. Regarding the effect of delamination size, it is observed that the temperature difference between sound and delaminated area ( \(\Delta \) T) increases as the size of delamination increases; however, \(\Delta \) T converges to a certain value when the area is 40  \(\times \)  40 cm and the thickness is 1 cm. As for the shape of delamination, it can be assumed that if the aspect ratio which is the ratio of the length of the shorter side to the longer side of the delamination is more than 25%, \(\Delta \) T of any delaminations converges to \(\Delta \) T of the same area of a square/circular-shaped delamination. Furthermore, if the aspect ratio is 25% or smaller, \(\Delta \) T becomes smaller than the \(\Delta \) T of the same area of a square/circular-shaped delamination, and it is getting smaller as the ratio becomes smaller. Furthermore, this study attempts to estimate depths of delaminations by using IRT data. Based on the correlation between the size of delamination and the depth from the concrete surface in regard to \(\Delta \) T, it was assumed that it was possible to estimate the depth of delamination by comparing \(\Delta \) T from IRT data to \(\Delta \) T at several depths obtained from FE model simulations. Through the investigation using IRT data from real bridge deck scanning, this study concluded that this estimation method worked properly to provide delamination depth information by incorporating IRT with FE modeling.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0435-3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Estimating the Depth of Concrete Pier Wall Bridge Foundations Using
           Nondestructive Sonic Echo
    • Authors: Saman Rashidyan; Tang-tat Ng; Arup Maji
      Abstract: Abstract This application paper outlines procedure developed for conducting nondestructive sonic echo (SE) tests to determine the depth of unknown concrete pier wall foundations. The National Bridge Inventory recognizes that more than 86,000 bridges in the US have no foundation data on record. An unknown percentage of these could also be highly vulnerable to scouring and subsequent failure. A series of field tests using the SE method were conducted on concrete pier wall foundations in the current research. Finite element models were used to understand the effect of the duration of impact, superstructure and upward striking on the pier caps on the waveform detected at the sensors. Good agreement were identified between the field tests and simulated models. Finally, practical recommendations were made to improve the SE methodology based on laboratory and field tests.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0433-5
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Weldment Nondestructive Testing Using Magneto-optical Imaging Induced by
           Alternating Magnetic Field
    • Authors: Xiangdong Gao; Chongzhou Lan; Deyong You; Guohua Li; Nanfeng Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract This paper introduces an innovative Nondestructive testing (NDT) approach by using dynamic magneto-optical imaging (MOI) system to diagnose weld defects. MOI mechanism was explained by Faraday magneto-optical effect and magnetic domain theory. Two Q235 specimen MOI experiments based on excitation of permanent magnet and alternating electromagnet (alternating current driven electromagnet) were performed, thus the feasibility of MOI system for weld defects detection was verified and the relation between alternating magnetic field (AMF) and dynamic MO images was discussed as well. In this research, AMF of welded high-strength steel (HSS) weldment was excited by an alternating electromagnet, and dynamic MO images of HSS seam were acquired for weldment NDT. Finally, a pattern recognition method including three steps was proposed. Dynamic MO images were fused periodically and the features of fused images were extracted by principal component analysis. A classifier based on error back propagation (BP) neural network was established to identify these weld features. It proved that typical weld features such as incomplete penetration, sag, crack and no defect can be classified by the proposed method with an accuracy of 93.5%.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0434-4
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Automatic Windowing for Highly Dynamic Industrial X-ray Image Based on
           Short-Term Energy of Gray Histogram
    • Authors: Fenglin Tan; Yanxiong Li; Mingyu Guan
      Abstract: Abstract Removing the redundant information for 16-bit gray level images is not only beneficial to the observation of the region of interest to, but also one key step for image enhancement. In this paper, an automatic windowing algorithm is proposed for highly dynamic industrial X-ray image based on short-term energy of gray histogram. We first calculate values of the average energy of short-term frame histogram at high bit image, and then use a dual-threshold to detect the frames containing useful information. Finally, the endpoint gray values of the detected frames are regarded as the window endpoints, wherein the most appropriate frame length and frame shift are traversed and determined by comparing and searching the maximum of image contrast. The validity and practicability of the algorithm are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by a series of comparative experiments. The results show that the distance between gray bins is automatically stretched, and the image contrast is enhanced without changing the relationships between the pixels. In addition, the redundant background information is removed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0432-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Feasibility and Reliability of Grain Noise Suppression in Monitoring of
           Highly Scattering Materials
    • Authors: Yuan Liu; Chang Liu; Anton Van Pamel; Peter Cawley
      Abstract: Abstract A feasibility study on grain noise suppression using baseline subtraction is presented in this paper. Monitoring is usually done with permanently installed transducers but this is not always possible; here instead monitoring is conducted by carrying out repeat C-scans and the feasibility of grain noise suppression by subtracting A-scans extracted from the C-scans is investigated. The success of this technique depends on the ability to reproduce the same conditions for each scan, including a consistent stand-off, angle, and lateral position of the transducer relative to the testpiece. The significance of errors are illustrated and a 3D cross correlation is used which enables the same lateral position to be located within successive C-scans. The experimental results show that a noise reduction of around 15 dB is obtained after baseline subtraction, which will significantly improve the defect detection sensitivity. In practice however, successive C-scans may be conducted at different temperatures and with different transducers of similar specifications but a varying frequency response. Compensation techniques to reduce the impact of such variations are then presented and their effectiveness is verified experimentally. It is shown that it is feasible to obtain an overall improvement of around 10 dB in the signal to noise ratio via baseline subtraction, where a temperature difference of up to 10  \(^\circ \) C and a peak frequency shift of as much as ±250 kHz from a baseline value of around 7 MHz can be tolerated. However, this improvement was obtained in laboratory conditions with no changes to the surface of the specimen due to oxidation or corrosion. It is shown that differences in temperature and transducer frequency response are more difficult to compensate for than changes in test geometry and position.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0430-8
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Automatic Identification of Rock-Forming Minerals in Granite Using
           Laboratory Scale Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging and Artificial Neural
    • Authors: A. J. López; A. Ramil; J. S. Pozo-Antonio; M. P. Fiorucci; T. Rivas
      Abstract: Abstract Laser cleaning of stones is a well-established technique in conservation of Cultural Heritage. In case of polymineralic granular rocks like granite, the tuning of the laser parameters for safe cleaning becomes a demanding task due to the differential response of the constituent minerals to laser irradiation. In this sense, a compromise solution must be reached between removing unwanted layers and safeguarding the original characteristics of the stone substrate. Consequently, the need of non-invasive, rapid and accurate methods for in situ identification of the minerals in the stone surface is highlighted. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of a laboratory scale hyperspectral reflectance imaging system, in combination with artificial neural networks for in situ, accurate identification of constituent minerals of a hercynian granite; with the ultimate goal of achieving automatic adjustment of laser irradiation parameters in cleaning processes. The effectiveness of a neural network with the structure of a three-layer perceptron was evaluated by comparing calculated results with modal analysis composition obtained by petrographic microscope and a high degree of accordance, above 95%, was achieved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0431-7
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Impact-Based Nonlinear Acoustic Testing for Characterizing Distributed
           Damage in Concrete
    • Authors: Jiang Jin; Maria Gabriela Moreno; Jacques Riviere; Parisa Shokouhi
      Abstract: Abstract Nonlinear acoustics-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have shown great promise for identification of microstructure and microcracking in a wide spectrum of materials (e.g., metals, metallic alloys, composites, rocks, cementitious materials). This class of NDE techniques relies on measuring nonlinearity parameters by analyzing the acoustic response of materials that are dynamically perturbed at microstrain levels (strain \(\sim \) 10 \(^{-6}\) –10 \(^{-5})\) . Using a mechanical impact to induce microstrain is advantageous for concrete testing because it allows for testing of larger concrete specimens offering potential field transportability. In this paper, two impact-based nonlinear acoustic testing techniques are compared: impact-based nonlinear resonant acoustic spectroscopy (INRAS) and dynamic acousto-elastic testing (IDAET). INRAS gives a global measure of sample hysteretic nonlinearity while IDAET provides a local but comprehensive account of nonlinear elastic properties. We discuss single- versus multi-impact INRAS and propose a physics-based model to describe the data from single-impact INRAS. Then, we introduce IDAET and demonstrate how to extract both classical and non-classical nonlinear parameters from a limited set of test results. INRAS and IDAET are used to monitor the evolution of damage in two sets of concrete samples undergoing freeze-thaw (FT) cycles. Nonlinear parameters extracted from the two tests show good agreement; all exhibiting far more sensitivity to distributed FT damage than standard (i.e. linear) resonance frequency measurements. By presenting alternative ways to collect and analyze the impact-based nonlinear acoustic test data, this study will help in broadening their use and extending their applications to quantitative in-situ evaluation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0428-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Correction of the Spurious Strains and Displacements Caused by Out of
           Plane Movements in Digital Image Correlation (DIC) with a Single Camera
    • Authors: Luis Saucedo-Mora
      Abstract: Abstract Digital image correlation (DIC) is a powerful experimental technique capable to measure the displacement field of a wide region through images. Also it’s scalable and can be applied to large structures, calculating the full strain field of a certain region. This potentiality is restricted by the spurious movements that insert noise in the measurements, reducing considerably the accuracy of the method and its applicability. This paper presents an algorithm capable to remove the effect of those spurious movements from a dataset, enhancing the accuracy of the technique. This is essential for the applicability of DIC to large structures where the spurious movement can’t be prevented and the deformations are very small due to the stiffness of the structures.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0429-1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Nondestructive Measurement of Hall Coefficient for Materials
    • Authors: Dheeraj Velicheti; Peter B. Nagy; Waled Hassan
      Abstract: Abstract The Hall effect is widely exploited in NDE for measuring unknown weak magnetic fields using a small piece of conducting material of known high Hall coefficient. The Hall effect could be also exploited in NDE for measuring the unknown weak Hall coefficient of conducting materials using a strong applied magnetic field, but such measurements are fraught with difficulties because of the need to cut the specimen into a small piece similar to a Hall sensor, which of course is inherently destructive. This paper tries to answer the question how the need for destructive cutting in order to produce a measurable Hall voltage could be avoided. The underlying problem is that the Hall effect produces a Hall current that is normal to the conduction current but does not directly perturb the electric potential distribution unless the Hall current is intercepted by the boundaries of the specimen. This study investigated the feasibility of using alternating current potential drop techniques for nondestructive Hall coefficient measurement in plates. Specifically, the directional four-point square-electrode configuration is investigated with superimposed external magnetic field. Two methods are suggested to make Hall coefficient measurements in large plates without destructive machining. At low frequencies constraining the bias magnetic field can replace destructively constraining the dimensions of the specimen. At sufficiently high inspection frequencies the magnetic field of the Hall current induces a strong enough Hall electric field that produces measurable potential differences between points lying on the path followed by the Hall current even when it is not intercepted by either the edge of the specimen or the edge of the magnetic field. Both techniques are investigated first analytically to illuminate the underlying physics and then by numerical simulations to make useful quantitative predictions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0426-4
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
  • Computational Time Reversal for NDT Applications Using Experimental Data
    • Authors: Craig Lopatin; Daniel Rabinovich; Dan Givoli; Eli Turkel
      Abstract: Abstract A model-based non destructive testing (NDT) method is proposed for damage identification in elastic structures, incorporating computational time reversal (TR) analysis. Identification is performed by advancing elastic wave signals, measured at discrete sensor locations, backward in time. In contrast to a previous study, which was purely numerical and employed only synthesized data, here an experimental system with displacement sensors is used to provide physical measurements at the sensor locations. The performance of the system is demonstrated by considering two problems of a thin metal plate in a plane stress state. The first problem, which represents passive damage identification, consists in finding the location of a small impact region from remote measurements. The second problem is the identification of the location of a square hole in the plate. The difficulties one encounters in applying this identification method and ways to overcome them are described. It is concluded that while this is a viable model-based identification method, which may lead, after further development, to a practical NDT procedure, one must be careful when drawing conclusions about its performance based solely on numerical experiments with synthesized data.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0424-6
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 3 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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