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 Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2449 journals)     - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (208 journals)    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (208 journals)    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (116 journals)    - ENGINEERING (1288 journals)    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (394 journals)    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (81 journals)    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (98 journals) CIVIL ENGINEERING (208 journals)                  1 2 | Last
 Showing 1 - 200 of 208 Journals sorted alphabetically ACI Structural Journal       (Followers: 20) Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering       (Followers: 3) Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences       (Followers: 3) Advances in Civil Engineering       (Followers: 41) Advances in Structural Engineering       (Followers: 33) Agregat       (Followers: 1) Ambiente Construído       (Followers: 1) American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture       (Followers: 35) Architectural Engineering       (Followers: 5) Architecture and Engineering Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering       (Followers: 3) Archives of Civil Engineering       (Followers: 12) Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics       (Followers: 2) ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology       (Followers: 4) Australian Journal of Structural Engineering       (Followers: 7) Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering       (Followers: 1) BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey       (Followers: 10) BER : Building Contractors' Survey       (Followers: 2) BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey       (Followers: 2) BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary       (Followers: 3) Berkeley Planning Journal       (Followers: 5) Bioinspired Materials       (Followers: 5) Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction       (Followers: 14) Building & Management       (Followers: 2) Building and Environment       (Followers: 15) Building Women Built Environment Project and Asset Management       (Followers: 15) Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture       (Followers: 6) Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering       (Followers: 13) Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis       (Followers: 6) Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation       (Followers: 11) Case Studies in Structural Engineering       (Followers: 9) Cement and Concrete Composites       (Followers: 20) Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters       (Followers: 3) Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics       (Followers: 5) Change Over Time       (Followers: 2) Civil and Environmental Engineering       (Followers: 8) Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports       (Followers: 8) Civil and Environmental Research       (Followers: 17) Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese       (Followers: 4) Civil Engineering and Architecture       (Followers: 23) Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems       (Followers: 3) Civil Engineering and Technology       (Followers: 12) Civil Engineering Dimension       (Followers: 11) Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal       (Followers: 1) Cohesion and Structure       (Followers: 2) Composite Structures       (Followers: 290) Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering       (Followers: 11) Computers & Structures       (Followers: 37) Concrete Research Letters       (Followers: 7) Construction Economics and Building       (Followers: 4) Construction Engineering       (Followers: 11) Construction Management and Economics       (Followers: 21) Constructive Approximation Curved and Layered Structures       (Followers: 3) DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute       (Followers: 1) Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics       (Followers: 17) Enfoque UTE       (Followers: 4) Engineering Project Organization Journal       (Followers: 7) Engineering Structures       (Followers: 13) Engineering Structures and Technologies       (Followers: 2) Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management       (Followers: 10) Environmental Geotechnics       (Followers: 5) European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering       (Followers: 10) Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures       (Followers: 19) Frontiers in Built Environment       (Followers: 1) Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering       (Followers: 6) Geomaterials       (Followers: 3) Geosystem Engineering       (Followers: 2) Geotechnik       (Followers: 4) Géotechnique Letters       (Followers: 8) GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture HBRC Journal       (Followers: 2) Hormigón y Acero HVAC&R Research Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology Indoor and Built Environment       (Followers: 3) Infrastructure Asset Management       (Followers: 3) Infrastructures Ingenio Magno       (Followers: 1) Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring       (Followers: 30) International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling       (Followers: 3) International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering       (Followers: 17) International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials       (Followers: 15) International Journal of Condition Monitoring       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management       (Followers: 10) International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences International Journal of Geo-Engineering       (Followers: 3) International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering       (Followers: 4) International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation       (Followers: 1) International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology       (Followers: 6) International Journal of Protective Structures       (Followers: 6) International Journal of Steel Structures       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Structural Engineering       (Followers: 9) International Journal of Structural Integrity       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics       (Followers: 7) International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment       (Followers: 5) International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology       (Followers: 8) International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology       (Followers: 7) International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design       (Followers: 2) Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater       (Followers: 1) Journal of Bridge Engineering       (Followers: 13) Journal of Building Engineering       (Followers: 2) Journal of Building Materials and Structures       (Followers: 2) Journal of Building Performance Simulation       (Followers: 6) Journal of Civil Engineering Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology       (Followers: 15) Journal of Civil Engineering and Management       (Followers: 7) Journal of Civil Engineering and Science       (Followers: 9) Journal of Civil Engineering Research       (Followers: 7) Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology       (Followers: 1) Journal of Civil Society       (Followers: 5) Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring       (Followers: 4) Journal of Composites       (Followers: 78) Journal of Composites for Construction       (Followers: 13) Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering       (Followers: 23) Journal of Construction Engineering       (Followers: 9) Journal of Construction Engineering and Management       (Followers: 17) Journal of Constructional Steel Research       (Followers: 6) Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering       (Followers: 4) Journal of Fluids and Structures       (Followers: 6) Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering       (Followers: 2) Journal of Green Building       (Followers: 10) Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)       (Followers: 14) Journal of Infrastructure Systems       (Followers: 19) Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction       (Followers: 5) Journal of Marine Science and Engineering       (Followers: 1) Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures       (Followers: 5) Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering       (Followers: 8) Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation       (Followers: 9) Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities       (Followers: 3) Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice       (Followers: 6) Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering       (Followers: 3) Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management       (Followers: 1) Journal of Structural Engineering       (Followers: 35) Journal of Structural Fire Engineering       (Followers: 6) Journal of Structural Mechanics       (Followers: 1) Journal of Structures       (Followers: 4) Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering       (Followers: 3) Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment       (Followers: 1) Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering       (Followers: 2) Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab Jurnal Spektran       (Followers: 1) Jurnal Teknik Sipil Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan       (Followers: 1) Konstruksia KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering       (Followers: 2) Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures       (Followers: 4) Materiales de Construcción       (Followers: 1) Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering       (Followers: 4) Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation       (Followers: 15) npj Materials Degradation Obras y Proyectos       (Followers: 1) Open Journal of Civil Engineering       (Followers: 9) Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications       (Followers: 4) Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction       (Followers: 3) Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering       (Followers: 8) Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering       (Followers: 14) Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law       (Followers: 10) Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer       (Followers: 2) Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings       (Followers: 3) Promet : Traffic &Transportation Random Structures and Algorithms       (Followers: 5) Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology       (Followers: 5) Research in Nondestructive Evaluation       (Followers: 6) Resilience       (Followers: 1) Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais       (Followers: 1) Revista Sul-Americana de Engenharia Estrutural Road Materials and Pavement Design       (Followers: 11) Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing       (Followers: 5) Science and Engineering of Composite Materials       (Followers: 61) Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering       (Followers: 3) Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering       (Followers: 2) Soils and foundations       (Followers: 5) Steel Construction - Design and Research       (Followers: 3) Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization       (Followers: 11) Structural Concrete       (Followers: 11) Structural Control and Health Monitoring       (Followers: 8) Structural Engineering International       (Followers: 11) Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings       (Followers: 1) Structural Safety       (Followers: 6) Structural Survey Structure       (Followers: 24) Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance       (Followers: 12) Structures       (Followers: 1) Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture       (Followers: 10) Superlattices and Microstructures       (Followers: 2) Surface Innovations Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering       (Followers: 1) Teknik Territorium : Revista Portuguesa de riscos, prevenção e segurança The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering       (Followers: 6)

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 Journal of Nondestructive EvaluationJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.773 Citation Impact (citeScore): 2Number of Followers: 9      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1573-4862 - ISSN (Online) 0195-9298 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2351 journals]
• Fourier Spectrum Pulse-Echo for Acoustic Characterization
• Authors: Barnana Pal
Abstract: Ultrasonic wave attenuation (α) measurement by pulse-echo method exhibits pronounced dependence on experimental conditions. It is shown to be an inherent characteristic of the method itself. Estimation of α from the component wave amplitudes in the frequency scale gives more accurate and consistent value. This technique, viz., the Fourier spectrum pulse-echo (FSPE) is demonstrated to determine the ultrasonic velocity (v) and attenuation constant (α) in ultrapure de-ionized water at room temperature (25 °C) at 1 and 2 MHz wave frequency.
PubDate: 2018-10-11
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0533-x
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2018)

• Measurement of Moisture Content in Cardboard Bales by Microwave
• Authors: Erik Baradit; Cristhian Aguilera; Gerardo Ibáñez; Alejandra Cuevas; Miguel Yáñez
Abstract: In this work, a system for measuring moisture content in bundles of recycled cardboard sheets using microwaves is proposed and evaluated. For the development of this system, a microwave generator and an antenna tuned in the X-band were used. The detector system used was formed by a diode array point of contact. Calibration curves of moisture content in bales versus voltage in the array were obtained for two orientations or positions of the cardboard sheets in the sample bales. The results showed that the higher the moisture content, the lower the voltage is induced in the diodes. It was also observed that the attenuation of the microwave signal depends on the position of the cardboard sheets and that the measurement can be made in samples of bales with a maximum of 35% humidity, because on this percentage, the variation of voltage in the diode array is almost zero.
PubDate: 2018-10-09
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0532-y
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2018)

• Evaluation of the Clamping Force of Bolted Joints Using Local Mode
Characteristics of a Bolt Head
• Authors: Naoki Hosoya; Takahiko Hosokawa; Itsuro Kajiwara; Shinji Hashimura; Feblil Huda
Abstract: It is important to determine and control the clamping force of a bolted joint. Due to its simple setup, the torque control method is typically used to control the clamping force when tightening bolts. After tightening, hammer tests, ultrasonic techniques and methods employing sheet materials as sensors are often used. Many methods have been proposed, but using them to determine and control the clamping force during or after tightening bolts is labor intensive or expensive. Here we conduct impact tests with an impulse hammer combined with experimental modal analysis to determine the clamping force by interpreting the change in the local mode frequency of a bolt head in the high frequency region as a function of the clamping force. To demonstrate the applicability of our method, we also investigate its limits with regard to bolt sizes.
PubDate: 2018-10-08
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0528-7
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2018)

• Evaluation of Fatigue Crack Orientation Using Non-collinear Shear Wave
Mixing Method
• Authors: Hongtao Lv; Jingpin Jiao; Bin Wu; Cunfu He
Abstract: In this paper, a non-collinear shear wave mixing technique is proposed for evaluation of fatigue crack orientation. Numerical analysis of the nonlinear interaction of two shear waves with crack is performed using two-dimensional finite-element simulations. The simulation results show that the nonlinear interaction of the two shears waves with cracks leads to the generation of transmitted and reflected sum-frequency longitudinal waves (SFLW), moreover the propagation direction of reflected SFLW is correlated with the orientation of crack, which can be used for crack orientation evaluation. Non-collinear wave-mixing experiments were conducted on specimens with fatigue crack. The experimental results show that the directivity of the generated SFLW agrees well with the simulation results, and non-collinear shear wave mixing has potential use in fatigue crack orientation evaluation.
PubDate: 2018-09-26
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0523-z
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2018)

• Monitoring of Stresses in Concrete Using Ultrasonic Coda Wave Comparison
Technique
• Authors: Ali Hafiz; Thomas Schumacher
Abstract: Condition or health monitoring of concrete structures has experienced increasing interest over the last decade. While conventional sensors such as strain gauges are accurate and reliable, they only allow for surface observations. In contrast, ultrasonic waves propagate through the thickness of a member and can thus detect internal changes. In this paper we present an ultrasonic monitoring approach that uses a coda wave comparison (CWC) technique, which makes use of the highly sensitive diffuse (or coda) portion of a recorded ultrasonic waveform. In this study, the changes in the applied stress were correlated to the changes observed in the ultrasonic waveforms, which were estimated using magnitude-squared coherence (MSC). The CWC technique was evaluated by investigating key influence parameters that affect the relationship between MSC and the applied stress. First, two concrete cylinders were cast and tested to study the effect of maximum aggregate size. Second, two concrete prisms were used to study the effect of the frequency of the transmitted pulse. Finally, we discuss a field test involving a prestressed concrete bridge girder and a column. The results show that MSC is capable of discriminating minute stress changes in a laboratory as well as a field setting.
PubDate: 2018-09-21
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0527-8
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2018)

• Imaging of Near-Surface Defects using Microwaves and Ultrasonic Phased
Array Techniques
• Authors: Abdallah Yassin; Mohammed Saif Ur Rahman; M. A. Abou-Khousa
Abstract: Detecting and imaging near-surface defects is of significant importance in many applications. Detecting corrosion/defects under thin paint layer applied on metallic substrates, evaluating debond under a Teflon coat, as well as evaluating the integrity of the dielectric coats remains a challenge in many industries settings. Periodic testing is imperative for a wide range of industries to isolate material defects that could lead to catastrophic failures, expensive repairs, or a complete shutdown. Out of the many non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques available, phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) is widely used in various industries for material inspection. It has shown exceptional capability in detection of defects, including material loss and corrosion in metals. On the other hand, near-field microwave NDT is emerging as a powerful inspection modality for similar applications. In this paper, imaging capabilities of PAUT (5 MHz) as well as near-field microwave imaging system (33.5 GHz) are discussed and evaluated for a number of specimens with man-made surface defects. The evaluated defects include flat bottom slots, holes and corrosion-under-paint. Images produced by both techniques are presented. The images produced by the microwave imaging system are benchmarked with PAUT system.
PubDate: 2018-09-17
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0526-9
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2018)

• A Study on the Use of XCT and FEA to Predict the Elastic Behavior of
Additively Manufactured Parts of Cylindrical Geometry
• Authors: F. Esposito; A. Gatto; E. Bassoli; L. Denti
Abstract: Defining general criteria for the acceptability of defects within industrial components is often complicated, since the specific load conditions and the criticality of the given application should be considered individually. In order to minimize the risk of failure, high safety factors are commonly adopted during quality control. However this practice is likely to cause the rejection of components whose defects would be instead acceptable if a more sound knowledge of the component behaviour were achieved. Parts produced by additive manufacturing (AM) may suffer from various defects, including micro- or macro-holes, delamination and microstructural discontinuities. Such processes, which are specially suitable for one-off components, require robust and reliable inspection before a part is accepted or rejected, since the refusal of even a single part at the end of the production process represents a significant loss. For this reason, it would be very useful to simulate in a reliable way whether a certain defect is truly detrimental to the proper working of the part during operation or whether the component can still be used, despite the presence of a defect. To this purpose, the paper highlights the benefits of a synergistic interaction between Industrial X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and finite element analysis (FEA). Internal defects of additively manufactured parts can be identified in a non-destructive way by means of XCT. Then FEA can be performed on the XCT-based virtual model of the real component, rather than on the ideal CAD geometry. A proof of concept of this approach is proposed here for a reference construct produced in an Aluminium alloy by AM. Numerical results of the proposed combined XCT–FEA procedure are contrasted with experimental data from tensile tests. The findings sustain the reliability of the method and allow to assess its full provisional accuracy for parts of cylindrical geometry designed to operate in the elastic field. The paper moves a step beyond the present application limits of tomography as it is currently employed for AM parts and it evidences instead the possibility of extending the usage of tomography to acceptance testing and prediction of operative behaviour.
PubDate: 2018-09-17
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0525-x
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2018)

• Study of the Choice of Excitation Frequency for Sub Surface Defect
Detection in Electrically Thick Conducting Specimen Using Eddy Current
Testing
• Authors: Mahesh Raja Perumal; Krishnan Balasubramaniam; Kavitha Arunachalam
Abstract: Understanding the scope and limitations of non-destructive testing procedure is essential for selecting the appropriate test parameters for material inspection. This paper presents the scope of material ( $$\delta_{s}$$ ) and probe dependent ( $$\delta_{t}$$ ) penetration depths for determining the optimal test frequency ( $$f_{opt} )$$ for detection of sub surface defects in electrically thick conducting specimens. Numerical modelling is carried out for a pancake coil above an electrically thick aluminium plate, $$t/\delta_{t}$$  > 1, to study the influence of the EC probe and defect location ( $$t_{df}$$ ) on the test frequency for near and deep sub surface defects. The study concludes that the optimal test frequency, $$f_{opt}$$ for detection of deep sub surface defects ( $$t_{df} /t \approx 1$$ ) is determined by the probe dependent skin depth, $$\delta_{t}$$ , and the plate thickness is related to $$f_{opt}$$ by, $$t \propto 1/\sqrt {f_{opt} }$$ . The numerical observations were experimentally validated for machined sub surface notches on a 10 mm thick ( $$t$$ ) aluminium plate.
PubDate: 2018-09-04
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0520-2
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2018)

• Damage Detection and Localization in Metallic Structures Based on Jointed
Electromagnetic Waveguides : A Proof-of-Principle Study
• Authors: Jochen Moll
Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach for the detection of surface damage in metallic structures, where the electromagnetic waveguide forms a union with the structure to be inspected. The sensing concept in such jointed electromagnetic waveguides will be described here and measurement results will be presented using a hollow metallic waveguide on an aluminium sample. The experimental proof of principle is performed in the frequency band from 20 to 40 GHz using a network analyzer. It is possible to (i) detect holes as small as 1 mm, (ii) discriminate between different hole sizes, and, (iii) localize the axial position of the defect in the waveguide. This approach has great potential to be used for structural health monitoring of complex technical structures and components.
PubDate: 2018-08-25
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0524-y
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2018)

• Adaptive Cross Approximation Algorithm for Accelerating BEM in Eddy
Current Nondestructive Evaluation
• Authors: Yang Bao; Zhiwei Liu; Jiming Song
Abstract: This paper presents the adaptive cross approximation (ACA) algorithm to accelerate boundary element method (BEM) for eddy current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) problem. The eddy current problem is formulated by boundary integral equation and discretized into matrix equations by BEM. Stratton–Chu formulation is selected and implemented for the conductive medium which does not has low frequency breakdown issue. The ACA algorithm has the advantage of purely algebraic and kernel independent. It starts with hierarchically partitioning the object to get diagonal blocks, near blocks and far blocks. The far-block interactions which are rank deficient can be compressed by ACA algorithm meanwhile the elements for diagonal-block interactions and near-block interactions are stored and computed by BEM. We apply modified ACA (MACA) for more memory saving while keeping almost same accuracy compared with original ACA. For numerical testing, several practical NDE examples such as coil above a half space conductor, tube in a fast reactor and Testing Electromagnetic Analysis Methods (TEAM) workshop benchmark problem are presented to show the robust and efficiency of our method. With the aid of ACA, for electrically small problems, the complexity of both the memory requirement and CPU time for BEM are reduced to $$O\left( {N\log N} \right).$$
PubDate: 2018-08-24
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0521-1
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2018)

• Controlled Creating of Cracks in Concrete for Non-destructive Testing
• Authors: Herbert Wiggenhauser; Christian Köpp; Juri Timofeev; Hoda Azari
Abstract: The non-destructive assessment of cracks in concrete is a common task for which non-destructive evaluation solutions have been published. Primarily, these tests have been carried out on artificial cracks that have been created by using notches instead of natural cracks. This study evaluates a procedure designed to create reproducible and controlled cracks in concrete. The procedure is based on using expanding mortar in a series of blind holes. This is done in combination with carefully aligned reinforcement to guide the direction of the crack development. The depth of the crack is also controlled by reinforcement. Crack depth varies statistically in the range of the maximum aggregate size (16 mm) used for concrete.
PubDate: 2018-08-17
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0517-x
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)

• Inspection of Local Wall Thinning by Different Magnetic Methods
• Authors: G. Vértesy; A. Gasparics; I. Tomáš
Abstract: The applicability of three different magnetic methods, Magnetic flux leakage technique (MFL), Magnetic adaptive testing and Metal memory method (MMM) was tested for detection of an artificial slot in a system of three steel plates. It was found that MAT resulted in the best signal/noise ratio, and it is capable to detect the bottom side slot even in the three layer configuration. MFL also resulted in acceptable signal/noise ratio in the two layer configuration, but it was not able to detect the slot through two other plates. MMM was not found to be suitable for unstressed and un-magnetized slot detection in the given experimental arrangement.
PubDate: 2018-08-16
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0515-z
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)

• Influence of the Microstructure on Magnetic Stray Fields of Low-Carbon
Steel Welds
• Authors: Robert Stegemann; Sandra Cabeza; Matthias Pelkner; Viktor Lyamkin; Andreas Pittner; Daniel Werner; Robert Wimpory; Mirko Boin; Marc Kreutzbruck; Giovanni Bruno
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between the magnetic mesostructure with the microstructure of low carbon steel tungsten inert gas welds. Optical microscopy revealed variation in the microstructure of the parent material, in the heat affected and fusion zones, correlating with distinctive changes in the local magnetic stray fields measured with high spatial resolution giant magneto resistance sensors. In the vicinity of the heat affected zone high residual stresses were found using neutron diffraction. Notably, the gradients of von Mises stress and triaxial magnetic stray field modulus follow the same tendency transverse to the weld. In contrast, micro-X-ray fluorescence characterization indicated that local changes in element composition had no independent effect on magnetic stray fields.
PubDate: 2018-08-16
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0522-0
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)

• Study of Formation and Reversion of the Martensitic Phase Induced by
Deformation of Lean Duplex Stainless Steel
• Authors: C. S. P. Mendonça; R. A. G. Matos; J. Mendes; M. L. N. M. Melo; G. Rodrigues; M. R. da Silva; G. Silva
Abstract: Lean duplex stainless steels consist of a low percentage of nickel and molybdenum, presenting twice as much resistance compared to austenitic stainless steel and their cost is about twice as low. However, this class of steels has microstructural instabilities, such as the formation of martensite induced by austenite deformation by cold rolling. This feature can significantly alter the properties of interest of this steel. The formation of the martensitic structure, as well as its reversion, is little studied in the steels of the austenitic–ferritic structure. The process of formation and reversal of the martensitic structure in cold rolled stainless steel duplex UNS S32304 was investigated through magnetic measurements, microhardness and X-ray diffraction analyzes. The deformation process allowed the formation of the -martensite phase from the austenite phase with an increase in the values of saturation magnetization, coercive field and micro-hardness values as well as a change in the intensity of the X-ray diffraction peaks. The heat treatment performed at $$650\,^\circ \hbox {C}$$ showed an increase in the peak intensity of the austenitic phase and a decrease in the saturation magnetization values, demonstrating a possible reversal of the martensitic structure. The SEM observations after annealing the Beraha’s etched samples revealed the possibility of a martensite transformation and reversion in a Lean duplex stainless steels.
PubDate: 2018-08-04
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0518-9
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)

• Effect of Thickness and Denting Behavior of Glass/Epoxy Laminates
Subjected to Quasi-Static Indentation (QSI) Loading Under Acoustic
Emission Monitoring
• Authors: K. Saravanakumar; B. Sai Lakshminarayanan; V. Arumugam
Abstract: The present work focuses on investigating the effect of laminate thickness on quasi static indentation behavior of glass/epoxy laminates under acoustic emission monitoring. The load bearing and energy absorbing capability of the glass/epoxy samples at different indentation depth were examined. The damage development and damage mechanisms associated with the tests were characterized in both thin and thick samples, and their results were correlated. The results showed that the thickness of the glass/epoxy laminates significantly influenced the damage onset load, residual deformation and damage area. It was observed that the thick samples exhibited higher peak force, greater absorbed energy, and residual flexural load by an average of 2.08, 2.53, and 2.13 times respectively compared to thin samples. In contrast, the permanent deformation and damage area was observed to be 32% deeper and larger in thick samples while the thin samples showed reduced damage area and residual deformation which attributes to greater elastic response caused by large global deformation.
PubDate: 2018-08-01
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0519-8
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)

• Parametric Reconstruction of Glass Fiber-reinforced Polymer Composites
from X-ray Projection Data—A Simulation Study
• Authors: Tim Elberfeld; Jan De Beenhouwer; Arnold J. den Dekker; Christoph Heinzl; Jan Sijbers
Abstract: We present a new approach to estimate geometry parameters of glass fibers in glass fiber-reinforced polymers from simulated X-ray micro-computed tomography scans. Traditionally, these parameters are estimated using a multi-step procedure including image reconstruction, pre-processing, segmentation and analysis of features of interest. Each step in this chain introduces errors that propagate through the pipeline and impair the accuracy of the estimated parameters. In the approach presented in this paper, we reconstruct volumes from a low number of projection angles using an iterative reconstruction technique and then estimate position, direction and length of the contained fibers incorporating a priori knowledge about their shape, modeled as a geometric representation, which is then optimized. Using simulation experiments, we show that our method can estimate those representations even in presence of noisy data and only very few projection angles available.
PubDate: 2018-07-30
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0514-0
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)

• Non-destructive Evaluation and Development of a New Wire Rope Tester Using
Parallely Magnetized NdFeB Magnet Segments
• Authors: Akshpreet Kaur; Aarush Gupta; Hardik Aggarwal; Kartikeya Arora; Nitika Garg; Manu Sharma; Sukesha Sharma; Naveen Aggarwal; Gaurav Sapra; J. K. Goswamy
Abstract: A new wire rope tester based on principle of magnetic flux leakage is constructed. Two rings of NdFeB are cut in axial direction into 32 equal arc segments such that each arc segment subtends an angle of 22.5° at the centre. These arc segments are then parallely magnetized in magnetizer. A ferromagnetic cylinderical yoke is constructed by hinging two ferromagnetic half cylinders along one axial edge. A fixture consisting of a wooden square base, wooden mandrel, stepped and slotted Aluminium cylinder and Aluminium fillers is made to assemble the NdFeB magnets in a ring on both the ends of the ferromagnetic yoke. A Hall effect sensor is instrumented inside the yoke in the middle at radial distance of 34 mm from the axis of the yoke. A ferromagnetic wire rope with a defect is inserted in the novel wire rope tester. It has been successfully shown by performing Non-destructive testing that whenever a defect in a wire rope passes below the Hall-effect sensor instrumented in the wire rope tester developed in this work, a signal is generated indicating the defect.
PubDate: 2018-07-26
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0516-y
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)

• Magnetic Stress Monitoring Using a Directional Potential Drop Technique
• Authors: J. Corcoran; P. B. Nagy
Abstract: An alternating current potential drop technique is presented that exploits anisotropic magnetostriction to monitor changes in applied stress in steel. The background to the technique is provided together with an ad hoc approximation that describes the sensitivity of the sensor to the underlying properties. A uniaxial loading experiment has been conducted on duplex and mild steel specimens showing that changes in stress are measureable. Saturation and hysteresis afflict the measurement, which, in addition to sensitivity to temperature and magnetisation, may undermine inversion. With the capabilities and limitations of the proposed technique introduced, guidance on possible suitable applications are given, concluding that use for monitoring the number and relative size of fatigue stress cycles may be a suitable and attractive opportunity.
PubDate: 2018-07-20
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0510-4
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)

• IR Thermographic Analysis of 3D Printed CFRP Reference Samples with
Back-Drilled and Embedded Defects
• Authors: Numan Saeed; Mohammed A. Omar; Yusra Abdulrahman; Sultan Salem; Ahmad Mayyas
Abstract: Carbon-fiber composite structures may demonstrate a defective behavior due to manufacturing induced anomalies (delamination, dis-bonds) or service related defectives (impact damage, water ingress). Thus, there is a need for a relatively fast and low cost non-intrusive testing schemes such as infrared thermography (IRT). Still, thermography testing requires calibrated samples and coupons to yield best results. The presented research demonstrates the novel use of 3D printing technology to generate IRT calibration samples. In this text, two carbon fiber reinforced polymer samples are 3D printed; the first mimics a “back-drilled holes” type coupons, while the other is designed to embed air pockets similar to Teflon inserts. The generated samples are then tested using two IRT modalities; namely pulse thermography and lock-in thermography. Furthermore, the resulted thermograms are processed using a principle component analysis, to help highlight the variance of defectives in a consistent manner among the samples. This research findings offer insights on the variation of detectability between embedded and back-printed samples, which might be due to the inserts thickness.
PubDate: 2018-07-17
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0512-2
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)

• Low Frequency Eddy Current Testing of Insulators and Composites
• Authors: Lee Hamill; Jane Emerson; Kevin McGushion; Steven Nutt
Abstract: Eddy current testing (ECT), a non-destructive testing method widely used to evaluate defects within conductive materials, is explored in this study as it applies to insulators and non-uniformly conductive materials. Previous work has shown that at high frequencies, differences in electric permittivity can be detected with ECT. In this study, a new design of an ECT sensor that employs two resonance-tuned coils is evaluated. Results show that material inconsistencies in insulators are detectable due to spatial variations in permittivity and magnetic permeability, and that detection is possible at lower frequencies than previously demonstrated. In addition to determining signal dependence on individual electromagnetic parameters, sensitivity for defect detection in a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is qualitatively determined. Although low signal-to-noise ratio is observed with a small-diameter coil, by increasing the coil diameter, the signal to noise ratio is increased while preserving adequate spatial resolution to detect defects in the sample. This study expands on previous studies of the application of ECT to insulators, and demonstrates that defect detection is possible in CFRPs.
PubDate: 2018-07-17
DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0513-1
Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)

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