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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2431 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (210 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (203 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (112 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1271 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (402 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (57 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (77 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (203 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 284)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 78)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access  
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
Territorium : Revista Portuguesa de riscos, prevenção e segurança     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.773
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-4862 - ISSN (Online) 0195-9298
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Transient Eddy Current NDE System Based on Fluxgate Sensor for the
           Detection of Defects in Multilayered Conducting Material
    • Authors: R. Nagendran; Ijee Mohanty; A. V. Thanikai Arasu; R. Baskaran
      Abstract: This paper describes a novel transient eddy current non destructive evaluation (NDE) system for the detection of defects in a multilayered conducting material by using fluxgate magnetometer as a sensor. In conventional eddy current NDE, the depth of defect detection is restricted due to the excitation frequency and its associated skin depth. Similarly, in conventional pulsed eddy current testing the time derivative of the secondary magnetic field, which decays much faster than the magnetic field itself, is measured by the induction coil. However, in this work we use fluxgate magnetometer which measures magnetic field directly and double “D” differential excitation coil in order to enhance the depth of investigation. In addition to this, the other instruments such as transmitter, transmitter controller and data acquisition system used for this work are the same one used for TEM based geophysical applications. The system has been used for the detection of an artificially engineered defect in an aluminum plate at a depth of 2 mm as well as 20 mm below the surface.
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0511-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Deep Scatter Estimation (DSE): Accurate Real-Time Scatter Estimation for
           X-Ray CT Using a Deep Convolutional Neural Network
    • Authors: Joscha Maier; Stefan Sawall; Michael Knaup; Marc Kachelrieß
      Abstract: X-ray scatter is a major cause of image quality degradation in dimensional CT. Especially, in case of highly attenuating components scatter-to-primary ratios may easily be higher than 1. The corresponding artifacts which appear as cupping or dark streaks in the CT reconstruction may impair a metrological assessment. Therefore, an appropriate scatter correction is crucial. Thereby, the gold standard is to predict the scatter distribution using a Monte Carlo (MC) code and subtract the corresponding scatter estimate from the measured raw data. MC, however, is too slow to be used routinely. To correct for scatter in real-time, we developed the deep scatter estimation (DSE). It uses a deep convolutional neural network which is trained to reproduce the output of MC simulations using only the acquired projection data as input. Once trained, DSE can be applied in real-time. The present study demonstrates the potential of the proposed approach using simulations and measurements. In both cases the DSE yields highly accurate scatter estimates that differ by< 3% from our MC scatter predictions. Further, DSE clearly outperforms kernel-based scatter estimation techniques and hybrid approaches, as they are in use today.
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0507-z
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Eddy Current Probe Parameters Identification Using a Genetic Algorithm and
           Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation
    • Authors: Sid Ahmed Chaiba; Abdelghani Ayad; Djamel Ziani; Yann Le Bihan; Martin Javier Garcia
      Abstract: This study tries to identify the coil parameters using numerical methods. The eddy current testing (ECT) is used for evaluation of a crack with the aid of numerical simulations by utilizing the identification of these parameters. In this study, a comparison of the performance of the GA and SPSA algorithms to identify the parameter values of the coil sensors are presented. So, the optimization probe geometry is introduced in the simulation with Three-dimensional finite element simulations (FLUX finite element code) were conducted to obtain eddy current signals resulting from a crack in a plate made of aluminium. The simulation results are compared with experimental measurements for the defect present in a plate.
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0506-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • X-Ray Digital Radiography to Study Gold–Silver Nose Decorations from the
           Moche Tomb of the Lady of Cao
    • Authors: Soraia R. Azeredo; Roberto Cesareo; Regulo Franco Jordan; Arabel Fernandez; Angel Bustamante; Ricardo T. Lopes
      Abstract: In the present study nose decorations from the tomb of the ‘Lady of Cao’, a mummified Moche woman dated around third–fourth century AD, were analyzed by a portable X-ray digital radiography (XDR) system. The Moche civilization flourished along the north coast of present-day Peru, between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean, approximately between 100 and 600 AD. The Moche were very sophisticated artisans and metal smiths, so that they are considered the finest producers of jewels and artifacts of the region. Their metalworking ability was impressively demonstrated by the excavations of the tomb of the ‘Lady of Cao’, discovered by Regulo Franco in 2005. More than 100 beautiful jewels were found in this tomb, among them about 40 nose decorations composed of a combination of gold and silver sheets. Radiographs of several of them were carried out, with the aim to evaluate the gold–silver joining process, to check the homogeneity of the alloy and to quantify the thickness of the sheets. The XDR system consisted of a mini X-ray tube and of a digital X-ray flat panel. The radiographic images of the nose decorations revealed details of the manufacturing process and of the Au–Ag junction.
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0509-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Measurements of LiNbO 3 Properties by Multi-parameter Inversion Based on
           Acoustic Microcopy
    • Authors: Yan Lyu; Jie Gao; Guorong Song; Guangfu Hong; Bin Wu; Cunfu He
      Abstract: This paper expands on a theoretical model between the mechanical and electrical properties with acoustic characteristics to obtain the theoretical dispersion curve for Y-cut LiNbO3 piezoelectric plate. The experimental dispersion curve of the LiNbO3 plate is extracted via V(f,z) analysis through defocusing measurements based on an acoustic microscopy and a lens-less line focusing transducer. The objective function of the inversion depends on the experimental dispersion curve. The inversion method adopts a hybrid particle-swarm-based simulated-annealing (PS-B-SA) optimization, which is used for joint inversion of the mechanical and electrical parameters of LiNbO3. The theoretical dispersion curve will approach the experimental dispersion curve by constantly modifying the mechanical and electrical parameters in the theoretical model: the elastic constants (C11, C12, C22, C23, C25, C55), piezoelectric constants (e11, e12, e26, e33), and dielectric constants (ε11, ε22). The inversed series of constants are those who make the theoretical dispersion curve most fit the experimental ones. The results show that the inversed mechanical and electrical parameters agree well with the reported values, and the stability and accuracy of the inversion is acceptable. This research provides a useful tool to characterize the mechanical and electrical properties of piezoelectric materials simultaneously.
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0503-3
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A Refined Global Segmentation of X-Ray CT Images for Multi-phase
           Geomaterials
    • Authors: Kalehiwot Nega Manahiloh; Kokeb A. Abera; Mohammad Motalleb Nejad
      Abstract: X-ray computed tomography images of three-phase silica sand and glass bead specimens are analyzed and used to evaluate the segmentation performances of Otsu-, and recursion-based multilevel algorithms. A global image segmentation technique that combines iterative and recursive algorithms, namely a refined statistics-based global segmentation is proposed for segmenting multi-phase granular geomaterials. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested by segmenting partially saturated silica sand and glass bead specimens. For the tested silica sand specimen, the refined statistics method estimated void ratio and degree of saturation were 0.67 and 39.35%. The estimates for the glass bead specimen yielded 0.64 and 43.49%, respectively. The true void ratio (0.66) and degree of saturation (37.71%) were determined with a user-controlled Image processing software package—Image-Pro. It was found that the proposed method estimated the void ratio and the degree of saturation with 1.52 and 4.35 percent errors for the silica sand and with 15.63 and 0.34 percent errors for the glass bead, respectively. The computational time of the proposed method was found to be shorter than other methods considered. Overall, it is concluded that the proposed technique performed better in segmenting three-phase granular geomaterials.
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0508-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Explicit Backscattering Coefficient for Ultrasonic Wave Propagating in
           Hexagonal Polycrystals with Fiber Texture
    • Authors: Gaofeng Sha
      Abstract: Hexagonal polycrystalline materials such as titanium, zirconium and magnesium are common in engineering structures like car bodies and airplane engines. These components are usually specially designed in microstructure level to guarantee desired mechanical properties, so microstructure characterization is of great importance to the optimization of manufacturing processes. Compared with traditional destructive characterization methods like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the ultrasonic approach is nondestructive and cost-effective. Although some progress has been made in ultrasonic microstructure characterization of polycrystal aggregates of hexagonal grains, some factors like macro texture and grain size distribution associated with realistic microstructures were not accounted for yet. Targeting one common texture component for hexagonal polycrystalline materials, {0001} basal fiber texture, this paper derived the explicit backscattering coefficient for aggregates of ellipsoidal grains through one texture parameter and obtained an analytical backscattering coefficient for microstructures with various grain size distributions. In this study, the basal fiber texture was quantified by the 1D Gaussian orientation distribution function (ODF), which merely includes one texture parameter, and its relationship with generalized spherical harmonics ODF was also addressed. Moreover, explicit expressions for effective elastic moduli and elastic constant covariances were derived. Furthermore, some computational examples were given to demonstrate the impacts of texture, frequency, grain geometry and grain size distribution on backscattering behavior. The theoretical results in this study will greatly benefit the later ultrasonic microstructure characterization of hexagonal polycrystalline materials.
      PubDate: 2018-06-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0500-6
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Coherence Weighting Applied to FMC/TFM Data from Austenitic CRA Clad Lined
           Pipes
    • Authors: Ricardo Baiotto; Benjamin Knight-Gregson; Channa Nageswaran; Thomas Clarke
      Abstract: Lined pipe girth weld regions are challenging to inspect using ultrasonic techniques due to their anisotropic and inhomogeneous characteristics, which lead to noise and acoustic beam distortion. This paper is focused on the application of coherence weighting methods to decrease the background noise level and false indications on total focusing method (TFM) images, encompassing the triple boundary of mechanically lined pipes. Three coherence weighting approaches were used here; the coherence factor (CF), the sign CF (SCF) and the phase CF (PCF). All three were found capable to improve the TFM images, however, the CF and the SCF performed better due to their exponential sensitivity factors, unlike the PCF which has a linear sensitivity factor.
      PubDate: 2018-06-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0498-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Air-Coupled Nondestructive Evaluation Dissected
    • Authors: Mohammad Said Harb; Fuh-Gwo Yuan
      Abstract: This work develops a two-dimensional theoretical model to simulate the behavior of a fully non-contact air-coupled nondestructive evaluation system for a thin isotropic plate. The model is divided into transmission, guided wave propagation and reception phase. The validation of the complete model was carried out by modeling the same system by means of finite element method using a Multiphysics software. In addition, the dependency of the generated Lamb waves on different transmitter’s parameters and incidence angle is thoroughly investigated. The results of the acoustic pressure excited by the transducer, the out-of-plane velocity amplitudes for the generated first antisymmetric Lamb wave mode, and the radiated pressure from the plate caused by the leaky Lamb wavefield were all compared between the two models and a reasonable degree of similarity was found.
      PubDate: 2018-06-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0502-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Detection and Characterization of Randomly Distributed Micro-cracks in
           Elastic Solids by One-Way Collinear Mixing Method
    • Authors: Youxuan Zhao; Yongmei Xu; Zimu Chen; Peng Cao; Ning Hu
      Abstract: Numerical simulations on the propagation of bulk waves in elastic solids with randomly distributed micro-cracks by the one-way collinear mixing method are performed to investigate the behavior of the resonant wave. The results show that the resonant wave can be generated due to the effect of micro-cracks, and the position and the size of micro-crack zone can be detected by the time signal of the resonant wave. Based on statistical analysis from numerous results of random micro-crack models, we find that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increases linearly with the micro-crack density and the size of micro-crack zone, which is also related to the frequency of resonant wave and friction coefficient of micro-crack surfaces. This study numerically reveals that the one way mixing method can be employed to quantitatively identify and characterize micro-cracks in elastic solids.
      PubDate: 2018-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0505-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Wave Interaction with Defects in Pressurised Composite Structures
    • Authors: R. K. Apalowo; D. Chronopoulos; G. Tanner
      Abstract: There exists a great variety of structural failure modes which must be frequently inspected to ensure continuous structural integrity of composite structures. This work presents a finite element (FE) based method for calculating wave interaction with damage within structures of arbitrary layering and geometric complexity. The principal novelty is the investigation of pre-stress effect on wave propagation and scattering in layered structures. A wave finite element (WFE) method, which combines FE analysis with periodic structure theory (PST), is used to predict the wave propagation properties along periodic waveguides of the structural system. This is then coupled to the full FE model of a coupling joint within which structural damage is modelled, in order to quantify wave interaction coefficients through the joint. Pre-stress impact is quantified by comparison of results under pressurised and non-pressurised scenarios. The results show that including these pressurisation effects in calculations is essential. This is of specific relevance to aircraft structures being intensely pressurised while on air. Numerical case studies are exhibited for different forms of damage type. The exhibited results are validated against available analytical and experimental results.
      PubDate: 2018-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0501-5
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A New Micro Magnetic Bridge Probe in Magnetic Flux Leakage for Detecting
           Micro-cracks
    • Authors: Erlong Li; Yihua Kang; Jian Tang; Jianbo Wu
      Abstract: Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) testing has been widely used as an efficient non-destructive testing method to detect damage in ferromagnetic materials. It’s of great importance to improve the testing capability of MFL sensors. In this paper, a micro magnetic bridge method in MFL of high sensitivity is proposed to detect micro-cracks. This method consists of a micro magnetic bridge core and an induction coil. Furthermore, a novel micro magnetic bridge probe (MMBP) of higher spatial resolution is designed and developed with \(10~\upmu \hbox {m}\) width between the two sides of this MMBP in the testing magnetic bridge. The lift-off effect of this new MMBP is studied via finite element method and experimental verification. The results show this MMBP can achieve high sensitivity only when working with a micro-lift-off value. To examine the detecting capability of this MMBP, micro-cracks in magnetic particle inspection sensitivity testing pieces are all inspected, and the lowest depth value is only \(7~\upmu \hbox {m}\) . The MMBP in this paper improves the testing capability of MFL to the micrometre scale and can be widely used to detect grinding micro-cracks in bearing rings.
      PubDate: 2018-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0499-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Wall Thinning Characterization of Composite Reinforced Steel Tube Using
           Frequency-Domain PEC Technique and Neural Networks
    • Authors: Camilla B. Larocca; Claudia T. T. Farias; Eduardo F. Simas Filho; Ivan C. Silva
      Abstract: Resin fiber composites reinforcement is used to recover the original mechanical properties of steel tubes subjected to corrosion wall thinning. Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) technique can perform nondestructive evaluation of this kind of component, due to its capability to penetrate nonmagnetic insulation. Despite the evaluation capability, distinguishing inner surface from outer surface defects is not an easy task for time-domain PEC technique. In this paper, Fast Fourier transform (FFT) in combination with multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network classifiers are applied to PEC signals and used to detect defects (wall thinning) and also to indicate their position. The tested sample is a carbon steel tube, with 17 mm of composite reinforcement, where two defects were manufactured, one at the inner and another at the outer surface. An automated scanner system is used to obtain C-scan maps, showing the thinning areas. Two feature extraction methods are used to produce the input features for the neural network classifier: the coefficients of the FFT; and the parameters of an exponential curve fitted to the FFT coefficients. The results indicate that the MLP neural network correctly recognized the presence of wall thinning and its location with detection efficiencies of 97.4 and 97.0%, respectively. The PEC technique analysis in frequency-domain associated with a neural network classifier seems to be a promising alternative to identify the position of defects in composite reinforced steel tubes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0477-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Interpretation of Indications Generated by Small Welding Discontinuities
           in Ultrasonic Time of Flight Diffraction Technique
    • Authors: K. Kaczmarek; R. Kaczmarek; J. Słania
      Abstract: The article presents results of research on non-destructive ultrasonic time of flight diffraction technique TOFD and metallographic examinations of selected cross-sections of a MAG welded joint. The main objective was to compare the results of TOFD and metallographic examination at the locations where a large number of point-like indications, located on specific depths, have been detected on TOFD images and analyse the impact of this type of indication on results of a welded joint evaluation. Considered, that the indications have not exhibited separations between upper and lower diffraction signals, because of their small heights, measuring of height of indications in those cases was impossible. In all cases, the occurrence of discontinuities of 0.16–0.78 mm in height, in locations indicated by TOFD has been confirmed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0504-2
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A Numerical Approach to Predict Fracture in Bio-inspired Composites Using
           Ultrasonic Waves
    • Authors: Jacob Loving; Marco Fielder; Arun K. Nair
      Abstract: Bone is a biomaterial that has high resistance to fracture, but due to osteoporosis bone structure and properties deteriorates, which can lead to high fracture risk. Bio-inspired composites are an effective way to replace bone loss. We study here two bio-inspired composites, one inspired from circumferential lamella and the second from the compact bone properties respectively. The defects in bio-inspired composite materials can be detected using ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic wave interaction with a medium can lead to information about its microstructure and material properties. To gain a better understanding of wave propagation through bio-inspired composites, ultrasound waves are modeled using the finite element method along with the Newmark’s constant acceleration method to study these composites with and without defects. For the bio-inspired composite based on circumferential lamella, we observe two in-plane energy flux waves. The faster quasi-longitudinal and the slower quasi-shear will deviate from the normal direction depending on the fiber orientation in the composites. The wave interaction with defects in bio-inspired composites will split the ultrasound wave into two components with finite energy peaks. We observe that the distance between these energy peaks of the waves correspond with the size of the defect in the composite. The change in the porosity of the bio-inspired composites causes a decrease in the maximum energy flux and wave speed. We also examine the use of biologically inspired signals, which has a lower relative attenuation with a higher frequency when compared to a typical transducer to study wave propagation in composites. For the cases studied in this paper, the different input signals show no significant difference in the peak-to-peak distance in energy flux after encountering a defect when compared to a sinusoidal signal.
      PubDate: 2018-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0497-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A Simulation-Assisted Non-destructive Approach for Permittivity
           Measurement Using an Open-Ended Microwave Waveguide
    • Authors: Zhen Li; Arthur Haigh; Constantinos Soutis; Andrew Gibson; Robin Sloan
      Abstract: A new convenient and non-destructive permittivity measurement method is presented. No physical cut of specimens is needed here for material characterisation. In the setup, the material under test is placed in the near-field region of a microwave open-ended waveguide. An electromagnetic model of the setup is built in the Computer Simulation Technology simulation software. Employing optimisation, the permittivity is obtained from the measured reflection coefficients \(\hbox {S}_{11}\) . Using the same technique, the effect of the model size is investigated that could reduce the modelling effort for large structures. The efficiency of a traditional method (i.e., Newton) and an intelligent algorithm (i.e. particle swarm optimisation) for permittivity calculation is thoroughly studied and compared. The proposed methodology is validated by experimental data. It is demonstrated that the proposed method can provide more accurate permittivity results than the intrusive in-waveguide measurement. The proposed methodology can contribute to electromagnetic analysis, thickness measurement and non-destructive evaluation.
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0493-1
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Quantitative Prediction of Surface Hardness in 12CrMoV Steel Plate Based
           on Magnetic Barkhausen Noise and Tangential Magnetic Field Measurements
    • Authors: Liu Xiucheng; Zhang Ruihuan; Wu Bin; He Cunfu
      Abstract: Both magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) and tangential magnetic field (TMF) strength can be applied in the quantitative prediction of surface hardness of ferromagnetic specimens. The prediction accuracy depends on the selected model and the input parameters of the model. In this study, the relationship between the surface hardness of 12CrMoV steel plate and the measured MBN and TMF signals is investigated with multivariable linear regression (MLR) model and BP neural network technique. A comparative study between the MLR and BP model is conducted. The external validation results show that the BP model utilizing four MBN features as the input nodes has a smaller average prediction error (3.7%) than that of the MLR model (13.2%). Features extracted from the MBN and TMF signals are combined together as the input parameters of the BP model in order to achieve high accuracy. After adding two more TMF features into the input nodes of the BP network, the external validation results suggest that the average prediction error is decreased from 3.7 to 3.5%.
      PubDate: 2018-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0486-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Impedance Analysis of a Meander Coil with Rectangular Cross Section Above
           a Planar Conductor Using Vertex Description
    • Abstract: Meander coils are widely used in eddy-current testing (ECT) and many other fields. Since the coil impedance is a key parameter that affects device performance, many scholars have studied impedance modeling. However, the modeling process of existing methods is cumbersome and complicated due to the complex structure of a meander coil. In this paper, a new method for the impedance calculation of a meander coil is proposed. First, a single rectangular coil is taken as an example, and its impedance expressions are deduced with the surface integral method. Then, a vertex description method for impedance calculation regarding meander coils is put forward by defining the position factor and angle factor. Finally, impedance calculations and verification experiments on a series of meander coils with different geometric dimensions are presented. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculated ones. Therefore, the proposed method effectively calculates the impedance of meander coils and also simplifies the impedance calculation of coils with complex structures. Consequently, it is greatly significant for the coil design in terms of cost and design cycle reduction.
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0495-z
       
  • A Numerical Study on Interlaminar Defects Characterization in Fibre Metal
           Laminates with Flying Laser Spot Thermography
    • Abstract: This work describes a numerical study on non-destructive evaluation of interlayer disbond defects in aerospace grade Fibre Metal Laminate sheets (FMLs). A recently proposed infrared non-destructive testing setup is considered, where a continuous laser is moved over the material surface, while the thermal footprint of the moving heat source is acquired, e.g. by an infrared thermal camera. Interlayer disbonds are then detected by analysing the features of the acquired thermograms. The experimental feasibility of this approach has been recently proved. The present work proposes a numerical simulation of the NDT approach, where the material thermal response is analysed and correlated to defects signatures. The numerical study has in particular investigated the influence of a number of different features on the defect detectability, and on the accuracy of defect edges and position identification. Such features comprise different FML materials (GLARE, CARAL, Ti-Gr), laser heat deposition and regions of data analyses.
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0494-0
       
  • Welding Defect Classification from Simulated Ultrasonic Signals
    • Abstract: Nondestructive testing is widely used to detect and to size up discontinuities embedded in a material. Among the several ultrasonic techniques, time of flight diffraction (TOFD) combines high speed inspection, high sizing reliability and low rate of incorrect results. However, the classification of defects through ultrasound signals acquired by the TOFD technique depends heavily on the knowledge and experience of the operator and thus, this classification is still frequently questioned. Besides, this task requires long processing time due to the large amount of data to be analyzed. Nevertheless, computational tools for pattern recognition can be employed to analyze a high amount of data with large efficiency. In the present work, simulation of ultrasound propagation in two-dimensional media containing, each one, different kinds of modeled discontinuities which mimic defects in welded joints were performed. Clustering (k-means) and classification (principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbors) algorithms were employed to associate each simulated ultrasound signal with its corresponding modeled defects. The results for each method were analyzed, discussed and compared. The results are very promising.
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0496-y
       
 
 
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