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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2298 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (104 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1209 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (69 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (92 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 192 of 192 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Agregat     Open Access  
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Building & Management     Open Access  
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access  
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access  
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation
  [SJR: 0.863]   [H-I: 27]   [11 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-4862 - ISSN (Online) 0195-9298
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Impact Modelling and A Posteriori Non-destructive Evaluation of
           Homogeneous Particleboards of Sugarcane Bagasse
    • Authors: Hai Zhang; Stefano Sfarra; Fabrizio Sarasini; Juliano Fiorelli; Jeroen Peeters; Nicolas P. Avdelidis; Diogo de Lucca Sartori; Clemente Ibarra-Castanedo; Stefano Perilli; Yacine Mokhtari; Jacopo Tirillò; Xavier P. V. Maldague
      Abstract: Abstract With a view to gaining an in-depth assessment of the response of particleboards (PBs) to different in-service loading conditions, samples of high-density homogeneous PBs of sugarcane bagasse and castor oil polyurethane resin were manufactured and subjected to low velocity impacts using an instrumented drop weight impact tower and four different energy levels, namely 5, 10, 20 and 30 J. The prediction of the damage modes was assessed using Comsol Multiphysics \(^\circledR .\) In particular, the random distribution of the fibres and their lengths were reproduced through a robust model. The experimentally obtained dent depths due to the impactor were compared with the ones numerically simulated showing good agreement. The post-impact damage was evaluated by a simultaneous system of image acquisitions coming from two different sensors. In particular, thermograms were recorded during the heating up and cooling down phases, while the specklegrams were gathered one at room temperature (as reference) and the remaining during the cooling down phase. On one hand, the specklegrams were processed via a new software package named Ncorr v.1.2, which is an open-source subset-based 2D digital image correlation (DIC) package that combines modern DIC algorithms proposed in the literature with additional enhancements. On the other hand, the thermographic results linked to a square pulse were compared with those coming from the laser line thermography technique that heats a line-region on the surface of the sample instead of a spot. Surprisingly, both the vibrothermography and the line scanning thermography methods coupled with a robotized system show substantial advantages in the defect detection around the impacted zone.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0461-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Parameter Optimization of Robotize Line Scan Thermography for CFRP
           Composite Inspection
    • Authors: Fariba Khodayar; Fernando Lopez; Clemente Ibarra-Castanedo; Xavier Maldague
      Abstract: Abstract Demands for Composite materials is increasing more and more because of their specific mechanical properties, especially in aerospace industry. Due to the porous structure of composite materials, there is the negligible probability of breaking up and defects in the internal structure. Detection of deep defects is a challenging subject in the field of Non-destructive testing. Due to the large size of composite components in the aerospace industry, line scanning thermography (LST) coupled with a robot arm is used to inspect large composite materials. In this paper, an innovative optimization procedure has been employed using analytical model, 3-D simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics, experimental setup and signal processing algorithms. The goal is to maximize the detection depth and signal to noise value as the criteria to evaluate the inspection quality and performance. the proposed algorithm starts searching to find the optimization variables of robotized LST such as scanning speed, source power and distance considering all technical and mechanical constraints. The optimal values are dependent on the material structure, thermal specifications of the composite, defect shape and infrared camera resolution. Using the proposed optimization algorithm, the detection depth was increased to 3.5 mm in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer and the signal to noise ratio was enhanced to 95%.
      PubDate: 2018-01-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0459-8
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Lamb Wave Phase Velocity Imaging of Concrete Plates with 2D Arrays
    • Authors: Oskar Tofeldt; Nils Ryden
      Abstract: Abstract In the nondestructive evaluation of concrete structures, ultrasonic techniques are considered to be more capable than low-frequency techniques such as the impact-echo method. This is especially true with the recent development of ultrasonic transducers, synthetic apertures, and results in an image form, and because low-frequency techniques are usually limited in their evaluation to the frequency of one single resonant mode. With the aim of reducing this gap in capabilities, we present a 2D array and wide-frequency bandwidth technique for Lamb wave phase velocity imaging. The presentation involves a measurement on a newly cast concrete plate using a hammer and an accelerometer as an example. The key concept of the technique is the use of 2D arrays that record a full wave field response over a limited surface subdomain within the complete measurement domain. Through a discrete Fourier transform, a spectral estimate is obtained for the 2D array in the frequency-phase velocity domain. The variation of the phase velocity is then mapped using a stepwise movement of the 2D array within the complete measurement domain. With two different types of 2D arrays, the variation of the phase velocity for the A0 Lamb mode is mapped and displayed in a polar and image plot, and low variation is observed for both cases. This result verifies the expected condition of a homogenous material and plate thickness and, more importantly, highlights the potential of wide-frequency bandwidth techniques based on full wave field data.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0457-x
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Defect Detection of Industrial Radiography Images of Ammonia Pipes by a
           Sparse Coding Model
    • Authors: Amir Movafeghi; Nooredin Mohammadzadeh; Effat Yahaghi; Jahangir Nekouei; Peyman Rostami; Gholamreza Moradi
      Abstract: Abstract Pipeline transportation systems for liquid anhydrous ammonia require periodic inspections for pipe defects. Defects such as crack-like flaws, including those due to stress corrosion and fatigue crack growth and fatigue of welded joints, can be tested by in situ radiography testing (RT). It is required that the detection technique should reveal the defect region without any significant distortion. Imaging noise such as that due to radiation scattering reduces contrast over the whole or part of the image, causing a reduction in image quality. Various image processing methods can be utilized to improve the outcome of RT of pipes. The sparse coding model is a powerful contrast improvement algorithm, but it tends to eliminate imaging details, passing them off as noise. We present a novel implementation of the sparse coding model based on a probabilistic interpretation to improve defect detection in ammonia pipelines radiography images. The performance of this procedure was evaluated in radiographic images of defect and corrosion regions for different pipe types. For ammonia pipes, the technique was found to offer a significant improvement in defect detection while preserving imaging details.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0458-9
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Measurement of Interfacial Fracture Toughness of Surface Coatings Using
           Pulsed-Laser-Induced Ultrasonic Waves
    • Authors: Yousuke Watanabe; Akio Yonezu; Xi Chen
      Abstract: Abstract This research develops a new technique for the measurement of interfacial fracture toughness of films/surface coatings using laser-induced ultrasonic waves. Using pulsed laser ablation on the bottom substrate surface, strong stress waves are generated leading to interfacial fractures and coating delamination. Simultaneously, a laser ultrasonic interferometer is used to measure the normal (out-of-plane) displacement of the top surface coating in order to detect coating delamination in a non-destructive manner. We can thus determine the critical laser energy for delamination, yielding the critical stress (that is, the interfacial strength). Subsequently, to examine the interfacial fracture toughness, additional pulsed laser irradiation is applied to a pre-delaminated specimen to show that the delamination area expands. This type of interfacial crack growth can be visualized using laser ultrasonic scanning. Furthermore, the calculation of elastic wave propagation was carried out using a finite-difference time-domain method) in order to accurately estimate the interfacial stress field. In this calculation, the stress distribution around the initial delamination is calculated to obtain the stress intensity factor. Based on the experimental and computational results, interfacial fracture toughness can be quantitatively evaluated. Since this technique relies on a two-laser system in a non-contact approach, it may be useful for a quantitative evaluation of adhesion/bonding quality (including both interfacial fracture strength and toughness) in various environments.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0456-y
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Acoustic Emission-Based Methodology to Evaluate Delamination Crack Growth
           Under Quasi-static and Fatigue Loading Conditions
    • Authors: Milad Saeedifar; Mehdi Ahmadi Najafabadi; Kaivan Mohammadi; Mohamad Fotouhi; Hossein Hosseini Toudeshky; Reza Mohammadi
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of acoustic emission (AE) technique to evaluate delamination crack in glass/epoxy composite laminates under quasi-static and fatigue loading. To this aim, double cantilever beam specimens were subjected to mode I quasi-static and fatigue loading conditions and the generated AE signals were recorded during the tests. By analyzing the mechanical and AE results, an analytical correlation between the AE energy with the released strain energy and the crack growth was established. It was found that there is a 3rd degree polynomial correlation between the crack growth and the cumulative AE energy. Using this correlation the delamination crack growth was predicted under both the static and fatigue loading conditions. The predicted crack growth values was were in a good agreement with the visually recorded data during the tests. The results indicated that the proposed AE-based method has good applicability to evaluate the delamination crack growth under quasi-static and fatigue loading conditions, especially when the crack is embedded within the structure and could not be seen visually.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0454-0
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Pulse-Inversion Chirp-Coded Weld Harmonic Imaging (PI-CWHI) of Friction
           Stir Welded Butt-Joint
    • Authors: M. Tabatabaeipour; J. Hettler; N. T. Sewell; J. R. Wright; J. C. S. Wright; S. Delrue; K. Van Den Abeele
      Abstract: Abstract The microscopic size and the closed characteristics of zigzag line defects at the root of friction stir welded joints frequently result in a detection inability by off-the-shelf ultrasonic weld inspection techniques. To overcome this problem, we take advantage of a non-linear ultrasonic approach by employing a slanted contact pitch-catch mode scanning using chirp-coded excitation with subsequent pulse-inversion analysis. We validated that the observed nonlinearity correlates well with the micro-crack density along the weld path. Doing so, hot spots in the pulse-inversion chirp-coded weld harmonic images can be interpreted as zones with high concentrations of micro-flaws.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0437-1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • 3D Point Cloud Analysis for Detection and Characterization of Defects on
           Airplane Exterior Surface
    • Authors: Igor Jovančević; Huy-Hieu Pham; Jean-José Orteu; Rémi Gilblas; Jacques Harvent; Xavier Maurice; Ludovic Brèthes
      Abstract: Abstract Three-dimensional surface defect inspection remains a challenging task. This paper describes a novel automatic vision-based inspection system that is capable of detecting and characterizing defects on an airplane exterior surface. By analyzing 3D data collected with a 3D scanner, our method aims to identify and extract the information about the undesired defects such as dents, protrusions or scratches based on local surface properties. Surface dents and protrusions are identified as the deviations from an ideal, smooth surface. Given an unorganized point cloud, we first smooth noisy data by using Moving Least Squares algorithm. The curvature and normal information are then estimated at every point in the input data. As a next step, Region Growing segmentation algorithm divides the point cloud into defective and non-defective regions using the local normal and curvature information. Further, the convex hull around each defective region is calculated in order to englobe the suspicious irregularity. Finally, we use our new technique to measure the dimension, depth, and orientation of the defects. We tested and validated our novel approach on real aircraft data obtained from an Airbus A320, for different types of defect. The accuracy of the system is evaluated by comparing the measurements of our approach with ground truth measurements obtained by a high-accuracy measuring device. The result shows that our work is robust, effective and promising for industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0453-1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of a Nitrided Case Depth by the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise
    • Authors: Alexandr Stupakov; Róbert Farda; Miroslav Neslušan; Alexej Perevertov; Tetsuya Uchimoto
      Abstract: Abstract Applicability of magnetic methods for non-destructive evaluation of plasma nitrided cases was investigated comprehensively. Nitrided layers of 60–800 \(~\upmu \hbox {m}\) thicknesses were produced on a 16MnCr5 steel surface varying the plasma temperature, the nitriding time and atmosphere. Low-frequency Barkhausen noise was measured by a unique laboratory system to obtain physically grounded data. The laboratory measurements were performed at the triangular waveforms of the magnetizing voltage and the surface magnetic field. A typical rms envelope with a single peak positioned near the hysteresis coercive field was obtained for the unnitrided homogeneous sample. All nitrided samples with the hardened surface layer demonstrated an additional envelope peak at higher fields. Deeper nitridation suppressed both envelope peaks equally making the classical rms parameter sensitive to variation of the nitrided case depth. An industrial method of detection of the Barkhausen noise was tested for comparison using a commercial Rollscan device. The industrial measurements gave a single-peak envelope for all studied samples and a lower depth sensitivity of the rms parameter. Bulk testing methods, the magnetic hysteresis and the magneto-acoustic emission, were not able to detect the nitrided cases.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0452-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A Taguchi Design of Experiment Approach to Pulse and Lock in Thermography,
           Applied to CFRP Composites
    • Authors: Y. A. Abdulrahman; M. A. Omar; Z. Said; F. Obeideli; A. Abusafieh; G. N. Sankaran
      Abstract: Abstract The current text presents a parametric study of two active thermography routines namely, Pulse and Lock-in as applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) composites; using a Taguchi design of experiment approach. A set of controllable factors are highlighted and selected for each technique at different levels. Three factors have been identified for the pulse thermography (specifically; defect aspect ratio, pulse period, and experimental duration), and two factors for the Lock-in mode (that is lock in frequency and period); each factor can be manipulated at three different levels. The analysis reveals the effectiveness of the Taguchi design of experiment in consolidating the number of factorial experiments, and in quantifying the results and the associated sensitivity for each factor (its dominance), using a signal to noise ratio criterion. The analysis of variance and analysis of means show that the aspect ratio is not a controlling parameter for the pulse thermography, with the pulse time being the most dominant. Moreover, it decides on the optimal settings for each testing mode. These settings are further validated using additional CFRP artificial sample with eight and six layers of laminates.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0450-4
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Scatter Signal Elimination by Localized Primary Modulation in Industrial
           Computed Radiography
    • Authors: Aboutaleb Kermani; Seyed Amir Hossein Feghhi
      Abstract: Abstract In industrial computed radiography, same as the other projection imaging systems, quantitative integrated information of total beam path including the object is carried by primary part of the beam. It is well known that the accuracy of the image useful data carried by the primary part degrades by scattered part of the beam. In order to have the beam path quantitative information accurately, it is essential to obtain the primary part of the total signal purely. In current study, a practical approach using localized primary modulation has been proposed to extract the primary signal. A semi-transparent beam attenuation grid was used as the beam intensity modulator. Efficiency and accuracy of the approach was practically validated through thickness measurement of metallic planar steps as an illustrative example. Simplified practical implementation and availability of the required accessories are some of advantages of the proposed approach. The results are indicative of the fact that this approach can also be applied as a new technique in thickness measurement, yielding a noticeable accuracy improvement in the most radiography methods. A procedure is included to explain the approach implementation for thickness measurement in computed radiography systems. The procedure overcomes some practical limitations and difficulties of the approach adaptation for computed radiography.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0448-y
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Simulation of Laser Ultrasonics for Detection of Surface-Connected Rail
           Defects
    • Authors: Zhong Yunjie; Gao Xiaorong; Luo Lin; Pan Yongdong; Qiu Chunrong
      Abstract: Abstract Laser ultrasonic produces frequencies in the MHz range, enabling high accuracy and a strong ability to detect rail surface defects. This paper mainly studied on the simulation of detecting surface-connected rail defects on 60 kg rails with laser ultrasonic, established the finite element model of laser-excited ultrasonic Rayleigh wave, carried out the simulation, and verified the effectiveness of the technology through experiments. To solve the problem that laser ultrasonic is insensitive to the width of defects in actual detection, and unable to make quantitative detection of defects, this paper established a new model on the basis of improving the original model that has been verified, exciting ultrasonic at the two sides at the same time of a rail with two staggered beams of laser separately to detect irregular scratch defects on rail surface, and two groups of signal data were received through two probes. Each group of data can present the half-profile information of defects, and further form two detection images of the defect. At last, the two detection images were combined into a complete image through image processing. The results of the experiment indicate that the technology studied offers a new method for the effective quantitative detection of surface-connected defects on rail.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0451-3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Imaging of Barely Visible Impact Damage on a Complex Composite Stiffened
           Panel Using a Nonlinear Ultrasound Stimulated Thermography Approach
    • Authors: Gian Piero Malfense Fierro; Dmitri Ginzburg; Francesco Ciampa; Michele Meo
      Abstract: Abstract Thermosonics, also known as ultrasonic stimulated thermography, is a rapid non-destructive evaluation technique that uses an infrared camera to visualise material defects by detecting the frictional heating at crack surfaces when a part under inspection is vibrated. These vibrations are usually produced by an ultrasonic horn being pressed against the surface of the test sample, which result in uncontrolled generations of frequency components and excitation amplitude. This makes thermosonics highly non-reproducible and unreliable. This paper presents a novel thermographic method, here named as nonlinear ultrasound stimulated thermography, for the detection and imaging of real material defects such as impact damage on a complex composite stiffener panel. This technique combines nonlinear ultrasonic techniques with thermography. A nonlinear ultrasonic approach was used as signature for a reliable frequency-selective excitation of material defects, while an infrared camera was employed to reveal the damage location and severity. A nonlinear narrow sweep excitation method was employed to efficiently excite the local resonance frequencies of the damaged region in order to give rise to the highest nonlinear harmonic response in the material leading to a high heat generation at the crack surface. The experimental tests were carried out with a laser vibrometer in order to better understand the interaction of elastic waves with nonlinear scattering. An ad-hoc nonlinear thermal-structural finite element and crack model was developed to study the heat generation caused by the movement of the crack surfaces when elastic waves with a particular frequency impinges on the crack interphase with good agreement with the experimental results. The proposed new method allows to detect single and multiple barely visible impact damage in a quick, reliable and reproducible manner and overcomes the main limitations of classical thermosonics.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0449-x
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A Permeability-Measuring Magnetic Flux Leakage Method for Inner Surface
           Crack in Thick-Walled Steel Pipe
    • Authors: Zhiyang Deng; Yanhua Sun; Yihua Kang; Kai Song; Rongbiao Wang
      Abstract: Abstract It is difficult for traditional magnetic flux leakage (MFL) methods to detect inner surface cracks of thick-walled steel pipe or plate due to magnetic shielding of the wall and strong magnetic background noise, and for eddy current testing (ECT) as well due to its skin effect. On the basis of the nonlinear magnetic permeability of ferromagnetic materials, a new non-destructive testing method (NDT) permeability-measuring magnetic flux leakage (P-MFL) is proposed, in which the magnetization is perpendicular to the inner surface crack, and the surface layer permeability distortion caused by magnetic field distortion is measured by differential pick-up coils. Afterwards, its detection mechanism is presented and analyzed, and its feasibility is verified by simulations and experiments. Finally, some application cases for steel pipe are also realized effectively. Meanwhile, its testing characteristics for cracks are given and effects of crack size, specimen thickness, scanning paths to testing signal amplitude are briefly analyzed. Finally, the proposed P-MFL method compared to traditional MFL method is discussed in detail.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0447-z
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Sparse Representations to Replace TOFD Images in Non-destructive Testing
           of Materials
    • Authors: Thouraya Merazi-Meksen; Akila Kemmouche; Malika Boudraa; Bachir Boudraa
      Abstract: Abstract This paper describes a proposed method for the selection of relevant samples of ultrasonic signals during automatic material inspection. Instead of the well-known time of flight diffraction (TOFD) images, data are stored as a sparse matrix in which the elements only indicate whether a defect has been detected. This technique avoids storage of useless signals received during probe displacement in cases of low and high signal-to-noise ratios that correspond to coarse-grained and fine-grained materials, respectively. The approach is based on comparing the positions of maximum amplitudes, which are randomly located when signals only consist of noise but are in the same signal range when a defect is detected. The matrix elements are then applied as inputs to a self organizing map by neural networks to produce a normalized sparse matrix as the output, with a constant number of elements. This approach will be beneficial to enable the use of selected data in intelligent systems requiring a fixed number of inputs to characterize defects.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0446-0
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Comparison Between Different Experimental Set-Ups for Measuring the
           Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in a Deformed 1050 Steel
    • Authors: J. Capó Sánchez; M. F. de Campos; L. R. Padovese
      Abstract: Abstract The magnetic Barkhausen emission is investigated in deformed ANSI 1050 steel samples using four experimental configurations. These configurations vary according the type of magnetization (solenoid or yoke) and the recording the magnetic signal (bobbin above or around sample).The level of total strain was 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 3.0%. In all cases the same monotonous decrease dependence of emission magnetic with strain was obtained, showing that the four configurations give similar results. However, the yoke–pancake configuration was the most sensitive.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0445-1
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Deformation Tracking in 3D Point Clouds Via Statistical Sampling of Direct
           Cloud-to-Cloud Distances
    • Authors: Bahman Jafari; Ali Khaloo; David Lattanzi
      Abstract: Abstract Dense three-dimensional (3D) point clouds of infrastructure systems, generated from laser scanners or through multi-view photogrammetry, have significant potential as a source of nondestructive evaluation information. The growing maturity of these techniques make them capable of reconstructing photorealistic 3D models with accuracy on the millimeter scale, adequate for inspection and evaluation practices. Manual analysis of these point clouds is often time consuming and labor intensive and does not provide explicit information on structural performance and health conditions, highlighting the need for new techniques to efficiently analyze these models. This paper presents a new 3D point cloud change analysis approach for tracking small movements over time through localized spatial analytics. This technique uses a combination of a direct point-wise distance metric in conjunction with statistical sampling to extract structural deformations. By identifying and tracking these changes, mechanical deformations can be quantified along with the associated strains and stresses. These measurements can then be used to assess both service conditions and remaining system capacity. The results of a series of laboratory experiments designed to test the proposed approach are presented as well. The findings indicate measurement accuracy on the order of +/− 0.2 mm (95% confidence interval), making it suitable for accurate and automatic geometrical analyses and change detection in a variety of infrastructure inspection scenarios. Ongoing work seeks to connect this technique to automated finite element model updating, and to field test the measurement technique.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0444-2
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Simplified Ultrasonic Damage Detection in Fluid-Filled Pipes
    • Authors: Bouko Vogelaar; Michael Golombok
      Abstract: Abstract The location and extent of damage in a pipe can be remotely determined from weld and internal damage reflections using a single acoustic emitter/sensor pair. The use of normalised reflections yields single numbers enabling long distance data collection techniques such as wireless hopping. The attenuation is twice as high for opposite inner and outer fluids (whether air and water, or water and air) as compared to identical inner and outer fluids. The absolute recorded signals in the water-filled pipe are attenuated by a factor two compared to the empty pipe. The axial length of detection is reduced by a half. The reduction of >90% in sensors and the longer axial detection (>10 \(\times \) current state-of- the-art- technology) means that permanent fixed sensor pairs for whole pipelines are on the horizon of possibility. The greatest advantage is envisioned in submersed pipelines.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0443-3
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Application of Different X-ray Techniques to Improve In-Service Carbon
           Fiber Reinforced Rope Inspection
    • Authors: David Schumacher; Kim-Niklas Antin; Uwe Zscherpel; Pedro Vilaça
      Abstract: Abstract Carbon fiber reinforced polymer ropes are gaining in significance in the fields of civil engineering and hoisting applications. Thus, methods of non-destructive testing (NDT) need to be developed and evaluated with respect to new challenges and types of defects. Particularly important is the development of in-service testing solutions which allow the integration in global online monitoring systems. Conventional methods like electrical resistivity or strain measurements using optical fibers are already in use. This study investigates the possibility of using various X-ray techniques to increase the reliability and significance of NDT and their applicability to in-service testing. Conventional film radiography is the most common technique; however, even after image enhancement of the digitized film, this technique lacks contrast sensitivity and dynamic range compared to digital detector array (DDA) radiography. The DDA radiography is a highly sensitive method; yet, the limitation is that it delivers 2D images of 3D objects. By the use of co-planar translational laminography the detectability of planar defects is superior to 2D methods due to multiple projection angles. Apart from this, it can be used on-site due to a rather simple setup and robust equipment. In this work two photon counting detectors (PCD) with different sensor materials (Si and CdTe) were used. The results show that the resolution and defect recognition is lower in case of DDA radiography and laminography using PCDs compared to high-resolution computed tomography. However, the DDA radiography and laminography are sensitive enough to both fiber breakage and delaminations and can be significantly advantageous in terms of measurement time and adaptability for on-site monitoring.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0441-5
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Embedded PZT Sensor for Monitoring Mechanical Impedance of Hydrating
           Cementitious Materials
    • Authors: Arun Narayanan; Amarteja Kocherla; Kolluru V. L. Subramaniam
      Abstract: Abstract An embedded PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate)-based sensor is developed for real-time, continuous, in-situ monitoring of hydrating cementitious materials after casting. The development of a multi-layer protection for a PZT patch, which provides a physical barrier with the surrounding medium while ensuring the sensitivity of measurement is described. Electrical impedance measurements from the sensor embedded inside mortar mixtures of different compositions are shown to sensitively provide an indication of changes in the state and the mechanical impedance of the material during periods associated with setting and early strength gain. An analytical procedure is developed for extracting the mechanical impedance of the surrounding cementitious material from the electromechanical measurements of the embedded PZT sensor. Changes in the mechanical impedance of mortars through periods of setting and early strength gain obtained from the embedded PZT sensor are validated using pin penetration, isothermal calorimetry and vibration-based measurements. Kinetics of hydration reaction obtained from isothermal calorimetry and increase in the penetration resistance during the setting behavior in the material, are accurately reflected in the increase in the mechanical impedance of the surrounding mortar obtained from the embedded PZT sensor. The continued increase in the mechanical impedance of the mortar after setting, up to 28 days, correlates well with the increase in elastic modulus of material obtained from vibration-based measurements. The durability of the sensor protection scheme is verified by evaluating the performance of sensors recovered from inside the mortar after long-term embedment. The embedded PZT sensor offers the potential for monitoring the local property development in a cementitious material from within the bulk of the structure and for use in quality assessment.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0442-4
      Issue No: Vol. 36, No. 4 (2017)
       
 
 
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