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    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (210 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (219 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 219 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access  
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Construindo     Open Access  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 79)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Road and Traffic Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Lithosphere     Open Access  
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Media Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
REDER : Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos sobre Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres     Open Access  
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Investigación     Open Access  
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Sul-Americana de Engenharia Estrutural     Open Access  
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.773
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-4862 - ISSN (Online) 0195-9298
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Practical Aspects of Nondestructive Induction Field Testing in Determining
           the Depth of Steel and Reinforced Concrete Foundations
    • Authors: Saman Rashidyan; Tang-tat Ng; Arup Maji
      Abstract: Characterizing unknown bridge foundations has been a great concern for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and Department of Transportation (DOT) in the past decades. Among conventional NDT methods, the Induction Field is a favorable nondestructive method to determine the depth of bridge foundations made of steel or reinforced concrete. Although many studies have been reported on the applicability of the method, the practical aspects of the method including the effect of major factors influencing the success of the method has not been completely discussed. In the current study, the effect of distance, soil type and soil moisture is investigated using two testbeds. The findings were valuable and provided practical guidelines to perform Induction Field tests on steel and reinforced concrete foundations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-019-0557-x
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2019)
  • Towards Automated Tracking of Initiation and Propagation of Cracks in
           Aluminium Alloy Coupons Using Thermoelastic Stress Analysis
    • Authors: C. A. Middleton; A. Gaio; R. J. Greene; E. A. Patterson
      Abstract: Full-field non-destructive evaluation techniques are useful tools for indicating damage in fatigue-prone environments. Here, the full-field technique thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) is employed to locate and track naturally initiating cracks in aluminium alloy specimens. An algorithm, based on the concept of optical flow, is used to track changes in the characteristic stress field present ahead of a crack during loading, and thereby to locate the crack-tip position. The initiation of cracks is indicated at sub-mm lengths, before the crack is observable by visual inspection, and in bolted specimens TSA indicates the presence of a crack before it extends beyond the bolt-head. The crack path propagation is mapped and matches well with the final crack geometry. Results are equivalent for surfaces prepared with matt black and aircraft primer paint, showing that optical flow processing of TSA data would be particularly useful for crack tracking in aerospace applications, as no additional surface preparation would be required to implement full-field TSA measurements.
      PubDate: 2019-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0555-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2019)
  • Acoustic Emission Characterization of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Cellular
           Concrete Under Direct Shear Loads
    • Authors: M. Abdur Rasheed; S. Suriya Prakash; R. Gangadharan
      Abstract: Acoustic emission (AE) is employed in this study to understand the failure process in fiber-reinforced cellular concrete (FRCLC) subjected to direct shear load. Synthetic polyolefin fibers are used as reinforcement in FRCLC blocks, and their influence on the shear-fracture process is investigated. AE parameters are investigated to assess the effectiveness of fibers in performance improvement of shear strength and toughness of CLC. In total, 24 CLC specimens are tested under direct shear. Effect of fiber dosage and combinations of macro and microfibers are considered as study parameters. Shear crack bridging effect of fibers during the process of shear-slip is investigated. Test results indicate that AE and shear fracture energy increase with increasing fiber dosage. It is observed that discontinuous structural synthetic fibers significantly improve the ultimate shear strength, residual strength, ductility, stiffness, and toughness of CLC. Also, the structural synthetic fibers reduced the shear crack width and shear-slip of CLC. AE parameters such as counts, energy, and 3D-crack source location are presented to illustrate the role of different fiber dosages on the direct shear response. Shear crack location was found to be consistent with the observed failure planes in the specimens. AE data analysis reveals that the number of mode II type events increased with increasing fiber dosage due to increased fiber pullout. Besides, mode I type events also increased as the failure mode changed from a single split crack to distributed cracking.
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0556-3
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2019)
  • Material Decomposition in X-ray Spectral CT Using Multiple Constraints in
           Image Domain
    • Authors: Bingqing Xie; Ting Su; Valérie Kaftandjian; Pei Niu; Feng Yang; Marc Robini; Yuemin Zhu; Philippe Duvauchelle
      Abstract: X-ray spectral CT appears as a new promising imaging modality for the quantitative measurement of materials in an object, compared to conventional energy-integrating CT or dual energy CT. We consider material decomposition in spectral CT as an overcomplete ill-conditioned inverse problem. To solve the problem, we make full use of multi-dimensional nature and high correlation of multi-energy data and spatially neighboring pixels in spectral CT. Meanwhile, we also exploit the fact that material mass density has limited value. The material decomposition is then achieved by using bounded mass density, local joint sparsity and structural low-rank (DSR) in image domain. The results on numerical phantom demonstrate that the proposed DSR method leads to more accurate decomposition than usual pseudo-inverse method with singular value decomposition (SVD) and current popular sparse regularization method with ℓ1-norm constraint.
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0551-8
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2019)
  • Preliminary Experimentation of Fast Neutron Radiography with D-T Neutron
           Generator at BARC
    • Authors: S. Bishnoi; P. S. Sarkar; R. G. Thomas; T. Patel; M. Pal; P. S. Adhikari; A. Sinha; A. Saxena; S. C. Gadkari
      Abstract: An experimental study on fast neutron radiography (FNR) has been carried out using a laboratory based D-T neutron generator facility at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and initial results are presented. The aim was to develop an FNR system with a moderate intensity neutron source for imaging of specimen containing mixed low-Z and high-Z materials. The experimental set-up consists of a D-T neutron generator, collimator and an EMCCD camera based imaging system. Experiments were carried out with the neutron generator having a source strength of about 2 × 109 n/s and source spot size of 20 mm. To obtain optimum image quality with such a moderate neutron yield, a collimator has been designed having an inlet aperture of 10 mm and an L/D of 43. The imaging system was kept at an optimum distance from the collimator and various test samples of materials ranging from low Z to high Z were imaged. Thick samples in step wedge form, hole features in step wedge of polyethylene, mild steel and lead were imaged and analysed. Also a test sample of a low Z material (HDPE) with a hole placed behind a thick Pb was imaged to study the effect of thickness of high Z material on image quality with fast neutrons. The initial results emphasizes that a moderate yield D-T neutron generator based fast neutron radiography system with EMCCD camera could be deployed for field applications yielding moderate image quality to obtain first hand information of the investigated samples.
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0550-9
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Detection of Inner Wall Circumferential Cracks in the Special-Shaped Pipes
           Using Surface Waves
    • Authors: Peng Deng; Cunfu He; Yan Lyu; Guorong Song; Jingpin Jiao; Bin Wu
      Abstract: This paper presents a detection method for the inner wall circumferential cracks in the special-shaped pipes with small diameter-depth ratio using surface waves by placing the transducer at the end face. The scattering characteristic of surface waves at the vertical edge that the maximum of transmission coefficient can be delivered only when the ratio of chamfer size to surface wavelength a/λ = 1, was obtained by finite element method (FEM) simulations and verified experimentally. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) with a center frequency of 1.5 MHz were used to generate and receive surface waves at the end face of the thick-walled pipe. In the pitch-catch mode, the propagation ability of the axial surface wave transmitted at the edge was tested and analyzed. Moreover, in pulse-echo mode, the circumferential grooves in the inner wall were efficiently detected by the surface wave EMAT placed at the end face of the pipe.
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0554-5
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Water Migration in One-Side Heated Concrete: 4D In-Situ CT Monitoring of
           the Moisture-Clog-Effect
    • Authors: Bartosz Powierza; Ludwig Stelzner; Tyler Oesch; Christian Gollwitzer; Frank Weise; Giovanni Bruno
      Abstract: Explosive spalling due to fire exposure in concrete structures can lead severe damage and, in the worst case, to premature component failure. For this reason, an in situ investigation of water migration in concrete due to surface heating was undertaken. During these experiments, a miniaturized concrete specimen within a confining and insulating double-hull was subjected to surface heating during simultaneous X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning. Through the use of subtraction-based image analysis techniques, it was possible to observe and quantify not only drying within areas of the concrete matrix close to the heated surface, but also the migration of moisture to both pore and matrix regions deeper within the specimen. It was also discovered that the correction of CT images for specimen deformation using DVC and variable detector performance using calibrated image filters significantly improved the quality of the results. This clearly demonstrates the potential of X-ray CT for evaluation of other rapid-density-change phenomena in concrete and other building materials.
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0552-7
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Characterization of Liquids Using Electrical Properties in Microwave and
           Millimeter Wave Frequency Bands
    • Authors: Turgut Ozturk
      Abstract: This paper describes effects of electrical properties of materials to recognize the liquids with high accuracy. The goal of this study is to quickly characterize a liquid by making accurate predictions. By interpreting the relationships between the specified properties, the forecasts have been tried to be executed about other important parameters of any liquid. However, although the effects of the important parameters are paid attention, the temperature effect is not considered, in this study. Considering the high importance of safety and security applications, the liquids analyzed in this study were chosen to be transported by one person on various trips. Two different microwave spectroscopy systems (reflectivity free space and coaxial probe measurement methods), are used to collect the electrical properties of liquids by vector network analyzer. Furthermore, these specially selected liquids are first measured in a wide frequency range and the values of their complex permittivity are given.
      PubDate: 2018-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0553-6
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • New Approach for Verifying the Accuracy of X-ray Computed Tomography
           Measurements of Surface Topographies in Additively Manufactured Metal
    • Authors: Filippo Zanini; Elia Sbettega; Marco Sorgato; Simone Carmignato
      Abstract: Surface topographies of metal additively manufactured components are inherently characterized by the presence of complex surface characteristics that are not accessible by contact or optical measuring techniques. Micro X-ray computed tomography is capable of measuring non-accessible surfaces and micro-scale surface features, including undercuts. In this work, an innovative approach for evaluating the accuracy and establishing the traceability of surface topography measurements obtained by X-ray computed tomography is presented. Reference samples produced by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V were specifically designed in order to acquire reference cross-sectional surface profiles representing the actual morphology (including re-entrant features) using an imaging probing system. Surface topographies were measured on these samples by using three different techniques: X-ray computed tomography, confocal microscopy and focus variation. Moreover, the effect of different voxel dimensions on the accuracy of surface topography measurements performed by X-ray computed tomography was investigated. Results showed that X-ray computed tomography (at the highest tested resolution) can acquire surfaces and re-entrant features with small deviations with respect to the reference profiles; the deviations were quantified. On the contrary, focus variation and confocal microscopy can measure surfaces obtaining results that are close to the reference profiles only if such surfaces have no undercuts or inaccessible features.
      PubDate: 2018-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0547-4
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Case Study of Empirical Beam Hardening Correction Methods for Dimensional
           X-ray Computed Tomography Using a Dedicated Multi-material Reference
    • Authors: Michael Reiter; Fabrício Borges de Oliveira; Markus Bartscher; Christian Gusenbauer; Johann Kastner
      Abstract: This paper presents a case study of two selected beam hardening correction methods and their effects on dimensional measurements of multi-material objects. The methods under test are empirical cupping correction (ECC) and empirical dual energy calibration (EDEC). These methods were originally developed for medical applications and their potential for the reduction of artefacts is typically only analysed based on grey value images. For testing and benchmarking of the mentioned methods for dimensional metrology, a dedicated multi-material reference standard—a multi-material hole cube—is used. This reference standard was originally developed for acceptance testing of CT systems. This paper shows a second application of this standard. The reference standard has been calibrated by tactile measurements to assess centre–centre distance errors as well as patch-based bidirectional length measurement errors on beam hardening corrected data and on uncorrected data. For the application of the method also to industrial multi-material scenarios, slight modifications of the ECC method are proposed. Practical aspects of both the ECC and the EDEC approaches as well as measurement results are analysed and discussed in detail. ECC was able to significantly improve dimensional measurements and was especially able to reduce extreme errors occurring in particular in multi-material scenarios by a factor of more than 4. EDEC, the dual-energy approach, reduced grey value inhomogeneities caused by artefacts even more. Its performance for dimensional measurements was however a little worse than ECC. EDEC data resulted in a slightly larger total range of residual measurement errors, mainly due to an elevated noise level.
      PubDate: 2018-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0548-3
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Synthesis of Silver Nano-cubes and Study of Their Elastic Properties Using
           X-Ray Diffraction Line Broadening
    • Authors: Sumit Sarkar; Ratan Das
      Abstract: Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) protected silver nano-cubes (AgNCs) have been prepared through the chemical reduction using ethylene glycol as a reducing agent. High resolution transmission electron microscopic study (HRTEM) gives the average size of the prepared silver nanoparticles as 100 nm approximately with a morphology of cubic shape. The average crystalline size and lattice strain has been calculated from the peak broadening of the X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) of silver nano-cubes. All the elastic properties such as strain, stress and energy density of prepared nanoparticles have been calculated using different modified models of the Williamson Hall Method. Here size and strain have also been calculated from the size–strain plot (SSP) method. UV/Vis study shows an absorption peak due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the visible range at 2.79 eV and photoluminescence, which gives an emission spectra in the visible range at 2.53 eV, confirming a band gap in the silver nano-cubes.
      PubDate: 2018-12-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0549-2
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Detection of Delaminations in Sunlight-Unexposed Concrete Elements of
           Bridges Using Infrared Thermography
    • Authors: Joaquin Humberto Aquino Rocha; Yêda Vieira Póvoas; Cynthia Firmino Santos
      Abstract: Infrared thermography is a non-destructive test used in the inspection of structures. However, its use for bridge inspection is still under development and in many cases its application may be limited to bridge sections exposed to direct sunlight. This study aims to evaluate infrared thermography test for the detection of delaminations in different types of concrete not exposed directly to sunlight. The experimental methodology uses two concrete specimens with water/cement ratios (w/c) equal to 0.5 and 0.6, through the insertion of polystyrene plates of different thicknesses (3, 6 and 12 mm) and depths (25, 50 and 75 mm), in order to simulate defects within the concrete and evaluate the capacity of infrared thermography to detect them. The results show that detection is possible, but limited to short periods of time. In relation to the concrete quality, defects were more easily detected in the test specimen with lower w/c ratio. It can be said that the nearer to the surface and larger the delamination, the easier it is to detect. Also, the better the quality of the concrete, the more effective the technique becomes.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0546-5
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Pulsed Eddy Current Data Analysis for the Characterization of the
           Second-Layer Discontinuities
    • Authors: Yihao Liu; Shuo Liu; Huan Liu; Catalin Mandache; Zheng Liu
      Abstract: Pulsed eddy current (PEC) technique has been applied as a viable method to detect hidden discontinuities in metallic structures. Conventionally, selected time-domain features are employed to characterize the PEC data, such as peak value, lift-off point of intersection, rising point, crossing time, and differential time to peak. The research presented in this paper continues the effort in a previous study on detecting the radial cracks starting from the fastener hole in second layer of a two-layer mock-up aircraft structure. A large diameter excitation coil with ferrite core is used to induce a strong pulse, and the magnetic field generated by eddy current is detected by Hall sensors. Instead of analyzing the limited time-domain features, we propose using machine learning methods to interpret the raw data without feature extraction. Thus, the second-layer discontinuities can be characterized presumably with all the information contained in a waveform. An automated detection framework is proposed in this paper and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2018-11-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0545-6
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • On-line Time Domain Vibration and Current Signals Based Multi-fault
           Diagnosis of Centrifugal Pumps Using Support Vector Machines
    • Authors: Janani Shruti Rapur; Rajiv Tiwari
      Abstract: It has been observed that centrifugal pumps (CPs) usually fail due to flow instabilities and other factors related to the hydraulic pump design. What is often ignored is the role of one fault in the pump system on the commencement/enhancement of another fault in it. Also, in a CP it is not only important to identify a fault, but it is also important to find the severity of it. In this research, causes of flow instabilities like, the blockage faults, impeller defects, pitted cover plate faults and dry runs are considered with varying severity. These faults are considered both independently and also in combinations with blockage faults. The CP vibration data and the motor line current data in time domain are used for the purpose of fault classification. The multi-fault diagnosis is attempted with the help of support vector machine (SVM) classifier. A fivefold cross-validation technique is used for the selection of optimum SVM hyper parameters. Wrapper model is used to select the best statistical feature(s). Novel features which give the best fault prediction performance of CP faults have been brought out in this work. The fault prediction from the experiments and the established approaches, aid the segregation of all the individual faults, fault combinations and their severities with promising execution, not only at the same training and testing speeds but also at the intermediate and overlying test speeds. The fault prediction of developed methodology has been inspected at various operating conditions of the CP and is found to be remarkably robust.
      PubDate: 2018-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0544-7
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Role of Signal Processing, Modeling and Decision Making in the Diagnosis
           of Rolling Element Bearing Defect: A Review
    • Authors: Anil Kumar; Rajesh Kumar
      Abstract: A significant development in condition monitoring techniques has been observed over the years. The scope of condition monitoring has been shifted from defect identification to its measurement, which was later on extended to automatic prediction of defect. This development is possible because of advancement in the area of signal processing. A number of signal processing and decision making techniques are available each having their own merits and demerits. A specific technique can be most appropriate for a given task, however, it may not be suitable or efficient for a different task. This paper reviewed recent and traditional research, and development in area of defect diagnosis, defect modelling, defect measurement and prognostics. Also it highlights the merit and demerit of various signal processing techniques. This paper is written with the objective to serve as guide map for those who work in the field of condition monitoring.
      PubDate: 2018-11-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0543-8
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Estimating Fatigue Damage of Austenitic Steel by Combining the Ultrasonic
           with Eddy Current Monitoring
    • Authors: V. Mishakin; V. Klyushnikov; A. Gonchar; M. Kachanov
      Abstract: We propose a non-destructive testing methodology of estimating fatigue damage in austenitic stainless steel (prior to formation of macrocracks) that is based on monitoring changes in the effective elastic properties (more precisely, the Poisson’s ratio) due to microstructural damage. The elastic properties are also affected by growth of the martensitic phase, and the problem arises of separating the two factors. This is achieved by a combination of (1) measuring Poisson’s ratio with four-digit accuracy by ultrasonic devices, and (2) estimating volume fraction of the martensitic phase by the eddy current method. It is suggested that the critical value of the change of the Poisson’s ratio due to microstructural damage can be used as a criterion of failure.
      PubDate: 2018-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0541-x
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • A Novel Method for Predicting Pixel Value Distribution Non-uniformity Due
           to Heel Effect of X-ray Tube in Industrial Digital Radiography Using
           Artificial Neural Network
    • Authors: E. Nazemi; A. Movafeghi; B. Rokrok; M. H. Choopan Dastjerdi
      Abstract: The heel effect in X-ray radiation imaging systems causes a non-uniform radiation distribution on the imaging plane. In this research, a novel method was developed for predicting the pixel value’s non-uniformity due to the heel effect of X-ray tube on the imaging plane using Monte Carlo N particle (MCNP) simulation code and artificial neural network (ANN). At first, an industrial X-ray tube and a computed radiography (CR) image plate were simulated using MCNP. Then, the simulation procedure was benchmarked with an experiment. In the next step, nine images were obtained from the simulation for nine different tube voltages in the range of 100–300 kV. Furthermore, some pixels with tangential and polar angles in the range of 0°–20° and of 0°–180° with respect to the centered pixel were chosen from these nine simulated images in order to train the ANN, respectively. The tube voltage, tangential and polar angles of each pixel were used as the three inputs of the ANN and gray value in each pixel was used as the output. After training, the proposed ANN model could predict the gray value of each pixel on the imaging plane with mean relative error of less than 0.23%. In the last step, the predicted gray value difference between the centered pixel and other pixels was calculated. The great advantage of proposed methodology is providing the possibility of predicting the pixel value’s non-uniformity due to the heel effect of the X-ray tube on the imaging plane for a wide range of the tube voltages and source to film distances independent of the tube current and exposure time. Although the proposed methodology in this paper was developed for a specific X-ray tube and a CR imaging plate, it can be used for every digital radiography system.
      PubDate: 2018-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0542-9
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Dynamic Thermal Tomography of Composites: A Comparison of Reference and
           Reference-Free Approaches
    • Authors: Vladimir P. Vavilov; Marina V. Kuimova
      Abstract: Dynamic thermal tomography is a technique that allows the display of “slices” of solids by analyzing the evolution of surface temperature as a function of time. This paper presents the principles of one-sided thermal tomography using reference points and also introduces a technique of thermal tomography that does not require the use of reference point. The diffusion nature of heat conduction in solids causes lateral diffusion, which modifies and complicates the heat flow that is needed to detect defects. In the case of anisotropic composite materials the heat will diffuse more readily in one direction than another. Lateral diffusion can make it difficult to detect (visualize) deep defects, especially those located under shallower ones. Artifacts can be reduced by thresholding timegrams but this may hide small defects. The effectiveness of thermal tomography in detecting impact damage (cracks/delaminations) in composites has been confirmed by numerous experiments.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0540-y
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • Porosity Determination of Carbon and Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers Using
           Phase-Contrast Imaging
    • Authors: Christian Gusenbauer; Michael Reiter; Bernhard Plank; Dietmar Salaberger; Sascha Senck; Johann Kastner
      Abstract: This paper presents multi-modal image data of different fibre reinforced polymer samples acquired with a desktop Talbot-Lau grating interferometer (TLGI) X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system and compare the results with images acquired using conventional absorption-based XCT. Two different fibre reinforced polymer samples are investigated: (i) a carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) featuring a copper mesh embedded near the surface for lightning conduction and (ii) a short glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) sample. The primary goal is the non-destructive detection of internal defects such as pores and the quantification of porosity. TLGI provides three imaging modalities including attenuation contrast (AC) due to absorption, differential phase contrast (DPC) due to refraction and dark-field contrast (DFC) due to scattering. In the case of the CFRP sample, DPC is less prone to metal streak artefacts improving the detection of pores that are located close to metal components. In addition, results of a metal artefact reduction (MAR) method, based on sinogram inpainting and an image fusion concept for AC, DPC and DPC, are presented. In the case of the GFRP sample, DPC between glass fibres and matrix is lower compared to AC while DPC shows an increased contrast between pores and its matrix. Porosity for the CFRP sample is determined by applying an appropriate global thresholding technique while an additional background removal is necessary for the GFRP sample.
      PubDate: 2018-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0529-6
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 1 (2018)
  • A Novel Prediction Method for Hardness Using Auto-regressive Spectrum of
           Barkhausen Noise
    • Authors: Guangmin Sun; Hao Liu; Cunfu He; Yu Li; Xiucheng Liu; Zibo Li; Ruihuan Zhang; Haonan Lu
      Abstract: In this study, a novel method for predicting hardness of ferromagnetic alloy based on the magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) is proposed. A set of new frequency features of MBN and a new hardness prediction method are proposed. The new features are derived from the first and second derivative of the auto-regressive spectrum of MBN signal. The new automatic hardness prediction method include Bag-of-Words, principal component analysis and back propagate neural network optimized by ensemble learning. The experimental results of the hardness classification show that the new features are superior to the previous features—the misclassification rate using the new features is less than 0.67%, while the misclassification rate using the previous features is about 2%. The efficiency of the new method is also proved by hardness classification experiment. Compared with the traditional time-domain method and the previous frequency domain method, the misclassification rate of the new method decreased significantly from 25% to less than 1%. In addition, the new method is highly automatic, so it is more versatile than manual algorithms. The above characteristics make the proposed new method suitable for predicting the hardness of ferromagnetic alloys in practice.
      PubDate: 2018-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10921-018-0539-4
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 4 (2018)
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