for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2431 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (210 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (203 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (112 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1271 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (402 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (57 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (77 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (203 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 284)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 78)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access  
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
Territorium : Revista Portuguesa de riscos, prevenção e segurança     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Journal of Constructional Steel Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.892
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0143-974X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Flexural response of concrete-filled seamless steel tubes
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 149Author(s): Farid H. Abed, Yosri I. Abdelmageed, A. Kerim Ilgun This paper aims to investigate the flexural behavior of concrete filled tubes (CFSTs) made of seamless steel which can handle more pressure than welded steel. Experimental, Theoretical and Finite Element Analyses are utilized for this purpose. The experimental program consists of four-point bending tests of six CFSTs and three hollow steel tubes (STs) for three different Diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratios of 7.82, 13.5 and 17.5. The test results included are the moment versus displacement and strains, failure modes and ultimate capacities. The contribution of the concrete infill to the flexural capacity was more significant in specimens with higher D/t ratios. All CFST beams exhibited ductile mode of failure with no local buckling. The experimental moments are compared to theoretical nominal moments calculated by well-known international design codes such as the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ), the British Standard (BS), the AISC-LRFD, and the Euro code4. Only the AIJ equations predicted non-conservative capacities particularly at the highest D/t ratio. The other codes and standards were more conservative since they did not consider the effect of concrete confinement in their design equations. Finite Element (FE) simulation of the flexural response of CFST is also conducted by developing a nonlinear 3D model considering both material and geometric nonlinearities. The FE model is verified using the present experimental results and a good agreement was achieved in terms of the moment capacity, the failure mode and the moment-mid span deflection curves. In addition, the verified finite element model was used to carry out a parametric study considering wider ranges of D/t ratios and yield strengths.
       
  • Compressive strength evaluation of circular tubular short columns with
           locally corroded ends
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 149Author(s): Hyoung-Seok Kim, Duy Kien Dao, Chang-Hee Shin, Young-Soo Jeong, In-Tae Kim When structural steel members are in contact with horizontal members, such as concrete slabs, dust and moisture easily accumulate at their junction. This can induce local corrosion at their ends, and consequently, reduce their compressive strengths. In this study, compressive tests were conducted on circular tubular short columns to examine the change in compressive strength with local corrosion at the ends of the columns. The columns were fabricated to have corrosion levels of various depths, heights, and circumferences. As a result, local buckling occurred near the column ends. Moreover, residual compressive strengths linearly decreased as the corroded depth, height, and circumference increased. An evaluation method using the effective volume was proposed to assess the residual critical compressive strengths of circular tubular short columns with locally corroded ends.
       
  • Self-centering steel column base with metallic energy dissipation devices
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 149Author(s): Vasileios C. Kamperidis, Theodore L. Karavasilis, George VasdravellisAbstractColumn bases of seismic-resistant steel frames are typically designed as full-strength to ensure that plastic hinges develop in the bottom end of the first-storey columns. Alternatively, column bases may be designed as partial-strength and dissipate energy through inelastic deformations in their main components (i.e., base plate, steel anchor rods). Both design philosophies result in difficult-to-repair damage and residual drifts. Moreover, the second design philosophy results in complex hysteretic behaviour with strength and stiffness deterioration. This paper proposes a partial-strength low-damage self-centering steel column base. The column base provides flexibility in the design as its rotational stiffness and moment resistance can be independently tuned. The paper presents an analytical model that predicts the stiffness, strength, and hysteretic behaviour of the column base. In addition, a design procedure and detailed finite element models are presented. The paper evaluates the effectiveness of the column base by carrying out nonlinear dynamic analyses on a prototype steel building designed as post-tensioned self-centering moment-resisting frame. The results demonstrate the potential of the column base to reduce the residual first-storey drifts and protect the first-storey columns from yielding.
       
  • Component-based model of fin plate connections exposed to fire-part I:
           Plate in bearing component
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 149Author(s): Baochao Xie, Jing Hou, Zhisheng Xu, Mingjie Dan Connections are important components for maintaining the robustness of a structure. The behaviour of connections and their influence on the structure exposed to fire can only be properly understood if either the substructure or the entire structure that contains the connections are investigated. The costs of fire testing a structure that contains connections are very high and using three-dimensional (3-D) solid elements to simulate connections in a finite element analysis (FEA) can be very time-consuming. A component-based model is therefore a realistic approach to model the behavior of the connection under the complex stress history when exposed to fire. The key to establishing such a component-based model for connections exposed to fire is to determine the temperature-dependent force-deflection relationships of the components which have not been extensively explored. In this study, the plate in bearing component using fully threaded bolts was investigated at ambient and elevated temperatures. The behaviour of the component was determined by establishing a 3-D solid finite element modelling of lap joints with the FEA software ABAQUS. The effects of parameters such as edge distance, bolt pitch, end distance, plate thickness, bolt hole diameter, bolt bearing angle and temperature on the behaviour of the plate in bearing component were investigated. The failure mode, resistance, initial stiffness and the force-deflection relationship of the component for different values of these parameters were noted and prediction models for the resistance and initial stiffness of the components were proposed. A nonlinear function relation for force-deflection was also established.
       
  • Effect of sequence and stiffener shape on welding distortion of stiffened
           panel
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 149Author(s): Saeed Shadkam, Eslam Ranjbarnodeh, Mehdi Iranmanesh Welding is extensively used in industries for the assembly of different products including ships, automobiles, trains, bridges etc. Welding distortion is usually a source of dimensional imprecision in assembly and higher manufacturing costs. So, it is of crucial importance to predict and minimize welding-induced distortion by improving the quality of the welded structure. The purpose of this research is to reduce the distortion in large ship panels. The study uses two methods. First, distortion prediction by thermal elastic plastic FE analysis is employed to estimate the inherent deformations of different SM490A steel welded joints. Then, the welding process of a large ship panel is elastically analyzed on the basis of the theory of inherent strains. The elastic analysis reveals some distortions on the edge and inside of the panel. The distortions can be minimized by changing welding sequence of panel stiffeners to symmetrical welding of type B and changing shape to L-stiffener as well as changing stiffener material to the SM570.
       
  • Design of austenitic and duplex stainless steel SHS and RHS beam-columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Ju Chen, Yuner Huang, Ben Young A finite element analysis and design of austenitic and duplex stainless steel tubular section beam-columns is presented in this paper. The nonlinear finite element model was verified against experimental results of stainless steel tubular section beam-columns and beams. In this study, square and rectangular hollow sections were investigated. It was shown that the finite element model closely predicted the ultimate loads and failure modes of the tested beam-columns and beams. Hence, the finite element model was used for an extensive parametric study. The axial compressive strengths of the beam-column specimens predicted by the finite element analysis are compared with the design strengths calculated using the linear interaction equation and direct strength method. Reliability analysis was performed to assess the reliability of these design rules. It is shown that these design rules generally provide accurate and reliable predictions for stainless steel tubular section beam-columns. Design recommendations for linear interaction equation and the direct strength methods are proposed for stainless steel SHS and RHS beam-columns.
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigation of austenitic stainless steel
           hot-rolled angles under compression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Arthur A. de Menezes, Pedro C.G. da S. Vellasco, Luciano R.O. de Lima, André T. da Silva Flexural and flexural-torsional buckling are stability phenomena and the controlling limit state for carbon steel angle columns. When these columns are made of austenitic stainless steel, some structural response differences are expected and motivated the present investigation. In fact, the stainless steel grade has been investigated in last few years due to unique proprieties in comparison with the carbon steel grades. Therefore, this paper aimed to enlarge the available experimental data for austenitic angles under compression. To fulfil these objectives, thirteen specimens were tested on 64 × 64 × 6.4 hot rolled equal-legs angles with lengths varying from 250 mm to 1500 mm. A numerical study has been developed comparing the results with experimental tests. In addition, a parametric analysis was performed where the slenderness and cross sections ranges were expanded to investigate their influence on the structural behaviour. These results were compared to Eurocode 3 part 1–4 and enabled the suggestion of better-suited values for the adopted Eurocode column curve parameters λ0 and α, respectively.
       
  • Stainless steel lipped C-section beams: Numerical modelling and
           development of design rules
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Shenggang Fan, Meihe Chen, Shuai Li, Zhixia Ding, Ganping Shu, Baofeng ZhengABSTRACTExperimental results and finite element (FE) analysis results on stainless steel lipped C-section beams are scarce. Therefore, a series of tests were performed on S30408 stainless steel, including 6 major-axis bending and 6 weak-axis bending specimens. Two numerical modelling programmes, major-axis bending and weak-axis bending, have been carried out to investigate the behavior of stainless steel lipped C-section beams. The numerical models, which were developed using the FE package ABAQUS, were verified by experimental results. The models were used to conduct parametric studies of the impact of key parameters on the moment capacity of stainless steel lipped C-section beams subject to failure by local buckling. Finally, based on FE analysis of 238 specimens under major-axis bending and 229 members under weak-axis bending, direct strength equations for lipped C-section stainless steel beams under major-axis bending and weak-axis bending are proposed. A comparison of test results with equation predictions indicates that the formulas have high accuracy and reliability and can accurately calculate the moment capacity of stainless steel lipped C-section beams.
       
  • Analysis of stainless steel-concrete composite beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): R. Shamass, K.A. Cashell Stainless steel is increasingly popular in construction projects owing to its corrosion-resistance, excellent mechanical and physical properties and its aesthetic appearance. The current paper is concerned with the use of these materials in steel-concrete composite beams, which is an entirely new application. Current design codes for steel-concrete composite beams are based on elastic-perfectly plastic steel material behaviour neglecting strain hardening. Whilst this is a reasonable assumption for carbon steel, stainless steel is a very ductile material which offers significant levels of strain hardening prior to failure. Therefore, current design provisions typically result in inaccurate and overly-conservative strength predictions when applied to stainless steel composite beams. The current study presents for the first time, an analytical solution for predicting the plastic bending capacity of stainless steel–concrete composite beams with either full or partial shear connection. This method is a development of the continuous strength method (CSM). Since the analytical analysis requires complex mathematical solution, a simplified analytical solution is also proposed, utilising some of the assumptions in Eurocode 4. There are no tests currently available in the literature for stainless steel-concrete composite beams. Therefore, a finite-element model is developed and validated against a number of experimental results for composite beams made from normal or high strength carbon steel. The validated numerical model is then used to investigate the accuracy of the proposed analytical solution. It is concluded that both the full and simplified analytical solutions are reliable and the simplified analytical method provides a straight forward design tool for practical engineers.
       
  • Elevated temperature material properties of a new high-chromium austenitic
           stainless steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Yating Liang, Timo Manninen, Ou Zhao, Fiona Walport, Leroy Gardner A testing programme was conducted to investigate the material properties of a new high-chromium grade of austenitic stainless steel - EN 1.4420 at elevated temperatures. A total of 164 tensile coupons extracted from both cold-rolled and hot-rolled sheets were tested; 80 coupons were tested isothermally with temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 1100 °C, and 84 were tested anisothermally with stress levels ranging from 10% to 90% of the material 0.2% proof stress at room temperature. The experimentally derived reduction factors for the key material properties were compared with existing design values. Design recommendations for the elevated temperature reduction factors were then proposed for this new grade, and a two-stage Ramberg–Osgood model was shown to be able to accurately represent the material stress–strain response at elevated temperature.
       
  • Experimental study on residual stresses in cold rolled austenitic
           stainless steel hollow sections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Baofeng Zheng, Ganping Shu, Qinglin Jiang This paper focuses on the residual stresses in cold rolled austenitic stainless steel hollow sections. A series of residual stresses tests were carried out. Eight cross sections were tested, including four rectangular hollow sections and four circular hollow sections. The fabrication route of the test specimens was measured and introduced. Sectioning method modified with T rosettes strain gauges was used to reveal the residual stresses, including the longitudinal and transverse bending and membrane residual stresses. Totally, residual stresses of 160 points were recorded. Plane stress condition assumption was used in processing the residual strains. Test results indicate that the dominated residual stress was the longitudinal bending residual stress for RHS, and longitudinal and transverse bending residual stress for CHS. The magnitudes of all the other types of residual stress were less than 50 MPa. Residual stress distribution models were proposed based on the test data, and compared with test data available in literatures. Comparisons show the residual stresses in cold formed section highly depend on manufacturing processes and material types.
       
  • Behaviour of stainless steel beam-to-column joints-part 2: Numerical
           modelling and parametric study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Mohamed Elflah, Marios Theofanous, Samir Dirar This paper reports a detailed numerical (FE) study on planar stainless steel beam-to-column joints. A nonlinear FE model is developed and validated against the first set on full-scale tests on stainless steel beam-to-column joints reported in the companion paper. The FE model is shown to accurately replicate the experimentally determined, initial stiffness, ultimate resistance, overall moment-rotation response and observed failure modes. Parametric studies are conducted to obtain the moment-rotation characteristics of a wide range of beam-to-column joints classified as semi-rigid and/or partial strength. Due to the low ductility of the bolts compared to the high ductility exhibited by all other stainless steel joint components, in all cases the strength and ductility of the simulated joints is limited by the failure of the connecting bolts. The design rules for stainless steel connections, which are based on the specifications of EN 1993-1-8 for carbon steel joints, are reviewed and are found to be overly conservative in terms of strength and inaccurate in terms of stiffness thus necessitating the development of novel design guidance in line with the observed structural response. These conclusions are in agreement with the ones reported in the companion paper.
       
  • Fire-resistance of RHS stainless steel beams with three faces exposed to
           fire
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Shenggang Fan, Li Du, Shuai Li, Liyuan Zhang, Ke Shi To investigate fire-resistance behaviors of rectangular section stainless steel beams with three faces exposed to fire, fire resistance analysis models were established based on existing experiment data, and numerical simulation analysis was conducted. Comparison between the finite element calculation results and the experiment results verified the accuracy of the finite element models. On this basis, parametric analysis was carried out on the fire resistance behaviors of rectangular section stainless steel beams with three faces exposed to fire, with a focus on the influences of the section factor on the temperature distribution, mid-span vertical deformations and critical temperatures. Finally, the formula for the bearing capacity of the rectangular section stainless steel beams with three faces exposed to fire was fitted, providing important references for engineering designs of stainless steel structures in the future.
       
  • Effects of material nonlinearity on the global analysis and stability of
           stainless steel frames
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): F. Walport, L. Gardner, E. Real, I. Arrayago, D.A. Nethercot In structural frames, second order effects refer to the internal forces and moments that arise as a result of deformations under load (i.e. geometrical nonlinearity). EN 1993-1-1 states that global second order effects may be neglected if the critical load factor of the frame αcr is greater than or equal to 10 for an elastic analysis, or greater than or equal to 15 when a plastic global analysis is used. No specific guidance is provided in EN 1993-1-4 for the design of stainless steel frames, for which the nonlinear stress-strain behaviour of the material will result in greater deformations as the material loses its stiffness. A study of the effects of material nonlinearity on the stability of stainless steel frames is presented herein. A series of different frame geometries and loading conditions are considered. Based on the findings, proposals for the treatment of the influence of material nonlinearity on the global analysis and design of stainless steel frames are presented.
       
  • Parametric study on austenitic stainless steel beam-columns with hollow
           sections under fire
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Nuno Lopes, Mónica Manuel, Ana Regina Sousa, Paulo Vila Real This research work presents a parametric numerical study on the resistance at elevated temperatures of stainless steel members, subjected to combined bending and axial compression. Previous studies have shown the need for the development of further research works aiming at better predicting the fire behaviour of stainless steel beam-columns. However they have only considered beam-columns composed of stocky I sections. Hence, this paper focuses on austenitic stainless steel (European grade 1.4301 also known as 304) beam-columns composed of square hollow sections (SHS) and circular hollow sections (CHS), considering different cross-sections classes (1 to 4), according to Eurocode 3 (EC3) classification.The numerical analyses were performed using the finite element program SAFIR, with material and geometric non-linear analysis considering imperfections. The influence of the following parameters was evaluated: bending moment diagram shape, cross-section slenderness considering the local buckling occurrence on the thin-walled sections, and member slenderness for the global instability due to flexural buckling.Comparisons between the obtained numerical results and the interaction curves of Eurocode 3 are presented. The results show that specific design approach should be developed for these stainless steel members under fire situation, taking into account the above mentioned parameters.
       
  • Response to discussion on “Experimental seismic behavior of innovative
           composite shear walls”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Xiao-Meng Zhang, Ying Qin, Zhi-Hua Chen
       
  • Standardised material properties for numerical parametric studies of
           stainless steel structures and buckling curves for tubular columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): S. Afshan, O. Zhao, L. Gardner While the nominal material properties given in material specifications are suitable for design purposes, for the generation of realistic numerical parametric results that are ‘equivalent’ to physical experiments, material properties that are representative of actual structural members are required. Standardised values for these properties are proposed herein. Following analysis of a comprehensive database of material test data from different stainless steel products, values for the yield stress fy, the ultimate tensile stress fu, the strain at ultimate tensile stress εu and the Ramberg-Osgood parameters n and m are proposed. This enables the generation of standardised stress-strain curves for typical austenitic, duplex and ferritic stainless steel sections. Following this, an extensive numerical modelling study, incorporating the proposed standardised material parameters, was carried out to investigate the effect of production route (cold-formed and hot-finished) and material grade (austenitic, duplex and ferritic) on the flexural buckling behaviour and design of stainless steel square, rectangular and circular hollow section compression members. The FE generated flexural buckling data, combined with column test data from the literature, were used to derive a series of buckling curves for the design of stainless steel compression members. The suitability of the proposals was confirmed by means of reliability analysis.
       
  • Plastic design of stainless steel continuous beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Michaela Gkantou, Georgios Kokosis, Marios Theofanous, Samir Dirar In this paper an experimental study on eight simply-supported and four two-span continuous beams employing austenitic and duplex stainless steel rectangular hollow sections (RHS) is reported. In parallel with the tests, finite element models were developed. Upon validation against the experimental results, parametric studies were conducted to expand the available structural performance data over a range of cross-section slendernesses, structural systems and load configurations likely to occur in practice. The obtained experimental and numerical results along with collated test data were used to assess the accuracy of EN 1993-1-4 design provisions and to explore the possibility of plastic design for stainless steel indeterminate structures, simultaneously accounting for the effect of strain-hardening at cross-sectional level and moment redistribution exhibited by structures employing stocky cross-sections.
       
  • Stainless steel channel sections under combined compression and minor axis
           bending – Part 2: Parametric studies and design
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Yating Liang, Ou Zhao, Yue-ling Long, Leroy Gardner Following the experimental study and finite element (FE) model validation described in the companion paper, numerical parametric studies and the evaluation of design provisions for stainless steel channel sections under combined axial compressive load and minor axis bending moment are presented herein. The parametric studies were carried out to generate additional structural performance data over a wider range of cross-section aspect ratios and slendernesses, loading combinations and bending orientations. The test data and numerical results have been carefully analysed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the structural performance of stainless steel channel sections under combined compression and minor axis bending moment, and to assess the accuracy of the existing design provisions in Europe and North America. Comparisons of ultimate loads from the tests and FE simulations with the codified resistance predictions revealed that the current design standards typically under-estimate the capacity of stainless steel channel sections under combined compression and minor axis bending moment; this is attributed primarily to the neglect of material strain hardening and the employment of conservative interaction formulae. Improved design rules featuring more efficient interaction curves, anchored to more precise end points (i.e. cross-section resistances under pure compression and bending moment), are then proposed and presented. The new design proposals are shown to yield both more accurate and more consistent resistance predictions over the existing design provisions. Finally, statistical analyses are presented to confirm the reliability of the new design proposals according to EN 1990.
       
  • Structural behaviour of cold-formed stainless steel bolted connections at
           post-fire condition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Yancheng Cai, Ben Young This paper presents an experimental investigation on cold-formed stainless steel single shear and double shear bolted connections at post-fire condition. The connection specimens were fabricated by three different grades of stainless steel. The three different grades of stainless steel are austenitic stainless steels EN 1.4301 (AISI 304) and EN 1.4571 (AISI 316Ti) as well as lean duplex stainless steel EN 1.4162 (AISI S32101). The post-fire connection specimens were heated to different nominal temperatures of 350, 650 and 950 °C, respectively, and then cooled down to room (ambient) temperature condition. A total of 82 new connection tests was conducted. The test results of post-fire specimens were compared with those tested without post-fire condition for the same specimen series. Generally, it is found that the single shear and double shear bolted connection specimens cooled down from the nominal temperatures of 350 and 650 °C had higher ultimate strengths than those specimens without expose to high temperatures for all three different grades of stainless steel. The specimens cooled down from 950 °C generally had lower ultimate strengths than the aforementioned specimens. It is also found that the failure modes of cold-formed stainless steel bolted connection specimens at post-fire condition are similar to those tested without post-fire condition. Finally, design rules are proposed for cold-formed stainless steel bolted connections at post-fire condition for temperature up to 950 °C.
       
  • Web crippling design of cold-formed ferritic stainless steel unlipped
           channels with fastened flanges under end-two-flange loading condition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Amir M. Yousefi, James B.P. Lim, G. Charles Clifton In this paper, a combination of tests and non-linear finite element analyses is used to investigate the web crippling strength of cold-formed ferritic stainless steel unlipped channels with fastened flanges under the end-two-flange (ETF) loading condition; the cases of both unlipped channels with and without web holes are considered. The results of 27 web crippling tests are presented, with 9 tests conducted on unlipped channels without web holes and 18 tests conducted on unlipped channels with web holes. In the case of tests with web holes, the holes are located either centred or offset to the load and reaction plates. An extensive parametric study is undertaken, using quasi-static finite element analysis, to investigate the effects of web holes. The strengths obtained from reduction factor equations are first compared to strengths calculated from equations recently proposed for cold-formed stainless steel lipped channels. It is demonstrated that the strength reduction factor equations previously proposed for cold-formed stainless steel lipped channels can be unconservative for cold-formed ferritic stainless steel unlipped channels by up to 10%. The laboratory investigation also shows that, for the case of unlipped channels without web holes, the European Standard (EN 1993-1-4) and the American Society of Civil Engineers Specification (SEI/ASCE-8) are too conservative by 43% and 28%, respectively. From both laboratory and finite element results, web crippling design equations are proposed for both sections, with and without web holes.
       
  • Performance of concrete filled stainless steel tubular (CFSST) columns and
           joints: Summary of recent research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Lin-Hai Han, Chuan-Yang Xu, Zhong Tao Concrete filled stainless steel tubular (CFSST) columns have attracted increasing research interests in the last decade. This paper briefly introduces the material properties of stainless steel and reviews recent research on behaviour of CFSST columns and joints at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The reviewed studies include tests of bond behaviour between the stainless steel tube and core concrete, and the static behaviour of CFSST stub columns, slender columns, beams, stainless steel-concrete-carbon steel double-skin tubular columns, and concrete filled bimetallic tubular columns. The cyclic behaviour of CFSST beam-columns under combined axial and lateral cyclic loading as well as the impact behaviour of CFSST columns is also introduced. Fire test results of full-scale CFSST columns are presented along with finite element analysis results. The behaviour of composite joints with CFSST columns is also briefly reviewed in this paper. Based on the previous research, future research directions on CFSST are summarised and discussed.
       
  • Stainless steel channel sections under combined compression and minor axis
           bending – Part 1: Experimental study and numerical modelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Yating Liang, Ou Zhao, Yue-ling Long, Leroy Gardner The local cross-section behaviour of stainless steel channel sections under the combined actions of axial compression and minor axis bending moment is investigated in the present paper and its companion paper, based on a comprehensive experimental and numerical study. Two channel section sizes were considered in the experimental programme, with the test specimens laser-welded at the two flange-to-web junctions from hot-rolled EN 1.4307 and EN 1.4404 austenitic stainless steel plates. The experiments involved initial local geometric imperfection measurements and 15 eccentrically loaded stub column (combined loading) tests. The loading eccentricity was varied to achieve a range of ratios of axial compression to minor axis bending moment; both orientations of bending (web in compression and web in tension) were considered. The test setup and procedures, together with the key experimental observations, including the load-carrying and deformation capacities, load-end rotation histories and failure modes, are fully reported. A finite element simulation study is then presented, in which the models were first validated against the obtained test results and then employed, in the companion paper, for parametric investigations and the assessment of design provisions.
       
  • Finite element modelling and design of welded stainless steel I-section
           columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Yidu Bu, Leroy Gardner Stainless steel is widely used in construction due to its combination of excellent mechanical properties, durability and aesthetics. Towards more sustainable infrastructure, stainless steel is expected be more commonly specified and to feature in more substantial structural applications in the future; this will require larger and typically welded cross-sections. While the structural response of cold-formed stainless steel sections has been extensively studied in the literature, welded sections have received less attention to date. The stability and design of conventionally welded and laser-welded austenitic stainless steel compression members are therefore the focus of the present research. Finite element (FE) models were developed and validated against a total of 59 experiments, covering both conventionally welded and laser-welded columns, for which different residual stress patterns were applied. A subsequent parametric study was carried out, considering a range of cross-section and member geometries. The existing experimental results, together with the numerical data generated herein, were then used to assess the buckling curves given in European, North American and Chinese design standards. Following examination of the data and reliability analysis, new buckling curves were proposed, providing, for the first time, design guidance for laser-welded stainless steel members.
       
  • Behaviour of stainless steel beam-to-column joints — Part 1:
           Experimental investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Mohamed Elflah, Marios Theofanous, Samir Dirar, Huanxin Yuan Research on stainless steel structures has primarily focused on the structural response of individual members, whilst the response of joints has received far less attention to date. This paper reports for the first time full-scale tests on stainless steel beam-to-column joints, subjected to static monotonic loads, whilst the companion paper reports numerical studies on similar connection typologies to the ones studied herein. The joint configurations tested include one flush and one extended end plate connection, two top and seated cleat connections, and two top, seated and web cleat connections of single-sided beam-to-column joints. All connected members and connecting parts including bolts, angle cleats and end plates are in Grade EN 1.4301 stainless steel. The full moment-rotation characteristics were recorded for each test and the experimentally derived stiffness and moment resistance for each joint was compared to the codified provisions of EN1993-1-8. It was verified that the connections displayed excellent ductility and attained loads much higher than the ones predicted by design standards for carbon steel joints.
       
  • Experimental behaviour of stainless steel bolted T-stub connections under
           monotonic loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): H.X. Yuan, S. Hu, X.X. Du, L. Yang, X.Y. Cheng, M. Theofanous A comprehensive experimental study on structural behaviour of stainless steel bolted T-stub connections is presented in this paper. A total of 27 stainless steel bolted T-stubs with various geometric configurations were fabricated from hot-rolled stainless steel plates and assembled with stainless steel bolts. Two stainless steel grades − austenitic EN 1.4301 and duplex EN 1.4462, and two other types of stainless steel bolts − A4-70 and A4-80, were introduced in the experimental programme. Tensile coupon tests were performed to determine the material properties of the stainless steel plates and bolts. The bolted T-stub specimens were tested under monotonic loading, and ultimate resistances, plastic deformation capacities and failure modes were obtained. Based on the experimental results, the existing design methods for predicting tension resistances of the bolted T-stub connections, including design provisions in EN 1993-1-8, the continuous strength method (CSM), AISC manual and JGJ 82 and other design formulae for T-stubs with four bolts per row, were all evaluated. It was indicated that all the existing design methods provided generally conservative predictions for stainless steel bolted T-stub connections.
       
  • Behaviour of three types of stainless steel after exposure to elevated
           temperatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Zhong Tao, Xing-Qiang Wang, Md Kamrul Hassan, Tian-Yi Song, Li-An Xie Extensive studies have been conducted in the past to investigate the behaviour of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures. In contrast, little information is available on its post-fire behaviour. In the present study, tensile tests were conducted on three types of stainless steel (i.e., austenitic, duplex and ferritic alloys) to determine their full-range stress–strain curves. Coupons extracted from the original sheet materials and the flat parts of square hollow sections were heated to various temperatures up to 1200 °C and then cooled down to room temperature. The effects of temperature on different mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, ultimate strain and strain hardening exponent, are analysed. Based on regression analysis, suitable modifications are made to an existing stress–strain model proposed by the authors for austenitic stainless steel in an earlier paper. After the modifications, the revised model can be applied to evaluate the post-fire behaviour of all the three types of stainless steel.
       
  • Capacity of exposed column base connections subjected to uniaxial and
           biaxial bending moments
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Mohammad Ali Khaksar Fasaee, Mohammad Reza Banan, Sina GhazizadehABSTRACTCurrent guidelines do not address the design of column base connections under combined biaxial bending moment and axial load. An analytical study is conducted to develop a biaxial moment-axial load interaction curve for design of exposed, unstiffened column base plates. First, a 3D finite element analysis model is developed for these connections. The response of the model is validated through a series of existing experimental data. Next, the model is used to investigate the response of a few connections subjected to various biaxial moments and axial loads. Based on simulation results, a simple and reasonably accurate interaction equation is proposed. Since the uniaxial capacities of the connection are involved in the interaction curve, an analytical method for predicting the uniaxial capacities, is also presented. This analytical method, which is based on formation of plastic mechanisms, is able to predict the strength of flexible base plates with high accuracy. The behavior of exposed base plates with I-shaped columns under minor-axis moments is also studied. Findings of this study assists practitioners with a reliable and convenient column base connection design.
       
  • Stress concentration factor for tubular CHS-to-RHS Y-joints under axial
           loads
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Yue Yin, Xiaofan Liu, Peng Lei, Liang Zhou Tubular CHS-to-RHS Y-joints under axial loads were studied numerically for the determination of stress concentration factors for hot spot stresses. Finite element models with detailed weld profile were setup for tubular CHS-to-RHS Y-joints with various configurations. Hot spot stress was determined based on results of finite element analysis by linear extrapolation method and 1 mm stress method. Stress concentration factors were then calculated and verified by the comparison with related test results. The effects of dimensionless geometry parameters and the brace inclination angle on stress concentration factors were discussed. Empirical formulas were setup for the calculation of stress concentration factors at feature locations of tubular CHS-to-RHS Y-joints, the crown toe, the saddles and the crown heel, by regression analysis. The accuracy and applicability of the proposed empirical formulas were verified.
       
  • Investigation of residual stresses in Q460GJ steel plates from
           medium-walled box sections
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Shidong Nie, Qian Zhu, Bo Yang, Pengcheng Li Residual stress is an important factor that can have considerable effect on the behaviour of steel structures. In the past, most of the research has been focused on determining the residual stress in members consisting of traditional normal strength and high strength steels. There has been little research on residual stresses in members fabricated from high performance steels such as GJ steel. The work detailed in this paper aims to experimentally investigate the residual stresses in welded box sections fabricated from Q460GJ high performance structural steel plates. A total of eight full-scale welded box sections, with nominal wall thicknesses of 12 mm and 25 mm, were tested using the sectioning method. Both the circular curve correction method and the straightening measurement method were used in this study to obtain the magnitude and distribution of the longitudinal residual stresses. In addition, the effects of steel plate thickness and the plate width-to-thickness ratio on the residual stress were investigated. A simplified residual stress distribution model, which would be of great assistance in investigating the buckling behaviour of GJ-type steel members, is proposed based on the experimental results.
       
  • Experimental study on the residual stresses of 800 MPa high strength
           steel welded box sections
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Xianlei Cao, Yong Xu, Min Wang, Geng Zhao, Lixiang Gu, Zhengyi Kong This study presents the residual stresses magnitude and distribution of 800 MPa high strength steel welded box sections. The value of residual stresses is investigated using a method of sectioning, and the effect of width to thickness ratio on the magnitude of stresses is considered in the analysis. From the results of experiment, the influence of width to thickness ratio on the tensile residual stresses in welded zone is small, while the effect of width to thickness ratio on the compressive residual stresses located in the center of plates is large. The maximum tensile residual stresses values change from 0.30 fy to 0.56 fy, and the constant compressive stresses ranges from 0.06 fy to 0.26 fy. The residual stresses distributed in all cross-section satisfies the self-balancing requirement. Comparison of distribution and magnitude of residual stresses between test data and existing models are made. A simplified model is suggested to estimate the residual stresses distribution of steel welded box section made of 800 MPa high strength steel.
       
  • Fire resistance of composite steel & concrete highway bridges
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Jiayu Hu, Asif Usmani, Abdel Sanad, Ricky Carvel In this paper, the effects of geometric skewness and abutment restraint on the fire resistance of a real highway bridge have been studied. Four finite element models have been investigated using rectangular and skew shapes with and without modelling the abutment. The investigation has been carried out in three steps: 1) heat transfer analysis under a specified hydrocarbon fire; 2) simulation of the thermo-mechanical response of the bridge superstructure over the entire duration of the fire using beam and shell elements to represent the structural components; 3) detailed processing and interpretation of the simulation results to understand and illustrate the global response of the structure by comparing all the models. Results indicate that a skew bridge may possess greater inherent resistance to fire. For the two-span highway bridge model, restraint from the abutment does not affect the estimated failure time significantly.
       
  • Elastic displacement spectrum-based design of damage-controlling BRBFs
           with rocking walls
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Yulong Feng, Zhi Zhang, Xun Chong, Jing Wu, Shaoping Meng This paper investigates the seismic design and performance of buckling-restrained braced frames with rocking walls (BRBF-RWs) for the purpose of using rocking walls (RWs) to mitigate the drift concentration issue of buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs). Formulas for calculating the elastic structural lateral displacement and RW internal force under typical lateral loads are derived and validated; then, the stiffness and strength demand of the RW are approximately determined based on the elastic formulas when the BRBF-RW enters the inelastic stage. Combined with the proposed inelastic demand, an elastic displacement spectrum-based design procedure is presented, which can directly determine the sectional area of the buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) and the required stiffness and strength of the RW. A 6-story steel BRBF-RW is designed using the proposed procedure as an example, and a series of nonlinear pushover analyses (NPAs) and nonlinear response history analyses (NRHAs) are performed to validate the design. The example shows that the designed target displacement and the NRHA result are close and that the deviations between the drift concentration factor, RW maximum moment and shear force obtained using formulas and using NPAs and NRHAs are small. Lastly, a brief comparative analysis is performed to illustrate the enhanced seismic performance of the designed BRBF-RW via NPAs and NRHAs.
       
  • The influence of rib stiffeners on the response of extended end-plate
           joints
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Roberto Tartaglia, Mario D'Aniello, Raffaele Landolfo The presence of rib stiffeners in extended end-plate joints influences the yield line distribution in the tensile zone of the connection, the depth of internal lever arm as well as the resistance of compression components of the joint. In addition, the stiffeners may affect the plastic rotation capacity of the connected beam in both monotonic and cyclic regime. The current EN1993:1–8 (2005) gives limited recommendations on these issues, while EN1998-1 (2005) does not provide any detailing rules to enforce ductile cyclic response when rib stiffeners are adopted in end-plate connections. In order to investigate these criticisms, extensive parametric finite element simulations were carried out and the obtained results are described and discussed in this paper. The main analyzed parameters are the thickness, the slope (i.e. the depth to width ratio), and the constructional imperfections of the rib stiffeners for different beam-to-column assemblies alternatively designed with full and partial strength connection. The monitored response from monotonic and cyclic analyses allows characterizing the yield line distribution and the variation of internal forces into the rib and the bolt rows. The evolution of the internal lever arm of the connection, the out-of-plane bending and torsional moments developing when the connected beam experiences large plastic rotations as well as the forces acting on lateral torsional restraints are also investigated.
       
  • Response modification factor of concentrically braced frames with
           hexagonal pattern of braces
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Ali Kheyroddin, Niloufar Mashhadiali This paper presents the response modification factor ‘R’ of the new bracing configuration of concentrically braced frames (CBFs). This innovative bracing system called “hexa-braced frame” is composed of hexagonal pattern of braces in which vertical structural elements connect the V and inverted-V bracings over three stories to form the hexagonal bracing configuration. FEMA P695 provides a global methodology to quantify seismic performance factor for new structural systems. Following this methodology, a set of 4-, 10- and 20-story archetypes representing low-, mid- and high-rise buildings, respectively, were used to evaluate the R factor of the hexa-braced frame. Trial values of R factor were examined through nonlinear static and dynamic analyses to satisfy acceptance criteria of the P695 methodology. The results were compared with the responses of similar X-braced frame models as the benchmark. The iterative process to determine R factor for the hexa-braced frame was performed using values of R factor, 6 and 7. Based on the performance evaluation of hexa- braced frame archetypes by measuring their collapse fragility, the value of R factor, 7 achieved the safety margin against collapse during the earthquakes. As expected, the analysis results confirmed the given value of R factor 6 for X-braced frame system in design codes (ASCE 7).
       
  • Seismic response of friction damped and base-isolated frames considering
           serviceability limit state
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Esra Mete Güneyisi, Ahmet Hilmi DeringölABSTRACTThe present study evaluates the seismic performance of steel moment resisting frames (MRFs) upgraded with different structural protective systems. For this, three 5 storey steel MRFs (Ordinary moment frame (OMF), intermediate moment frame (IMF) and special moment frame (SMF)) and two 10 storey MRFs (IMF and SMF) were studied. As structural protective systems, friction dampers (FDs), base isolation with lead rubber bearings (LRBs), and a combination of them were considered. The structures were modeled using a finite element program and evaluated by the nonlinear time history analyses. In the nonlinear time history analyses, seven natural accelerograms, namely, 1976 Gazlı, 1978 Tabas, 1986 San Salvador, 1987 Superstition Hills, 1992 Cape Mendocino, 1994 Northridge and 1999 Chi-Chi were taken into account. Roof drift, roof absolute acceleration, relative displacement, interstorey drift ratio, base shear, top storey moment, and hysteretic curve were employed to compare the elastic and inelastic responses of all frames. The results clearly highlighted that the application of FDs with LRB had remarkable improvement in the earthquake performance of the case study frames reducing the local/global damages in the main structural systems and satisfied the serviceability (i.e., fully operational, FO and operational, OP) limit states as well.
       
  • Behaviour of structural sub-assemblies of steel beams with openings in
           fire conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Sherif A. Elsawaf, Maha M. Hassan Beams with web openings represent an attractive system for multi-storey buildings characterized by long spans. Openings in web of steel beams enable building services to be integrated within the constructional depth of the floor, thus reducing the total floor depth. This paper employs the general finite element software ABAQUS to numerically model the behaviour of restrained structural subassemblies of steel beam with web openings to concrete filled tubular column under fire loading scenarios. Steel beams, in this case, are axially restrained which results in a drastically different behaviour when compared to unrestrained beams. In this research, a comprehensive finite element (FE) study of the behaviour of structural subassemblies of steel beams with openings under fire scenarios is conducted. Four sizes of perforated steel sections with seven different opening configurations are modelled and studied in order to understand the significance of their effects. Moreover, the influence of applied load ratios in addition to the level of axial restraint are examined. Consequently, considerations for the performance of axially restrained perforated steel beams under fire scenarios is provided.
       
  • Full-scale shake table tests of the tension-only concentrically braced
           steel beam-through frame
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Yueshi Chen, Wei Wang, Yiyi Chen The tension-only concentrically braced steel beam-through frame (TCBBF) has the potential to enhance the seismic and post-earthquake performance for low-rise buildings in low to moderate seismic regions. To a better understanding of the dynamic response of TCBBFs, full-scale shake table tests under different seismic hazard levels and aftershocks were conducted on a three-story structural model. From the test results, the damage-control and low-residual-displacement behaviors were verified firstly. Under maximum considered earthquake (MCE), the main frame nearly remained elastic while all the braces yielded and there was almost no residual displacement. Under stronger earthquakes exceeding the MCE, yielding occurred at the beam-column connections, and the main frame demonstrated pinching behavior. Meanwhile, the residual displacement of the structure was still at a very low level. The tension-only braces played a key role in the seismic behavior. The existence of prestress made the braces able to sustain a little compression and thus increased the initial lateral stiffness of the structure. The slackness of the brace would enlarge story drift response and also induce dynamic impact due to the sudden tensioning. This impact effect was effectively controlled because of the high ductility of the braces. Tightening the slack braces was a convenient way to restore the structural behavior if the main frame was not damaged.
       
  • Permanent seismic drifts in steel moment frames
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): M.A. Bravo-Haro, A.Y. Elghazouli This paper examines residual drift demands in steel moment-resisting frames incorporating the influence of degradation and ground motion frequency content. Detailed assessments are carried out using 54 multi-storey framed buildings, with a wide range of structural characteristics, which are designed according to the provisions of Eurocode 8. In order to identify the influence of cyclic and in-cycle degradation effects, the analysis is carried out with and without degradation modelling. Incremental dynamic analysis is employed in order to achieve various limits of lateral strength demand, using a suite of 56 ground motion records. It is shown that residual drifts are markedly higher in degrading models in comparison with non-degrading models, with the differences being more pronounced in relatively short period ranges, when higher rates of cyclic deterioration are employed, and for comparatively high lateral strength demand levels. The residual drift demand is also shown to increase with the increase in number of stories, and is often concentrated in the lower levels when degrading models are used. Overall, significant residual drift demands are observed in the structural systems considered, with a high likelihood of exceeding a 0.5% residual drift limit in most cases. Based on the results, two simplified prediction relationships are proposed to estimate the permanent drifts of multi-storey steel moment framed systems. The first is concerned with the design stage based on the results of elastic analysis, whilst the second is associated with post-earthquake structural assessment based on actual measurements of residual drifts.
       
  • Flexural strength of steel I-beams reinforced with CFRP sheets at tension
           flange
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Omar H. Elkhabeery, Sherif S. Safar, Sherif A. Mourad The use of modern Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) to strengthen and repair steel beams in flexure has been rapidly increased within the past few years. This technique benefits from light-weight and extra-strong CFRP material to enhance the flexural capacity of cross section. To study the reinforcing effect of CFRP, one hundred and seventy-eight models were analyzed to cover six variables representing the common problem parameters; the variables were the slenderness ratio of web (hw/tw), the mono-symmetric ratio of I-beam (ψ), the area of CFRP (Acfrp), the modulus of elasticity of CFRP (Ecfrp), the tensile strength of CFRP (Fucfrp), and the length of CFRP sheet (Lcfrp). The adhesive properties used in parametric analysis were determined from experimental tests conducted for double-strap steel-to-CFRP joints with various bond lengths (50 to 200 mm), and the proposed model constructed using the general finite element program, ANSYS 17, was verified with experimental tests of full-scale steel beams reinforced with CFRP. The parametric study revealed that CFRP sheets were very efficient in reinforcing compact mono-symmetric sections, whereas the enhancement in beams with non-compact sections was very small. CFRP sheets were able to reach its ultimate strength provided that enough bond length was ensured. Analytical procedure to calculate the flexural strength of steel I-shaped beams reinforced with CFRP sheets at tension flange was presented.
       
  • Residual mechanical properties of high strength steels after exposure to
           fire
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Hai-Ting Li, Ben Young This paper presents an experimental investigation on residual mechanical properties of high strength steels (HSS) after exposure to fire. A test program was conducted to study the post-fire mechanical properties of cold-formed HSS. A total of 41 tensile coupon specimens was extracted from cold-formed tubular sections with nominal yield stresses of 700 and 900 MPa. The specimens were exposed to various elevated temperatures ranged from 200 to 1000 °C and then cooled down to ambient temperature before testing. Stress-strain curves were obtained and the mechanical properties of Young's modulus, yield stress (0.2% proof stress), ultimate strength, ultimate strain and fracture strain of the cold-formed high strength steel materials after exposure to elevated temperatures were derived. The post-fire retention factors that obtained from the tests were compared with existing predictive equations in the literature. The influence of heating rate on post-fire mechanical properties was also investigated. New predictive curves for the determination of residual mechanical properties of HSS after exposure to fire are proposed. It is demonstrated that the proposed predictive curves are suitable for both cold-formed and hot-rolled HSS with nominal yield stresses ranged from 690 to 960 MPa.
       
  • Response of high-strength steel beam and single-storey frame in fire:
           Numerical simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Saani Shakil, Wei Lu, Jari Puttonen The design principles for high strength steel (HSS) structures exposed to fire are under development. In this paper, the response of HSS structures in fire is studied through numerical simulation of a beam and a two-bay frame. Geometrical imperfections and residual stresses are introduced into the structural models. Deformation limit criteria are used to compare the critical temperatures of the structures made of HSS and mild steel. The comparisons show that HSS structures have higher strength reserve than mild steel structures. Using the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures from literature sources, it is observed that the deflection behaviour of the studied structures depends on the ratio of strength to elastic modulus. The deflection of the studied beam is sensitive to yield strength reduction factors as the beam fails by plastic hinge mechanism. Whereas, the deflection of the HSS frame is sensitive to the reduction factors of the elastic modulus as the frame fails by inelastic instability. The above-mentioned observations on the studied structures are made using a three-stage mechanism which is developed for interpreting the deformation response.
       
  • Fatigue life prediction of welded joints with artificial corrosion pits
           based on continuum damage mechanics
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Zhiyu Jie, Yadong Li, Xing Wei, Ping Zhuge An approach based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) is applied to predict the fatigue life of welded joints with artificial corrosion pits. Full penetration load-carrying fillet cruciform welded joints with a 45° inclined angle were constructed, and artificial corrosion tests and fatigue tests of the welded joints were carried out. A new damage variable based on the crack size was defined to assess the stiffness degradation. Material parameters in the damage evolution equations were obtained from the fatigue experimental data. The CDM model combined with numerical simulations was used to describe the fatigue damage evolution process. A comparison between the fatigue life predicted results and the test results was made. The results show that fatigue life decreases with the increase of pit depth, decreasing by approximately 50% from d = 0 mm to 2 mm at the same stress range. The fatigue damage curves can be divided into three stages: the crack initial growth stage (D  0.8). The fatigue damage curves for different stress ranges are nearly the same under the same pit depth. In addition to the material and loading conditions, the corrosive environment also has an effect on the material parameters in the fatigue damage evolution process. The fatigue life predicted results agree well with the test results, and the maximum relative error is 10.6%. The crack size can be used to describe the fatigue damage evolution of welded joints with artificial corrosion pits.
       
  • Design procedure for the web-post buckling of steel cellular beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Lucas Figueiredo Grilo, Ricardo Hallal Fakury, Ana Lydia Reis de Castro e Silva, Gustavo de Souza Veríssimo This research presents a study about the structural behavior of steel cellular beams, focused on the web-post buckling. The main objective of this study is to propose a new formulation to calculate the shear resistance of cellular beams for this phenomenon, based on laboratory tests and numerical analysis. Series of tests were performed in this work, with full-scale steel cellular beams. In these experiments, vertical and lateral displacements were measured, as well as web-post deformations. The steel mechanical properties of these beams were determined by tensile testing. A numerical model was proposed, developed in ABAQUS software, to perform parametric analysis. From these numerical models, processing 597 cases, a new formulation to determine the shear resistance in cellular beams for the web-post buckling was proposed, based on resistance curves. The proposed formulation was verified in several situations of geometry and material properties, presenting compatible results with those obtained numerically, and showing better accuracy than those available in the literature.
       
  • Prospective study on the behaviour of composite beams with an indented
           shear connector
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Ana Rita Alves, B. Valente Isabel, B. Vieira Washintgon, S. Veríssimo Gustavo This paper presents a prospective study on the behaviour of steel and concrete composite beams in which a linear indented continuous shear connector, called Crestbond, is used to establish the connection between the steel beam and the concrete slab and ensure the joint behaviour of these two elements. The work includes an experimental campaign developed at the Structural Laboratory of University of Minho, Portugal, and a numerical study developed with the ATENA 3D software.The experimental tests and the numerical models were developed to evaluate the behaviour of the composite beam and particularly the indented shear connector in analysis. The tested specimens consist on a steel beam with a continuous indented connector, positioned on the upper flange of the beam and continuously welded in its development, and a reinforced concrete slab, in a total span of 3000 mm. During the tests, the connector provided high stiffness and a full interaction between the concrete slab and the steel beam. The beams failure was determined by crushing on the upper part of the concrete slab.
       
  • Static and fatigue properties of the steel-UHPC lightweight composite
           bridge deck with large U ribs
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Xudong Shao, Wantong Qu, Junhui Cao, Youlin Yao A lightweight composite deck (LWCD) is a bridge deck system composed of an orthotropic steel deck and an ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) layer. In this paper, the LWCD was refined with the concept of large U ribs. Based on an example bridge, the Sutong Bridge in China, the new LWCD scheme with large U ribs was proposed. Calculation showed that the steel consumption was basically the same as that of the original design, while the weld seam length in OSD was decreased by about 38.7%. Global and local finite-element (FE) models were built for the new LWCD scheme. The analysis results showed that for the LWCD with large U ribs, the stress reductions on fatigue-prone details were close to those of the LWCD with normal U ribs. The FE analyses also indicated that the maximum tensile stress of the UHPC layer was 10.9 MPa. Further, a full-scale longitudinal specimen was tested under negative bending moments. The test results showed that the nominal cracking stress of the UHPC layer was 24.1 MPa, implying that the UHPC layer could meet the design requirement. In addition, a nonlinear FE analysis was performed to make a comparison between the theoretical results and the test results.
       
  • Material properties and residual stresses of octagonal high strength steel
           hollow sections
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Han Fang, Tak-Ming Chan, Ben Young This paper presents an experimental investigation to quantify the variation of material properties and residual stresses in the octagonal high strength steel hollow sections from different fabrication routes involving welding or combinations of welding and press-braking. Tensile coupon tests were conducted on the specimens extracted from different locations of the hollow sections with different fabrication routes and static mechanical properties and stress-strain relationship for the specimens were measured. The influence of welding on the material properties was found to be insignificant while strength enhancement was observed for the material at corners formed by press-braking. A stress-strain curve model was proposed for the material across octagonal high strength steel hollow sections. The magnitudes and distributions of longitudinal residual stresses of the octagonal high strength steel hollow sections with different fabrication routes were also measured using the sectioning method and were also found to be dependent on the fabrication route. Based on the measured residual stress results, residual stress models were developed for the hollow sections from different fabrication routes. The obtained variation of material properties and longitudinal residual stresses can be employed to accurately analyse the performance of octagonal high strength steel hollow section structural members for efficient structural designs.
       
  • Internal force transfer effect-based fatigue damage evaluation for PBL
           shear connector groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Qinghua Zhang, Donglin Jia, Yi Bao, Zhenyu Cheng, Lin Xiao, Yizhi Bu This study presents an analytical method to analyze fatigue damage in Perfobond rib (PBL) shear connector group under cyclic loading. A step-by-step calculation procedure is proposed and implemented to quantify the fatigue damage in PBL shear connector groups, considering the uneven shear force distribution at different layers of shear connectors. The fatigue life of the PBL shear connector group is evaluated, and the effect of uneven shear force distribution on fatigue life is studied. The investigation results indicate the coupling effect between fatigue damage and internal force distribution, and reveal that the fatigue damage indices are different at different layers of a PBL shear connector group. The uneven force distribution reduces the fatigue life of PBL shear connector group, and the unevenness decreases with the development of fatigue damage. The degree of fatigue damage in each layer of the PBL shear connectors is sensitive to the upper load level. The proposed approach offers an analytical tool for evaluating the fatigue behavior of PBL shear connector groups.
       
  • Seismic performance evaluation of damage tolerant steel frame with
           composite steel-UHPC joint
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Tengfei Xu, Di Zheng, Cheng Yang, Kailai Deng In order to reduce the earthquake damage and improve the resilience of frame structures, a damage tolerant steel frame was proposed in this paper. In this steel frame, the composite Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) joint and friction damper were applied at the beam to column connection. The UHPC joint can provide excellent crack resistance and deformation capacity, while the friction damper can resist the moment in normal service and dissipate energy under earthquake. To verify the seismic performance of this novel frame, four sophisticated finite element models were built by using ABAQUS, including one conventional moment resisting frame and three novel steel frames with different friction forces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear dynamic analyses were carried out. Compared to conventional frame, both deformation and base shear force of the novel frames were significantly reduced in the simulations. Under maximum considered earthquake (MCE), the conventional steel frame sustained significant yielding in the beam-column connection and column base. While for the novel frames, more than 80% external works were dissipated by the friction dampers, and only slight plastic strain appeared on the composite UHPC joint and column base, demonstrating the realization of the expected damage tolerant performance. Furthermore, the relative small friction force was suggested according to the comparisons between novel frames. The early yielding mechanism caused by the weak friction dampers can effectively improve the energy dissipation performance and damage control.
       
  • Fatigue performance and evaluation of welded joints in steel truss bridges
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Chuang Cui, Qinghua Zhang, Yi Bao, Jiping Kang, Yizhi Bu While welded joints are extensively used in the connections of steel truss bridges, service life of the bridges is largely dependent on the fatigue resistance of the welded joints. Stress concentration and weld residual stress are two primary causes of fatigue damage in the welded joints. In this study, corner-fillet profile (CFP) and ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) are used to improve the fatigue performance of the welded joints through relieving stress concentration and weld residual stresses, respectively. The fatigue resistance of welded joints is evaluated through experimentation. The results indicate that the use of CFP and/or UIT can alter the initiation location of fatigue crack. The fatigue resistance of welded joints was increased by 24% and 36% by using the CFP and UIT, respectively. The fatigue performance of welded joints was evaluated using three different methods, including the nominal stress method, effective notch stress method, and peak stress method. The peak stress method with a single fatigue resistance curve demonstrated the highest applicability and accuracy.
       
  • Effect of pitting degradation on ductile fracture initiation of steel
           butt-welded joints
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Hao Wang, Shanhua Xu, Youde Wang, Anbang Li Monotonic tensile experiments and corresponding finite element (FE) analyses including a ductile fracture damage criterion have been conducted to investigate the ductility degradation behaviours of steel butt-welded joints with corrosion pits. The results showed that the ultimate elongation of welded joint samples rapidly decreased because the existence of pits led to the earlier initiation of ductile cracks after necking. Pit location was the main factor affecting ductility degradation, pits located in the weakest region of sectional stiffness were the biggest threat to the overall deformability of welded joints. In addition, both pit depth and aspect ratio had a significant effect on local ductile crack initiation and propagation, the local stress triaxiality and plastic strain accumulation increased steadily with the increase of pit size, resulting in the decrease of equivalent plastic fracture strain. Furthermore, based on the parametric numerical analyses, equivalent ductile fracture criterion considering pitting parameters was proposed to replicate the effects of actual pits on ductility degradation.
       
  • Numerical evaluation on shear behavior of irregular steel beam-to-CFST
           column connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Ben Mou, Xi Li, Yongtao Bai, Baojie He, V.I. Patel The unequal-depth steel beam to concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) column connection with outer annular stiffener is an efficient seismic resisting system for unequal-span building structures. Numerical analyses were performed to investigate the elasto-plastic behavior and local responses of the panel zone in beam-to-CFST column connections. Three dimensional nonlinear finite element model was developed and verified by comparing with the experimental results. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of influential parameters on shear capacity of panel zones. Results showed that the beam depth ratio (Db2/Db1) played major impacts on the failure modes of the unequal-depth panel zones. The primary panel, the outer annular stiffener, the tubular column flange and the in-filled concrete contributed to the shear strength of the whole panel. In contrast, the secondary panel demonstrated minor effect on the shear strength of the whole panel and could be ignored in structural design. The beam depth ratio (Db1/Db2) and width-to-thickness ratio of the steel tube (D/t) were the main parameters that control the yield and ultimate shear strengths of the entire panel.
       
  • Probabilistic residual drift assessment of SMRFs with linear and nonlinear
           viscous dampers
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): A. Yahyazadeh, M. Yakhchalian Maximum Residual Interstory Drift Ratio (MRIDR) is one of the most important Engineering Demand Parameters (EDPs) for evaluating the safety of structures after the occurrence of an earthquake. This EDP is used as an index to decide about the retrofit or demolition of structures. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of using linear and nonlinear Fluid Viscous Dampers (FVDs) on the MRIDR response of steel Special Moment Resisting Frames (SMRFs) with FVDs. Moreover, two vertical distributions of damping coefficients including Uniform Distribution (UD) and Interstory Drift Proportional Distribution determined based on the first mode deformations (IDPD) are compared for the structures considered. The values of median MRIDR capacity, median SaRD, corresponding to different MRIDR levels are determined by performing Incremental Dynamic analyses (IDAs). After computing the median SaRD for a specified MRIDR level and its corresponding logarithmic standard deviation, the Mean Annual Frequency (MAF) of exceeding that MRIDR level (λRD) is computed. Based on the results, the values of median SaRD for structures with linear FVDs are higher than those for structures with nonlinear FVDs, and hence the values of λRD corresponding to structures with linear FVDs are lower than those for structures with nonlinear FVDs. In addition, for structures with a soft story, using IDPD to determine damping coefficients results in higher median SaRD values, and hence lower λRD values.
       
  • Lateral strength and deflection of cold-formed steel shear walls using
           corrugated sheathing
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Wenying Zhang, Mahsa Mahdavian, Cheng Yu Recent research has proven that cold-formed steel shear wall with corrugated steel sheathing is a promising lateral force resisting system in high wind and seismic zones. Extensive experimental investigations, including monotonic and cyclic tests on cold-formed steel shear walls with corrugated steel sheathing, were recently completed at University of North Texas. This paper summarizes previous and newly conducted tests and presents finite element analyses in order to establish a set of nominal shear strengths for the corrugated steel sheathed shear walls. In addition, a design method for determining the deflection of the corrugated steel sheathed shear walls under in-plane lateral loading was proposed based on the experimental results and nonlinear regression analyses. The deflections obtained from the proposed design equation were compared with the test deflections and good agreement was obtained.
       
  • I-beam to square hollow column blind bolted moment connection:
           Experimental and numerical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Mahmood Md. Tahir, Hossein Mohammadhosseini, Shek Poi Ngian, Mahmud Kori Effendi This paper presents the results of experimental investigations and numerical analyses carried out to investigate the performance of new blind bolted moment-resisting connections between square hollow section columns and open section beams, referred to herein as the extended and flush end plate. Eight full-scale specimens comprising four extended end plate and four flush end plate exterior connections were tested under monotonic loading. The moment-rotation curves, failure mode, initial stiffness and connection classification of the joints were obtained and discussed. The results showed that the end plate type has a significant influence on the flexural capacity as well as the rotational stiffness of the proposed blind bolted connection. Furthermore, the test also showed that for specific column sizes, an increase in the beam size and end plate thickness could reduce the connection strength. The experimental specimens were also simulated using finite element models and compared with the experimental results. Comparison amongst the experimental and three-dimensional finite element (FE) models shows that the modeling of finite element analyses for the prediction of the connection behavior is sufficiently accurate.
       
  • End patch loading behavior and strengthening of locally corroded steel
           I-beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Bo Wu, Jia-Li Cao, Lan Kang One of the problems that affect steel bridges is the deterioration of the beam ends due to local corrosion, thus reducing their end patch loading resistances. A recent paper by the authors has studied the individual influences of web and flange corrosions on the end patch loading behavior of steel I-beams. This paper presents further experimental results for the specimens with combined web and flange corrosions, since they coexisted in many cases. Two common types of sliding plate bearings were considered in this study, i.e., flat and curved plate bearings. The test results show that the end patch loading resistances of the specimens with flat plate bearings are higher than those of the corresponding specimens with curved plate bearings, especially for the corroded beams. With regard to the specimens with flat plate bearings, the combined effect of web and flange corrosions on the end patch loading resistance is less than the sum of the effects of each alone. In addition, a novel strengthening method is developed for the steel beams affected with severe local corrosion. The corroded beam end is first strengthened by welding a pair of stiffeners and is then partially encased with high-strength grout. It is found that the end patch loading resistance of the corroded beam can be significantly increased by the stiffeners and can be further enhanced with the encasement of high-strength grout. The proposed method can minimize the traffic interruption and also prevent the bottom of the beam ends from secondary corrosion.
       
  • Finite element analysis of thermal residual stresses in castellated beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Xuhong Zhou, Jingchao Li, Yongjun He, Ziqi He, Zhanjie Li The objective of the study is to numerically investigate the residual stresses in castellated beams. The fabrication processes with cutting and welding will significantly change the residual stresses of the castellated beam compared to its parent I-beam (or H-beam). These residual stresses have a significant impact on the lateral-torsional buckling resistance of castellated beams. However, due to the complexity of the problem, the investigations are far from complete. In this study, three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate the thermal residual stresses in the castellated beams due to the cutting and welding fabrication processes. The temperature fields and the cutting-induced and welding-induced residual stresses are numerically investigated. In addition, the predicted thermal residual stresses are then validated with experimental results in the literature. With the validated model, a parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of the sectional parameters on the thermal residual stresses, including the flange thickness (tf), the flange width (bf), and the thickness of the web (tw), etc. Then, the influences of tf, bf, and tw, etc. on the thermal residual stresses at the flange tips are compared. Finally, the potential development of residual stress distributions in castellated beams is discussed.
       
  • Experimental study of Pipe-Fuse Damper for passive energy dissipation in
           structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Reza Aghlara, Mahmood Md. Tahir, Azlan Bin Adnan This study presents a novel passive metallic damper, Pipe-Fuse Damper (PFD), to improve the seismic response of structures with dissipation of the earthquake energy. The Fuse Damper (FD) was recently introduced by using steel bars as fuses, Bar-Fuse Damper (BFD), and its performance was evaluated experimentally. The Fuse Damper (FD) is built using common cross-sections found in engineering structures, such as square hollow sections (SHS) and U-shaped sections as well as metal sheets. As a special feature, the Fuse Damper (FD) uses replaceable components as an energy-absorber part with both flexural and tensile energy dissipating mechanisms. In this study, the Fuse Damper (FD) was evaluated with components of steel pipes experimentally and numerically. To assess the individual performance of this damper, the Pipe-Fuse Damper (PFD), a series of monotonic and cyclic experiments were conducted on real-scale specimens. The studied parameters for this replaceable element in the experiments were the number of pipes and their diameter, length, and thickness. The results indicate that, in addition to demonstrating a stable hysteretic behaviour and considerable energy dissipation within an appropriate displacement reversal, the proposed damper offers the easy replacement of pipe components after each failure. Moreover, the Pipe-Fuse Damper (PFD) showed less pinching effects on its hysteresis and a higher energy dissipation compared to the Bar-Fuse Damper (BFD) under the same conditions.
       
  • Behaviour of stiffened extended shear tab connections under gravity
           induced shear force
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Mohammad Motallebi, Dimitrios G. Lignos, Colin A. Rogers Stiffened extended shear tab connections (either in full-depth or partial-depth configurations) are widely used to connect simply supported beams to the web of supporting girders or columns. Full-scale laboratory tests of stiffened extended shear tab connections underscored the differences between their observed and expected design strength calculated according to current design specifications. In particular, the design procedure of such connections neglects the influence of the out-of-plane deformation of the supporting girder web on yielding and inelastic buckling of the shear plate. These are the main governing failure modes for the full-depth configurations of stiffened extended shear tabs, when placed on one side of a supporting girder or column. The research described in this paper aims to develop a better understanding of the load transfer mechanism and failure modes of extended beam-to-girder shear tab connections. The findings are based on finite element (FE) simulations validated with full-scale experiments on beam-to-girder shear tab connections. The influence of girder web flexibility on the behaviour of single-and double-sided shear tabs is assessed. The stiffened portion of the full-depth extended shear tabs yielded due to the interaction of horizontal shear and vertical axial force. Due to the flexibility of the girder web of the single-sided shear tab, its stiffened portion experienced much larger vertical axial force in comparison to that of the double-sided configuration.
       
  • Probabilistic seismic performance assessment of ribbed bracing systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Ali Arzeytoon, Vahab Toufigh This article evaluates the seismic performance of structures equipped with a ribbed bracing system (RBS). RBS uses ribbed faces that freely slide under compression, however, interlock under tensile forces. Two RBS mechanisms; Completely-closed RBS (CC-RBS) and Improved-centering RBS (IC-RBS), were proposed and successfully tested for eliminating compressive buckling of braces. CC-RBS and IC-RBS provide high energy dissipation capacity and small residual story drifts, respectively. Here, these mechanisms were employed for design and modeling of three structures with varying heights. The models were then subjected to incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), and their seismic performance was probabilistically evaluated at different levels of intensity. Based on the results, in the low to moderate lateral deformations, structural performance benefitted more from the energy dissipation capacity provided by CC-RBS. Nevertheless, CC-RBS demands were increased due to the accumulation of plastic deformations by surpassing height-dependent deformation thresholds. The governing thresholds were also observed to decrease with increasing buildings height as a result of the elevated significance of p-delta effects in tall structures.
       
  • An individual fatigue assessment approach considering real notch strains
           and local hardness applied to welded joints
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): M. Ladinek, A. Niederwanger, R. Lang Fatigue crack initiation in welded joints is a complex process influenced by various factors. Although these factors are discussed in the literature, the incorporation of them in assessment procedures is often insufficient or lacking. In this paper we present a novel assessment procedure based on the strain-life approach. The influence of the material in the weld area is considered by applying relations between hardness and fatigue properties taken from the literature. In addition, stress concentrations on the weld surface are captured realistically by using 3D-laser scans of the weld surfaces. The suggested approach is demonstrated on four specimens which are typically used in the construction of steel bridges and promising results are obtained. Nevertheless, more research is necessary in order to verify the exact accuracy of this method for the prediction of fatigue life.
       
  • A unified interaction equation for strength and global stability of solid
           and hollow concrete-filled steel tube columns under room and elevated
           temperatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Min Yu, Haoming Xu, Jianqiao Ye, Yin Chi On the basis of plastic limit analysis, this paper proposes a novel, simple and unified interaction equation (N-M) for Concrete-filled Steel Tube (CFST) columns subjected to combined compression and bending. A unique feature of the new N-M equation is that the single equation is valid for a range of columns that can be solid, hollow, circular, polygonal, short or long. The single equation can also apply to columns under both room and elevated temperatures. Validations against independent laboratory test, analytical and numerical results are carried out to assess the accuracy and applicability of the equation. The new equation agrees well with most of the results used in the comparisons. It can be concluded that the simple and unified equation can be used in practical design with sufficient accuracy.
       
  • Use of artificial damping factors to enhance numerical stability for
           irregular joints
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): J.D. Nzabonimpa, Won-Kee Hong The authors previously proposed a fast and easy assembly method for wide flange steel column-beam frames in which the column and beam steel web had skew cuts and the lower flange of the steel beam was partially removed to prevent the bottom flange of the steel beam from running into the flanges of the L-shaped guide angles (which were pre-installed on the column bracket) when they were erected. However, the joint experienced convergence difficulties at the irregular structural configuration of the skewed web connections when cyclic finite element analysis was performed. This study introduced artificial damping factors, implemented during nonlinear numerical computation, to balance the internal and external forces. The influence of the damping factors was explored to ameliorate the numerical instabilities by removing the aforementioned convergence difficulties. It was shown that a solution converged while the dissipated stabilization energy was sufficiently small, ensuring that the analysis results were not distorted by the use of damping factors in the range of 1.0 × 10−5 to 5.0 × 10−5. The best matches with monotonic runs and the convergence for steels with yield strength of 325 MPa were obtained by applying damping factors of 0.0002 and 0.0005.
       
  • Flexural behaviour of steel hollow sections filled with concrete that
           contains OPBC as coarse aggregate
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Muhammad Faisal Javed, N.H. Ramli Sulong, Shazim Ali Memon, Sardar Kashif-Ur Rehman, Niaz Bahadur Khan Oil-palm-boiler clinker (OPBC) is an agricultural waste from the palm oil industry and is considered a serious threat to the environment. Moreover, the high consumption of concrete as a construction material results in a continuous demand for natural aggregates, thereby negatively affecting the environment. Thus, channeling OPBC waste materials into the concrete industry aids in promoting the use of a sustainable and lightweight member. This research presents a novel sustainable composite beam that uses an OPBC as a replacement of the natural coarse aggregate. Flexural behaviour of steel tubes infilled with conventional and OPBC concretes were investigated. The results showed that the ductility, flexural stiffness and structural efficiency were higher in the OPBC concrete filled steel tube (CFST) than conventional CFST by 15%, 12% and 20%, respectively. Furthermore, in comparison to conventional CFST, the 10% less self-weight in OPBC CFST will significantly reduce the construction cost of the material. Conclusively, the utilisation of OPBC as infill material for CFSTs will solve disposal problem, preserve natural resources, reduce environmental pollution and will make the structural system sustainable.
       
  • Seismic performance of wide flange steel beams partly covered by side
           plates
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Cheng-Cheng Chen, Erwin, Charles Julius Salim, Rudy Tiara In this study, the seismic performance of wide flange steel beams partly covered by side plates was investigated experimentally and analytically. The beams investigated were laterally supported at top flange but not at bottom flange. Multiple cases were tested including beams with and without side plates, and the results showed that the beams with side plates showed acceptable performance in terms of strength, ductility, and hysteresis behavior. The lateral torsional buckling was suppressed in beams with side plates. A finite-element model was established and validated using the test results. A parametric study was conducted, which revealed that the lengths of the side plates played an important role in determining the performance of the beams. The side plate length required to achieve the desired performance depended on the strength of the side plate used, beam slenderness ratio, and beam section dimensions such as beam depth-to-width ratio and width-to-thickness ratio of the flanges and web. A design guideline for beams partly covered with side plates was proposed based on the results of the parametric study. The proposed equation to calculate the required side plate length provides a result that is precise enough compared to the analytical result with slight conservatism.
       
  • Behaviour of restrained high strength steel columns at elevated
           temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Weiyong Wang, Linbo Zhang, Yong Ge, Lei Xu High strength steel has been widely used in various types of structures due to its merits of high strength and good ductility. However, high strength steel structures are vulnerable to fire hazards as the strength and stiffness of the steel deteriorate rapidly at elevated temperature. Presented in this paper are the investigations on the behaviour of restrained high strength steel columns at elevated temperature obtained from full-scale fire tests and finite element analyses. In the fire tests, applied load and restraint stiffness are two key factors to be examined. Column responses such as the axial displacement, deflection at column middle height and axial force induced by thermal expansion associated with temperature evolution were reported. Column buckling and failure temperatures were determined based on the criteria of the axial displacemen t and lateral deflection of the specimens at elevated temperatures. The test results show that both the applied load and restraint stiffness have considerable influences on fire resistances of high strength steel columns. It was observed that the columns with only axial restraints failed by flexure buckling about the weak axis whereas the columns with both axial and rotational restraints and subjected to large magnitude of the applied load failed by flexural torsional buckling. Finite element analyses were conducted to simulate the fire responses of the test specimens and the obtained numerical results are found to be reasonably agree with the test data. Parametric studies via finite element analysis were carried out to quantitatively determine the effect of applied load, restraint stiffness and slenderness ratio on fire resistance of high strength steel columns.
       
  • Evaluation of existing provisions for design of “pinned”
           column base-plate connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): F. Kavoura, B. Gencturk, M. Dawood Low-rise metal buildings are used in all geographic locations, including high seismicity regions. In the design of low-rise metal building systems, column base connections are commonly modeled as pinned supports with no rotational stiffness or moment capacity. However, past studies have indicated that base connections, which are designed as pinned supports, exhibit a non-negligible level of rotational stiffness and strength. Neglecting the rotational stiffness of the base connection may result in a significant overestimation of the lateral displacement of the frames. This additional displacement is addressed by increasing the flexural stiffness of the frame members thereby increasing the cost of low-rise metal buildings. The moment capacity may similarly be exploited for strength design. However, there is a lack of design guidelines to support the use of rotational stiffness or moment capacity at the pinned column bases. This study evaluates the applicability of existing code-formulations to pinned colum base-plate connections. Both the rotational stiffness and the moment capacity from past experiments are compared with those calculated based on the provisions of the European and American design codes. It was found that the Eurocodes do not accurately estimate the rotational stiffness of the connections. A modification to the Eurocodes is recommended to capture the characteristics of pinned connections. It was also observed that the moment capacity of the connections was conservatively estimated by the existing codes.
       
  • Numerical investigations of multiple cross-arm pre-tensioned cable stayed
           BRBs with pin-ended stays
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Peng Zhou, Yan-Lin Guo, Yong-Lin Pi This paper proposes Multiple cross-arm Pre-tensioned Cable Stayed Buckling-Restrained Braces (MPCS-BRBs) with pinned connections between stays and external tube. By adopting pin-ended stays, the additional bending moment that would be exerted on those connections can be effectively released instead of fixed connections. This eliminates premature strength failures at those connections and simplifies the tensioning process of the cables, thus making the pin-ended stays to be a very practical option in engineering applications. Comparative studies have been conducted on the elastic buckling, load resistance and cyclic behaviors of the MPCS-BRBs with and without additional minor diagonal cables through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Explicit expressions for the elastic buckling loads of the two types of MPCS-BRBs are obtained in closed form through curve fitting based on a generalized structural design parameter β of the external restraining system. It is found that the elastic buckling performance of the MPCS-BRBs with additional minor diagonal cables could be enhanced dramatically as compared to those not possessing the minor diagonal cables. At last, by ensuring the major cables not to become slack before reaching ultimate failures of the MPCS-BRBs, the load resistance and cyclic behaviors subjected respectively to monotonic and cyclic axial loads are explored through an elastic-plastic FEA. Corresponding lower limits of restraining ratios are attained, where they would provide fundamentals and guidance for preliminary design of the MPCS-BRBs in actual engineering applications.
       
  • Reduction factors for stainless steel bolts at elevated temperatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Ying Hu, Cheng Bo Yang, Lip H. Teh, Yeong-Bin Yang This paper presents an experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of sixty A4-70 and A4-80 stainless steel bolts under steady-state temperatures ranging from 20 to 900 °C. The material responses at elevated temperatures of the parent materials, SUS316 and SUS316Ti stainless steels (also known as EN 1.4401 and EN 1.4571 steels), and of fire-resistant bolts are included for comparisons. The tensile strength degradation of stainless steel bolts in fire are found to be reasonably close to those specified by Eurocode 3 Part 1.2 for their parent materials, but the Young's modulus degradation is not so robust. At temperatures lower than 650 °C, the stainless steel bolts retain their 0.2% proof strength better than their parent materials. Importantly, in the temperature range of 500 to 900 °C the stainless steel bolts retain their tensile strength, Young's modulus and 0.2% proof strength better than fire-resistant bolts (BOLTEN110N-FR to JSSII-09 standard). Based on the experimental data, reduction factors for tensile strength, Young's modulus and 0.2% proof strength are derived in this paper for stainless steel bolts at elevated temperatures.
       
  • Stability of steel columns stiffened by stays and multiple crossarms
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Pengcheng Li, Ce Liang, Jun Yuan, Ke Qiao A pre-stressed stayed steel column (PSSC) can effectively enhance the buckling behaviour of compression columns. In the past, researchers have primarily concentrated on examining the behaviour of PSSCs with single-bay crossarms. However, research focused on PSSCs with multiple crossarms is limited. This article aims to investigate the stability behaviour of PSSCs stiffened with multiple crossarms according to geometric analysis in conjunction with finite element (FE) studies. The results show that the critical buckling modes can be complicated due to the introduction of multiple crossarms. Critical buckling deformation similar to three half sine waves can be observed. It has also been demonstrated that interactive buckling can be ignored when determining the actual buckling strength of PSSCs stiffened by multiple crossarms, though it must be considered for PSSCs with single-bay crossarms. The effects of stay diameter and pretension in the stay have been separately investigated, and the results show that the buckling strength of a steel column can be obviously enhanced even if the pretension in stays is quite small, because the stiffness of the stays can be automatically activated by column deformation.
       
  • The strain-life approach applied to welded joints: Considering the real
           weld geometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): M. Ladinek, A. Niederwanger, R. Lang, J. Schmid, R. Timmers, G. Lener Fatigue assessment of welded joints is a challenging task. Various codes and guidelines provide assessment procedures with specific ranges of application. If an approach is applied, which requires numeric calculations, the modelling of the weld profile is critical. In the contribution at hand, the combination of the real weld geometry obtained by 3D laser scanning and the strain-life approach is investigated. By doing so, the effect of additional stress concentration from the weld profile itself can be studied, leading to predictions of fatigue lifetime, which take into account the individual features of the weld. By taking into consideration the strain-life concept, different methods for mean stress and plasticity correction are available. Therefore, fatigue lifetimes resulting from different combinations of the aforementioned procedures are compared to the ones obtained experimentally. Depending on the combination of mean stress, as well as plasticity correction and material data, the predicted fatigue lifetimes vary from being unrealistic to pretty accurate. The results are very sensitive to material input data, for which base material properties are assumed in this contribution. Further investigations are necessary to verify the potential of this procedure, preferably with the application of experimentally determined material properties for the heat affected zone and the weld material. The location of crack initiation has been predicted with high accuracy.
       
  • Experimental study on seismic behaviour of an innovative composite shear
           wall
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Shao-Teng Huang, Yan-Sheng Huang, An He, Xu-Lin Tang, Qing-Jun Chen, Xinpei Liu, Jian Cai To improve the strength and ductility of the core walls in high-rise buildings which would be subjected to combined high axial compressive force and bending moment during the earthquake, an innovative concrete filled double-skin steel-plate composite (CFDSC) wall is proposed. The CFDSC wall is composed of the concrete filled double-skin steel-plate wall body with transverse stiffeners, vertical diaphragms and distributed batten plates welding on the internal surface of the double steel plates, and the concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns including a pair of CFST columns positioned at the end of the cross section as boundary elements and an additional one located in the central section of the wall. Five CFDSC wall specimens were tested under constant axial compressive force and lateral reversed cyclic loading to investigate the seismic behaviour of the wall considering the effect of axial force ratio and shear span ratio. The favourable seismic performance of the CFDSC walls was demonstrated in the test. No serious pinching effect was observed on the hysteresis curves of all the specimens. The drift ratios corresponding to the ultimate stage were recorded as being in the range from 1/67 to 1/30 and the ductility coefficients were varied from 4.50 to 8.22. The experimental results manifest that the CFDSC walls have great energy dissipation capacity. Formulae for calculating the lateral load-carrying capacity of the CFDSC wall, taking the confinement effects from steel plates into account, were proposed. The results calculated by the proposed method show good agreement with the experimental results.
       
  • Cyclic testing and performance evaluation of buckling-restrained
           knee-braced frames
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): E. Junda, S. Leelataviwat, P. Doung This paper presents the behavior and design concept of an efficient structural steel system based on the applications of buckling-restrained knee braces (BRKBs). The advantages of a buckling-restrained knee-braced frame (BRKBF) include relatively simple connections, reparability after an earthquake, and fewer obstructions than conventional bracing systems. Various BRKBF configurations can be designed and detailed for different levels of strength, stiffness, and ductility. BRKBFs are designed so that all inelastic activities are confined to the BRKB. The key design concepts for ensuring the ductile behaviors of BRKBFs are first summarized. Cyclic tests of large-scale BRKBF sub-assemblage specimens are then carried out. The results from both experimental and analytical studies of the behavior of BRKBFs show that they can be a viable alternative to conventional structural systems.
       
  • Elastic and elastic-plastic threshold stiffness of stiffened steel plate
           walls in compression
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Zhaoyu Xu, Genshu Tong, Lei Zhang This paper studies the minimum stiffness required to ensure elastic buckling and elastic-plastic post-buckling strength of subpanels of vertically stiffened steel plate walls (S-SPWs) under compression. In the linear elastic analysis, the threshold stiffness at which the buckling mode of S-SPWs changes from overall to subpanel local buckling is determined. Based on the understanding that the increased elastic critical buckling strength of the S-SPW is provided by the elastic buckling resistant capacity of the stiffeners, a formula is proposed to predict the elastic threshold stiffness.The elastic-plastic threshold stiffness of vertical stiffeners, which makes the subpanels develop their full elastic-plastic post-buckling capacity, is obtained through nonlinear analysis. This paper investigated the effects of subpanel aspect ratio, subpanel width-to-thickness ratio, number of stiffeners on the elastic-plastic threshold stiffness. The effect of initial imperfection is also included. Based on the understanding that the increased capacity of the S-SPW from overall to subpanel post-buckling is provided by the elastic-plastic strength and stiffness of the stiffeners, a formula to predict the elastic-plastic threshold stiffness is proposed. The proposed formulas for both threshold stiffness are found to possess good accuracy after some minor modifications. The comparison between elastic and elastic-plastic threshold stiffness is also presented.
       
  • Numerical evaluation for the effective slab width of steel-concrete
           composite beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Mahmoud Lasheen, Amr Shaat, Ayman Khalil Although several studies in the field of steel-concrete composite beams reported that the effective concrete slab width depends on the loading stage of such beams (i.e. serviceability and ultimate stages), international codes have not considered it yet. In this respect, a nonlinear finite element model was developed using ABAQUS 6.10 and validated using three independent experimental research programs. The model was found capable of predicting the behavior of such beams and hence calculating a more accurate effective slab width. An extensive parametric study is conducted on 222 beams to evaluate the effective slab widths at service and ultimate loads. Different parameters related to beams geometry and concrete slab material were considered in this study. The results of this study showed that the effective width depends on the slenderness ratio (L/rs) of the steel beam and the slab width-to-span ratio (Bs/L). In addition, it is found that the effective width at ultimate load is wider than that at service load. Finally, two sets of equations are provided to calculate the effective width at service and ultimate load. The provisions of the ANS/AISC 360–10 for the effective width were compared with the prediction presented herein.
       
  • Use of induction-heating in steel structures: Material properties and
           novel brace design
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Konstantinos A. Skalomenos, Masahiro Kurata, Hironari Shimada, Minehiro Nishiyama Induction heat (IH) treatment technology is a very efficient way to increase several times the strength of a selected part of steel elements. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the material properties of IH-treated steel elements and a novel application to steel braces. The IH treatment technology and manufacturing process are first reviewed and then, the new material properties obtained by a series of coupon tests and Vickers hardness tests are reported. Compared with the conventional steel, the IH-treated steel offers two-to-three times higher yield stress and tensile strength, but three times lower fracture ductility. The proposed steel brace is a steel tube with a partial strength enhancement in its cross-section. One-half of the section is treated by IH, while the remaining maintains the properties of conventional steel. The conventional steel part yields earlier and dissipates energy, whereas the IH steel part remains elastic until large deformation. An intentional eccentricity is also introduced along the brace length to magnify further the contrast of material benefits. The effective combination of the partial strength enhancement and eccentricity provides the brace with a beneficial multiphase response. The brace exhibits a high tensile post-yielding stiffness nearly equal to 20% of the initial stiffness and stably dissipates energy during cyclic loading up to 2.0% story drift by delaying the onset of local buckling.
       
  • Section moment capacity tests of hollow flange steel plate girders
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Nilakshi Perera, Mahen Mahendran Hollow flange steel plate girder (HFSPG) is a new hollow flange I-section made using cold-formed rectangular hollow sections (RHS) as flanges and a steel plate as web. Due to the increased torsional rigidity and unique geometry, it can provide enhanced flexural capacities and thus are effective flexural members in long span applications. The production of proposed HFSPGs contains welding currently available RHS sections to a web plate, which allows engineers to form girders by varying dimensions, thicknesses and grades to suit their design requirements. As the first step of this study, the section moment capacities of fully laterally restrained HFSPGs were investigated. Despite earlier researches on the flexural capacities of hollow flange sections, HFSPGs have not been tested previously. Therefore, twelve section moment capacity tests were conducted to study the flexural performance and capacities of HFSPGs. The ratios of ultimate moment capacity per unit area of tested beams were compared with conventionally used hot-rolled I-sections with similar cross-sectional area, which proved the structural efficiency of HFSPGs over commonly used hot-rolled I-sections. The ultimate capacities of tested HFSPGs were then compared with capacity predictions provided by the Australian, American and European design standards (both hot-rolled and cold-formed). It was found that the current design standards under-estimate the section moment capacities of HFSPGs in general and the level of under-estimation varied depending on the section slenderness. Suitable recommendations are made regarding the appropriate use of these design standards for HFSPGs. This paper presents the details of this research and its findings.
       
  • Design of full-strength full-ductility extended end-plate beam-to-column
           joints
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Antonella B. Francavilla, Massimo Latour, Vincenzo Piluso, Gianvittorio Rizzano The analysis and modelling of the ultimate behaviour of beam-to-column connections is certainly one of the most studied topics in the field of steel structures. In particular, seismic design of steel frames is commonly carried out to assure the dissipation of the seismic input energy in so-called “dissipative zones”. The location of such zones depends on the connection ultimate behaviour. Therefore, connections have to be properly detailed in order to assure wide and stable hysteresis loops. Once avoided the yielding of columns, beam-to-column joints play a role of paramount importance. In fact, beam-to-column joints can be designed either as Full Strength (FS) or as Partial Strength (PS). In the first case, depending on the overstrength level, the input seismic energy should be dissipated by means of plastic cyclic excursions of the beam ends. In the second case, dissipation requires the plastic engagement of ductile joint components.This paper addresses the design criteria to be adopted to assure full-strength full-ductility behaviour of Unstiffened Extended End-Plate (U-EEP) beam-to-column joints. The validation of the design procedure is accomplished by three-dimensional finite element analyses with ABAQUS 6.13 software. Finally, in order to clarify the design procedure in detail, a worked numerical example concerning the design of an external joint is presented.
       
  • Residual stress analysis of hull plate in multi-point forming
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Wei Shen, Ren-jun Yan, Yue Lin, He-qi Fu Hull structures and offshore structures are composed of curved thick plates. The flame bending has traditionally been used to produce such curved plates. However, it is difficult to accurately achieve the desired shape due to the unmanageable process and residual deformation. Multi-point forming mechanism with square press heads is a new forming process for 3D ship hull plate. However, spring-back and residual stress are the major problems in cold-forming process. The present researches focus on the spring-back but ignore the effect of residual stress in cold-forming. This paper uses both theoretical derivation method and numerical research to analyze the residual stress distribution in the multi-point forming. The maximum residual stresses calculated from the theoretical model agree well with the numerical results.
       
  • Local stability of laser-welded stainless steel I-sections in bending
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Y. Bu, L. Gardner Design guidance for stainless steel structures has become more comprehensive and widely available in recent years. This, coupled with a growing range of structural products and increasing emphasis being placed on sustainable and durable infrastructure, has resulted in greater use of stainless steel in construction. A recent addition to the range of structural stainless steel products is that of laser-welded sections. Owing to the high precision and low heat input of the fabrication process, the resulting sections have smaller heat affected zones, lower thermal distortions and lower residual stresses than would typically arise from traditional welding processes. There currently exists very limited experimental data on laser-welded stainless steel members and their design is not covered by current design standards. The focus of this study is therefore to investigate the cross-sectional behaviour of laser-welded stainless steel I-sections in bending. The present paper describes a series of laboratory tests performed on laser-welded stainless steel I-sections, including tensile coupon tests, initial geometric imperfection measurements and in-plane bending tests. Results of the bending tests are used to validate finite element (FE) models, which are subsequently employed for parametric investigations. The obtained experimental and FE results are used to assess the applicability of the existing design provisions of EN 1993-1-4, AISC Design Guide 27 and the continuous strength method (CSM) to laser-welded stainless steel sections. It was found that the scope of application of these existing design provisions may be safely extended to laser-welded sections.
       
  • Cyclic performance of steel storage rack beam-to-upright bolted
           connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Liusi Dai, Xianzhong Zhao, Kim J.R. Rasmussen Steel storage pallet racks are slender structures sensitive to the second-order effects. Therefore, the stability and seismic response of unbraced pallet racks are greatly influenced by the behaviour of the connections between pallet beams and uprights. In recent applications, a bolt has been installed in the otherwise boltless connections broadly used in pallet racks, in order to improve the behaviour of the connections and the stability of the overall structure. In this paper, an experimental study is presented to evaluate the cyclic performance of bolted connections in cold-formed steel storage pallet racks. Seven groups of bolted connections were tested under cyclic loads in a single pallet beam cantilever test setup. Upright thickness and beam height, the number of tabs and the number of bolts in the beam-end-connector were varied to assess their impact on the performance of a bolted pallet beam-to-upright connection. The moment-rotation hysteretic and backbone curves of all tested connections were obtained, as were the behavioural factors corresponding to their stiffness degradation, ductility and energy dissipation capacity. The focus of the paper is to investigate the cyclic behaviour of steel storage rack beam-to-upright bolted connections, and to identify the most significant influencing geometric parameters. Comparisons of the cyclic response and failure modes between connections with and without bolts are also provided. Finally, based on the experimental results, the so-called Pinching4 model is used to characterise the hysteretic performance of bolted pallet beam-to-upright connections for further use in the design by advanced analysis of rack structures under seismic loads.
       
  • Fatigue behaviour of blind bolts under tensile cyclic loads
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Yanzhi Liu, Jian Chen, Xiaofei Zhang, Ding Tan This study presents an experimental investigation on the fatigue performance of a blind bolt under axial-tension cyclic loads. Static, constant-amplitude, and variable-amplitude fatigue tests on standard bolts and blind bolts are carried out. The bolt failure modes, static tensile force–displacement relationships, and fatigue life are presented. Based on the experimental results, S–N curves of the bolts under constant-amplitude fatigue tests are obtained by means of regression analysis, and the influence of the load amplitude as well as the load ratio on the fatigue performance of blind bolts are examined. It is found that S–N curves follow a power function with negative exponent, and exhibit similar S–N curves to standard bolts under higher load ratio. Meanwhile, the fatigue life of blind bolts under variable-amplitude loadings is estimated by using Miner's linear cumulative-damage theory. The fatigue strength of blind bolts under variable-amplitude fatigue loading is lower than the corresponding value for constant-amplitude fatigue tests. Finally, the fatigue strength of blind bolts is assessed by comparing the test results with existing specifications. It is concluded that the fatigue performance of blind bolts can be conservatively estimated by the corresponding specification of design codes.
       
  • Study of seismic behavior of recycled aggregate concrete-filled steel
           tubular columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): Yun-Chao Tang, Li-Juan Li, Wen-Xian Feng, Feng Liu, Ming Zhu This paper discusses the effects of recycled aggregate concrete strength, axial compression ratio, slenderness ratio and steel tube thickness on the seismic performance of recycled aggregate concrete-filled steel tubular columns. The failure process, hysteresis behavior, skeleton curve, stiffness degeneration, ductility coefficient, and energy consumption function were investigated by conducting low cyclic loading test on six recycled aggregate concrete-filled steel tubular columns and two normal concrete-filled steel tubular columns. The finite element method was applied to investigate the effects of slenderness ratio, steel tube thickness, and axial compression ratio on the seismic behavior. A restoring force model for the recycled aggregate concrete-filled steel tubular columns was constructed accordingly and used to compare the experimental and simulated results. The recycled aggregate concrete-filled steel tubular columns showed excellent seismic performance and deformability compared to the normal concrete-filled steel tubular columns, suggesting that they may feasibly and effectively be applied to load-bearing structures in seismic regions.
       
  • Structural behaviour of arched steel beams with cellular openings
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 148Author(s): O.F. Zaher, N.M. Yossef, M.H. El-Boghdadi, M.A. Dabaon Arched beams with cellular openings (referred to here as arched cellular beams) are used as roof beams with several practical advantages and architectural-appearance requirements. This paper presents a discussion regarding the performance of arched cellular beams. An experimental program comprising four full-scale specimens was performed. The perforated cellular arched I-sections with hinged-hinged supports under a mid-span vertical concentrated load were tested. Manufacturing, material properties, boundary conditions, and the test setup are discussed in detail in this paper. The experimental investigation was carried out to study the effects of cellular web openings, subtended angles, and radii of curvature. The failure modes and key parameters were investigated. The web buckling resistance of the experimental specimens was calculated using two models from the literature. The analytical model for straight cellular beams proposed by Lawson et al. [1] yielded feasible conservative values for the critical buckling resistance of web posts for arched cellular beams. Finally, a finite element (FE) model is proposed to analyse the behaviour of arched cellular beams. It was validated by experimental results. The FE model accurately predicted the ultimate loads, the critical buckling loads and the failure modes of the tested specimens. It can be used for similar future studies.
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.224.60.122
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-