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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2358 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (201 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (107 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1240 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (394 journals)
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    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (72 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 194 of 194 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover Journal of Constructional Steel Research
  [SJR: 1.746]   [H-I: 59]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0143-974X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Experimental study on progressive collapse resistance of steel frames
           under a sudden column removal scenario
    • Authors: Guo-Qiang Li; Liu-Lian Li; Binhui Jiang; Yong Lu
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 147
      Author(s): Guo-Qiang Li, Liu-Lian Li, Binhui Jiang, Yong Lu
      A comprehensive experimental apparatus for the progressive collapse testing of steel frames has been developed. The apparatus is suited for the testing of planar steel frames to study the load transfer process and the progressive collapse resistance of steel structures under a column removal scenario. In order to simulate a sudden removal of a middle column at the ground storey of the frames, a removable column unit has been designed to allow for an instantaneous knock-out by a pendulum hammer during the test. To avoid the out-of-plane instability of the planar steel frames, an out-of-plane restraining system has been designed and integrated into the test apparatus. Weights simulating the desired gravity loads were attached to the test frame through holding baskets, which were designed to minimize unwanted shaking and ensure that the suspended baskets moved together with the deformed steel frames during the tests. Experimental results showed that the column removal mechanism in the test apparatus was effective. Using this apparatus, the dynamic behaviour of three planer steel frames under a column removal scenario was investigated. Based on the measured deformations and strains, the dynamic response, collapse modes, load transfer path of the steel frames after the removal of the middle bottom column are studied.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2018)
       
  • Applicability of North American standards for lateral torsional buckling
           of welded I-beams
    • Authors: Md. Imran Kabir; Anjan K. Bhowmick
      Pages: 16 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 147
      Author(s): Md. Imran Kabir, Anjan K. Bhowmick
      Design specifications in North America, unlike their European counterpart, use same equations for design of rolled and welded shape beams for lateral torsional buckling (LTB). A recent study by MacPhedran and Grondin (2011) has shown that the current Canadian design equations might overestimate the capacity of welded wide flange (WWF) beams, which are welded I-shapes, requiring further investigation. This paper evaluates the performance of the current design equations for LTB capacities of welded I-shape beams. Nonlinear Finite Element (FE) analysis is performed for simply supported WWF beams subjected to constant moment, linear and nonlinear moment gradient. Three types of linear moment gradients are investigated: end moment ratios of 0.5, 0.0, and − 1.0. Also, two types of transverse loadings are considered: a concentrated load at mid-span and uniformly distributed load along the length, and applied at the top flange, shear center, and at the bottom flange. In total, 416 FE models are analyzed and it is observed that for constant moment loading both CSA and AISC overestimate the LTB capacity of welded I-shape beams by as much as 37%. FE analysis also shows that current CSA strength curve overestimates significantly the strength of WWF beams by as much as 40% for end moment ratio of 0.5. For transverse loading, current CSA strength curve overestimates the capacity significantly for top flange loading and underestimates for bottom flange loading. Also, Eurocode is found to be conservative for all cases and the proposed equation by MacPhedran and Grondin (2011) provides better predictions of LTB strengths of WWF shapes than the current CSA approach.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.029
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2018)
       
  • Tests on residual ultimate bearing capacity of square CFST columns after
           impact
    • Authors: Xiaoyong Zhang; Yu Chen; Jun Wan; Kai Wang; Kang He; Xixiang Chen; Jiangang Wei; Guoping Jiang
      Pages: 27 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 147
      Author(s): Xiaoyong Zhang, Yu Chen, Jun Wan, Kai Wang, Kang He, Xixiang Chen, Jiangang Wei, Guoping Jiang
      This paper presents a study on the mechanical performance of the square concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns under the axial compression, which is based on forty-eight short square CFST columns subjected to lateral impact. The concrete compressive strength, impact energy and impact location are set as the parameters in the test. This paper mainly analyzes the effect of these three parameters on the residual ultimate bearing capacity of the test specimens. The result indicates that the lateral impact has negative influence on the residual ultimate bearing capacity, initial stiffness and ductility of the CFST columns. The impact location has a significant influence on the residual ultimate bearing capacity. The residual ultimate bearing capacity decreases as the impact location varies from the middle-length to the end of the specimens. The test result indicates that the lateral impact causes an evident decrease of the ductility and initial stiffness of CFST columns. Ductility increases as the impact location varies from the middle-length to the end of the specimens. Besides, the strain development of twelve square CFST columns during the experiment is investigated in this paper. Based on the experimental results, a calculation formula is proposed to predict the residual ultimate bearing capacity for the specimens tested, and a good agreement with the experimental results is achieved.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.039
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2018)
       
  • Stability of a pretensioned latticed three-dimensional arch structure with
           cross cable-strut arrangement
    • Authors: Yongjun He; Jixin Wang; Xuhong Zhou; Xiangyang Zhang
      Pages: 43 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 147
      Author(s): Yongjun He, Jixin Wang, Xuhong Zhou, Xiangyang Zhang
      An innovative pretensioned latticed three-dimensional (3D) arch structure with cross cable-strut arrangement is proposed based on the concept of beam string structure with consideration of the indoor headroom. Three cable-strut arrangement schemes of the cable latticed 3D arch are analyzed and the in-plane stabilities of the arches with different cable-strut schemes are compared. Also, the influence of cable anchorage position on the in-plane stability of the pretensioned latticed 3D arch is investigated. The configuration and stability of the parallel cable-arch integral structure with the optimal cable-strut arrangement are studied. The effect of both the transverse diagonal cross bracings and the amount of the longitudinal latticed 3D beams on the buckling mode and stability capacity of the integral structure is studied. Additionally, the relationship between the structural stability capacity and the amount of parallel cable arches is discussed. Two simplified models for stability analysis of the integral structure are presented, and the corresponding calculation accuracies are also discussed. All this work will provide theoretical guidance to the actual engineering application of this structure.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2018)
       
  • Structural performance of cold-formed steel trusses used in electric power
           substations
    • Authors: Mehran Zeynalian; Sattar Bolkhari; Pooria Rafeei
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 147
      Author(s): Mehran Zeynalian, Sattar Bolkhari, Pooria Rafeei
      This paper presents a detailed investigation of the lateral characteristics of cold-formed steel truss structures used in electric power substations. Five full-scale specimens were tested, and their responses were recorded under monotonic and cyclic loading regimes. Of particular interest were the specimens' maximum lateral load capacities and deformation behaviours. A rational estimation of the seismic response modification factor, R, of the truss structures is also provided. In addition, different types of stiffened sections were employed in order to examine the impact of the presence of stiffeners and lips on seismic behaviour, as well as on the lateral resistance of the structure. Detailed comparisons between relevant code methods, finite element modelling and an experimental study were then conducted to suggest an appropriate value for the R factor. A financial evaluation was also performed, to highlight the advantages of employing cold-formed steel trusses in the electric power substation industry. The results show that the cold-formed steel structural system is a reasonable alternative to the currently used hot-rolled steel structures, and that its use decreases the cost of the structures by almost 50%.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2018)
       
  • Numerical study of rigid steel beam-column joints under impact loading
    • Authors: Bo Yang; Hao Wang; Yong Yang; Shao-Bo Kang; Xu-Hong Zhou; Lin Wang
      Pages: 62 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 147
      Author(s): Bo Yang, Hao Wang, Yong Yang, Shao-Bo Kang, Xu-Hong Zhou, Lin Wang
      This paper presents the numerical simulations of rigid steel beam-column joints under impact loads. In the model, beams, columns and bolts are simulated by solid elements and surface-to-surface contact pairs are defined to take account of the interactions between beams and columns. Besides, a fracture model in ABAQUS is simplified to correlate the fracture strain to the stress triaxiality. Explicit dynamic solver is used in the simulations to overcome the problems of convergence induced by contact and fracture. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting the dynamic responses of beam-column joints under impact loading with reasonably good accuracy in terms of the impact load and vertical displacement. Besides, the horizontal tension force in the joints can also be obtained from the numerical model, which shed light on the development of horizontal tension to resist the imposed impact load. Furthermore, a series of parametric studies is conducted to investigate the effects of impact energy and span-depth ratio (SDR) on the response of steel joints. Practical recommendations are provided for the design of steel joints under impact loading in accordance with the parametric studies. Finally, conclusions are drawn from the numerical simulations.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2018)
       
  • Distortion analysis of non-prismatic composite box girders with corrugated
           steel webs
    • Authors: Lifeng Li; Cong Zhou; Lianhua Wang
      Pages: 74 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 147
      Author(s): Lifeng Li, Cong Zhou, Lianhua Wang
      In this study, the distortion effect of non-prismatic composite box girders with corrugated steel webs (CBGCSWs) is theoretically analysed under eccentric loads during the elastic stage. Considering the mechanical properties of corrugated steel web, a governing differential equation for distortion is derived for non-prismatic CBGCSWs. The differential equation is solved using the Newmark method to obtain the distortional warping normal stresses of angular points. The feasibility of the proposed theoretical method is validated by the finite element (FE) method. The proposed method is then applied to examine the effects of the number of diaphragms (N), girder length (L), girder width (b), shortest girder height (h min) and girder height ratio (ξ) on the maximum ratio of distortional warping normal stress to longitudinal bending normal stress (distortion-to-bending stress ratio, ζ) of non-prismatic CBGCSWs. Based on the results of the parametric study, a diaphragm spacing equation is developed for determining the diaphragm spacing of non-prismatic CBGCSW bridges to reach the desired distortion-to-bending stress ratio. The presented equation can be further used as a reference to design the diaphragm spacing of this type of bridge.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.030
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2018)
       
  • An empirical component-based model for high-strength bolts at elevated
           temperatures
    • Authors: Jonathan M. Weigand; Rafaela Peixoto; Luiz Carlos Marcos Vieira; Joseph A. Main; Mina Seif
      Pages: 87 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 147
      Author(s): Jonathan M. Weigand, Rafaela Peixoto, Luiz Carlos Marcos Vieira, Joseph A. Main, Mina Seif
      High-strength structural bolts are used in nearly every steel beam-to-column connection in typical steel building construction practice. Thus, accurately modeling the behavior of high-strength bolts at elevated temperatures is crucial for properly evaluating the connection capacity, and is also important in evaluating the strength and stability of steel buildings subjected to fires. This paper uses a component-based modeling approach to empirically derive the ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity for grade A325 and A490 bolt materials based on data from double-shear testing of high-strength 25 mm (1 in.) diameter bolts at elevated temperatures. Using these derived mechanical properties, the component-based model is then shown to accurately account for the temperature-dependent degradation of shear strength and stiffness for bolts of other diameters, while also providing the capability to model load reversal.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.034
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2018)
       
  • Influence of assumed geometric and material imperfections on the
           numerically determined ultimate resistance of hot-rolled U-shaped steel
           members
    • Authors: André Beyer; Nicolas Boissonnade; Abdelouahab Khelil; Alain Bureau
      Pages: 103 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 147
      Author(s): André Beyer, Nicolas Boissonnade, Abdelouahab Khelil, Alain Bureau
      In order to predict the ultimate resistance of members by means of numerical simulations (GMNIA – geometric and material non-linear analysis with imperfection), it is indispensable to realistically assume geometric and material imperfections. For I-shaped profiles, it is possible to find several studies concerning the influence of geometric (for example member out-of-straightness) and material imperfections (residual stresses) on the ultimate resistance of the member. However, the sensitivity of hot-rolled U-shaped members to geometric and material imperfections has not been addressed in detail before. Moreover, the research projects concerning hot-rolled U-shaped members performed in the past often assumed different forms of geometric imperfections and residual stresses. Sometimes one may even find contradictory recommendations concerning the form of the geometric imperfection to be applied to the member. Therefore, it seemed interesting and necessary to conduct a comprehensive study explicitly addressing the sensitivity of the ultimate resistance of U-shaped members on the assumption of the geometric imperfections and residual stresses. The results of this study are presented hereafter and recommendations on the form and amplitude of geometrical imperfections and residual stresses to be included into numerical simulations are derived.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2018)
       
  • Design of the distortional buckling capacity of stainless steel lipped
           C-section columns
    • Authors: Meihe Chen; Shenggang Fan; Yuelin Tao; Shuai Li; Meijing Liu
      Pages: 116 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 147
      Author(s): Meihe Chen, Shenggang Fan, Yuelin Tao, Shuai Li, Meijing Liu
      To search for an accurate calculation method for the bearing capacity of stainless steel lipped C-section columns, a series of tests was performed on columns under axial compression and eccentric load, respectively. Comparison of test results with code predictions indicates that the design strengths are not safe. The numerical models, which were developed using the finite element (FE) package ANSYS, were verified by experimental results, and thus they can exactly simulate the mechanical properties of stainless steel lipped C-section columns. The models were used to conduct parametric studies. Finally, based on the numerical analysis of 129 and 128 columns under axial and eccentric compression, respectively, direct strength equations for axially and eccentrically loaded stainless steel lipped C-section columns are proposed. Comparison of test results with equation predictions indicates that the formulas have high accuracy and reliability and can accurately calculate the bearing capacity of stainless steel lipped C-section columns.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2018)
       
  • Finite element modelling of steel-concrete composite beams with profiled
           steel sheeting
    • Authors: Utsab Katwal; Zhong Tao; Md Kamrul Hassan
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 146
      Author(s): Utsab Katwal, Zhong Tao, Md Kamrul Hassan
      Steel-concrete composite beams have been widely used in modern construction industry, where headed shear stud connectors are commonly welded through profiled steel sheeting to ensure full/partial composite action between the beam and the composite slab. For such composite beams, there are complex interactions between different components, leading to different failure modes. Finite element (FE) analysis could be used to understand the fundamental behaviour of such beams. But previous FE models have adopted various assumptions to simplify the modelling of some complex interactions such as the interaction between the shear studs and concrete. Accordingly, those FE models have limitations to capture certain types of failure modes. Meanwhile, the actual forces carried by the studs and profiled steel sheeting have not been quantitatively determined. In this context, this paper aims to develop a detailed FE model for composite beams with profiled steel sheeting by considering realistic interaction between different components, fracture of the shear studs and profiled steel sheeting, as well as tensile and compressive damage in concrete. The developed FE model can satisfactorily predict the full-range load–deformation curves of the composite beams and the shear force–slip relationship of the embedded shear studs. The predictions agree very well with a wide range of test data reported in the literature.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2018)
       
  • Fabrication of laser cut I-beam-to-CHS-column steel joints with minimized
           welding
    • Authors: Alper Kanyilmaz; Carlo Andrea Castiglioni
      Pages: 16 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 146
      Author(s): Alper Kanyilmaz, Carlo Andrea Castiglioni
      The available connection methods of I-beam-to-CHS-columns are complex and costly. They commonly need local stiffeners and gusset plates to allow an efficient load transfer between the beam and the column, resulting in excessive welding quantities, since directly welding the beams to the column surface increases the vulnerability of the joint to the local distortions. These problems prevent the widespread use of CHS profiles as columns in the construction sector, although they have excellent structural and architectural properties. Researchers worldwide have been investigating the possibilities to simplify the fabrication and increase the structural performance of such joints. This article proposes “LASTEICON” solution to achieve this objective: joints with “passing through” beams, obtained by using laser cutting technology (LCT). Thanks to LCT, welding quantity and fabrication time of such tubular connections can be reduced significantly, obtaining better precision with higher quality in the joint assembly, and improving the workplace safety with less manual work and more computer-programmed automation. For the development of this new joint type, the first step was to investigate the fabrication details including the tolerances required for the slots, laser cutting parameters, and welding aspects. This paper presents the whole fabrication process applied to the joints assembled with different column and beam sizes and welding types, quantifying the time and resources spent during the process. Furthermore, a detailed description of laser cutting procedure has been provided, to show its potential in the steel construction sector.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.039
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2018)
       
  • Experimental analysis of beam-to-column joints equipped with sprayed
           aluminium friction dampers
    • Authors: Massimo Latour; Vincenzo Piluso; Gianvittorio Rizzano
      Pages: 33 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 146
      Author(s): Massimo Latour, Vincenzo Piluso, Gianvittorio Rizzano
      In this paper, the results of an experimental analysis regarding beam-to-column joints equipped with friction dampers are presented. Even though the overall concept is not new, the connection structural detail and the friction pad material are different from previous proposals. In particular, the beam is connected to the column with a classical fixed T-stub fastening the upper flange and a friction damper located at the beam lower flange. The friction damper is composed of a stack of steel plates conceived to assure symmetrical friction. The friction pads are made of steel plates coated with thermally sprayed aluminium. The friction damper is designed in order to slide for a force level equal to or lower than the ratio between the nominal flexural resistance of the connected beam and the lever arm, i.e. the distance between the top T-stub and the friction damper. In this way, it is possible to obtain connections able to dissipate the seismic input energy almost without any damage to the steel elements, provided that all the joint components are designed with sufficient over-strength with respect to the actions corresponding to the friction damper sliding force. In this paper, such approach is validated reporting the results of an experimental campaign.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2018)
       
  • Square concrete-filled stainless steel/carbon steel bimetallic tubular
           stub columns under axial compression
    • Authors: Yong Ye; Shi-Jiang Zhang; Lin-Hai Han; Yang Liu
      Pages: 49 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 146
      Author(s): Yong Ye, Shi-Jiang Zhang, Lin-Hai Han, Yang Liu
      This paper is an attempt to study the mechanical behavior of square concrete-filled bimetallic tubular (CFBT) stub columns subjected to axial compression. The bimetallic tubes in the CFBT columns in this research comprised an outer layer made of stainless steel and an inner layer made of carbon steel. 200-mm square carbon steel tubes (wall thickness t sc = 3.30 mm) were manufactured first, then the bimetallic tubes were fabricated by cladding the carbon steel tubes with stainless steel sheets. In the experimental program, fourteen CFBT columns and two conventional concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) counterparts were tested to failure under axial compressive loading. The test parameters included the stainless steel grade (Grade 316, 304, and 202), wall thickness of the stainless steel tube layer (t ss = 0.84, 1.32, and 1.88 mm), and cube compressive strength of concrete (f cu = 54.5, 68.4, and 80.5 MPa). A finite element analysis (FEA) model was established and validated against the experimental measurements. The failure mode and mechanical behavior of the square CFBT stub columns were then investigated and compared with those of the conventional CFST columns. Finally, the ultimate loads obtained from the experiments were compared to those predicted by the available design codes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2018)
       
  • Fatigue behaviour of orthotropic steel bridge decks with inner bulkheads
    • Authors: Aizhu Zhu; Mu Li; Hongping Zhu; Gongyi Xu; Haizhu Xiao; Hanbin Ge
      Pages: 63 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 146
      Author(s): Aizhu Zhu, Mu Li, Hongping Zhu, Gongyi Xu, Haizhu Xiao, Hanbin Ge
      Tests on a full-scale orthotropic steel deck (OSD) specimen were conducted to investigate the effects of inner bulkheads set inside the U-ribs on the static and fatigue behaviours of the OSD. The total length and width of the OSD specimen are 5 m and 2.24 m, respectively. It contains three longitudinal floorbeams and four transversal U-ribs. U-ribs with and without inner bulkheads are symmetrically arranged in the cross section of the specimen. Finite element (FE) analyses on the OSD specimen model and sub-models were conducted to further study the effects of the inner bulkhead design and different bulkhead shapes. Results of the test and corresponding FE analysis of the specimen showed that inner bulkheads can be used to improve the fatigue life of the OSD. Meanwhile, fatigue cracking in the rib-to-bulkhead details was introduced by installing the inner bulkhead. Results of the FE analysis of the sub-models showed that the distance from the bottom edge of the inner bulkhead to the tip of the floorbeam cutout affects the stress state of the rib-to-floorbeam connection weld significantly. Additionally, the bulkhead shape affects the hot spot stress of the weld toe of the rib-to-floorbeam connection weld significantly. Thus, proper bulkhead shape should be determined by considering the specific stress distribution of the rib-to-floorbeam connection area.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2018)
       
  • Human-induced vibrations of a curved cable-stayed footbridge
    • Authors: Elisa Bassoli; Paola Gambarelli; Loris Vincenzi
      Pages: 84 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 146
      Author(s): Elisa Bassoli, Paola Gambarelli, Loris Vincenzi
      This paper investigates and compares the performances of two simulation models to predict the footbridge response to vertical pedestrian dynamic actions. For this purpose, a rational procedure based on experimental tests, identification, model-updating and simulation is addressed. The object of study is the Pasternak footbridge, a curved cable-stayed footbridge prone to human-induced vibrations. The footbridge dynamic behaviour is investigated thanks to an experimental campaign. Accelerations due to ambient vibrations are recorded and the modal parameters of the structure are identified. The dynamic response to pedestrian actions is investigated performing several experimental tests with different-sized groups of pedestrians. To simulate the dynamic response to pedestrian actions, a Finite Element (FE) model of the footbridge is developed and calibrated so that the numerical dynamic properties match the experimental ones. The structural response to human loads is evaluated through two advanced simulation methods. The first one is based on a periodic walking force and is employed to perform dynamic analyses with the FE model. In the second one, a multi-harmonic force model, which considers the variability of the walking force, is adopted and the dynamic response is evaluated via modal decomposition. Finally, numerical and experimental results are compared with each other.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2018)
       
  • Interactive buckling of cable-stiffened steel columns with pin-connected
           crossarms
    • Authors: Pengcheng Li; Xiao Liu; Chenglong Zhang
      Pages: 97 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 146
      Author(s): Pengcheng Li, Xiao Liu, Chenglong Zhang
      Cable-stiffened steel columns can significantly enhance the stability behaviour of ordinary compression columns because of the additional stiffness offered by the pre-tensioned cables and crossarms. Most of the previous studies aimed to investigate the behaviour of stiffened steel columns with four branch crossarm systems; however, the current work focuses on investigating the interactive buckling of cable-stiffened steel columns with pin-connected three branch crossarm system via buckling analysis. The analysis shows that the crossarms remain straight in the antisymmetric buckling mode, which distinguishes them from stiffened columns with rigidly connected crossarms. In addition, the interactive buckling must be considered in nonlinear buckling analyses in some cases to obtain the actual capacities of the stiffened columns. The method to consider the interactive buckling is to introduce asymmetric initial geometric imperfections during buckling analysis; the principle to form the asymmetric initial imperfections is suggested.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.037
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2018)
       
  • Plastic strain accumulation behaviour of AH32 steel in a cyclic
           stress-corrosion environment
    • Authors: Yang Sun; Haimiao Li; Chongxiao Wang; Guojian Shao
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Yang Sun, Haimiao Li, Chongxiao Wang, Guojian Shao
      Using AH32 steel as the material of interest, the present study fabricated partially corroded steel specimens based on the principle of Faraday's law. AH32 steel specimens with different corrosion losses were subjected to uniaxial cyclic loading tests at room temperature; these tests considered the effects of the number of initial loading cycles, the stress ratio (R), the R history, alternating tensile-compressive and high stress to reveal the characteristics of the plastic strain accumulation behaviour of AH32 steel under the combined effect of the cyclic stress and corrosion factors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:38:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Behavior of connections between square CFST columns and H-section steel
           beams
    • Authors: Bin-yang Li; Yuan-Long Yang; Yohchia-Frank Chen; Wei Cheng; Lin-Bo Zhang
      Pages: 10 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Bin-yang Li, Yuan-Long Yang, Yohchia-Frank Chen, Wei Cheng, Lin-Bo Zhang
      Three large-scale connections between square concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns and H-section steel beams were tested. The specimens include one connection with continuous flange under static load and two connections with continuous flange and vertical anchor respectively under seismic loads. The static properties of strength and ductility are calculated for static connection based on load-displacement curves, while the seismic properties of strength, ductility, stiffness degradation and energy dissipation are calculated for seismic connections based on hysteretic load-displacement curves. Combining the mechanical properties, experimental phenomena and strain development, beam hinge failure mode can be identified for all specimens. The measured beam strengths of specimens are compared with those predicted by the current AISC-360, EC4 and GB50017-2003 codes. The study results show that all connections are reliable. A finite element model (FEM), developed and verified with the experimental results, is used to perform parametric analysis. Furthermore, design suggestions are presented.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Bending-shear performance of column-to-column bolted-flange connections in
           prefabricated multi-high-rise steel structures
    • Authors: X.C. Liu; X.N. He; H.X. Wang; Z.W. Yang; S.H. Pu; Zhang Ailin
      Pages: 28 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): X.C. Liu, X.N. He, H.X. Wang, Z.W. Yang, S.H. Pu, Zhang Ailin
      The bolted-flange connection is a new application for mounting rectangular hollow section (RHS) columns in prefabricated multi-high-rise steel structures, which may bear the combination of bending moment and shear under permanent, live, wind loads or earthquake. The performance of the bolted-flange connection used in the structural column is different from that in its popular usage in the pipe because the subjected force is different. To investigate the bearing performance of a bolted-flange connection under the combination of bending moment and shear, this study conducted static tests and finite element analysis (FEA) of 12 column-to-column bolted-flange connections with different flange thicknesses, bolt edge distances, flange edge widths and bolt hole diameters, as well as one column without a connection. The test agreed well with the FEA, which verifies the FEA. The influences of the flange thickness, bolt edge distance, flange edge width and bolt hole diameter on the stiffness and strength of the connections, bolt tension and contact force were studied, and the failure mode and mechanism of the connection were obtained. A significant prying action occurred on the flange contact surface, increased the bolt tension in the tensile region, and caused the bolt shanks to experience tension and bending moment. The flange thickness had a large impact on the prying force, while other factors had less of an effect. Based on the yield line theory, the bearing mechanism of the connection was obtained. The formulas for the yield bearing capacity were proposed and were verified by the test and FEA.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:38:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Numerical simulation of a welding process using a prescribed temperature
           approach
    • Authors: Karlo Seleš; Mato Perić; Zdenko Tonković
      Pages: 49 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Karlo Seleš, Mato Perić, Zdenko Tonković
      This paper presents an efficient finite element procedure for the prediction of welding-induced residual stresses and distortions in large structures. It is based on a prescribed temperature approach using some features of an Abaqus extension called Abaqus Welding Interface to significantly improve the computational efficiency and speed up the normally time-consuming and cumbersome welding analysis setup performed by the user. To validate the temperature and residual stress solutions obtained by the presented method, two numerical examples are analyzed. Comparison is made with the experimental measurements and the results obtained by the heat generation rate approach using the element birth and death technique. The first example is a butt-welding of two plates, while the second is a T-joint fillet welding of two plates. The results obtained by the proposed procedure demonstrate a good agreement in comparison with the heat generation rate approach as well as the experimental measurements. Furthermore, the computational efficiency is remarkably improved compared to the heat generation rate approach as the CPU time is reduced up to ~70% in both examples.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:38:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Push-out tests of concrete-filled stainless steel SHS tubes
    • Authors: Ran Feng; Yu Chen; Kang He; Jiangang Wei; Baochun Chen; Xiaotian Zhang
      Pages: 58 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Ran Feng, Yu Chen, Kang He, Jiangang Wei, Baochun Chen, Xiaotian Zhang
      A total of 32 push-out tests were conducted in this paper on concrete-filled stainless steel square hollow section (SHS) tubes with different values of height-to-width ratio, width-to-thickness ratio and concrete strength. The bond-slip behaviour of all specimens and the strain distribution on the exterior of stainless steel tubes along the longitudinal height direction were carefully investigated. Shear failure loads of bonding slip and the interface friction resistance generally decreased with more loading cycles of the repeated push-out test employed in the same direction. It can be concluded that 70% of the bonding strength at the interface was taken by the friction force of the interface elements, while the remaining 30% of the bonding strength at the interface was sustained by the chemical adhesive force and the mechanical interlock force. Furthermore, the strains at the locations close to the free end and loading end of the specimens increased with the increase of the axial load, in which the increase of the strains at the location close to the free end is much greater. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that the height-to-width ratio and the width-to-thickness ratio of the stainless steel SHS tube have insignificant influence on the shear resistance of the bonding strength of the interface elements, which generally decreased with the increase of the concrete strength. In addition, the current design rules of concrete-filled carbon steel SHS tubes were found to be inapplicable to the shear resistance of the bonding strength of concrete-filled stainless steel SHS tubes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Limit analysis for stiffened eight-bolted base plate connections in EHV
           transmission towers
    • Authors: Hongjun Liu; Yazhou Liu; Zhengliang Li; Haibin Huang
      Pages: 70 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Hongjun Liu, Yazhou Liu, Zhengliang Li, Haibin Huang
      Theoretical models based on yield-line theory are presented for predicting the ultimate uplift capacity of stiffened eight-bolted base plate (EBBP) connections in EHV transmission tower. Based on the test observations, the four models for rigid connections consider combined effects of the base plate, stiffeners and anchor bolts and the model for flexible connections merely considers the base plate. The presented models are validated using experimental data from an associated test program and compared with the results calculated by methods in a corresponding code, and reasonable accuracy has been demonstrated. A parametric analysis shows that the presence of the stiffeners makes numerous contribution to the strength of rigid connections in particular cases.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Load transfer mechanism and fatigue performance evaluation of
           suspender-girder composite anchorage joints at serviceability stage
    • Authors: Yangqing Liu; Haohui Xin; Yuqing Liu
      Pages: 82 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Yangqing Liu, Haohui Xin, Yuqing Liu
      To evaluate the mechanical and fatigue behavior of composite suspender-girder anchorage joints in arch bridges, fatigue tests of two composite joints including pure-shear and shear-compression types were conducted and the load transfer mechanisms were evaluated based on the static loading. The experimental results indicated that both proposed composite anchorage joints presented great combined behavior. The load ratio of PBLs dropped sharply with the increase of embedded depth. Approximately 1/3 of the suspender tensile load was carried by the PBLs in the first row. Due to the redundant PBLs and large embedded depth, few loads were resisted by the bearing plate. Before and after the fatigue loading process, the shear amplitude of PBLs and the vertical stress distribution of concrete were almost consistent, indicating the favorable fatigue performance of joints. Parameterized solid nonlinear finite element models were established and verified by the test results to investigate the effect of total row number of PBLs and presence of bearing plate on the load transfer mechanics. The numerical results showed that the increase of total row number of PBLs enlarged the degree of irregularity of load distribution and reduced the load ratio of bearing plate. Finally, the load ratio formula of PBLs and bearing plate under serviceability stage was derived. The calculated load ratios were in good agreement with the test and numerical results. It was proposed that the total row numbers of PBLs were no >4 or 6 for the joints with or without bearing plate.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Testing and analysis of different hold down devices for CFS construction
    • Authors: Baris Mert Pehlivan; Eray Baran; Cem Topkaya
      Pages: 97 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Baris Mert Pehlivan, Eray Baran, Cem Topkaya
      This paper summarizes the findings of a two-phase study on hold down devices used in cold formed steel (CFS) structural systems. The first phase consisted of component testing and numerical analysis of hold down devices while the second phase was based on testing of CFS framed sheathed wall panels under cyclic lateral loading. Eleven monotonic and three cyclic tensile load tests were performed on seven different types of hold down devices to assess the performance of readily available hold downs and propose new hold down geometries that employ hot rolled angle sections. Tests revealed that some of the hold down devices that have been used in CFS construction exhibited very poor behavior with significant deformation under loading. The experimentally observed deformation mode of all hold down device types was correctly captured by the finite element models. Experimental and numerical findings proved that a superior performance in terms of strength and stiffness can be obtained from a simple hold down device that is manufactured from a steel angle section. In the second group of tests, the proposed angle section geometry was further studied as part of oriented strand board (OSB) sheathed CFS framed wall panels that were subjected to cyclic lateral loading. Close agreement was observed between the wall panel test results and those obtained from the hold down assembly tests. Wall panel test results indicated that the angle type hold down device has adequate mechanical performance to develop the expected strength of OSB sheathed CFS framed wall panel.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Experimental study on fatigue behavior of Q420 high-strength steel at low
           temperatures
    • Authors: Dachang Zhang; Ziran Li; Haiyang Wu; Fenghua Huang
      Pages: 116 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Dachang Zhang, Ziran Li, Haiyang Wu, Fenghua Huang
      Engineering structures are erected in all kinds of terrain and climate, and structural deformation and vibration may appear in anytime, such as deflection, shrinkage-expansion and vibration response. Fatigue failure of steel structure is a long-term behavior and difficult to estimate, especially in low temperatures. In order to study the fatigue behavior of Q420B steel at low temperatures, this paper conducted a series of experiments. Firstly, Charpy V-notch impact tests and strength tests of Q420B steel under normal and low temperatures were performed, and this type of steel can meet the requirements of Chinese and American standards. Secondly, the test specimens, temperature control system and loading method were designed, after which the fatigue tests of Q420B steel plates were carried out under different stress amplitudes (0.5 f y , 0.7 f y and 0.9 f y ) and different temperatures (25 °C, 0 °C, −15 °C and −30 °C, i.e. 298 K, 273 K, 258 K and 243 K), respectively. At the stress amplitude 0.5 f y , all the cyclic loading number of the specimens exceeded 2.0 million times, and no fatigue fracture or obvious deformation appeared under above temperatures. However, the fatigue fracture occurred at the fatigue stress amplitude 0.7 f y and 0.9 f y , and the fatigue life obviously increased with the decrease of temperature. Therefore, it can be concluded that the low temperature can improve the fatigue performance of Q420B steel in some degree. What's more, the tested fatigue life was larger than the theoretical values of the current specifications. Lastly, the S-N curves of Q420B steel under different temperatures were provided.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Shaking-table test of a novel buckling-restrained multi-stiffened
           low-yield-point steel plate shear wall
    • Authors: Zhang-yong Ma; Ji-ping Hao; Hai-sheng Yu
      Pages: 128 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Zhang-yong Ma, Ji-ping Hao, Hai-sheng Yu
      We proposed a novel buckling-restrained multi-stiffened low-yield-point steel plate shear wall (BR-LYP-SPSW). To study the seismic behavior of BR-LYP-SPSW, a 1:3 scale model shaking-table test was conducted. The increase in the peak ground acceleration decreased the natural frequency and acceleration dynamic magnification factor and increased the damping ratio. The advantage of the sandwiched LYP infill plate is the higher order buckling formed at the LYP infill plate, which played an important role in “the first line of defense.” The maximum inter-storey drifts during frequent and rare earthquakes were 1/694 and 1/88, respectively, which met the demands of the seismic design code of buildings.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Fire tests on full-scale steel portal frames against progressive collapse
    • Authors: Guobiao Lou; Chenghao Wang; Jian Jiang; Yaqiang Jiang; Liangwei Wang; Guo-Qiang Li
      Pages: 137 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Guobiao Lou, Chenghao Wang, Jian Jiang, Yaqiang Jiang, Liangwei Wang, Guo-Qiang Li
      This paper presents experimental investigations on the collapse behavior of a full-scale 36 m × 12 m steel portal frame exposed to natural fires. Extensive thermal and structural responses of the frame are measured and presented. The frame collapses after 15-min fire exposure with a critical temperature of about 1100 °C in the heated column. The measured gas temperature history has a short growth period of 3 min, and reaches its peak temperature of 1100 °C within 8 min (400 °C higher than standard fire). It is found that a two-zone model can be assumed with uniform temperature distribution in the lower and upper half region, respectively. The temperature gap of these two zones reaches 200 °C. The gas temperature at top region decreases due to the deformation-induced opening of roof and fire walls. The surface facing the environment has higher gas temperatures than that inside the fire compartment (more than 200 °C). The temperature of rafters beyond the fire compartment reaches 700 °C due to the spread hot smoke. Outward bending of the external unexposed column and pulling out of corner column base are observed, which should be prevented in practical design to mitigate fire spread to adjacent buildings and ensure life safety of fire fighters. Numerical simulation is conducted and compared to experimental results which can be used for calibrating numerical models.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Behavior of a new shear connector for U-shaped steel-concrete
           hybrid beams
    • Authors: Pisey Keo; Clémence Lepourry; Hugues Somja; Frank Palas
      Pages: 153 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Pisey Keo, Clémence Lepourry, Hugues Somja, Frank Palas
      This paper presents an investigation of the behavior of a new type of shear connectors used in U-shaped steel-concrete hybrid beams. Besides the role in transferring the force between concrete and steel material, this new type of shear connectors, welded on the upper flange of the U-shaped steel beam, serves to maintain the shape of the steel cross-section during concrete encasement. Several forms of shear connectors can be used such as L-shaped or square cross-section. The experimental investigation of the behavior of these shear connectors using asymmetrical push-out tests is presented in this paper. A finite element model has been developed in order to identify the stress behavior of the connectors and the surrounding concrete. The FE model is validated by comparing its results against experimental data and then used to perform a parametric study. Based on the parametric study results, an analytical formula for calculating the force transfer capacity of the shear connector is proposed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.01.028
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Seismic performance of end-plate connections between T-shaped CFST columns
           and RC beams
    • Authors: Zhong Peng; Shao-Bin Dai; Yong-Lin Pi; Yi-Chao Zhang; Jun Huang
      Pages: 167 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Zhong Peng, Shao-Bin Dai, Yong-Lin Pi, Yi-Chao Zhang, Jun Huang
      An innovative end-plate connection is proposed by welding an H-shaped steel corbel to the end-plate and the end-plate is connected to the special T-shape concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) column using a number of high-strength bolts. This paper presents experimental and numerical studies on the seismic performance of the new end-plate connection between T-shaped CFST columns and reinforced concrete (RC) beams with slabs. Tests of seven specimens are conducted: a specimen is tested under the monotonic loading in order to obtain the load-displacement curve and the development of strains until the failure; and six specimens are tested under cyclic loading. The seismic behaviour of the connections in terms of strength, ductility, energy dissipation, strength degradation and stiffness degradation are evaluated. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed connections exhibit good seismic performance and that the length of the H-shaped steel corbel and the diameter of the high-strength bolt played important roles in improving the seismic behaviour of the connections. A finite element (FE) model based on ABAQUS is developed and validated by the experimental results for the numerical investigation of the seismic behaviour of the proposed end-plate connections. It has been found that the reinforcement ratio of beam and the concrete strength of the beam and slab can affect the seismic performance of the specimens, but the effect of the axial compressive force ratio of the column on the seismic performance can be neglected.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • A robust method for optimization of semi-rigid steel frames subject to
           seismic loading
    • Authors: Viet-Hung Truong; Seung-Eock Kim
      Pages: 184 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Viet-Hung Truong, Seung-Eock Kim
      In this study, we develop a seismic optimization method to minimize the semi-rigid steel frame cost. In the proposed method, cross-sections of columns and beams and types of beam-to-column and base restraint semi-rigid joints are considered as the design variables of the optimization. The nonlinear seismic behaviors of the structure are carried out by using plastic-hinge beam-column elements for beams and columns, zero-length elements for semi-rigid connections, and time-history dynamic analysis. An effective implementation of harmony search technique (HS) is presented to find the global optimal solution of the optimization. In order to improve HS, a multi-comparison technique (MCT) is proposed that significantly reduces the useless time-consuming evaluations in the optimization. The robustness and efficiency of the proposed method are demonstrated through three optimization problems of semi-rigid steel frames. Compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO), micro-genetic algorithm (micro-GA), and genetic algorithm (GA), the proposed method is found to significantly reduce the number of structural analyses required and yield the better optimum frame designs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.025
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Coupled thermo-mechanical simulation for the performance-based fire design
           of CFS drywall systems
    • Authors: Ilias D. Thanasoulas; Iason K. Vardakoulias; Dionysios I. Kolaitis; Charis J. Gantes; Maria A. Founti
      Pages: 196 - 209
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Ilias D. Thanasoulas, Iason K. Vardakoulias, Dionysios I. Kolaitis, Charis J. Gantes, Maria A. Founti
      In the present study, a fully coupled thermo-mechanical simulation methodology is presented, capable of estimating the response of cold-formed steel drywall systems exposed to fire and evaluating whether or not compliance with the performance-based fire safety requirements is achieved, in terms of the load-bearing capacity (R), integrity (E) and insulation (I) criteria. The proposed nonlinear coupled thermo-mechanical approach, accounting for geometry, material and contact nonlinearities, is validated against full-scale furnace test results of typical, commercially available, load-bearing drywall systems, achieving a very good qualitative and quantitative agreement; maximum discrepancies between the predicted and measured fire-resistance ratings do not exceed 2%. Several parametric studies are carried out, concerning the magnitude of the imposed load on the bearing walls and the effect of the cavity insulation placement on the overall fire performance of drywall systems. It is found that installation of thermal insulation inside the drywall cavity may decrease the system's fire-resistance rating, depending on the employed configuration. The proposed numerical approach can be effectively used to estimate the fire-resistance rating of load-bearing lightweight steel drywall systems in support of performance-based fire design standards.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Stress analysis of adhesive in a cracked steel plate repaired with CFRP
    • Authors: Yu Zhang; Kai Zhang; Haikun Zhao; Jianhang Xin; Menglan Duan
      Pages: 210 - 217
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Yu Zhang, Kai Zhang, Haikun Zhao, Jianhang Xin, Menglan Duan
      To repair a cracked steel-plate with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRR) is an effective and simple method to strengthen a cracked region in a steel structure, which can improve security and extend steel structure's lifetime. As the repaired structure is subjected to tension loads, initial damage usually occurs in the adhesive. In this paper, the stress distributions of adhesive in a cracked steel plate repaired with CFRP were obtained based on a theoretical method and the finite element method (FEM) with different crack lengths. The maximum shear stress and peel stress in the adhesive were obtained from products of stress ratios and stresses for the case of a through-wall crack. As stress ratios could be approximated as a curve independent of material combinations, and stresses for a repaired steel plate with a through crack have explicit expressions, we could simply predict adhesive failure or the maximum load using quadratic stress criteria.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Component-based model of fin plate connections exposed to fire-part II:
           Establishing of the component-based model
    • Authors: Baochao Xie; Jing Hou; Zhisheng Xu; Mingjie Dan
      Pages: 218 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Baochao Xie, Jing Hou, Zhisheng Xu, Mingjie Dan
      To establish a component-based model for a fin plate connection exposed to fire, to be used for the fire resistance analysis of an entire structure, the plate in bearing component was investigated omitting friction in the study reported in the previous companion paper. In this study, the bolt in shear component and fiction component are investigated and a component-based model of fin plate connection is established and verified. Firstly, the threaded bolt in shear component omitting friction is examined; a three-dimensional solid finite element analysis of the parameters affecting the properties of the component is performed - including bolt diameter, plate thickness and temperature. Then a prediction model for the resistance and initial stiffness of the bolt in shear component is proposed and the force-deflection function for the component is established. A finite element analysis of the friction in the lap joint was performed for determining the relationship between the friction component and the plate in bearing component and establishing the component-based model for the fin plate connection. Finally, the component-based model for the fin plate behaviour was employed for simulating the performance of the connection exposed to fire and subjected to complex forces. The simulation result exhibited a satisfactory fit with the results of the 3-D solid finite element simulation, which verified the accuracy of the component-based model. The simulation time also decreased from several days to several seconds.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Puzzle-shaped rib shear connectors subjected to combined shear and tension
    • Authors: Martin Classen; Martin Herbrand; Viviane Adam; Dominik Kueres; Mustafa Sarac
      Pages: 232 - 243
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Martin Classen, Martin Herbrand, Viviane Adam, Dominik Kueres, Mustafa Sarac
      Open rib shear connectors are increasingly used as shear connectors and anchors between concrete and steel members of composite structures. In many cases, the rib connectors are subjected to combined shear and tension forces. However, until now, the structural response and interaction behavior of rib shear connectors exposed to tension and shear has not been analyzed. The current design guidelines do not provide a recommendation for computing the strength of rib shear connectors (traditionally used as shear connectors) under combined tension and shear. Therefore, the present paper presents systematic studies on the interaction behaviour of puzzle-shaped rib shear connectors, also called composite dowels. Based on tests results gained in a novel test setup and FE-simulations, the interaction properties of composite dowel rib connectors are analyzed and a model approach for the tension and shear interaction is proposed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.036
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Static behaviour and simplified design method of a Tensairity truss with a
           spindle-shaped airbeam
    • Authors: Zhenggang Cao; Zongshuai Wan; Jiachuan Yan; Feng Fan
      Pages: 244 - 253
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Zhenggang Cao, Zongshuai Wan, Jiachuan Yan, Feng Fan
      To provide solutions for large span structures, the use of a Tensairity truss with a 60-m span, which was studied numerically, is proposed. The influence of the internal pressure and cable tension length on the mechanical properties is investigated for several load cases. A simplified spring model based on the vertical stiffness formula of the inflated airbeam is presented, and a static design principle and a design method are proposed. The results show that the adoption of a steel truss can greatly increase the spanning capacity of a Tensairity structure, and the stiffness and load bearing capacity for the structure increase with the increase in air pressure. However, the structure is very sensitive to wind load, which can be improved by re-tensioning the lower cable. Comparisons between the simplified spring model and the original model show a good correlation for the displacement distribution and overall stiffness at a relatively high internal pressure for all load cases considered. The simplified design method will be an easy way for designers to evaluate the behaviour of Tensairity structures, and can be conveniently applied to practical engineering cases.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.041
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Cyclic performance of double tee connections with short slotted holes
    • Authors: Jizhuo Huang; Jialin Wang; Wei Chen; Zhibin Wang
      Pages: 254 - 265
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Jizhuo Huang, Jialin Wang, Wei Chen, Zhibin Wang
      A new type of double tee connection with short slotted holes in the T-stub stems is proposed in this study. Four full-scale double tee connection assemblies were tested under cyclic loading and the test results are compared with those of a control specimen with reduced beam section connection. The effects of slot length of the bolt holes on the failure mode, bearing capacity, ductility, energy dissipation of the connection, and the possibility of protecting the beam from being damaged under cyclic loading are studied. The test results demonstrate that this type of double tee connection shows excellent seismic performance as severe plastic deformation develops only in the T-stubs. The slippage of the bolts in the slotted holes can greatly increase the rotation capacity, ductility and energy dissipation of the connection to resist severe earthquakes. Furthermore, the small movement allowed for the beam end can prevent or reduce the risk of local damage progression in the beam flanges and web, which can increase the post-earthquake reparability of steel structures with such connections.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.030
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • FE analysis of circular CFT columns considering bond-slip effect:
           Evaluation of ultimate strength
    • Authors: Ju-young Hwang; Hyo-Gyoung Kwak
      Pages: 266 - 276
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Ju-young Hwang, Hyo-Gyoung Kwak
      In this paper, a simple design equation to predict the resisting capacity of circular CFT columns is introduced, and the accompanying design procedure entails two phases: construction of the linearized P-M interaction diagram for a circular CFT column section and its adjustment according to the slenderness ratio. To construct the linearized P-M interaction diagram of circular CFT columns without a rigorous nonlinear analysis, simple equations are proposed in this paper. In advance, on the basis of the numerical results obtained by the use of the analytical model introduced in the previous paper, the ultimate resisting capacity reduction factors are designed through a curvilinear regression, and the use of these reduction factors makes it possible to determine the ultimate resisting capacity of slender CFT columns without any rigorous nonlinear analysis. Finally, the efficiency of the introduced design equation is verified on the basis of the comparison of the ultimate resisting capacities calculated in this paper with those determined by rigorous nonlinear analyses and by the AISC design guideline and the Eurocode.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.033
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Rehabilitation of corroded H-piles using friction-type bolted plate-based
           repair system
    • Authors: Cheng Shi; Abdeldjelil Belarbi; Mina Dawood
      Pages: 277 - 288
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Cheng Shi, Abdeldjelil Belarbi, Mina Dawood
      This paper presents the details of an experimental and numerical study that was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a friction-type bolted steel plate-based system for underwater rehabilitation of steel H-piles with severe but localized corrosion. The repair system allows the applied axial load to be transferred from the original pile to the steel repair plates through friction at the interface between the pile flanges and the steel repair plates. To evaluate the performance of the repair system, seven 4.57 m-long HP12 × 53 (U.S. designation) piles were deteriorated to simulate corrosion of the flange and web. The piles were repaired using friction-type bolted steel plates and tested under axial compression to investigate the behavior of repaired piles. The test results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed repair system in terms of restoring the axial stiffness and capacity of the deteriorated piles. A rational approach for the design of the friction-type steel plate-based repair system is also summarized. A FE model was developed to simulate the repaired piles. Validated by the full-scale experimental results of seven retrofitted piles, the numerical model was used for a parametric study to investigate different factors that might affect the axial capacity of the strengthened piles. The research findings demonstrate that the proposed friction-type steel plate-based repair system can be easily used to restore the capacity of steel H-piles with severe but localized corrosion.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.034
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Buckling behavior of cylindrical steel tanks with concavity of vertical
           weld line imperfection
    • Authors: Mehdi Rastgar; Hossein Showkati
      Pages: 289 - 299
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Mehdi Rastgar, Hossein Showkati
      Shell structures are built using a number of welded curved panel parts. Hence, some geometrical imperfections emerge. These imperfections have a direct impact on structural behavior of shells during the external compressive loading. In this research, a field study was accomplished on the implementation of the storage tanks in a refinery site and then, the resulted imperfections were identified and categorized. The survey of imperfections revealed that the imperfection in form of concavity of vertical weld line is the most prevalent type of imperfection seen in the steel tanks. This imperfection experimentally modeled and the buckling behavior of these tanks was evaluated under uniform external pressure. Comparing obtained results of estimation, ASME code and experimental research represented a considerable difference in the amount of buckling load. Results show that the imperfections due to concavity of vertical weld line are very important in buckling of the tanks under uniform external pressure. This imperfection decreases initial, full and post buckling capacity of the tanks under uniform external pressure, significantly. Findings of this research show that for design of steel tanks under uniform external pressure load, 65% of the buckling load obtained from the ASME Code should be used.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.028
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Shear lag effect on ultimate tensile capacity of high strength steel
           angles
    • Authors: Ke Ke; Y.H. Xiong; Michael C.H. Yam; Angus C.C. Lam; K.F. Chung
      Pages: 300 - 314
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Ke Ke, Y.H. Xiong, Michael C.H. Yam, Angus C.C. Lam, K.F. Chung
      This research investigates the shear lag effect on the behaviour and ultimate tensile capacity of high strength steel (HSS) tension angles with bolted and welded connections. Eighteen full-scale tests were conducted, including fourteen specimens with HSS tension angles and four specimens with normal steel (NS) tension angles. For these specimens, single tension angles were connected to the gusset plates either by bolted or welded connections. The main test parameters included steel grade, connection length and out-of-plane eccentricity. In general, the test observations showed that the shear lag effect was significant for the bolted HSS angle specimens connected by the short leg. The effectiveness of the design equation in the current design specifications for quantifying the shear lag ( 1 − x ¯ / L rule, where x ¯ = out ‐ of ‐ plane eccentricity and L = connection length) was evaluated using the test results. The comparison of the test results and the predictions by the design equations showed that the latter gave un-conservative estimates of the ultimate tensile capacity of the specimens with bolted HSS angles connected by the short leg. Based on the finite element models validated by the test results, a parametric study was carried out, and the results also indicated that the current design equation would lead to unsafe estimates of the ultimate tensile capacities of bolted HSS angles connected by the short leg. Finally, a modified design guideline was proposed based on the results of the numerical study.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Comparative analysis of cyclic models for steel beams
    • Authors: Corrado Chisari; Gianvittorio Rizzano
      Pages: 315 - 329
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Corrado Chisari, Gianvittorio Rizzano
      Phenomenological models are used to simulate post-elastic behaviour of steel beams in the framework of concentrated plasticity. Many of them can model degradation phenomena occurring during cyclic loading, but these are often governed by model parameters without clear physical meaning. It follows that in this case parameter calibration must be performed by curve fitting of experimental responses. In this work, several numerical models (simple hysteretic, modified Ibarra-Medina-Krawinkler, Bouc-Wen and Sivaselvan-Reinhorn), implemented in widely used software packages, are calibrated against the results provided by an experimental programme involving cyclic and monotonic tests on open and closed cross-section beams, by employing a multi-objective optimisation methodology recently developed by the authors. The extensive calibration analyses carried out show that the most accurate model among those investigated is the Sivalselvan-Reinhorn model, which is able to provide realistic simulations of both monotonic and cyclic responses. Extension of the calibration procedure is proposed, which considers an additional objective related to the envelope curve of the cyclic response, and it is shown that this improvement adds robustness to the results. Finally, a preliminary regression analysis of the results, aimed at correlating degradation model parameters to geometric and mechanical properties of the member, is described.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Development and experimental validation of an assembled steel double-stage
           yield buckling restrained brace
    • Authors: Jiangbo Sun; Peng Pan; Haishen Wang
      Pages: 330 - 340
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Jiangbo Sun, Peng Pan, Haishen Wang
      A novel assembled steel double-stage yield buckling restrained brace (DYB) was experimentally studied. The DYB core plate comprises one small core plate and one large core plate connected in series. The deformation capacity of the small core plate is restricted by a stopper mechanism. The deformation of the DYB is first concentrated at the small core plate and then shifted to the large core plate once the stopper mechanism is triggered, resulting in double-stage yield behavior of the DYB. Three specimens were fabricated with core plates of different size to study the main influencing factors in the design of DYBs. Quasi-static tests were conducted. Results from a comprehensive experimental study demonstrate that the DYB has a ductile, stable, and repeatable hysteretic behavior. It is a reliable and practical alternative to conventional framing systems in that it can enhance the earthquake resistance of existing and new structures and provide the rigidity needed to satisfy structural drift limits while delivering a stable and substantial energy absorption capacity. The proposed hysteretic model of the DYB was calibrated with the test results, showing good agreement and the capacity to capture characteristic points of hysteresis curves.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Global buckling of laterally-unrestrained Q460GJ beams with singly
           symmetric I-sections
    • Authors: Shao-Bo Kang; Bo Yang; Yue Zhang; Mohamed Elchalakani; Gang Xiong
      Pages: 341 - 351
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Shao-Bo Kang, Bo Yang, Yue Zhang, Mohamed Elchalakani, Gang Xiong
      This paper investigates the global stability of welded singly symmetric I-shaped beams fabricated from Q460GJ steel, a typical high-performance structural steel. Experimental tests and numerical simulations were carried out on a total of eight laterally unrestrained steel beams under a concentrated point load. A special loading system was designed through which the beam could develop lateral deflections at the mid-span. Load-displacement curves and strains of beams were measured during testing. In the finite element model, initial geometric imperfections and residual stresses were considered. The model was verified through comparisons with experimental results, and parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of non-dimensional slenderness and height-to-width ratio. Meanwhile, design curves for lateral-torsional buckling of welded singly symmetric beams were calculated from GB50017-2003, GB50017-201X, Eurocode 3 and ANSI/AISC360-10. Comparisons between numerical results and design curves suggested that the design methods in GB50017-2003 and ANSI/AISC360-10 were unsafe for Q460GJ steel beams while GB50017-201X and Eurocode 3 could provide reasonably conservative results for global buckling design of singly symmetric Q460GJ steel beams.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Experimental investigation on seismic performance of endplate composite
           joints to CFST columns
    • Authors: Jingfeng Wang; Jia Lu; Huijie Zhang; Chunfeng Zhao
      Pages: 352 - 367
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Jingfeng Wang, Jia Lu, Huijie Zhang, Chunfeng Zhao
      The aim of this research is to carry out pseudo-static tests and investigate the seismic behaviour of the endplate composite joints of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns using blind bolts. Four full-scale blind-bolted endplate composite joints of a reinforced concrete (RC) slab to circular or square CFST columns were subjected to lateral cyclic displacements. Thereafter, the data obtained were used to evaluate the seismic performance of the typical composite joints from many aspects, such as hysteretic response, strength and rigidity degradation, ductility and energy dissipation capacity. In addition, failure modes were summarized based on the test phenomena; the influence of the column section and endplate types on the seismic performance of the joints was discussed in detail. The findings of the experiment demonstrate that the blind-bolted endplate composite joints possess appropriate ductility and adequate energy dissipation and, through reasonable design, they can satisfy the anti-seismic requirements in most seismic zones.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Advanced inelastic analysis of steel structures at elevated temperatures
           by SCM/RPHM coupling
    • Authors: Rafael C. Barros; Dalilah Pires; Ricardo A.M. Silveira; Ígor J.M. Lemes; Paulo A.S. Rocha
      Pages: 368 - 385
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Rafael C. Barros, Dalilah Pires, Ricardo A.M. Silveira, Ígor J.M. Lemes, Paulo A.S. Rocha
      When exposed to high temperatures, the structural members and frames have their bearing capacity compromised because the physical characteristics and material resistance used in the structures deteriorate during exposure to fire, resulting in a considerable loss of strength and stiffness. In this context, the present work carries out a whole thermomechanical analysis of steel members and frames using the Finite Element Method (FEM) inelastic formulation based on the Refined Plastic Hinge Method (RPHM) coupled with the Strain Compatibility Method (SCM). The use of SCM allows for a more realistic analysis against the design codes prescriptions. So even under high temperatures, SCM is used for both evaluation of bearing capacity and stiffness parameters. To do this, the steel behavior used in the structure numerical modeling must be described in a consistent manner through its constitutive relationship. A comparison of the results obtained here with the numerical and experimental results available in the literature suggest the effectiveness of coupling SCM/RPHM and that such a methodology can provide reliable analyses of steel members and frames subjected to high temperatures.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Fishbone-shaped beam–column model for steel outrigger truss–concrete
           wall composite joints
    • Authors: Ran Ding; Xin Nie; Mu-Xuan Tao; Jian-Sheng Fan
      Pages: 386 - 396
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Ran Ding, Xin Nie, Mu-Xuan Tao, Jian-Sheng Fan
      In high-rise and super-high-rise buildings, steel outrigger trusses are commonly used as key components for improving the structural seismic performance. The joints between the trusses and core concrete walls enable reliable transfer of large axial loads from the former to the latter and therefore deserve special attention. In the present study, an equivalent fishbone-shaped beam–column model is developed for the analysis and design of the composite joint. The joint is composed of concrete-filled steel tube (CFT) boundary columns and double-skin steel plates, which work together to transfer the axial loads. In the proposed model, elastic beam–column elements are used to represent the CFT boundary columns, double-skin steel plates, horizontal rebar, and diagonal concrete struts in the wall. Two important geometric parameters of the model, namely the length of the double-skin steel plates and the height of the CFT boundary columns, are investigated. Comprehensive parametric analyses based on elaborate finite element models with solid and shell elements are conducted to reveal the main factors that determine the two above-mentioned parameters, and to propose calculating formulas. Then the model is further verified by finite element models with shell and solid elements in terms of the axial force distribution and horizontal displacement. Finally, a method for designing the truss–wall joint using the proposed beam–column model is developed and a typical design example is presented. It is demonstrated that the design of the joint is convenient and reliable once the axial load demand is determined by seismic analysis of the entire building.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.037
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • Hysteretic behaviour of overlapped tubular k-joints under cyclic loading
    • Authors: Xianzhong Zhao; Jintai Liu; Xiangbin Xu; Ken Siva Sivakumaran; Yiyi Chen
      Pages: 397 - 413
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 145
      Author(s): Xianzhong Zhao, Jintai Liu, Xiangbin Xu, Ken Siva Sivakumaran, Yiyi Chen
      Overlapped K-joints arise in truss type structures when one diagonal (overlap brace) intersects the other diagonal (through brace). In such joints, part of the through brace is hidden within the overlap brace, and the hidden toe of the through brace may or may not be welded to the chord. This study investigates the hysteretic behaviour of partially overlapped circular hollow section K-joints, with and without hidden welds, under cyclic loading. This study involved nine full-scale specimens, out of which four specimens had hidden welds. One joint was statically loaded and the remaining eight joints were cyclically loaded until failure. Chord plastification, brace local buckling, and cracking of the brace adjacent to welds were observed in these tests. The hysteretic performance indicators, such as ultimate capacity, joint ductility, energy dissipation, ultimate stiffness, etc., were established, which were then used to understand the hysteretic behaviour of overlapped K-joints. Results show that, compared with static loading, brace cracking occurred more easily under cyclic loading with a reduced joint capacity of up to 7% and a severely decreased ductility. Joints with hidden welds may exhibit a higher strength by approximately 10% and an increased hysteretic energy dissipation capacity, but with a reduction in joint ductility. The analysis of strain distributions around the joint zone indicates that, even though the joints with hidden welds experience lower strains, the hidden weld creates an asymmetric strain profile in the joints, which may be a weakness as some locations may become stress raisers leading to crack initiation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.02.035
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2018)
       
  • A continuum model for damage evolution simulation of the high strength
           bridge wires due to corrosion fatigue
    • Authors: Bin Sun
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 146
      Author(s): Bin Sun
      Continuum damage model and simulation algorithm are developed to simulate the corrosion fatigue process of high strength bridge cable steel wires. The developed model can be used to predict the damage curves during the corrosion fatigue process based on the concept of continuum damage mechanics (CDM). The algorithm can be used to simulate the corrosion fatigue damage evolution process of bridge wires from local damage to failure. As case study, the developed model and algorithm have been applied to simulate corrosion fatigue damage evolution of bridge wires under cyclic tensile in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution at 6 Hz, and the numerical prediction results are compared with experimental results. It shows that the developed model and algorithm are reasonable and can be used to study and describe corrosion fatigue damage evolution of bridge wires.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T11:26:43Z
       
 
 
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