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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2268 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 183 of 183 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)


Journal Cover Journal of Constructional Steel Research
  [SJR: 1.746]   [H-I: 59]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0143-974X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Seismic performance of steel-concrete composite structural walls with
           prestressed internal bracing
    • Authors: Wenwu Lan; Bing Li; Zhongwen Zhang
      Pages: 11 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Wenwu Lan, Bing Li, Zhongwen Zhang
      This paper presents research investigations on the seismic performances of steel-concrete composite structural walls with prestressed internal bracing. The lateral stiffness of the walls was increased with embedded steel while the prestressed internal braces are designed to control the cracks of the wall. Tests are conducted for steel-concrete walls with different arrangement of prestressed internal bracing. The specimens were observed and analyzed by the cracking process and patterns, the hysteresis response, the deformation component and the loss of the prestress during the loading process. Additionally, numerical investigations were performed for the tested specimens. Finite element models were built for these walls.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T12:48:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.019
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Health monitoring of a steel moment-resisting frame subjected to seismic
    • Authors: Ayman Mosallam; Tadeh Zirakian; Ayman Abdelaal; Alemdar Bayraktar
      Pages: 34 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Ayman Mosallam, Tadeh Zirakian, Ayman Abdelaal, Alemdar Bayraktar
      Structural health monitoring (SHM) offers the potential to evaluate the safety and integrity of the civil infrastructure. By obtaining accurate information about the condition of the structure, appropriate preventive measures can be taken to prolong the service life and prevent the catastrophic failure of the structure. Application of effective damage detection strategies can reduce the life-cycle costs as well. Damage reduces the stiffness and modifies the modal properties of a structure. Therefore, changes in modal properties can be used to detect damage in the structure. Although extensive research has been conducted on structural diagnosis by measuring the vibrational signals of structures, more research is still needed for development of reliable and effective damage detection techniques. This paper presents a study on damage detection of a 3-story steel moment-resisting frame structure instrumented by a network of wireless sensors and cable-based accelerometers. Experimental data from shake table testing and numerical results from finite element simulation were used for damage identification through two approaches. In the first approach, the finite element model of the structure was calibrated and used to locate and quantify the elemental stiffness loss on the basis of the experimentally-identified modal parameters. Moreover, a direct search algorithm was used for minimization of an objective function representing the difference between predicted and measured dynamic parameters of the structure. In the second approach, damage identification was performed through application of the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) and detection of the changes between undamaged and damaged conditions. Results of this study are indicative of capability and effectiveness of both approaches in identification of damage.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.023
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Free vibration analysis of horizontally curved composite concrete-steel
           I-girder bridges
    • Authors: Radek Wodzinowski; Khaled Sennah; Hamdy M. Afefy
      Pages: 47 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Radek Wodzinowski, Khaled Sennah, Hamdy M. Afefy
      Curved composite concrete-steel I-girder bridges provide an exceptional solution to the problems of urban congestion, traffic, and pollution, but their behavior is quite complex due to the coupled bending and torsion response of the bridges. Moreover, dynamic behavior of curved bridges further complicates the problem. The majority of curved bridges today are designed using complex analytical methods; therefore, a strong need exists for simplified design methods in the form of empirical equations for the structural design parameters. In this paper, a sensitivity study is conducted to examine the effect of various design parameters on the free-vibration response of curved composite concrete-steel I-girder bridges. In order to determine their fundamental frequency and corresponding mode shapes, an extensive parametric study is conducted on 336 straight and curved bridges. ABAQUS software package was employed to carry out the numerical simulation for the considered bridges in order to obtain the fundamental frequencies. From the results of the parametric study, simple-to-use equations are developed to predict the fundamental frequency of curved composite concrete-steel I-girder bridges. It is shown that the developed equations are equally applicable to curved composite steel I-girder bridges of simple span or multi-spans with equal span lengths.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Seismic performance assessment of steel frame infilled with prefabricated
           wood shear walls
    • Authors: Zheng Li; Minjuan He; Xijun Wang; Minghao Li
      Pages: 62 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Zheng Li, Minjuan He, Xijun Wang, Minghao Li
      Steel-timber hybrid structural systems offer a modern solution for building multi-story structures with more environmentally-friendly features. This paper presents a comprehensive seismic performance assessment for a kind of multi-story steel-timber hybrid structure. In such a hybrid structure, steel moment resisting frames are infilled with prefabricated light wood frame shear walls to serve as the lateral load resisting system (LLRS). In this paper, drift-based performance objectives under various seismic hazard levels were proposed based on experimental observations. Then, a numerical model of the hybrid structure considering damage accumulation and stiffness degradation was developed and verified by experimental results, and nonlinear time-history analyses were conducted to establish a database of seismic responses. The numerical results further serve as a technical basis for estimating the structure's fundamental period and evaluating post-yielding behavior and failure probabilities of the hybrid structure under various seismic hazard levels. A load sharing parameter was defined to describe the wall-frame lateral force distribution, and a formula was proposed and calibrated by the time-history analytical results to estimate the load sharing parameter. Moreover, earthquake-induced non-structural damage and residual deformation were also evaluated, showing that if designed properly, desirable seismic performance with acceptable repair effort can be obtained for the proposed steel-timber hybrid structural system.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Experimental study on axially compressed circular CFST columns with
           improved confinement effect
    • Authors: Liusheng He; Yangang Zhao; Siqi Lin
      Pages: 74 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Liusheng He, Yangang Zhao, Siqi Lin
      The concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) column has been widely used in construction due to the benefit of composite action between inner concrete and exterior steel tube. Under axial compression, the steel tube is subjected to biaxial stress state in the hoop and axial direction, and the hoop stress component provides confinement for the inner concrete. However, the existence of axial stress component accelerates the buckling of steel tube, which hinders its confinement effect to inner concrete and accordingly column's axial compressive strength and ductility. This paper aims to enhance the axial compressive strength and ductility of CFST stub columns by improving its confinement effect provided by the steel tube. CFST stub columns axially loaded/unloaded were experimentally studied for different cases: a) varying concrete strength, b) lubrication on the contact between steel tube and concrete and c) corrugations in the steel tube that are introduced to intentionally weaken the tube vertically. It was found that axial compressive strength of CFST stub columns was effectively enhanced by reducing the axial stress in the steel tube. The introduction of corrugations in the steel tube led to largely concentrated axial deformation which reduced axial stress in other portions of the steel tube and consequently resulted in “tighter” hoop confinement to the inner concrete; both axial compressive strength and ductility were enhanced.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.025
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Ultimate strength of a beam-to-column joint in a composite slim floor
    • Authors: Jinming Zeng; Wei Lu; Juha Paavola
      Pages: 82 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Jinming Zeng, Wei Lu, Juha Paavola
      The paper studies numerically the behaviour of a beam-to-column joint between a hat-shaped steel beam (WQ-beam) and a concrete-filled composite column in a slim floor steel-concrete composite frame. 3D continuum elements are used in the discretization of the joint with contact surfaces between the components. Both material and geometrical nonlinearities are included. The computational results are verified by comparing them to experimental results. The verified model is applied to study the development of the load-transfer mechanisms in the joint. The load carrying capacity of the joint is categorized on the base of five parameters: the flange width, the web height, the wall thickness and the corners of the console, and the gap between the WQ-beam endplate and the column face. In addition, a criterion to evaluate the limit load of the joint is proposed. The design capacity of the joints from the proposed criterion is compared with the values calculated according to both other criteria and design code. It can be concluded that the proposed criterion is suitable for estimating the resistance of the studied joint.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Monotonic and cyclic tests on beam-column joints of industrial pallet
    • Authors: Federico Gusella; Giovanni Lavacchini; Maurizio Orlando
      Pages: 92 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Federico Gusella, Giovanni Lavacchini, Maurizio Orlando
      Pallet racks are characterized by boltless beam-column connections and the extensive use of thin-walled cold-formed steel members. Due to the great number of beam-end connector types and member geometries, a reliable evaluation of their structural behavior, especially under seismic loads, requires a thorough modeling of beam-column joints, whose moment-rotation curves can be reliably assessed only through experimental tests. In this paper, the authors present results of monotonic and cyclic tests on four different types of industrial rack joints. Tested joints differ from one another in the type of beam-connector, which is obtained by folding the beam end or is welded to the beam-end section with different welding layouts. Moreover, joints differ in the number of tabs and the relative thickness of the upright and the beam-end connector. Experimental results from cyclic tests allows for moment-rotation curves of joints to be accurately identified, confirming that they are significantly different from traditional steel framed buildings due to pinching in hysteresis loops. Obtained curves can be used for reliable modeling of joints in seismic analyses of steel pallet racks. As producers of steel rack structures are interested in reducing the total welding length of beam-end connectors for time efficiency and cost saving, the influence of the welding layout of beam-end connectors on the structural response and failure mode of joints has also been investigated. Finally, some joints have also been equipped with additional bolts to evaluate their influence on the bearing capacity, initial elastic stiffness and dissipated energy per cycle.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Behavior of welded hollow spherical joints after exposure to ISO-834
           standard fire
    • Authors: Jie Lu; Hongbo Liu; Zhihua Chen
      Pages: 108 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Jie Lu, Hongbo Liu, Zhihua Chen
      Welded hollow spherical joints are extensively used as a connection pattern in space lattice structures. Provided that structural collapse does not occur after a fire, a reliable evaluation of the residual performances of the structures is necessary to decide whether the structures should be dismantled, repaired, or directly reused. Thus, understanding the post-fire residual behavior of welded hollow spherical joints, which act as key connection elements, is crucial for fire damage assessment of the space lattice structures. In this paper, experimental and numerical studies were conducted to reveal the residual structural behavior of welded hollow spherical joints after fire exposure. Axial compressive tests were performed on eight joint specimens after exposure to the ISO-834 standard fire (including both heating and cooling phases), and three highest fire temperatures, i.e., 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C, were considered. The temperature distributions in the specimens during the heating and cooling process and the related mechanical behavior of the specimens, such as axial load–displacement curves, initial axial stiffness, yield loads, load-bearing capacities, ductility level, and strain distributions, were obtained and analyzed. Finite element analysis (FEA), including both heat transfer and stress analysis, were also developed using the ABAQUS software. Having validated the FE models against the experimental results, a design method was proposed on the basis of parametric studies to predict both the residual load-bearing capacity and initial axial stiffness of welded hollow spherical joints after fire exposure.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.026
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Anti-collapse performances of steel beam-to-column assemblies with
           different span ratios
    • Authors: Bao Meng; Weihui Zhong; Jiping Hao
      Pages: 125 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Bao Meng, Weihui Zhong, Jiping Hao
      The local failure of one or more structural members of a steel frame could trigger the progressive collapse of the structure. In this study, the anti-collapse performances of different beam-to-column assemblies comprising three columns and two beams were investigated. Three types of specimens with different span ratios (1:0.6, 1:1.0, and 1:1.4) and constructed using welded unreinforced flange-bolted web connections were considered. Static loading tests and numerical simulations were performed, and the local failures of all the specimens were observed to occur in the beam-to-column connection zones under large deformations. Each specimen exhibited multiple peak loads because of the repeated occurrence of local damage. The specimen with equal spans was found to exhibit a higher progressive collapse resistance in the latter phase owing to the synergistic action of the two adjacent beams. It also had a better load transfer mechanism, which enhanced the anti-collapse bearing capacity. Conversely, the peak loads of the specimens with unequal spans decreased with increasing loading displacement owing to the failure of the short beam before the long beam without full realization of catenary action. It was also determined through validated FE models that, when the constraints provided by the side columns were sufficient for the development of flexural and catenary actions in a beam, the assembly constraints provided by the peripheral components amounted to surplus constraints. Furthermore, more comparable linear stiffnesses of the column and beam enhanced their synergistic action and improved the resistance of the steel frame.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Axially loaded capacity of alternatively strengthened cold-formed channel
           columns with CFRP
    • Authors: Essam A. Amoush; Mohamed A. Ghanem
      Pages: 139 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Essam A. Amoush, Mohamed A. Ghanem
      Carbon fiber is considered as a newly alternative technique used in enhancing the strength and behavior of different members in many steel structures applications. In this research, an experimental study for strengthening of cold-formed lipped channel columns using carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) is conducted. Twelve cold-formed columns specimens with different parametric variables are chosen. Different variables such flange width-thickness, web depth-thickness ratios for un-strengthened, partially, and fully strengthened short columns, as well as overall slenderness ratios for partially strengthened short and medium columns are selected. The cold-formed column specimens were tested under axial compression load. A finite element model is developed using ANSYS program to simulate and verify the laboratory tested specimen's results. The developed FE model includes both geometric and material nonlinearities. The strengthened columns behavior along with local, distortion and rupture failure modes are investigated. A comparison between experimental and finite elements as well as the direct strength method (DSM) axial capacities, is carried out. Finite element and direct strength method results are comparable with the experimental results.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Global buckling behaviour of welded Q460GJ steel box columns under axial
    • Authors: Shao-Bo Kang; Bo Yang; Xiong Zhou; Shi-Dong Nie
      Pages: 153 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Shao-Bo Kang, Bo Yang, Xiong Zhou, Shi-Dong Nie
      This paper describes an experimental and numerical study on the global buckling behaviour of welded Q460GJ steel box columns. In the experimental programme, seven steel columns with different cross sections and wall thicknesses were tested under axial compression. The load capacity of steel columns was quantified. Comparisons were made between experimental results and design values calculated in accordance with national standards. Furthermore, numerical models were established in which initial geometric imperfections and residual stress distributions were considered. The model was validated against test data with reasonably good accuracy. A parametric study was conducted on the effects of initial geometric imperfections and normalised slenderness on the load capacity of box columns. Experimental and numerical results indicated that Q460GJ steel box columns could develop higher global buckling resistances than the values calculated from GB50017-2003 and Eurocode 3, but ANSI/AISC360-10 might not be safe for welded box columns with small width-thickness ratios. Therefore, the design approaches for conventional steel columns were modified so that the buckling behaviour of box columns fabricated of Q460GJ steel could be accurately evaluated.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Fatigue behaviour of a welded I-section under a concentrated compression
           (wheel) load
    • Authors: Jaap Wardenier; Peter de Vries; Gerrit Timmerman
      Pages: 163 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Jaap Wardenier, Peter de Vries, Gerrit Timmerman
      This paper deals with the evaluation of fatigue cracks under a concentrated compression (wheel) load in an I-section with full penetration welds between the web and flange. The objective is to investigate whether cracks stop or nearly stop when they have grown through the residual tensile stress field. These experimental investigations are part of a review of a crane runway girder where after 20years of service fatigue cracks were observed in the flange at the toe of the full penetration weld. The fatigue analysis of the actual crane runway girder is described in (Wardenier et al., 2017). The fatigue tests under a concentrated wheel compression loading show that, for the specimens considered on a scale of about 1:2 with stiffeners at one side, the cracks only initiate and grow at the non-stiffened side to about 50 to 60% of the web thickness and then stop. Based only on the nominal stress range under the wheel, determined according to EN 1993-6 and neglecting the shear stress effect, an equivalent fatigue class of about 160N/mm2 was found for crack initiation in the web, whereas the minimum ratio in life between visually observed crack initiation and maximum crack length was about a factor 3. Comparison of the codes for a wheel loading in compression shows large discrepancies in effective width and fatigue classes to be used.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.027
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Out-of-plane creep buckling analysis on slender concrete-filled steel
           tubular arches
    • Authors: Yue Geng; Gianluca Ranzi; Yu-Tao Wang; Yu-Yin Wang
      Pages: 174 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Yue Geng, Gianluca Ranzi, Yu-Tao Wang, Yu-Yin Wang
      Concrete-filled steel tubes (CFST) are becoming a popular structural solution for arch bridges because of their high compressive strength and efficiency in construction. For long span CFST arch bridges, the time-dependent behaviour of the core concrete may affect the stability of CFST arches. Despite this, only limited research has been carried out to date on their creep buckling behaviour. In this context, this study aims to investigate the influence of the prebuckling deformation induced by time effects on the out-of-plane stability of single parabolic CFST arches with fixed ends and subjected to uniformly distributed loads applied along the span by means of the finite element method using ABAQUS. The time-dependent behaviour of the concrete has been described using the Eurocode 2 model and implemented in the analysis using the integral type creep law. The nonlinear material property and the confinement effects under ultimate condition have also been taken into account and implemented in ABAQUS with UMAT subroutines. The accuracy of the proposed analysis method has been validated against the experimental results of an out-of-plane buckling test of a 1:10 scaled CFST arch reported in the literature. An extensive parametric study has been then carried out and it has been found that the ultimate capacity of the arches can be decreased by up to 18% due to the prebuckling deformation induced by time effects. Finally, designing equations are proposed based on the finite element analysis results to predict the ultimate loads of CFST arches accounting for time effects.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Behaviour of thin-walled curved steel plates under generalised in-plane
           stresses: A review
    • Authors: J.P. Martins; F. Ljubinkovic; L. Simões da Silva; H. Gervásio
      Pages: 191 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): J.P. Martins, F. Ljubinkovic, L. Simões da Silva, H. Gervásio
      Cylindrically curved plates are increasingly used in steel construction. In particular, there is a clear trend for their use in box-girder steel bridges with curved bottom flanges. However, there is a gap in standards dealing accurately with these types of structural elements under several arrangements of loadings and boundary conditions. This paper provides a state-of-the-art on the stability behaviour and design of cylindrically curved panels under generalised in-plane loading. A detailed review of the behaviour of curved panels subject to uniaxial compressive stresses, circumferential stresses, shear stresses and combined in-plane compressive stresses is presented, followed by a comparison of the design provisions of DNV and DNVGL standards with FEM numerical results obtained by the authors.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Initial stiffness and strength characterization of minor axis T-stub under
           out-of-plane bending
    • Authors: Beatriz Gil; Rufino Goñi; Eduardo Bayo
      Pages: 208 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Beatriz Gil, Rufino Goñi, Eduardo Bayo
      No research has been performed yet that deals with the characterization of the minor axis of steel joints under out-of-plane bending. As a consequence, a complete description of all the components that become part of a 3D steel joint is not yet available either in scientific journals or current codes. Moreover, it is necessary to identify the behavior of each isolated component that is subjected to in and out of plane effects before studying the interaction among components and the interaction with the loads that act in both the major and minor axis of the joint. The aim of the research described in this paper is to define the behavior of the T-Stub under out of plane bending attached to the column minor axis. In the proposed kind of joint the minor beam is not attached to the column web but to additional plates welded to the column flanges. With the purpose of characterizing this component, two experimental tests have been performed that allow validating the finite element models. Then, a parametric study is performed by varying different characteristics of the joint to check their influence. Through the tests and models the additional plate in bending has appeared to be the most influential component, which is not characterized in the Eurocode 3. Finally, analytical expressions for the initial stiffness and strength of the additional plate of the T-Stub in minor axis under out of plane bending are presented.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.028
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Round-ended rectangular concrete-filled steel tubular short columns: FE
           investigation under axial compression
    • Authors: M.F. Hassanein; V.I. Patel
      Pages: 222 - 236
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): M.F. Hassanein, V.I. Patel
      Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns with round-ends own the same advantages of typical CFST columns, besides their aesthetical appearance. The smoothness of the cross-section gives the effectiveness to resist running water impact when they are used as piers. Despite these advantages, there are limited researches on the behaviour of round-ended CFST columns. The paper investigates the behaviour of round-ended rectangular CFST (RRCFST) columns. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models for RRCFST columns are developed using the ABAQUS software. The novelty of this FE model is the consideration of the confinement in the round-ended concrete. The existing experimental behaviour has been captured properly, compared with other previously suggested FE models. After the validation of FE models, a parametric study is generated taking into account wider parameters than those previously considered by other researchers. The results show two different axial load-strain responses based on the B/t ratios of the cross-sections. RRCFST columns with small B/t ratios are found to fail in a ductile manner with large axial strains. The failure of the columns with relatively high B/t ratios has been found to occur suddenly with a rapid reduction in the strength after reaching the ultimate load. The numerical results indicate that the brittle failure is associated with the columns formed from outer slender steel cross-sections. The FE strengths are compared with the available design model which was formulated based on limited research results. This design model is found to predict the strengths unconservatively. A new design model, providing better estimates, has been suggested at the end.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.030
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Resistance of cold-formed built-up stainless steel columns – Part
           II: Numerical simulation
    • Authors: Jelena Dobrić; Marko Pavlović; Zlatko Marković; Dragan Buđevac; Milan Spremić
      Pages: 247 - 260
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Jelena Dobrić, Marko Pavlović, Zlatko Marković, Dragan Buđevac, Milan Spremić
      In parallel with an experimental investigation of the flexural buckling behaviour of built-up stainless steel columns presented in the accompanying paper (Dobrić et al., submitted for publication), a detailed Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been performed to simulate the experiment and identify the key factors affecting the buckling response. The FEA entailed realistic geometry, measured geometric imperfections and material properties of the specimens. Very good agreement was obtained between the experiment and FEA, which proved the capability of the computational approach to replicate experimental results and predict ultimate buckling loads. In the absence of explicit design rules for flexural buckling resistance of stainless steel closely spaced built-up members, the experimental results were compared with design predictions according to the existing European Standard and American Specification for carbon steel structures. The findings indicate that the mentioned design standards may be very conservative regarding the buckling resistance of stainless steel built-up members; this under-prediction may be associated with the impact assessment of chord slenderness and interconnection stiffness on the buckling response. The main purpose of this research is to establish a qualitative data base reliable for the further quantitative numerical parameter analysis and for the development of new design rules for compressed stainless steel cold-formed built-up members.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.032
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • A basis for comparing progressive collapse resistance of moment frames and
    • Authors: Ling Li; Wei Wang; Yiyi Chen; Lip H. Teh
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Ling Li, Wei Wang, Yiyi Chen, Lip H. Teh
      The progressive collapse resistance of a moment frame in the event of an inner column loss has been studied in terms of either the beam span or the beam span-to-depth ratio. This study reiterates that, strictly speaking, it is the beam span-to-depth ratio that is the underlying factor. Basically the larger the span-to-depth ratio, the better the progressive collapse resistance if the beams have been similarly optimised against plastic hinging under the design floor load. In comparing the performance of various types of steel double-span assemblies against each other, it would not always be appropriate to normalize their resistance against the same uniformly distributed load on the floors unless the beams have been similarly optimised. This article explains how the progressive collapse resistance of various types of steel double-span assemblies can be clearly compared against each other with respect to their development of the catenary mechanism, independently of the optimisation extent of the beam section against plastic hinging under the design floor load. The quasi-static resistance is normalized against the plastic hinge load, and the chord rotation is normalized against the plastic rotation. The proposed procedure further enables a rigorous comparison between different types of steel moment connections since the effects of different beam sections and different spans are filtered out under the same span-to-depth ratio. Issues such as the dynamic effects of sudden column loss, the contributory effects of floor slabs and the second-order effects of topological changes are not relevant to the present study.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Experimental study and simplified analysis of EBF fabricated with high
           strength steel
    • Authors: Ming Lian; Mingzhou Su
      Pages: 6 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Ming Lian, Mingzhou Su
      In Y-shaped eccentrically braced frames fabricated with high strength steel (Y-HSS-EBFs), link and braces use conventional steel, beams and columns use high strength steel. One 1:2 length scaled three-story Y-HSS-EBF specimen with shear links (SY-HSS-EBF) was made to investigate its dynamic performance by shake table test. The dynamic properties, acceleration, displacement and strain responses of the specimen were obtained through the test. In addition, a simplified seismic response analysis model for SY-HSS-EBF was applied based on the restoring force model of SY-HSS-EBF, and this simplified analysis model uses hysteresis rules of multilinear plastic kinematic elements in the SAP2000 program. Results from the simplified analysis were compared with the test results. The test results indicated that the specimen had reliable lateral stiffness and the damages observed at shear links. The interstory drifts of the specimen were lower than the limitations for EBFs during the ground motions with different intensity. The analysis results from the simplified model of SY-HSS-EBF were closed to the test results, which indicated that the simplified analysis model could effectively simulate the elastic and plastic seismic responses of a SY-HSS-EBF structure.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Effects of span-to-depth ratios on moment connection damage evolution
           under catenary action
    • Authors: Ling Li; Wei Wang; Lip H. Teh; Yiyi Chen
      Pages: 18 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Ling Li, Wei Wang, Lip H. Teh, Yiyi Chen
      This paper proposes an improved method for determining the gravity resistance of a moment resisting beam-column assembly following an interior column loss. The proposed method accounts for the connection's damage evolution and for the catenary mechanism developed by the assembly as it deflects downward. Through a full-scale laboratory test and finite element simulations, the complete responses of moment resisting beam-column assemblies including the connection's damage evolution are investigated under different beam span-to-depth ratios. The welded unreinforced flange-bolted web (WUF-BW) connection method is used for its robustness in developing the catenary action. It is found that, under the same span-to-depth ratio, beam-column assemblies exhibit similar normalized load-rotation relationships, even with different beam depths. The assembly with a larger span-to-depth ratio is able to develop the gravity resistance earlier, and provides a higher ultimate resistance by developing a more effective catenary mechanism. On the other hand, the assembly with a smaller span-to-depth ratio exhibits a more ductile response. A simplified curve model of the gravity resistance development of a moment beam-column assembly with damage evolution has been proposed for a convenient assessment of the progressive collapse resistance following a central column loss.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Flexural behaviour of concrete-filled stainless steel CHS subjected to
           static loading
    • Authors: Yu Chen; Kai Wang; Ran Feng; Kang He; Lipeng Wang
      Pages: 30 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Yu Chen, Kai Wang, Ran Feng, Kang He, Lipeng Wang
      This paper presents a test program on flexural behaviour of concrete-filled stainless steel circular hollow section (CHS) tubes under in-plane bending. A total of 27 specimens including 18 concrete-filled stainless steel CHS flexural members and 9 empty stainless steel CHS flexural members were tested. The ultimate strengths, failure modes, flexural stiffness, ductility, bending moment-midspan deflection curves, overall deflection curves and strain distribution curves of test specimens are reported. It is demonstrated that the ultimate strength, initial stiffness and ductility of empty stainless steel CHS flexural members are significantly enhanced by filling the concrete in the specimen along its full length. The enhancement is increased with the increase of the thickness of the CHS tube. Furthermore, the concrete strength has little influence on the ultimate strength, initial stiffness and ductility of concrete-filled stainless steel CHS flexural members. The test flexural stiffness including both initial flexural stiffness and flexural stiffness at the serviceability limit state of concrete-filled stainless steel CHS tubes under in-plane bending were compared with the design flexural stiffness calculated using the current AIJ standard, BS 5400, Eurocode 4 and AISC specification for concrete-filled steel tubes. It is shown from the comparison that the current design rules are all unconservative for initial flexural stiffness and flexural stiffness at the serviceability limit state of concrete-filled stainless steel CHS tubes under in-plane bending with high scatter of predictions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Seismic performance of all-steel buckling-controlled braces with various
    • Authors: Seyedbabak Momenzadeh; Onur Seker; Mahmoud Faytarouni; Jay Shen
      Pages: 44 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Seyedbabak Momenzadeh, Onur Seker, Mahmoud Faytarouni, Jay Shen
      An all-steel buckling-controlled brace (BCB) with two different configurations is studied and its behavior is compared with the conventional braces in terms of energy dissipation and ductility capacities. A parametric study was first conducted on an ensemble of all-steel BCBs in a general purpose finite-element (FE) software in order to study the influential parameters of these braces. The select types of BCBs were then experimentally investigated. Finally, seismic performance of buckling-controlled braced frames (BCBFs) was compared with that of special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) as well as that of buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs). The study concludes that (1) the BCB with round-in-square tube section has stable hysteretic behavior either when thickness ratio of the outer tube to inner tube is greater than one or when an enhanced gusset plate is employed. Furthermore, due to much increased compressive strength in square in round BCBs, it is necessary to utilize an enhanced gusset plate in order to achieve ductile behavior; (2) BCBs have a stable and symmetrical hysteretic behavior in tension and compression with little post-yielding strength decrease or increase, avoiding the significant unbalanced force on the brace-intersected beams in SCBFs and BRBFs; (3) BCBFs are capable of sustaining larger story drift ratio response without considerable strength loss in comparison with SCBFs; (4) Inelastic deformation demand distributes throughout the height of BCBF floors, preventing the occurrence of weak story often observed in SCBFs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Seismic retrofit of welded steel moment connections with highly composite
           floor slabs
    • Authors: Sung-Yong Kim; Cheol-Ho Lee
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Sung-Yong Kim, Cheol-Ho Lee
      In the 1994 Northridge earthquake, connection damage initiated from the beam bottom flange was prevalent in welded steel moment frames. The composite action due to the presence of a concrete floor slab was speculated as one of the critical causes of the prevalent bottom flange fracture. Close review of past experimental studies recently conducted by the authors clearly indicated that conventional steel moment connections with highly composite slabs are much more vulnerable to the bottom flange fracture. In this study, three seismic retrofit schemes are presented for welded steel moment connections with highly composite floor slabs typical of existing steel moment frames in Korea. Because top flange modification of existing beams is not feasible due to the presence of a concrete floor slab, beam bottom flange or web modifications by using welded triangular or straight haunch and heavy shear tab were cyclically tested. Test results of this study showed that all the retrofit schemes used are effective in eliminating the detrimental effect caused by high composite action and can ensure excellent connection plastic rotation exceeding 4% rad. Side effects resulting from retrofit as well as design recommendations are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Experimental study of an innovative modular steel building connection
    • Authors: Zhihua Chen; Jiadi Liu; Yujie Yu; Chenhua Zhou; Rengjing Yan
      Pages: 69 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Zhihua Chen, Jiadi Liu, Yujie Yu, Chenhua Zhou, Rengjing Yan
      In modular steel building (MSB) built by unit-prefabricated on-site assembled construction method, connections are critical parts that can strongly influence the overall structural stability and robustness of the MSB. Previous MSB connections mainly use intermediate connecting plates, which may pose practical difficulties to certain modular arrangements or installations. Thus, this paper proposed an innovative MSB connection design with an intermediate plug-in device and a beam-to-beam bolt system as the horizontal and vertical connections, respectively. This connection design can ensure convenient installation, eliminating on-site welding. Two static uniaxial loading tests and four quasi-static cyclic loading tests were conducted on the T-shaped MSB connection to explore its load transfer capacity and aseismic behavior. Results showed that gaps would form between the upper and the lower columns because of its two-unit-joint structure. This gap can influence the deformation patterns and bending demand distributions in each unit joint. The weld quality in the unit joints was critical to ensure overall safety. Stiffeners can effectively strengthen the stiffness and load-bearing capacity. The deformation capacity of the connection was significantly influenced by the stiffness of floor beam–column joint and ceiling beam–column joint as well as the relative magnitudes between them.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Pseudo-dynamic tests of assembly blind bolted composite frames to CFST
    • Authors: Jingfeng Wang; Xuebei Pan; Xiao Peng
      Pages: 83 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Jingfeng Wang, Xuebei Pan, Xiao Peng
      This paper presents the dynamic response and failure mechanism for the novel assembly of blind-bolted concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) composite frames with steel-bar truss deck (SBTD) concrete slabs under seismic action. With this type of composite frame, the SBTD concrete slabs are attached to H-shaped steel beams using shear connectors, and the steel-concrete composite beams are connected to CFST columns using flush or extended end plates with blind bolts. A series of pseudo-dynamic tests (PDTs) were conducted on two two-story one-bay composite frames with square or circular section CFST columns. The time-history response and inter-story drift of each test specimen were investigated to analyse the dynamic response of the composite structures under a series of ground motion records. Meanwhile, the seismic behaviour of the composite structures was also evaluated in terms of their failure modes, hysteretic behaviour, ductility, and strain response. The test results indicate that the structural response under a simulated seismic loading is consistent with the desired performance under different earthquake hazard levels. The proposed blind-bolted square or circular CFST composite frame, which exhibits excellent seismic behaviour and ductility, can be used as a reliable and effective assembly composite structure in seismic regions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-01T13:33:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Buckling of parallel purlins inter-braced by sag-rods
    • Authors: Genshu Tong; Yajun Tang
      Pages: 123 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Genshu Tong, Yajun Tang
      This paper studied buckling of parallel Z- and C-purlin systems inter-braced by sag-rods at mid-span under pure hogging moment. The purlins are connected to metal sheeting by self-drilled screws and the lateral movement of the top flange is prevented. The paper studied first in detail the buckling of a single purlin, and then buckling of parallel purlin systems. The alternate offset of the sag-rods in adjacent bays and the local deformation of the purlin web have been taken into consideration in parallel purlin systems. For one-purlin system, the buckling moments are given, valid for different combinations of sag-rod and distributed rotational stiffness. The threshold stiffness of the sag-rod, at which the buckling mode changes from symmetrical buckling to anti-symmetrical buckling, is also given. For parallel purlin systems, the buckling moments are calculated by the formulas of one-purlin system, but with a reduced equivalent sag-rod stiffness used in the calculation. Numerical examples for the reduced sag-rod stiffness reveal that an astonishingly large reduction of the sag-rod effective stiffness occurs when the purlin number and the sag-rod offset increase, and the sag-rod stiffness is maximum if the sag-rod is set as close to the bottom flange as possible. And finally some strengthening practices and details are recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-10-01T13:33:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Bond strength between steel and self-compacting lower expansion concrete
           in composite columns
    • Authors: Xiushu Qu; Qi Liu
      Pages: 176 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Xiushu Qu, Qi Liu
      In order to study the bond behavior between the steel tube and the concrete infill, a total of 17 self-compacting lower expansion CFST columns were prepared and tested. Cross-sectional dimension, dosage of concrete expansive agent, concrete compressive strength, steel tube fabrication method and interface condition were varied to assess their effect on the ultimate average bond strength. The push-out load-slip curves for each specimen are obtained and the distribution of the interface bond stress along the member axial direction and around the cross-section for various load levels are reported. The test results indicate that the steel tube interface roughness, influenced by both the steel tube fabrication method and the interface condition, the maximum flat width-to-thickness ratio (D/t), the concrete compressive strength, and the dosage of expansion agent are the main influence factors for interface bond strength. Then, regression analysis was performed to examine the bond strength of the test results of 19 square and 13 rectangular CFST columns with cold-formed steel tubes from this investigation and other additional references. Considering the influences of the dosage of concrete expansion agent, concrete cube compressive strength and D/t ratio to the bond stress, two empirical equations have been proposed for predicting the ultimate average bond strength for square and rectangular self-compacting lower expansion CFST columns with cold-formed steel tube respectively. Finally, by the analysis of the test data and the previous four segments bond stress-slip curve model, a new bond strength-slip model fitting equation has been proposed to predict the bond stress development.

      PubDate: 2017-10-01T13:33:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Local stresses in webs of crane runway girders: Tests and numerical
    • Authors: Markus Kettler; Andreas Kampleitner; Friedrich Novak; Andreas Mandl; Harald Unterweger
      Pages: 188 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Markus Kettler, Andreas Kampleitner, Friedrich Novak, Andreas Mandl, Harald Unterweger
      The design of crane runway girders is strongly affected by the local stresses due to wheel loads (mainly fatigue design, but also web buckling). A realistic approach of these local stresses, particularly the vertical direct stresses σz at the web top, is very important for economic design. In this paper firstly a summary of formulae in literature and in relevant international design standards is given. These formulae are based on very limited tests in the past, which are also mentioned. In the main part of this paper new test results for local stresses in webs due to vertical wheel loads for crane runway girders with I-section and box section are given, also including different connections with the crane rails (with/without welds between rail and girder flange and cases with no rail). Centric loading was tested, but also eccentric loading with different eccentricities, leading to additional web bending out of plane. For all tests, accompanying comprehensive Finite Element analyses were conducted. These FE-models are also presented and their results are compared with the test results and with the predictions of design formulae, used in practice. Finally, additional numerical investigations are presented, dealing with the effects of different contact properties between rail and girder flange.

      PubDate: 2017-10-01T13:33:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Resilience of tall steel moment resisting frame buildings with
           multi-hazard post-event fire
    • Authors: S. Gerasimidis; N.E. Khorasani; M. Garlock; P. Pantidis; J. Glassman
      Pages: 202 - 219
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): S. Gerasimidis, N.E. Khorasani, M. Garlock, P. Pantidis, J. Glassman
      Infrastructure resilience is the ability of an infrastructure asset to limit the effect and duration of damaging extreme events. The four main components of the concept of resilience are robustness, resourcefulness, recovery and redundancy most of which are very difficult to be quantified. In addition to this difficulty, a careful study of extreme event cases can demonstrate that it is very common for an extreme event scenario to include cascading multi-hazard events such as blast, floods, earthquake, and fire. This paper studies the resilience of a multi-story steel frame with multi-hazard considerations which include a post-event fire scenario. The initiating extreme event is simulated through the threat-independent alternate load path method of analysis and a post-event fire is considered following the extreme event. The work in the paper combines previous work by the authors on stability-induced collapse of damaged steel structures and closed-form solutions for temperature predictions of wide-flange components during a fire scenario. For the purposes of the fire scenarios, new fire time-temperature curves are developed based on experimental data from the well-known Cardington fire tests. The results show that even when a structure can withstand an extreme event scenario, a post-event fire consideration is highly critical to evaluate the remaining time of survival of the structure before collapse. It is shown that the sequential method of multi-hazard analysis can lead to very short available time periods before the post-event fire leads to the complete collapse.

      PubDate: 2017-10-01T13:33:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.026
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Conceptual numerical investigation of all-steel Tube-in-Tube buckling
           restrained braces
    • Authors: Hamid Heidary-Torkamani; Shahrokh Maalek
      Pages: 220 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Hamid Heidary-Torkamani, Shahrokh Maalek
      Introducing the concept of Tube-in-Tube buckling restrained brace (TiTBRB) members, a comprehensive parametric investigation has been carried out involving the influential parameters affecting the behaviour and modes of failure of the TiTBRBs during cyclic loading through detailed finite element analysis procedures accounting for material and geometric nonlinearities as well as the effects of gaps and contacts. Several BRB related parameters have been considered here for parametric analysis that had not been investigated previously: the strength and stiffness of external restraining tube, the core strength, the core diameter to thickness ratio, the friction coefficient between the core and the restraining tube, the gap size between the core and the external tube, the gap size between rings and the external tube, the magnitude of initial imperfection, the number of intermediate rings along the length of the member and the particulars of the end collars. On the basis of the finite element analyses results, it has been demonstrated that the proposed TiTBRB - if well designed - would be quite competent in accomplishing the intended tasks as a buckling restrained bracing member. Properly designed TiTBRBs can exhibit stable cyclic behaviour and satisfactory cumulative plastic ductility capacity, so that they can serve as effective hysteretic dampers. At the same time, in such all-steel TiTBRBs concreting has been eliminated and hence much lighter members are obtained. This is also associated with ease and speed of fabrication, erection, inspection, replacement and hence a more economical and environmentally friendly design.

      PubDate: 2017-10-01T13:33:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Behaviour of stainless steel press-braked channel sections under
    • Authors: Jelena Dobrić; Dragan Buđevac; Zlatko Marković; Nina Gluhović
      Pages: 236 - 253
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Jelena Dobrić, Dragan Buđevac, Zlatko Marković, Nina Gluhović
      This paper describes an experimental and numerical investigation of stainless steel material response and behaviour of press-braked channel sections under pure axial compression. A material test programme that covers austenitic stainless steel EN 1.4301 was carried out to study the nonlinear stress–strain relationship and changes of basic mechanical properties due to the press-braking processes. The key experimental results were used to estimate the appropriateness of existing analytical material models and to determinate strain-hardening exponents. The validation of recently proposed models for predicting the strength enhancements in cold-formed sections was also performed. Additionally, corresponding Finite Element (FE) models were built for flat and corner coupons to match the tensile test results and to establish the parameters of a ductile damage model in Abaqus. The susceptibility to local buckling of the channel section was determined by stub column tests. The FE model, calibrated and validated against the experiments, was used to perform a parametric study over a wide range of section slenderness. This allowed the quantitative assessments of design procedures stated in Eurocode 3 and American Specifications, and the Continuous Strength Method (CSM). The comparisons between generated data and predicted strengths reveal the conservatism of the Eurocode 3 design method for both non-slender and slender channels. In contrast, the CSM reflects significantly better the nonlinear buckling behaviour of non-slender channels. Although this method gives more accurate results comparing to effective with method employed in Eurocode 3, the slight unsafe predictions were found for slender channels in the intermediate cross-section slenderness.

      PubDate: 2017-10-01T13:33:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Behaviour of continuous concrete filled steel tubular columns loaded
           eccentrically in fire
    • Authors: Kingsley U. Ukanwa; James B.P. Lim; Umesh K. Sharma; Stephen J. Hicks; Anthony Abu; G. Charles Clifton
      Pages: 280 - 287
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Kingsley U. Ukanwa, James B.P. Lim, Umesh K. Sharma, Stephen J. Hicks, Anthony Abu, G. Charles Clifton
      Concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) columns used in multi-storey buildings are generally designed as continuous members all over the world. This research has focused on the behaviour of eccentrically loaded continuous columns in fire, through the standard fire furnace testing of twelve CFST square columns of 3.2m length. The tests covered three different types of infill; plain concrete, bar reinforced concrete and steel fibre reinforced concrete, with the columns subjected to compressive load levels ranging from 0.33 to 0.41. The result shows that, the significant initial expansion of the steel tube relative to the concrete reported by many researchers did not eventuate, due to the restraining effect of the unheated column between the furnace and the end supports. This represents a typical continuous column in a multi-storey building where the column above and below the floor on fire remains cooler. The use of conventional reinforcement increased the FRR of the column compared to using steel fibre or plain concrete infills. Using the experimentally measured fire resistance rating, the axial capacity in fire was calculated in accordance with DR AS/NZS 2327 and EN 1994-1-2 and it was shown that the code is too conservative for all continuous column loaded eccentrically.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.030
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Test, modeling and design of bolted-angle connections subjected to column
    • Authors: Yanglin Gong
      Pages: 315 - 326
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Yanglin Gong
      This paper reports an experimental test of two types of bolted-angle beam-to-column connections under a double-span condition. The first type used web angles only, and the second type used both flange and web angles. The test results included failure modes, load-carrying capacity, and deformation versus loads. A mathematical model is proposed for the test setup based on a component-based spring model for the bolted-angles. A new compressive force versus deformation curve is proposed for the angle springs in addition to an existing tensile force versus deformation curve. The numerical results of the mathematical models are compared with the test results to gain insights of the behaviors of the bolted-angle connections. Finally, two design examples are provided to illustrate the strategies for obtaining a good robustness of angle connections subjected to a column removal.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T18:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Initial in-plane rotational stiffness of welded RHS T joints with axial
           force in main member
    • Authors: Marsel Garifullin; Sami Pajunen; Kristo Mela; Markku Heinisuo; Jarmo Havula
      Pages: 353 - 362
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Marsel Garifullin, Sami Pajunen, Kristo Mela, Markku Heinisuo, Jarmo Havula
      In the frame analysis, the local analysis model of the joint must follow the behavior of the joint. When completing the elastic global analysis, the initial rotational stiffness of the joints should be known to obtain the reliable moment distribution between the members of the frame. This paper evaluates the existing calculation approach for the initial rotational stiffness of welded rectangular hollow section T joints. Validation with the experiments shows that the current calculation approach significantly underestimates their initial rotational stiffness. Based on the existing experimental data, the paper proposes the improvement for determining the initial stiffness. The second part of the article investigates the effect of the axial force in the main member on the initial rotational stiffness of the joint. The conducted numerical study on square hollow section T joints shows that the reduction of their initial stiffness can reach 50%, when the main member experiences the normal stresses close to yielding. Using the curve fitting approach, the paper proposes and validates a corresponding chord stress function, similar to the existing ones for the moment resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T18:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.033
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Experimental behavior and analysis of self-centering steel brace with
           pre-pressed disc springs
    • Authors: Longhe Xu; Xiaowei Fan; Zhongxian Li
      Pages: 363 - 373
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Longhe Xu, Xiaowei Fan, Zhongxian Li
      Quasi-static reversed cyclic loading tests and finite element analyses of a pre-pressed spring self-centering energy dissipation brace are conducted. The proposed steel bracing system combines a mechanism of pre-pressed disc springs for self-centering with friction devices for energy dissipation. The mechanics and the basic equations governing the design and distribution of internal force are presented. The results demonstrate that the bracing system exhibits stable and repeatable self-centering hysteretic responses with effective energy dissipation, and no residual deformation occurs when the initial pre-pressed force of disc springs is greater than the friction force provided by the energy dissipation devices. The forces at the surface of the inner and outer tubes are distributed as expected. The inverse calculation method is proposed to predict the hysteretic responses employing the strain data, the comparative analyses of behaviors obtained from experiments, finite element analyses, and inverse calculation are conducted, and good agreements are observed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T18:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Fatigue strength of repaired cracks in base material of high strength
    • Authors: A. Akyel; M.H. Kolstein; F.S.K. Bijlaard
      Pages: 374 - 384
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): A. Akyel, M.H. Kolstein, F.S.K. Bijlaard
      Fatigue crack formation is an inevitable issue for welded steel structures subjected to cyclic loading. Accordingly, repair of the fatigue crack in welded steel structures is unavoidable to prolong fatigue life. However, there is limited knowledge available about the procedure to be adopted for the repair and the life extension to be expected after the repair. The current paper is focused on the effects of the repaired an artificial crack in the base material of S690 and S890 high strength rolled steels on the fatigue strength of the material. An artificial crack was created in the middle of the plate test specimens by spark machining and subsequently, the crack was repaired by using the FCAW (flux-cored arc welding) process. The repaired specimens were tested in a four point bending test rig with a constant amplitude loading for creating a uniform bending moment at the weld region such that the weld cap to be exposed to tensile stresses. The test results show that most of the fatigue cracks initiated at the start-stop points of the weld cap and the fatigue crack initiation life of the specimens occupy approximately 45% of the total fatigue life. The statistical analysis of the test results revealed that the characteristic fatigue strength of the repaired specimens is very close to the detail category 160 of EN 1993-1-9 [5].

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T18:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Monotonic and cyclic flexural behaviour of square/rectangular rubberized
           concrete-filled steel tubes
    • Authors: A. Silva; Y. Jiang; J.M. Castro; N. Silvestre; R. Monteiro
      Pages: 385 - 396
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): A. Silva, Y. Jiang, J.M. Castro, N. Silvestre, R. Monteiro
      This paper focuses on the assessment of the behaviour of Concrete Filled Steel Tube (CFST) columns with square/rectangular cross-section, made with Rubberized Concrete (RuC), under flexural loading. The study aims to evaluate the differences between this type of composite members and typical CFST members made with standard concrete (StdC), namely in terms of the influence of the rubber aggregate replacement ratio on member strength, ductility, and energy dissipation capacity. The experimental campaign comprised the testing of 16 square members, 12 RuCFST and 4 StdCFST, and 4 rectangular RuCFSTs. A number of parameters were investigated, namely the cross-section slenderness (i.e., the width-to-thickness ratio of the steel tube), the aggregate replacement ratio (i.e., the percentage of sand aggregate of the concrete mixture that is substituted by rubber particles), axial load level and lateral loading type. The test results are compared with the member capacities obtained with the application of Eurocode 4. The results show a minimal influence of the type of concrete infill on the monotonic and cyclic behaviour of the members and also allow concluding that the European code is conservative in predicting the capacity of the specimens. Furthermore, the results obtained demonstrate that the cross-section slenderness has an important role on the behaviour of these members. Nonetheless, the requirements pertaining this parameter that are currently defined in Eurocodes 4 and 8 can be relaxed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T18:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Numerical assessment of slab-interaction effects on the behaviour of
           steel-concrete composite joints
    • Authors: Claudio Amadio; Chiara Bedon; Marco Fasan
      Pages: 397 - 410
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Claudio Amadio, Chiara Bedon, Marco Fasan
      In current design practice for seismic resistant steel braced frames, general rules and standard provisions are aimed to ensure a structural behaviour for beam-to-column joints of non-braced spans as close as possible to perfect hinges. This is done to prevent any kind of interaction with the bracing systems, in particular under horizontal loads. However, the global performance of composite joints is markedly affected by the structural interaction between the concrete slab and the steel components and - especially during seismic events - struts can occur in the slab at the beam-to-column intersection. In this paper, the possibility of realizing a composite joint that behaves as moment-resisting under gravitational loads and essentially as hinged under horizontal loads is investigated. Aiming to assess the actual slab-interaction effects on the overall response, a full 3D Finite Element (FE) model representative of a beam-to-column composite joint taking part of a braced frame is described in ABAQUS and validated towards past full-scale experiments. A parametric study is hence proposed, by accounting for three geometrical configurations, being characterized by (i) isolated slab with absence of rebar continuity (i.e. fully disconnected slab and steel joint only), (ii) presence of slab with partial column interaction (i.e. isolated slab and continuity of rebar), (iii) presence of fully interacting slab. It is shown that, if properly detailed, a joint with isolated slab and continuous rebars can be used in non-braced spans of composite braced frames without affecting the behaviour of the bracing system (i.e. as in presence of a hinge). Nonetheless, the composite beam can be designed as continuous on multiple supports under vertical loads, hence leading to a reduction of the steel cross-sectional size.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T18:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Structural performance of double-wall steel insulation silo with multiple
           bolted joints
    • Authors: Gan Tang; Lingfeng Yin; Zhanjie Li; Chaohui Pan; Haibin Lai
      Pages: 411 - 423
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Gan Tang, Lingfeng Yin, Zhanjie Li, Chaohui Pan, Haibin Lai
      The purpose of this study is to study the structural behaviors of a double-wall insulated steel silo under a storing loading with concentric discharge. Current silo structures are predominantly single-wall thin-wall silos, which have a lack of thermal insulation capability. This innovative double-wall silo consists of internal and external walls with multiple bolt connections and ring beams, which can not only provide effective insulation but also enhance the stability and bearing capacity of the structure. However, the structural performance and bearing mechanism of the double-wall silo are not well understood. In this study, a 1000-t double-wall steel silo designed according to specifications was computationally studied via a set of analyses using ANSYS, including linear bifurcation, linear elastic, geometric nonlinear, geometrically and materially nonlinear, and geometrically and materially nonlinear with imperfections. These analyses revealed a cooperative bearing mechanism of the silo walls. In particular, 2/3 of the vertical friction is borne by the external wall, while the majority of the horizontal pressure is borne by the internal wall. The results also highlighted the stress distribution of the silo walls under a storing load. The results of a nonlinear analysis indicated that the failure mode was an “elephant's foot” deformation if the material plasticity was included. Compared with that without material plasticity, the studied silo exhibited plasticity-dominant behavior. The double-wall silo has advantages over the single-wall silo such as better insulation and structural performance.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T18:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.020
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • The establishment of a numerical model for structural cables including
    • Authors: Bing Liang; Zhongwei Zhao; Xiaofeng Wu; Haiqing Liu
      Pages: 424 - 436
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Bing Liang, Zhongwei Zhao, Xiaofeng Wu, Haiqing Liu
      A friction element is presented in this paper. The element was incorporated into a simplified numerical model of cables, which were established by a beam element. A detailed numerical model was implemented based on general-purpose finite element software. Moreover, a flowchart of a numerical analysis was proposed. The accuracy of the proposed numerical model was validated by comparing the results derived in this work to the analytical results derived from Costello's theory and experimental results. The bending performance of 1×37 semi-parallel wire cables was investigated. Then, the dynamic response of cable caused by wire break was analyzed. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of several factors on dynamic response. Results indicated that the friction element proposed in this paper can capture the sliding among different wires and thus can be efficiently adopted in dynamic analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T18:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.031
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Behaviour of steel-foam concrete composite panel under in-plane lateral
    • Authors: Prabha P.; Palani G.S.; Lakshmanan N.; Senthil R.
      Pages: 437 - 448
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Prabha P., Palani G.S., Lakshmanan N., Senthil R.
      This paper presents the details of experimental investigations on steel-foam concrete composite (SFCC) panel subjected to monotonic and cyclic in-plane lateral load. SFCC panel consists of profiled steel sheet as the outer skins and foam concrete of density 1200kg/m3 as the infill, connected together by using through-through mild steel studs. Two SFCC panels are tested under static loading and two similar specimens under cyclic loading. From the tests, it is observed that the number of studs provided are adequate to cause the failure of panel by yielding of steel sheets prior to buckling under static loading and tearing of steel sheets under cyclic loading. The ultimate cyclic load capacity of SFCC panel is not less than 80% of their monotonic load capacity and possesses high ductility after the peak load. The suitability of proposed SFCC panel to act as shear wall in seismic resistant buildings is verified.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T18:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • The strain-weighted energy damage model for structural steel under cyclic
    • Authors: Yueshi Chen; Yiyi Chen
      Pages: 449 - 456
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Yueshi Chen, Yiyi Chen
      By analyzing the energy dissipation capacity of structural steel under cyclic loading, it is found that the strain-weighted energy dissipation is a good parameter to quantify the damage. A new damage model is proposed for structural steel under cyclic loading using the maximum plastic strain and strain-weighted energy dissipation. The accuracy of the model is validated in the cyclic tests of Chinese structural steel Q345 and Q420 under large strain (±10%). Compared to the other models considering the combination of maximum deformation and energy dissipation, the calibration process is simplified, and the model provides better insight into damage accumulation as each parameter has a clear meaning. The model is able to predict fracture of structural steel using cyclic test data or only tensile test data.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T18:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.09.034
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Plastic collapse load numerical evaluation of welded beam-to-column steel
    • Authors: P. Fuschi; A.A. Pisano; R. Pucinotti
      Pages: 457 - 465
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): P. Fuschi, A.A. Pisano, R. Pucinotti
      A finite element based numerical procedure for predicting the plastic collapse load as well as the plastic collapse mechanism of beam-to-column steel joints is presented. The promoted procedure is based on two methods following the static and the kinematic approach of limit analysis. Both methods have been rephrased for a von Mises type material in the deviatoric plane and in terms of deviatoric stress invariants. The key concepts are: i) in the static formulation, to mimic the stress redistribution arising within a structure approaching its critical (collapse) state, such stresses being in equilibrium with the maximum redistributable loads; ii) in the kinematic formulation, to build a plastic collapse mechanism characterized by compatible strain and displacement rates corresponding to a minimum value of loads doing positive work equal to the total plastic dissipation. A validation of the numerical results is pursued by comparison with experimental findings on real scale prototypes of the tackled steel joints. Future developments are outlined at closure.

      PubDate: 2017-10-24T12:21:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • New framework for calibration of partial safety factors for fatigue design
    • Authors: Luca D’Angelo; Alain Nussbaumer
      Pages: 466 - 472
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Luca D’Angelo, Alain Nussbaumer
      In Eurocode standards, three verification schemes are proposed for fatigue design under variable amplitude loadings: 1) Based on constant amplitude fatigue limit; 2) Based on constant amplitude equivalent stress range at 2 ⋅ 106 cycles; 3) Based on accumulated damage. Characteristic values of fatigue resistance and load effects as well as partial safety factors are introduced in design equations in order to achieve a target reliability level. In this paper a new framework for calibration of fatigue partial safety factors is presented. Three different fatigue limit state functions are formulated for direct comparison with the three verification schemes proposed in Eurocodes. The variable amplitude S-N curves used in this framework are defined using an original probabilistic approach. The presented framework is then applied to two typical bridge fatigue sensitive welded joints. The comparison of results with partial safety factors values recommended in Eurocodes shows that the Eurocode-based partial safety factors should be revised by considering different fatigue sensitive details and by further differentiating between the three verification schemes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-24T12:21:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Buckling resistance of HSS box section columns Part II: Analytical study
    • Authors: Somodi
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): B. Kövesdi, B. Somodi
      The accurate and economical consideration of the flexural buckling resistance of high strength steel (HSS) structures is highly important in the design. According to the previous research results the flexural buckling behaviour of HSS and NSS columns can be significantly different, which differences are not considered in the current design rules. The aim of the current study is to obtain a reliable design method for the flexural buckling resistance of HSS welded box section columns. The buckling resistance is previously determined by the authors based on an experimental research program and based on stochastic numerical simulations . The current paper focuses on the investigation of the theoretical background of the flexural buckling phenomena and on the implementation of the specialties regarding HSS materials into the buckling curve formulation. The analytically derived Ayrton-Perry type formulation is studied and modified based on the theoretical and numerical investigations implementing the effect of residual stresses and geometrical imperfections into the design method. Using the revised buckling curve, the flexural buckling resistance of welded box columns can be predicted with larger accuracy for steel grades between S420 – S960.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
  • Patch loading resistance of slender plate girders with longitudinal
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): B. Kövesdi
      It is commonly known that the patch loading resistance model of the EN1993-1-5 has a relative large scatter, and it can lead to significant underestimation of the patch loading resistance in case of slender plate girders with longitudinal stiffeners. Large number of previous investigations studied the structural behavior of the stiffened girders subjected to concentrated transverse force. Although a reliable and simple design method is not available in the international literature. The main part of these investigations focus on girders with one longitudinal stiffener, however in the bridge design praxis, usually more stiffeners are applied on the web. For these structures the applicability of the improved design methods is not proved. It is also known, that the current design method of the EN1993-1-5 does not consider the location of the longitudinal stiffener properly. The focus of the current paper is on the investigation of the patch loading resistance of longitudinally stiffened slender web girders and an enhanced design method development. Based on a large number of numerical simulations the structural behavior is studied and failure modes are classified. The effect of each geometrical parameter on the patch loading resistance is investigated and an improved design method is developed, which is consistent with the design philosophy and safety requirements of the EN1993-1-5 standard.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
  • Buckling resistance of HSS box section columns part I: Stochastic
           numerical study
    • Authors: Somodi
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): B. Kövesdi, B. Somodi
      The accurate consideration of the flexural buckling resistance of high strength steel (HSS) structures is highly important in the design. Higher yield strength indicates the applicability of smaller cross-sections, which might be more sensitive for stability problems. The purpose of the current study is (1) to investigate the flexural buckling behaviour of HSS welded box section columns and (2) to determine a reliable column buckling curve. The characteristic and design values of the buckling resistances for HSS welded box section column are determined by using Monte Carlo simulation technique for a wide range of relative slenderness and steel grades. Based on the simulation results buckling curves are proposed for all the analysed steel grades. Required value for the partial safety factor is also determined considering the design resistance level of the Eurocode. The proposed buckling curves are applicable for HSS welded box section columns made from steel grades between S420–S960.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T12:48:27Z
  • Modeling resolution effects on the seismic response of a hospital steel
    • Authors: Emad Hassan; Hussam Mahmoud
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Emad M. Hassan, Hussam Mahmoud
      Numerical finite element analysis is considered a reliable tool for response assessment of structures under extreme loadings. When developing finite element models, various geometrical and behavioral assumptions are typically made to simplify the modeling approach and to save on computational cost. The effect of these assumptions on analysis results, however, could be substantial and might significantly alter the decisions pertaining to design, assessment, or retrofit of the structure considered. The importance of accurate modeling, particularly of critical infrastructures, can be vital for post-disaster recovery management following an extreme event. In this study, the seismic response of a six-story hospital building with buckling-restrained braces, located in Memphis, Tennessee, is evaluated for different modeling resolution levels. Different pushover and non-linear time-history analyses are conducted to understand, compare, and evaluate the seismic performance of the structure using both 2-D and 3-D numerical models with and without soil. Various nonlinear features are considered in the simulations including realistic hysteretic behavior of the connections, buckling-restrained braces, and soil-foundation-structure interaction. The results highlight the importance of including representative member and connection models as well as realistic boundary conditions, while employing 3-D simulations, for accurate predictions of system response.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T14:31:04Z
  • Post-fire residual strength of steel tubular T-joint with concrete-filled
    • Authors: Fei Gao; Hongping Zhu Hongjun Liang Yang Tian
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Fei Gao, Hongping Zhu, Hongjun Liang, Yang Tian
      The post-fire behavior of steel tubular T-joints with a concrete-filled chord (CFC) was experimentally and numerically investigated. One specimen was tested at ambient temperature while the other two were tested after a heating and cooling process. The experimental results revealed that the failure mode was chord plastification, rather than local buckling of the chord wall, due to the support provided by the in-filled concrete. A finite-element (FE) method was then developed to simulate the structural response of the post-fire joints under compressive load. The comparison between the FE simulation and experimental data illustrated that the FE method reliably and accurately predicted the failure modes, the measured load-displacement curves and the residual strength of the T-joints. The verified FE method was then used in a detailed parametric analysis, which systematically varied the geometric and material parameters including α, β, τ, γ, f c , f y and the highest temperature of fire exposure-T max. The results indicated that filling concrete into the chord increased the fire resistance and bearing capacity of the joints, but had an appreciably negative impact on the post-fire behavior, as the damage to concrete in fire was irreparable. Moreover, the residual strength increased significantly with increasing f y , but decreased with increasing α and γ. β and f c showed slight influence, while changing τ had negligible effect. The effect of each parameter could be quantitatively simulated by a function. A parametric equation based on the effect was proposed, and its accuracy was verified through error analysis against the numerical and experimental results.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T14:31:04Z
  • Design shear resistance of headed studs embedded in solid slabs and
    • Authors: Stephen Hicks
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 139
      Author(s): Stephen J. Hicks
      This paper presents the results from reliability analyses on the design resistance of headed stud connectors embedded in solid concrete slabs and encasements. The present study substantially extends the earlier reliability work for Eurocode 4 by considering a database of 242 push tests, which permits the results presented to be considered valid over a wide range of characteristic compressive concrete strengths (8≤ f ck ≤90MPa) and stud diameters (12.7≤ d ≤31.75mm). As well as considering the performance of the existing Eurocode 4 design model, two alternative design models were also studied. Although the design models for steel failure performed well, it was found that the current target value of γ V =1.25 was not justified in the design models for concrete failure. In response to this finding, the design models were modified to ensure that the target value was delivered. In the interests of harmonization between the Eurocodes, further improvements were made to enable design equations to be proposed that deliver a uniform value for the partial factors, which may be considered worthy for inclusion within the second generation of Eurocode 4. Finally, from the significant number of tests considered in this paper, a revised procedure is presented for evaluating the characteristic resistance of stud connectors from small numbers of nominally identical push tests.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T14:31:04Z
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Heriot-Watt University
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