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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2515 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (210 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (219 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (120 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1320 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (403 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (57 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (84 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (219 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 219 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access  
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Construindo     Open Access  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 79)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Road and Traffic Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Lithosphere     Open Access  
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Media Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
REDER : Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos sobre Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres     Open Access  
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Investigación     Open Access  
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Sul-Americana de Engenharia Estrutural     Open Access  
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Journal of Constructional Steel Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.892
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0143-974X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3157 journals]
  • Experimental tests on bolted steel angles in compression with varying end
           supports
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Markus Kettler, Gerit Lichtl, Harald Unterweger The paper presents the detailed test setup and results of a test series on bolted single steel angles in compression with varying end support conditions and slenderness ratios. For all tests FEM-calculations were done, which are also presented. In total 27 specimens with one-bolt and two-bolt connections with and without preload are tested. Three different boundary conditions on both ends are investigated: Boundary condition 1 (BC1) is a clamped support. BC2 is a knife edge support that allows only for rotations about the axis parallel to the connected leg. BC3 is a fully hinged support. In addition to the results of the member tests, imperfection measurements and results of material tests are presented in order to carry out the FEM-calculations and to allow for comparison with current design standards.
       
  • Seismic performance of a damage avoidance self-centring brace with
           collapse prevention mechanism
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Ashkan Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Yousef-Beik, Farhad Mohammadi Darani, George Charles Clifton, Pouyan Zarnani, Pierre Quenneville The Resilient Slip Friction Joint (RSFJ) has recently been developed and introduced to the construction industry. This joint is a friction-based energy dissipation device that owing to its special configuration can provide energy absorption and self-centring behaviour in one package. This device is most applicable when the designers consider a damage avoidance philosophy of design. One of the applications of this device is the RSFJ brace. In this bracing system, the required seismic performance is provided by the RSFJ and the rest of the brace components are aimed to stay elastic. This paper introduces the RSFJ bracing system including the collapse-prevention fuse. This built-in fuse works in a way that when the applied force exceeds the design load, the secondary fuse is activated and the RSFJ brace is still able to provide self-centring up to twice the target deformation with an axial force of up to 1.25 times of the target design force. The performance of this fuse is investigated by experimental tests on the component level and the results are presented. Moreover, a numerical model for a five story steel structure with RSFJ braces is developed and was subjected to non-linear static pushover and nonlinear dynamic time-history simulations in order to investigate the seismic performance of the proposed system. The findings of this research shows that the RSFJ brace system can offer substantial performance benefits and has the merit to be considered as an efficient alternative for the current bracing systems.
       
  • The evolution of composite flooring systems: applications, testing,
           modelling and eurocode design approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Inas Mahmood Ahmed, Konstantinos Daniel Tsavdaridis Steel–Concrete Composite (SCC) structural systems are increasingly used in the construction industry and becoming the subject of intensive research by the world's leading universities and companies because of their efficient material usage. This review paper summarises some historic and recent developments as well as the new trends for SCC systems. It presents the design philosophy and specific definitions for basic structural elements, including composite beams and slabs with emphasis on the applications, static tests, modelling techniques, design approaches as well as current design limitations. This paper concludes with a call for more research for the improvement of Eurocode 4, which in turn can help the fast-growing construction industry to take full advantage of the benefits of composite construction techniques implemented with safety.
       
  • Flexural behavior of concrete-filled double skin steel tubes with a joint
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Soon-Sub Eom, Quang-Viet Vu, Ji-Hun Choi, Ho-Hoon Park, Seung-Eock Kim In the present study, concrete-filled double skin steel tubes (CFDSTs) with a joint, which are lighter and more economical than concrete-filled steel tubes (CFSTs), were developed. The CFDSTs are made of two steel tubes of different diameters with concrete filling the space between them. The length, the outer and inner diameters of a CFDST are 10 m, 914.4 mm, and 514.4 mm, respectively. Two types of shear connectors consisting of M16 and steel plate studs were used. A new type of connection in CFDSTs was developed to transfer the imposed load effectively. Four different specimens were made to test all possible combinations of the two different shear connectors (M16 studs, steel plate studs) and joints. The bending performance of the CFDSTs was investigated through 4-point loading experiments and finite element analysis (FEA). Finally, a comparison of design predictions and experiment results was made for these tubes.
       
  • Displacement profile for displacement based seismic design of concentric
           braced frames
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): M. Al-Mashaykhi, P. Rajeev, K.K. Wijesundara, M.J. Hashemi The direct displacement based design (DDBD) procedure is well developed and used for designing reinforced concrete and steel moment resisting frame structures, wall structures and bridges. However, a limited number of studies is available on designing steel concentric braced frame (CBF) structures using DDBD approach. Moreover, those studies use the design displacement profile proposed for the reinforced concrete moment resisting frame structures by Priestley et al. (2007). Furthermore, Wijesundara et al. (2018) have highlighted that higher interstorey drifts can be observed in CBFs during the inelastic response due to the effects of higher mode amplifications. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to propose a new design displacement profile that is capable of predicting the effects of higher mode amplifications on the displacement profile for designing steel CBFs.In this regard, an attempt is made to develop a design displacement profile based on the median maximum storey displacements obtained from the nonlinear time-history analysis for a set of real ground accelerations. For this purpose, twelve different steel CBF structures with varying brace configuration, braces slenderness over the height of building, and different heights are selected. Nonlinear timehistory analyses are performed for the 3-D nonlinear finite element models of the selected frames using OpenSEES software. The developed models are capable of simulating the out-of-plane buckling. The models are subjected to a set of 30 real ground motion records with varying levels of spectral acceleration at the first modal period of the structures. The maximum storey displacement at each storey levels is recorded for all the ground motion records. On the basis of the observed storey displacement and interstorey drift, the appropriate design displacement profile for CBFs is proposed. The proposed equations show a high correlation with the observed behaviour of the suggested CBFs.
       
  • Shape optimization of cold-formed steel beam-columns with practical and
           manufacturing constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Hossein Parastesh, Iman Hajirasouliha, Hamed Taji, Alireza Bagheri Sabbagh This study aims to present a practical method for optimization of symmetric cold-formed steel (CFS) beam-column members using Genetic Algorithm (GA). To eliminate impractical cross-section shapes from the optimization results, a range of manufacturing and construction constraints are incorporated into the optimization process. Axial forces are applied with different eccentricities (0 to 30 mm) to cover the full spectrum of beam-column actions from pure axial compression to pure bending. The effect of element length on the optimization results is investigated by using short, intermediate and long beam-column members. A total of 132 beam-columns with different cross section shape complexity (4 to 12 rollers/nodes and 1 to 3 lips) are optimized. The compression and bending moment strengths are obtained based on direct strength method (DSM) using CUFSM software by accounting for local, distortional and global buckling modes. The results show that using more complex shapes does not necessarily lead to better design solutions. Increasing the eccentricity generally leads to more spread optimum sections particularly when distortional buckling is the predominant mode in short and intermediate-length beam-columns. In cases where local and global buckling modes govern the design, however, less spread sections with higher turn angles generally provide higher strength capacities. With the variation of eccentricity, the ultimate strength of optimum beam-column sections normalized by the strength of a reference lipped-channel are in the range of 110–163%, 128–194% and 160–222% for short, medium and long members, respectively. The results of this study, should prove useful in more efficient design of CFS beam-column elements in practice.
       
  • Axial compressive performance of circular CFST columns partially wrapped
           by carbon FRP
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Qihan Shen, Jingfeng Wang, Jiaxin Wang, Zhaodong Ding To explore the axial compression property and failure mechanism of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns partially wrapped by carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP), a series of tests using carbon-FRP-strengthened circular CFST stubs and slender columns imposed with axial loads were conducted. The effects of various parameters including steel yield stress, number of carbon-FRP layer, slenderness ratio of the composite column, and spacing of carbon-FRP strip on the axial load bearing capacities of the tested specimens were studied. Moreover, the axial compression behaviour of the circular CFST columns with carbon-FRP composites was evaluated in terms of axial compression force (N)–longitudinal shortening displacement (δ) curves, axial stiffness, strain response, strength enhancement indexes, and ductility indexes. Subsequently, a nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis modelling concerning the surface contact action of carbon-FRP-strengthened circular CFST columns was established and validated experimentally. The experimental and analytical results indicate that strengthening the circular CFST stub columns using carbon-FRP wraps could improve their axial load bearing capacities and prevent outward local bulges for the thin-walled steel tubes. Only a slight effect was observed when laterally confined carbon-FRP strips were used for the type of slender composite columns. Finally, several simplified empirical formulas for predicting the axial load bearing capacity of the circular CFST column partially wrapped by carbon-FRP are proposed.
       
  • Bearing-strength of high strength steel plates in two-bolt connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Yan-Bo Wang, Yi-Fan Lyu, Guo-Qiang Li, J.Y. Richard Liew This paper presents an experimental and numerical study on the bearing behavior of two-bolt connections arranged in the direction perpendicular to load between high-strength steel members. A series of 36 connections are fabricated from steels with nominal yield strength of 550 MPa, 690 MPa and 890 MPa and tested to failure in double shear. The effect of steel grades, end distance, edge distance and bolt spacing on the failure mode, bearing resistance and deformation capacity are investigated with the supplementary data from the validated numerical model. To explain the reduced bearing resistance compared to tearout failure, the mechanism of splitting failure in two-bolt connections is analyzed with the assistance of numerical simulation. The boundaries to identify tearout failure, splitting failure and mixed failure with the combined features of necking and tearout are derived. A formula to predict the ultimate resistance of mixed failure is proposed. To achieve an optimum use of high strength materials, an optimal range of edge distance to bolt spacing distance ratio is suggested based on the parametric analysis. Comparison with test results show that Eurocode3 method can be extended to bolted connections between high strength steel members with considerable margin of safety.
       
  • Experimental study on seismic behavior of SRC deep beam-to-CFST column
           frames
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Li Zhou, Su Yi-sheng In order to investigate the seismic behavior of composite frames consisting of SRC deep beams and CFST columns, six specimens were fabricated and tested. The impacts of the beam-to-column linear stiffness ratio, axial compression ratio, and beam-to-column connection type on the seismic behavior of the composite frame were studied. The crack patterns and deformations of all specimens were observed in detail, and the seismic indicators such as hysteretic behavior, skeleton curve, stiffness degradation, ductility, and energy dissipation were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the beam-to-column linear stiffness ratio and axial compressive ratio had a significant influence on the seismic performance of the composite frames, whereas, the influence of the beam-to-column connection type was relatively minor. Moreover, a simulation study was performed using ABAQUS, and the results obtained from the FEM were in good agreement with the experimental results. In addition, a detailed analysis of the energy dissipation on the structure, component, and material levels according to the FEM results was conducted; the results confirmed that the steel tubes were the main components contributing to energy dissipation.
       
  • Experimental investigation of buckling-restrained steel plate shear walls
           with inclined-slots
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Shuangshuang Jin, Jiulin Bai A buckling-restrained steel plate shear wall with inclined slots (simply referred as “slotted SPSW”) consisting of an inner steel plate sandwiched between two precast concrete panels, has been developed as an energy dissipation device of structures. The steel strips between inclined slots behave like a series of buckling-restrained braces to dissipate the energy through inelastic axial deformation when subjected to cyclic loading. This paper experimentally investigated the seismic behavior of slotted SPSWs. Three half-scale specimens were fabricated and tested under quasi-static cyclic loading. Details for proper fabrication of slotted SPSWs were firstly configured. The results illustrated that the slotted SPSW could sustain the target lateral drift ratio (2%) without a reduction of shear force and energy dissipation capacity. Moreover, the tested specimens exhibited stable fatigue hysteresis loops when the cyclic loadings were repeated 30 times at 1.5% peak lateral drift ratio. The maximum drift ratio of tested specimens reached 3.5%, and the cumulative plastic ductility factor was larger than 200. The experimental results indicate that the slotted SPSW is capable of providing high lateral force-resisting and energy dissipation, which can be widely used in engineering structures.
       
  • Shake table testing of a low damage steel building with asymmetric
           friction connections (AFC)
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Ali A. Rad, Gregory A. MacRae, Nikoo K. Hazaveh, Quincy Ma This paper describes the shaking table performance of a half-scale two-story steel moment frame with asymmetric friction connections (AFCs) at the column bases and at the beam ends. The dynamic properties of the test structure are determined using snap-back tests. The behavior of the test frame to ground motions was consistent with standard methods to estimate peak displacements, and residual displacements. When beam ends and the base-column joints were modelled by trilinear and bilinear hysteresis loops respectively, the response with time matched numerical simulations well. Residual drifts were
       
  • Experimental study on self-centering link beams using post-tensioned
           steel-SMA composite tendons
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Xian Xu, Jiaqi Tu, Guangming Cheng, Junhua Zheng, Yaozhi Luo Compared with conventional steel link beams, which undergo unrecoverable plastic deformation during earthquake, the self-centering link beams exhibit recoverable deformation under seismic load. This paper illustrates a new concept of self-centering link beam system which uses post-tensioned composite tendons consisting of steel rods and shape memory alloy rods to provide re-centering force and energy dissipation capacity. A pseudo-static experiment was conducted to testify the feasibility of this novel self-centering system. The experimental results showed that the self-centering link beam system using composite tendons was able to re-center from the designed rotation of 8% rad with a negligible residual deformation and a medium energy dissipation capacity, and possessed an over-strength factor comparable to conventional systems. A numerical simulation on the experiment was carried out to cross-validate the experimental results. Comparison between the numerical results and experimental results showed they were generally consistent with each other.
       
  • Seismic behavior of a new through-core connection between concrete-filled
           steel tubular column and composite beam
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Qi-shi Zhou, Hua-wei Fu, Fa-xing Ding, Xue-Mei Liu, Yu-jie Yu, Li-ping Wang, Zhi-wu Yu, Liang Luo Through-beam connections offer the effective performance in developing the rigid connection, but the practical applications often encounter concrete pouring difficulties at the through beam region. Then an advanced through-core connection between concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns and steel-concrete composite (SCC) beams is proposed in this study. The modification emphasizes the reduced beam flange width to convenient the concrete pouring, and the penetrated slab reinforcement into the CFST column to make up the strength loss from flange reduction. To investigate the seismic behavior of the connection, quasi-static cyclic loading tests on four specimens are conducted, and corresponding finite element analyses are also performed. The failure modes, hysteretic response, skeleton curve, ductility, stiffness degradation, ultimate bearing capacity, and energy dissipation of these connections are all discussed in detail. The results indicated that the proposed new connection has a favorable seismic performance. Then with FE simulations, the varying trends of the seismic behaviors, including the strain at the core area, plastic damage at core concrete and the energy dissipation proportions in the connections are all analyzed. Moreover, the influencing patterns of axial load ratio and the flange reduction degrees (RD) are also investigated through FE simulations. To ensure a good seismic performance, the maximum flange reduction degree (RD) of the steel girder is suggested to be 0.4 for the upper flanges and the ratio of the flange reduction between the lower and the upper flanges should not exceed 0.8.
       
  • Residual strength of steel beam columns under elevated temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Haitham Al-Thairy Owing to its thermal conductivity property, the strength of structural steel is highly susceptible to elevated temperature. When steel is used in main load-bearing members in buildings that are vulnerable to fire, great attention should be paid to the effect of the elevated temperature on the residual strength of those members. Hence, the design criteria of such members must incorporate temperature in their requirements. Current standards and codes of practice for steel structures have attempted to address the elevated temperature in their design procedures. However, the design procedures suggested by these standards and codes still lack accuracy and rationality compared to experimental results, especially at high values of elevated temperature. The main objective of the present study is to suggest a new and accurate analytical method to reasonably predict the residual axial and lateral strength of steel beam columns when subjected to elevated temperature. The suggested method uses a newly derived moment-curvature equation of steel beam columns at elevated temperature. The effect of elevated temperature on the material and mechanical characteristics of the steel was accounted for by utilizing reduction factors suggested by Eurocode 3 (EC3). Validation of the suggested method against experimental and numerical simulation results has demonstrated that the developed method can reasonably predict the residual axial and lateral resistance of steel beam-columns at high values of elevated temperature. The suggested method has many significant applications in the design of steel members at elevated temperature induced by fire.
       
  • Two-stage optimal seismic design of steel moment frames using the LRFD-PBD
           method
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Farzad Karimi, Seyed Rohollah Hoseini Vaez The present study concerns the seismic optimization of steel moment frames in two interdependent stages initiated by controlling the requirements of limit state design method and followed by applying the performance-based design (PBD) method based on target roof displacements. In the first stage, structural adequacy is evaluated using LFRD method by controlling the demand-to-capacity ratio limit of the members under the dominant gravity-seismic load combinations, the allowable deflection of the beams under service load combinations, and the lateral drift under seismic load combinations. Provided that the results of the first stage are acceptable, in the second stage, the structure undergoes a pushover analysis based on four target displacements corresponding to four performance levels. At each performance level, constraints related to inter-story drift, beam and column rotations, and forces (in the force-controlled components) are controlled as specified in FEMA 356 provisions. The optimization process is performed by two metaheuristic algorithms, namely PSO and GWO based on swarm intelligence. To reduce the optimization time and accelerate the convergence of the algorithms, a preliminary approximate analysis is used to reduce the search space. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is illustrated with a three and nine-story moment frames, which each one optimized with different number of constraints in the first stage, to also evaluate the effect of the first stage constraints on the optimal solutions.
       
  • Nonlinear finite element failure analysis of bolted steel-concrete
           composite frame under column-loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Shan Gao This paper presents a detailed nonlinear finite element analysis of bolted steel-concrete composite frame in the scenario of middle column loss. The finite element model is developed based on ductile metal fracture model and concrete damaged plastic model. A method is proposed to apply the pretension loads on bolt in quasi-static analysis which is normally ignored. After calibrating the FE model against with the experimental results, a parametric study is conducted to investigate the performance of composite frame under column removal. The numerical results show that using stiffeners at column and increasing the rebar ratio in RC slab would improve the initial behavior of the models. The bolts with good ductility are suggested to be used in composite joint to develop the resistance potential of RC slab. Otherwise, premature fracture of bolt may be caused by the existence of RC slab. Increasing the beam depth or bolt-group depth would reduce the rotation capacity of the model. Since, the fixed rotation capacity limitation provided in DoD shows large discrepancy with the numerical results, a formula is proposed to predict the rotation capacity acceptance of flush endplate steel joint.
       
  • Experimental investigation on sea sand concrete-filled stainless steel
           tubular stub columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Fei-Yu Liao, Chao Hou, Wei-Jie Zhang, Jie Ren This paper studies the behaviour of sea sand concrete-filled stainless steel tube (CFSST) stub columns under axial compression through experimental investigations. A total of 48 specimens were tested, including circular and square stainless steel tubes filled with three types of core concrete, including natural river sand concrete, desalted sea sand concrete and natural sea sand concrete. The effects of key parameters such as the tubular thickness of stainless steel, the cross-sectional configuration and the types of concrete infill on the behaviour of these innovative composite columns were investigated. The confinement effects of CFSST with sea sand concrete were evaluated and compared with that of CFSST with conventional river sand concrete. Testing results showed that the tested CFSST columns showed generally high strength and excellent ductility, while the confinement effect of stainless steel on the sea sand concrete is as reliable as that on the river sand concrete counterpart. Comparisons were made between the test results and the predicted ultimate sectional capacity using the existing specifications AISC360–10 (2010), EC4 (2004) and DBJ/T13-51-2010 (2010). These codes are proved reasonably conservative for predicting the sectional strength of sea sand concrete-filled stainless steel tubular stub columns.
       
  • Member stability of stainless steel welded I-section beam-columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Lu Yang, Menghan Zhao, Leroy Gardner, Keyang Ning, Jie Wang A comprehensive experimental and numerical study is presented into the behaviour of stainless steel welded I-section beams-columns. Twenty test specimens were fabricated from grade 304 (EN 1.4301) austenitic and grade 2205 (EN 1.4406) duplex stainless steel plates – ten were tested under major axis bending plus compression and ten under minor axis bending plus compression. Material tensile coupon tests and geometric imperfection measurements were also conducted. Numerical models were developed, calibrated against the test results and subsequently employed in parametric studies considering a wider range of specimen geometries. Based on the obtained test and numerical results, the accuracy and reliability of existing design rules given in EN 1993-1-4 and AISC DG 27, as well as recent proposals, were assessed.
       
  • Comparison of classical, double skin and double section CFST stub columns:
           Experiments and design formulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Talha Ekmekyapar, Omer H. Alwan, Hussein G. Hasan, Bashar A. Shehab, Baraa J.M. AL-Eliwi With the continuing developments in composite design technology, such as classical Concrete Filled Steel Tubes (CFST), concrete filled double skin tubes and concrete filled double section tubes, understanding the performances of such columns in a comparative way is timely. Although significant amount of literature has been gathered around the themes of concrete filled classical and double skin columns, the number of studies on double section columns is very limited. Nevertheless, in existing research, double section column concept has been proven to be very efficient in providing very high strength, ductility and stiffness. The challenge here is to find a route from concept to design which requires significant amount of comparative experiments on classical, double skin and double section columns. This paper, for the first time, examines the performances of concrete filled classical, double skin and double section stub columns which have practical range of material and geometrical properties. Experimental procedures were undertaken for composite columns with normal and high strength self-compacted concrete. To be able to address the effect of tube configurations, two types of outer and two types of inner steel tubes with different mechanical and geometrical properties were utilized. The experimental program revealed the robust characteristics of double section columns. Furthermore, the modified versions of EC4 and AISC 360–16 formulations were assessed against the test results for design purposes. It is shown here that the modified versions of the prediction methods have the potential to be utilized in field applications for double skin and double section columns.
       
  • Establishing new brittle fracture provisions for the Australasian steel
           structures standards
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Adolf F. Hobbacher, Michail Karpenko, Stephen J. Hicks, Patrick Schneider, Brian Uy This paper develops a new method to select steel grades manufactured to Australian and New Zealand standards. The current materials selection procedure is currently given in the design standards AS 4100, NZS 3404.1 and AS/NZS 5100.6, which is based on test data on the notch toughness characteristics from a previous generation of steel products originally manufactured in Australia or New Zealand. The existing procedure is limited to temperatures down to −40 °C. Moreover, it does not consider the effect of welding, detailing, stress utilisation, seismic loading rates, defects and other important factors. This paper includes a critical review of other international material selection procedures, before preparing a new design method based on fracture mechanics. The method extends the temperature range down to −120 °C, which is much lower than considered in many other international standards. It also includes New Zealand specific requirements for seismic loading rates. In comparison with the new method, it is demonstrated that the current materials selection procedure is much more conservative for plate thickness up to 75 mm for non-seismic design. The paper presents selection tables that can be considered for the development of new brittle fracture provisions for future versions of the Australian and New Zealand steel structures design standards.
       
  • Higher buckling and lateral buckling strength of unrestrained and braced
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 155Author(s): Hamaidia Achref, Mohri Foudil, Bouzerira Cherif The present study investigates the flexural-torsional struts buckling and beam lateral buckling analyses. In the highlight of braced structures, analytical solutions are derived for higher 3D buckling modes of simply supported struts with arbitrary cross-sections. Closed-form solutions are also investigated for lateral buckling strength of beams with doubly symmetric cross-sections. For more general cases, the finite element approach is adopted. In presence of torsion, warping is of primary importance. For this aim, 3D beams with 7 degrees of freedom (DOFs) per node are adopted in the analysis. The model is able to carry out higher buckling modes of bars under compression or lateral buckling modes of beams initially in bending. The analytical and the numerical results of the present model are compared to some available benchmark solutions of the literature and to finite element simulations of some commercial codes (Abaqus, Adina). The efficiency of the closed form solutions and the numerical approach is successfully verified. Applications of higher buckling modes in design of braced structures are considered according to Eurocode 3 code. A particular attention is pointed out to torsion and flexural-torsional buckling modes not considered in bar strength. At the end, some solutions are proposed in order to cover the full strength of columns and beams in presence of instabilities. This proposal makes steel structures more performant and attractive when effects of instabilities are limited at a minimum.
       
  • Experimental and numerical studies of austenitic stainless steel CHS stub
           columns after exposed to elevated temperatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): An He, Yating Liang, Ou Zhao This paper presents a thorough testing and finite element modelling study of the material response and structural behaviour of austenitic stainless steel circular hollow section (CHS) stub columns after exposed to elevated temperatures. The testing programme was conducted on two cold-formed austenitic stainless steel circular hollow sections: CHS 73 × 3 and CHS 89 × 3, and involved 16 material tensile coupon tests and 16 stub column tests after exposure to eight levels of elevated temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 1000 °C. The experimental investigation was supplemented by a finite element modelling study, where numerical models were firstly developed and validated against the post-fire stub column experimental results, and afterwards utilised to carry out numerical parametric studies to extend the test data pool over a wider range of cross-section geometric dimensions. The measured post-fire tensile coupon test results indicated that the Young's modulus and the ultimate stress of austenitic stainless steel generally remained unchanged after exposure to elevated temperatures, while the post-fire 0.2% proof (yield) stress and ultimate strain were similar to the corresponding room temperature properties for temperatures up to around 600 °C–800 °C, but experienced a reduction and an increase after exposure to higher elevated temperatures, respectively. Given that there have been no established design standards for stainless steel structures after exposure to fire, the corresponding room temperature design rules, as set out in the European code, American specification and Australia/New Zealand standard, were evaluated for austenitic stainless steel CHS stub columns after exposed to elevated temperatures, revealing safe but conservative cross-section compression resistance predictions, owing principally to the adoption of the 0.2% proof (yield) stress as the design stress without considering strain hardening. The deformation-based continuous strength method accounts for material strain hardening in calculating cross-section capacities at ambient temperature. Its applicability to the design of austenitic stainless steel CHS stub columns after exposed to elevated temperatures was also assessed. The results of the assessment indicated that the continuous strength method leads to both precise and consistent compression resistance predictions of austenitic stainless steel CHS stub columns after exposed to elevated temperatures.
       
  • Experiment-based reliability analysis of structural joints in a steel
           lattice tower
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Jacek Szafran, Klaudia Juszczyk, Marcin Kamiński The main aim of this paper is to present a reliability estimation procedure for steel lattice telecommunication towers based on tensioned joint reliability. The experiment, which involved doing a full-scale pushover test of a 40 m high lattice tower, constituted the starting point for further analyses. Experimental data served as bases for finite element model calibration and assignment of steel mechanical properties based on tensile tests. A computational investigation was performed for random wind loads. Numerical considerations included a detailed dynamic analysis with respect to the specific wind velocity–time function, modeling of two particular tower joints by shell finite elements, and elastic-plastic range determination of joint reliability using the first-order and second-order reliability methods.
       
  • Seismic response of MRF-CBF dual systems equipped with low damage friction
           connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Vincenzo Piluso, Rosario Montuori, Elide Nastri, Annabella Paciello The work herein presented proposes an innovative approach to the use of friction dampers in seismic resistant steel structures. In fact, reference is made to dual systems where dissipative devices are located at beam ends, column bases and intersections of chevron braces. Friction devices are those investigated in the framework of the European Research Project “FREEDAM” (FREE from DAMage steel connections), supported by Research Found for Coal and Steel (RFCS). The aim of this project is the development of beam-to-column connections equipped with friction dampers showing low damage. Investigations concerning the prototype structure herein presented have been carried out to gain relevant information in the framework of the research project. Incremental Dynamic Analyses (IDA) are developed with reference to the maximum interstorey drift ratio, the maximum slippage velocity and the cumulative displacement, i.e. the travelled distance of the friction dampers. Moreover, the influence of the seismic intensity measure on the required friction damper stroke is investigated.
       
  • Local and post-local buckling of fabricated high-strength steel and
           composite columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Zhichao Huang, Dongxu Li, Brian Uy, Huu-Tai Thai, Chao Hou High-strength structural steel plates are being increasingly used as composite columns in tall buildings, bridges and large infrastructure. The presence of concrete infill in these composite sections enhances their local buckling strength, and thus very slender steel plates can be used in their fabrication. This paper presents the results of an experimental study and numerical investigation of the local buckling slenderness limits for high-strength steel plates. A set of sixteen tests were conducted on both hollow steel and steel-concrete composite sections to explore their local and post-local buckling behaviour under axial compression. A numerical model which accounts for the effects of residual stresses and initial geometric imperfections was developed to predict the local buckling and post-local buckling response of box and I-section columns. This model was verified against the test results. Yield slenderness limits obtained from numerical results were compared with existing codes of practice for both hollow steel and composite sections incorporating high-strength steel plates.
       
  • Innovative steel 3D trusses for preservating archaeological sites: Design
           and preliminary results
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Gianmaria Di Lorenzo, Enrico Babilio, Antonio Formisano, Raffaele Landolfo Steel three-dimensional lattice trusses are highly efficient technical solutions to cover large spans, especially when single members are not provided with intermediate restraints able to prevent lateral-torsional buckling phenomena. In the present paper, a compound structure made of steel lattice beams and structural glass slabs is proposed for protection of monumental and archaeological sites. Due to both the risk exposure of monumental heritage to be protected and the use of structural glass, the definition of an appropriate design criterion is mandatory in order to avoid brittle collapse mechanisms. The attention is herein paid to the design procedure, with a brief description of basic ideas behind and the main focus on the parametric capacity design of the structure. The proposed procedure, whose validity is quite general, has been herein implemented by linear numerical analyses, which represent the basic step for further refined analysis aimed at erecting a full-scale prototype to be experimentally tested.
       
  • Local buckling behavior of welded π-shaped compression stub columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Yao Chen, Ganping Shu, Baofeng Zheng, Ruihua Lu The local buckling behaviors of welded π-shaped stub columns were investigated experimentally and numerically in this study. Nine welded π-shaped columns made from Q345 steel with different width-to-thickness ratios were tested under axial compression. The material properties, initial geometric imperfections and welding residual stress distribution of specimens were measured. Results from the tests, including the strengths, the load-deformation responses, and the failure modes were presented. The strengths determined by tests were compared with the design strengths predicted by the current steel design specifications. The experimental studies were complemented by the numerical investigations, in which the finite element models were initially verified against the test results and subsequently used for parametric studies covering a wide range of cross-sections. The modifications on the Bleich formulas were derived to calculate the buckling coefficient of π-shaped section. Based on the experimental and parametric analyses, formula for direct strength method (DSM) was proposed to predict the compressive strengths of welded π-shaped stub columns, which offered reasonable predictions.
       
  • Seismic performance of concrete-filled double-skin steel tubes after
           exposure to fire: Experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Wei Li, Tao Wang, Lin-Hai Han Structural engineers often face the challenge of assessing the residual structural performance of fire-damaged structures, especially the performance under seismic loading. This study presents investigations on concrete-filled double-skin steel tubes (CFDSTs) after exposure to fire. Physical tests are performed on 12 concrete-filled double-skin steel tubular (CFDST) specimens. The fire tests are conducted first with specimens heated for a specific heating period. After cooling down to ambient temperature, the cyclic tests are carried out with the constant axial load and reverse lateral cyclic load applied on the specimens. Parameters varied include the heating period, the nominal steel ratio, the hollow ratio and the axial load level on the column. Various indexes are used to evaluate the post-fire seismic performance of the CFDST columns, such as the stiffness degradation, the strength degradation and the energy dissipation. Finally, a simplified method is proposed to predict the residual initial flexural stiffness of the CFDST columns exposed to fire. The experimental results provide a basis for the assessment of fire-damaged CFDST structures, and the proposed method provides predictions with reasonable accuracy.
       
  • Experimental study of steel moment resisting frames with shear link
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Farid Mahmoudi, Kiarash M. Dolatshahi, Mojtaba Mahsuli, Mohammad T. Nikoukalam, Amir Shahmohammadi Seismic codes specify a minimum beam span-to-depth ratio for moment resisting frames to ensure formation of plastic hinges at beam ends with adequate length. This minimum beam span-to-depth limitation is at odds with the need for shorter spans to control lateral drifts in tall buildings, especially with tubular frames. To ease the limitation, this paper proposes a shear link at the beam mid-span, comprising a replaceable beam with a smaller cross-section than that of the main beam. The shear fuse dissipates energy by shear yielding and thus, prevents or delays the flexural yielding of beam ends. To examine the proposed idea, a moment resisting frame that violates the minimum beam span-to-depth ratio limitation and a hybrid frame (HF) with the proposed fuse are subjected to cyclic loading in laboratory experiments. The results indicate adequate energy dissipation and stable hysteresis behavior for Specimen HF, thereby eliminating the need to observe the code limitation. Specimen HF shows a ductility capacity twice that of the moment resisting frame with almost the same stiffness and strength. Additionally, replaceability of the fuse enhances the resilience of the proposed system. Finally, a numerical model is developed and verified with the test results for future expansion of the proposed design concept.
       
  • Design of steel-concrete composite walls subjected to low-velocity impact
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Quanquan Guo, Weiyi Zhao Steel-concrete composite (SC) walls are composed of two steel plates and a concrete core. Experiments have shown that SC walls have excellent resistance to impact loadings, which is a great advantage for the applications in safety-related nuclear facilities. This paper presents an energy method for evaluating the maximum deformation of SC walls under low-velocity impact. The design requirements and flow for SC walls are proposed in three aspects: (i) local failure, (ii) maximum deformation, and (iii) damage degree. The parameters affecting the local failure and damage degree are discussed. The design method is applied to a sample SC wall in the AP1000 nuclear facility to validate its feasibility and provides a simplistic tool for researchers and engineers.
       
  • Experimental study of beams with stiffened large web openings
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): T. Al-Dafafea, S. Durif, A. Bouchaïr, E. Fournely The use of beams with isolated openings in the webs is common in steel structures. However, the presence of large openings in the web generates specific mechanical behavior in comparison with that of solid web beams and leads quite often to the reinforcement of the opening by welding stiffeners. An experimental program based on thirteen steel beams with a single rectangular web opening is performed. It aims to evaluate the influence of the openings reinforced or not by stiffeners on the behavior of the beam loaded in shear and bending. The stiffeners are used to increase the resistance of the openings. Different solutions are compared using various positions and lengths of stiffeners in the longitudinal and vertical directions. The comparisons are based on the failure load, the stiffness and the strain distribution. The experimental results and observations show the efficiency and the limits of the different studied solutions of stiffening. It has been observed that long horizontal stiffeners were the best stiffening solution. Furthermore, the use of double or single sided stiffeners showed that in both cases, they improve significantly the ultimate carrying capacity of the beam as long as the anchorage length is sufficient. The results can be used as a basis to develop numerical and analytical models.
       
  • Seismic design and performance evaluation of steel frames with
           knee-element connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Abazar Asghari, Saeid Saharkhizan In this paper, application of a structural steel frame system called Knee-element Connections Frame (KCF) is investigated as a seismic-force-resisting system. In this structural system, all beam-to-column and knee-element to beam and column connections are simple. This configuration creates a zonular rigid connection instead of concentrated rigid one in moment-resisting frame (MRF). It provides more flexibility in architectural design compared with laterally braced frames and reduces the costs and problems associated with the construction of rigid connections with complete-joint-penetration groove weld in MRFs. Moreover, KCF systems can be retrofitted with low cost, because the knee-elements can be easily repaired or replaced. In this study, two types of yield mechanisms (A and B) are introduced for the seismic design of the KCF system based on the capacity design concept. Then, its detailed seismic design procedure is developed based on mechanism A. For performance evaluation of the system according to FEMA P695 methodology, four sample KCF and special moment-resisting frames (SMRF) are designed and compared in terms of failure mechanism, collapse probability and seismic design parameters (Ω0, R and Cd). The results indicate that although the failure mechanism of KCF and SMRF is similar, collapse probability of KCF is less than SMRF. Moreover, the required ductility for both structural systems is provided properly. Consequently, KCF structural system can be classified in the category of MRFs, also seismic design parameters of SMRF can be used for KCF.
       
  • Proper configuration of metallic energy dissipation system in shear-type
           building structures subject to seismic excitation
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Zongjing Li, Ganping Shu, Zhen Huang Passive control using metallic energy dissipation system has been proved to be a reliable means of seismic upgrading for building structures. Furthermore, configuration of the metallic energy dissipation system within a structure may have significant influence on the overall seismic performance. This paper presents a systematic approach for optimal configuration of the metallic energy dissipation system in shear-type building structures subject to seismic excitation consistent with the design code, where the mechanical parameters of the metallic energy dissipation component in each story level are taken as the optimization variables. Two objective functions as well as two optimization levels are proposed. An improved real-coded genetic algorithm is employed as the optimizer. The framework of the optimal configuration design process is given and demonstrated in an application example. Based on the results of the application example, the influence of different algorithms, optimization levels and objective functions are further analyzed. Moreover, a simplified fine level optimization approach is proposed based on the parameter sensitivity, which can yield satisfying results with less time.
       
  • Seismic performance of the concrete-encased CFST column to RC beam joint:
           Experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Dan-Yang Ma, Lin-Hai Han, Xiao-Ling Zhao The concrete-encased concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) column to RC beam joint is composed of the concrete-encased concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) column and the reinforced concrete (RC) beam. Concrete-encased CFST column consists of a CFST component and an outer reinforced concrete (RC) component. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the seismic performance of this kind of composite joints. Thirteen joints were tested under a constant axial load on the column and a cyclic vertical load on the beam. The test parameters include the joint types, the connection types, the axial load level, the joint core volumetric stirrup ratio, the beam longitudinal rebar ratio and the sectional dimension of the beam. Four types of typical failure modes are found, and the corresponding hysteretic relationships are analyzed based on the test results. The seismic performance of the composite joint is also evaluated by several indexes, such as rigidity degradation, strength degradation, ductility, and energy dissipation. Finally, a comparison with other typical joints is conducted to exhibit the seismic performance of the concrete-encased CFST column.
       
  • Experimental and numerical evaluation of piston metallic damper (PMD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Majid Jarrah, Hamed Khezrzadeh, Massood Mofid, Khashayar Jafari In this paper, a metallic yielding damper, called piston metallic damper (PMD) is introduced for the first time. The PMD is comprised of a set of parallel hollow circular plates that interconnect inner shaft of the PMD to its outer pipe. Experiments and numerical models are used to examine its applicability as a seismic energy dissipating device. In this novel damper seismic input energy will be dissipated through flexural yielding of circular steel plates when system experiences small to medium displacements. At large displacements, tensile behavior will dominate and causes significant increase in stiffness of the system. In experimental program, different specimens were tested and the hysteretic behavior was recorded. These experiments indicate that the PMD is able to dissipate significant amount of seismic input energy with a stable hysteretic behavior, and endure code requirements for low-cycle, large-displacement fatigue. To check effect of different PMD parts on its overall behavior, at first hysteresis behavior of specimens is verified against nonlinear finite element (FE) models and it is shown that there is complete agreement between the nonlinear FE models and the test data. Afterwards, nonlinear FE model was used to conduct a parametric study on the effect of components geometry on the apparent mechanical properties of the PMD. This parametric study together with classical theory of plates yielded to the explicit formulas for the effective stiffness and yield load of the PMD.
       
  • Study on vertical vibration control of long-span steel footbridge with
           tuned mass dampers under pedestrian excitation
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Dayang Wang, Chengqing Wu, Yongshan Zhang, Shangwei Li This paper aims to study crowd-induced vibration control of long-span steel footbridges with different dynamic characteristics by combining methods of site measurement and numerical simulation. Four kinds of footbridge models with sensitive vertical natural frequencies of easily generating human-bridge resonance under pedestrian loading are designed based on an actual steel footbridge. The numerical models are firstly validated by comparative investigation between the site measurement and the simulation. Detailed study on dynamic responses of the four footbridges with and without controlling systems of tuned mass damper (TMD) and multiple tuned mass damper (MTMD) is then conducted under 13 cases of crowd random excitations, rhythmic running and jumping excitations. Results show that the numerical simulation agrees well with the site measurement data. TMD system is found to be highly efficient in reducing vibration responses only when the excitation frequency is basically consistent with the structural natural frequency, which obviously limits the application of TMD system in footbridges as wider excitation frequency bandwidth is caused by human activities. MTMD system are demonstrated to be with higher vibration absorption robustness appearing predominant and stable capacity of reducing structural vibrations under all the crowd random and rhythmic excitations for the four footbridges.
       
  • Behaviour and design of spiral-welded stainless steel tubes subjected to
           axial compression
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Dongxu Li, Brian Uy, Farhad Aslani, Chao Hou Spiral welded stainless steel tubes are produced by helical welding of a continuous stainless steel strip. Recently, spiral welded stainless steel tubes have found increasing application in the construction industry due to their ease of fabrication and aesthetic appeal. However, an in-depth understanding of the behaviour of these types of structural elements is still needed due to the insufficient experimental evidence and lack of rational design guidance. In the present paper, an extensive experimental program was carried out to investigate the behaviour of axially loaded hollow and concrete-filled spiral welded stainless steel tubes. The effects of various design parameters were investigated throughout the test program. In addition to the experiments, this paper presents a finite element model for the prediction of these columns. Specifically, the proposed finite element models take into account the effects of material and geometric nonlinearities. The helical welding is modelled as an independent part that is further tied to the stainless steel tube. Moreover, the initial imperfections of the stainless steel tube and the residual stresses resulting from helical welding are included. Enhancement of the understanding of the experimental results can be achieved by extending the parametric studies based on the developed finite element model. Furthermore, a comparison of the ultimate strength between the experimental results and those obtained from existing codes of practice is conducted.
       
  • A proposal for energy dissipative braces with U-shaped steel strips
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Farshad Taiyari, Federico M. Mazzolani, Saman Bagheri In this paper a new bracing system that consists of U-shaped elements as energy dissipation devices is introduced. The proposed bracing system can be considered as a hysteretic damper, which combines the advantages of the yielding dampers and the buckling resistant braces (BRB). This brace does not have the features of the typical damper systems, commonly used in the chevron bracings. Besides, it has low fabrication costs and can be easily replaced after a severe earthquake event. The installation details of the proposed brace are also discussed and its advantages are investigated. Several experimental tests have been performed under cyclic loads with different amplitudes to show the efficiency of the proposed device. The test results confirm the high dissipating capacity of the proposed bracing system. All specimens exhibit stable hysteretic behaviour under several cycles of large inelastic deformations. An additional evaluation has been done numerically by finite element models, where the effects of changing dimensions of the brace have been investigated. The obtained results show that the dissipation capacity of the system increases as the thickness of U elements increases or the height of the U elements decreases. At the end, the Ramberg-Osgood hysteresis model has been fitted to the obtained hysteretic loops as an analytical model for any further applications.
       
  • Seismic performance evaluation and improvement of ultra-high voltage wall
           bushing-valve hall system
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Chang He, Qiang Xie, Zhenyu Yang, Songtao Xue To evaluate and improve the seismic performance of a ±800 kV ultra-high voltage (UHV) wall bushing-valve hall system, a finite element model of the system was established. Sixteen different earthquake ground motions were adopted in the analysis, and the critical seismic responses of the system were obtained. Moreover, a vibration theoretical model of the UHV wall bushing-valve hall system was established, and an investigation was conducted on the influence of different vibration components on the wall bushing seismic responses. The results indicate that the valve hall has an amplification effect on the seismic responses of the wall bushing and the vibration of the gable wall has a remarkable influence on the responses of the wall bushing. Two retrofitting measures were carried out on the valve hall to reduce the seismic responses of the wall bushing. It is concluded that increasing the stiffness of the gable wall could improve the seismic performance of the UHV wall bushing-valve hall system.
       
  • Partial shear connection in light steel composite beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): R. Mark Lawson, Hogr Taufiq A new form of light steel composite beam has been developed that uses C sections acting in tension with shear connectors in the form of screws or bolts or perforations in the web of the C section. The shear and bending resistance is also increased by using side C sections to the beams. Bending tests on point-loaded beams of 0.8, 1.1 and 1.7 m span showed that for the short span beams, the longitudinal shear bond strength of the base C sections is 1.4 N/mm2 for plain C sections and 2.3 N/mm2 for perforated C sections when expressed over the horizontal plane. Plain side C sections added 80% and perforated side Cs added 130% to the load-bearing capacity of the composite beams with base Cs. The theory is extended to cover elastic design taking account of partial shear connection in which the shear stiffness of the perforated web of the C section is approximately 10 N/mm3 (per unit web area) and that of the plain web is approximately 3 N/mm3.
       
  • Buckling behaviour of high strength concrete encased steel composite
           columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Binglin Lai, J.Y. Richard Liew, Tongyun Wang This paper provides an insight into the buckling behavior of high strength concrete encased steel (CES) columns through a comprehensive investigation including experimental, numerical and analytical analyses. Three long CES column specimens made of high strength concrete C100 and S355 H-section were tested under axial compression. The maximum test loads obtained from these tests were compared with the buckling resistance predicted by EN 1994-1-1, AISC 360-10 and ACI 318-08. Nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the buckling resistance and trace the load displacement behaviour of these columns. In the finite element model, the column initial imperfections were carefully chosen to predict the maximum resistance and the load-displacement response, and compared with the equivalent imperfection values stipulated in the modern design codes. In order to examine the validity and limitation of the current design approaches in predicting the buckling resistance of CES columns made of high strength concrete, a statistical study was undertaken based on the established database covering a wider range of material strength and geometric configurations. In the statistical study, the buckling resistance and effective flexural stiffness obtained from the tests were compared with the codes' predictions from EN 1994-1-1, AISC 360-10 and ACI 318-08. Finally, the reliability of the current design methods is assessed by correlating their accuracy with respect to the variation of material strength, column slenderness ratio, load eccentricity and steel contribution ratio.
       
  • DDBD assessment of steel CBFs using full scale shake table tests with
           realistic connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): S. Salawdeh, T. Ryan, B.M. Broderick, J. Goggins A direct displacement based design (DDBD) methodology for concentrically braced frames (CBFs) is validated using a combination of experimental and numerical data taking into account the behaviour of brace-beam-column connections. Twelve full-scale shake table tests with four different brace cross-section sizes, two different gusset plate design methodologies and two different brace connection configurations are used to evaluate the design procedure at three different performance levels (continued operation, life safety and collapse/near collapse) through successive scaling of test excitations.It is found that the DDBD procedure can predict the behaviour of the shake table CBFs for the three levels of excitation. Accurate results have been found for life safety design where the mean ratio and coefficient of variation of base shear (Fb) calculated using the DDBD method to the values found from shake table tests are 0.96 and 0.17, respectively. Furthermore, the mean ratio and coefficient of variation of brace area (Ab) calculated from the DDBD method to the values used in shake table tests are 1 and 0.08, respectively.The design procedure was also verified using nonlinear time history analysis (NLTHA) using a selection of earthquake records with displacement spectra compatible with those of the exact accelerograms recorded during the shake table tests. At the life safety performance level, the mean peak displacement demand and base shear values obtained from NLTHA were observed to be 82% and 91%, respectively, of the design values determined by the DDBD methodology.
       
  • Model selection for super-long span mega-latticed structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Qingwen Zhang, Yuan An, Zibin Zhao, Feng Fan, Shizhao Shen A general forming method for super-long span mega-latticed structures has been developed, based on the key parameters for five types of structure, together with a finite element model. The method combines the molding idea for universal spherical mega-latticed structures and the geometric topological relations of the improved traditional single-layer reticulated shell. The static and economic indexes of six kinds of 800 m span mega-latticed structures, with the same geometry, control parameters and loads, were calculated, and the force law for these structures under static load identified. Then structures suitable for spans of 1000 m and 1200 m were considered. The static performance and economic indexes showed that the mechanical and economic performance of the Geodesic type mega-latticed structure and the Three-dimensional grid type mega-latticed structure were excellent. In order to promote the engineering application of these structures, the influence of four key parameters on the performance of 1000 m structures was studied, and a reasonable range of indicative parameters obtained.
       
  • Flexural-torsional buckling behaviour of fixed-ended hot-rolled austenitic
           stainless steel equal-leg angle section columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 154Author(s): Yating Liang, Vijaya Vengadesh Kumar Jeyapragasam, Lulu Zhang, Ou Zhao The present paper shows an experimental and numerical modelling investigation of the flexural-torsional buckling behaviour and load-carrying capacities of fixed-ended hot-rolled austenitic stainless steel equal-leg angle section columns. The testing programme was conducted on four austenitic stainless steel angle sections and involved material testing, initial global and torsional imperfection measurements and sixteen fixed-ended column tests. This was followed by a numerical simulation study, where the numerical models were firstly developed to validate against the experimental data and then utilised to perform numerical parametric studies to generate additional results over a broader range of member lengths and cross-section geometric dimensions. The derived test and finite element results were carefully analysed and then utilised to evaluate the accuracy of the established design rules in Europe, America and Australia/New Zealand. Comparisons of the failure loads derived from the experimental and numerical studies with the corresponding codified flexural-torsional buckling strength predictions revealed an unduly high level of conservatism and scatter. Extension of the direct strength method to carbon steel equal-leg angle section columns has been recently made, and the applicability of the approach to fixed-ended hot-rolled austenitic stainless equal-leg steel angle section columns was also assessed. The new approach was generally shown to yield more precise flexural-torsional buckling resistance predictions than the existing design standards, but a large portion of the predictions were unsafe, indicating that further improvements are required.
       
  • Experimental study on impact behaviour of stud shear connectors in
           composite beams with profiled steel sheeting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Jingsi Huo, Haitao Wang, Long Li, Yanzhi Liu This paper deals with the shear behaviour of steel stud connectors in composite beams with profiled steel sheeting under static and impact loads. An experimental program including five static and ten impact push-out tests is firstly carried out, and the failure modes, the time history of impact load and slippage displacement, as well as the shear capacity of stud connectors are presented and discussed. Based on the dynamic responses, the influence of the arrangement form of profiled steel sheeting on the shear mechanism of steel stud connectors under impact loading is examined. Moreover, a design proposal developed previously by the authors is verified to reasonably predict the shear capacity of stud connectors with profiled steel sheeting parallel to the steel beam under impact loading. However, it is unsafe to predict the dynamic shear capacity of stud connectors with profiled steel sheeting transverse to the steel beam when the strain rate effect is considered. Additionally, the failure mode of shear connectors with solid slab in this paper is different from that of the previous work, which lead to the lower dynamic shear capacity of the connectors with the solid slab, and some further discussion is also carried out. The testing results can provide an essential data for future analytical and design-oriented study of composite beam with shear stud connectors with profiled steel sheeting under extreme loading conditions.
       
  • Response to discussion on “Experimental seismic behavior of innovative
           composite shear walls”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Xiao-Meng Zhang, Ying Qin, Zhi-Hua Chen
       
 
 
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