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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2449 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1288 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (208 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 208 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access  
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access  
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 290)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 78)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Sul-Americana de Engenharia Estrutural     Open Access  
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
Territorium : Revista Portuguesa de riscos, prevenção e segurança     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Journal of Constructional Steel Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.892
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0143-974X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Sub-assemblage low damage connection incorporating blind-bolts and RBRFs
           subjected to cyclic loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Yusak Oktavianus, Helen Goldsworthy, Emad Gad, Saman Fernando, Tilak Pokharel, Hongfei Chang The Christchurch earthquake has given a renewed impetus to the development and use of low damage connections within moment-resisting frames in New Zealand. When using a low-damage technology, the building is designed to be easily repairable after a severe earthquake and is hence expected to be more resilient and cost-effective. This paper reports on a sub-assemblage test that investigates the behaviour of a newly proposed low damage connection between a steel beam and composite column. The connection incorporates blind-bolts, curved T-stubs and replaceable buckling restrained fuses (RBRFs). The RBRF is the only element which is allowed to yield when the earthquake level is higher than the design-based earthquake, so the establishment of a suitable strength hierarchy is vital to the success of the design. Two loading protocols have been applied using the same sub-assemblage but with a new RBRF at the start of each test; i.e. the RBRF was replaced after each test. The contributions of the connection, beam, and column to the total rotation have been summarised. The results show that a semi-rigid connection can be achieved by using this type of connection. Furthermore, an analytical approach has been proposed to predict the behaviour of this type of connection.
       
  • Effect of welding and heat treatment on strength of high-strength steel
           columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Jin Jiang, J. Zhang, J. Liu, S.P. Chiew, C.K. Lee Arc welding is frequently applied to form built-up high strength steel (HSS) box columns from flat plates. Due to the thermal gradients happened in the welding processes, welding residual stresses and geometric imperfections are normally introduced into the columns which can deteriorate the column strength. In the current study, an experimental and finite element analysis study on the strength of built-upHSS box columns under a compressive load was carried out. To evaluate the effect of welding technique and heating treatment on the strength of high strength box columns, two different welding techniques, Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) and Submerged Arc Welding (SAW), were used in this study. For each welding technique, three different heat treatments including As-Welded condition (AW) without any heat treatment, Preheating (pH) before welding and Post-Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) were studied. Firstly, the welding residual stresses determined using the hole-drilling method and the initial geometrical imperfections of the columns were carefully measured. After that, the column strength was tested and analysed. Finally, numerical investigations regarding welding residual stress and column strength were conducted to study the effect of welding processes, heat treatment on the strength of built-up high strength steel box columns with different slenderness under compressive load. For both FCAW and SAW fabricated columns, experimental and numerical results show that heating treatment (Preheating and PWHT) could produce a 3%–7% strength improvement depended on the slenderness of the HSS columns. The design approach for HSS columns including the effect of welding technique and different heat treatment was discussed in comparison with existing standards.
       
  • Experimental study on seismic behavior of steel strip reinforced CSPSWs in
           modular building structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Xiao-Meng Dai, Yang Ding, Liang Zong, En-Feng Deng, Ni Lou, Yang ChenABSTRACTCorrugated steel plate shear walls (CSPSWs) are widely used as exterior walls and efficient lateral load resisting systems in modular building structures (MBS). In practical construction, the CSPSWs are usually accommodated with door or window openings and reinforced with steel strips. The effect of the steel strip reinforcement needs to be evaluated. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the seismic behavior of steel strip reinforced CSPSWs in modular steel structures. Six full-scale specimens were constrained at corners and loaded with cyclic lateral load. The results showed that that failure mode of this lateral load resisting system for the modular building structures was the facture of the weld between the frame beams and columns. The steel strip reinforcement had little effect on the ultimate strength, but could improve the behavior of stiffness, ductility and energy dissipation.
       
  • Formulation for second-order inelastic analysis of steel frames including
           shear deformation effect
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Renata Gomes Lanna da Silva, Armando Cesar Campos Lavall, Rodrigo Sernizon Costa, Harley Francisco Viana Finite elements based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory differed from elements that consider Timoshenko theory, once the first theory neglects the deformation due to shear and hence it is not suitable for thick and short beams. In Timoshenko beam formulation, the cross-sections remain plane but not perpendicular to the neutral axis after deformation due the effects of shear strains. This paper presents the development of a finite element model to be used in the inelastic second-order analysis of planar steel frames. The finite element model considers the spread of plastification within the cross-section and along the member length, several residual stress distributions, members shear deformations based on the Timoshenko theory, P-Δ and P-δ second order effects. The proposed theoretical development considers the updated Lagrangian formulation and the corotational technique for the consistent deduction of the element tangent stiffness matrix. The theory predicts that nodes will suffer large displacements and rotations, and the elements of the structure, large stretches and curvatures. A computer program capable of performing advanced inelastic analysis is developed and numerical examples are presented in order to prove the efficiency of the proposed formulation. It is shown that the Timoshenko beam model is clearly superior to Euler-Bernoulli model in precisely predicting the structural response.
       
  • Finite element modelling of demountable precast reinforced concrete deck
           slabs with external confining system
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Abdolreza Ataei, Masoud Moradi, Hamid R. Valipour, Mark A. Bradford This paper investigates the enhanced loading capacity and structural behaviour of a transversely confined precast reinforced concrete (RC) deck slab with deconstructable post-installedfriction-grip bolted (PFGB) shear connectors. A detailed 3D non-linearcontinuum-based finite element (FE) model of the deconstructable composite deck with external confining systems (i.e. cross-bracings or ties) and PFGB shear connectors is developed and analysed using the commercial software ABAQUS. The non-linearity of the contacts/interfaces, geometrical and material non-linearities are considered in the FE models. The developed FE models are validated against experimental results and it is shown that the proposed FE model can adequately predict the enhancing effect of arching action in a transversely confined deconstructable precast RC deck slab. Lastly, a parametric study is carried out and effect of different parameters such as compressive strength of concrete, yield strength and proportion of reinforcing bars, clearance between concrete slab and PFGB shear connectors and pretension stress in the PFGB shear connectors on the stiffness and strength enhancement provided by the arching action are evaluated and discussed.
       
  • Seismic performance of a repaired thin steel plate shear wall structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Yipeng Du, Jiping Hao, Jinguang Yu, Haisheng Yu, Bowen Deng, Danlan Lv, Zhaoyang Liang A multi-ribbed grid of channels can effectively restrain the deformation of an embedded steel plate shear wall, improving the elastic stiffness of the overall structure while enhancing its energy dissipation capacity. Aone-bay, two-story specimen was tested under low cycle reversed loading in two stages. After being damaged in Stage I, the structure was repaired by anchoring the multi-ribbed channel grid. The structure was then loaded to destruction. To investigate the changes in performance of the structure due to reinforcement, comparison and analysis of the structure were conducted for the two stages. The results indicate that in the elastic stage, when the repaired structure is in its normal service state, the deformation of the steel plate is effectively restrained, and the elastic stiffness and energy dissipation capacity is improved. In the elastic-plastic stage, the failure mode of the structure is reasonable, and the hysteresis loop is full as the multi-ribbed channel grid effectively restrains the pinching phenomenon. Based on the results of the experiment, finite element models were established. According to the finite element analysis, the yield load, initial stiffness, and maximum lateral force bearing capacity of the repaired structure improved significantly.
       
  • Strength of cold-formed steel slotted track connections for out-of-plane
           wall loads
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Jose Espinoza, P.E. Georgi Hall, Reynaud Serrette Inter-story vertical displacements in cold-formed steel (CFS) non-loadbearing construction is typically accommodated with slip clips, deflection tracks, or slotted tracks. Slotted tracks have the advantage of requiring no additional accessories to provide the desired performance and they are used extensively in building frame constructions. However, unlike deflection track connection design, industry standards or guidelines to compute the strength and deflection of slotted track connections for out-of-plane wall loads do not currently exist. Design professionals must rely exclusively on manufactured published design data – data that is often different even where slotted track sections are identical. In this paper, test informed, mechanics-based equations are proposed to estimate the design strength of CFS slotted tracks for out-of-plane loads imposed via connected studs. The proposed equations include both strength and serviceability criteria, and they are shown to provide reasonably accurate, manufacturer independent, estimates of slotted track connection strength.
       
  • Flexural behaviour of concrete filled tubular flange girders
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): R. Al-Dujele, K.A. Cashell, S. Afshan In this paper, the behaviour of concrete filled tubular flange girders (CFTFGs) is investigated through both numerical and analytical modelling. These are new and complex members and their behaviour is governed by a number of inter-related parameters. This work aims to study the relative influence of a number of these variables on the flexural behaviour, particularly for CFTFGs with stiffened webs. A nonlinear three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is developed in the ABAQUS software and is validated using available experimental data. The validated model is then employed to conduct parametric studies and investigate the influence of the most salient parameters. For comparison purposes, and to observe the effect of the concrete infill, steel tubular flange girders (STFGs) with a hollow flange are also studied. The finite element models consider the effects of initial geometric imperfections, as well as other geometrical and material nonlinearities, on the response. In addition, simplified analytical expressions for the flexural capacity are proposed, and the results are compared to those from the FE analyses. It is found that CFTFGs and STFGs with the same dimensions have similar buckling shapes but different buckling loads, with the CFTFG offering greater buckling resistance. This highlights the influence of the concrete infill which increases the stiffness of the upper flange, and hence allows the member to carry additional bending moments compared to STFGs. The proposed analytical expressions, which are suitable for design, are also shown to be capable of providing an accurate depiction of the behaviour and bending moment capacity.
       
  • Sheet-to-purlin fasteners arrangement and the value of rotational
           restraint of cold-formed Z-purlins
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Michal Gajdzicki The method of fastening the trapezoidal sheeting to the supporting beams has a significant influence on their rotational restraint, and thus their buckling resistance. Commonly one fastener is placed in each trough of the sheeting. In this paper the arrangement of two fasteners located near the trapezoidal sheeting webs in every second trough was investigated. Such an arrangement, with the same number of fasteners along the purlin, increases the value of the rotational stiffness CD and in a consequence favorably affects the bending resistance of cold-formed Z-purlins. Such conclusions were based on the results from 28 experimental tests and the results from the corresponding numerical models built in the Abaqus software. The numerical investigation was also extended to the additional 8 models, which had not been tested experimentally. Finally, the buckling resistance of cold-formed Z-purlins restraint by the trapezoidal sheeting, according to Eurocode 3-1-3, for two of the most encountered static schemes of purlin were calculated with the use of rotational stiffness CD values obtained for two arrangements of the sheet-to-purlin fasteners.
       
  • Steel-timber composite beam-to-column joints: Effect of connections
           between timber slabs
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): N. Keipour, H.R. Valipour, M.A. Bradford Studies of steel-timber composite (STC) connections and STC beams under sagging bending have been reported elsewhere in the literature using push-out and four-point bending tests respectively. However, the structural behaviour of STC beam-to-column connections under hogging bending moments (with the prefabricated timber slabs in tension) have hitherto not been investigated. In particular, the connection between the two prefabricated timber slab panels (across the column) has a major influence on the structural performance of a STC beam-to-column connection and is the focus of the current study. Eight full-scale STC beam to steel column cruciform specimens with different connections (half lap, single and double surface spline with timber and/or steel plate) for the timber slabs were fabricated and tested under a monotonically increasing downwards displacement, and these are described in this paper. The bending moment capacity, rotation capacity, failure mode, stiffness and ductility of the STC connections are evaluated and discussed. The composite steel-timber system exhibits both appreciable ductility and rotation capacity which fulfil the existing design requirements for semi-rigid composite connections in Eurocodes EC3 and EC4. Furthermore, the negative bending moment capacity of STC connections is significantly higher than that of bare steel connections without a timber slab.
       
  • Experimental study on bolted CFST-column joints with different
           configurations in accommodating column-loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Man Xu, Shan Gao, Sumei Zhang, Honghao LiABSTRACTThree different types of joints with long bolts were designed and tested in the scenario of column loss. The performance of different joints including flush endplate, extended endplate and stiffened angle under column removal was studied in detail. The investigation was focused on failure modes, formation and developing of catenary action and deformation capacity. The equivalent dynamic response of different joints would also be assessed. The results show that the match of plate thickness and bolt diameter plays an important role in the performance of joint. Relatively thinner plate would help the formation of catenary action. The configuration of flush endplate is more beneficial for the formation of catenary action than extended endplate. By using different connection configuration, the performance of flexural action in joint would affect the contribution of catenary action. The acceptance criteria in DoD and GSA are suitable to assess the rotation related to the first load drop of joints whilst those in FEMA350 is suitable for assess the rotation related to maximum load which represents the anti-collapse behavior of joint. The dynamic amplification coefficient (DAC) suggested by DoD is appropriate if the joint carry vertical load mainly by flexural action. With the influence of catenary action, the DAC would be larger than the values suggested by DoD.
       
  • Experimental and numerical study on the mechanical behavior of Q460D
           high-strength steel bolted connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Hongchao Guo, Feng Xiao, Yunhe Liu, Gang Liang Based on static tensile test of 20 Q460D high-strength steel bolted connection joints, influences of high-strength steel material strength and bolt arrangement pattern on bearing capacity and deformation of connections were analyzed. According to differences of end distance, edge distance, and pitch between bolts, finite element modeling, theoretical calculation, and test results were compared, a quantitative analysis was carried out for mechanical property of high-strength steel bolted connections, and applicability of relevant standards was investigated. The study showed that bearing capacity and deformation of specimens for Q460D high-strength steel increased as pitch increased when bolts were under transversal arrangement. Influence of increased edge and end distance on bearing capacity of the connection was minimal after standard value of the structure was reached. Stress nephogram obtained from numerical analysis and plastic region presented symmetrical distribution with two holes bearing balanced stress, fitted curve points were dispersedly distributed, and margin of theoretically calculated value was large when EC3 standard was used. When bolts were under longitudinal arrangement, bearing capacity of the specimens only presented a linearly increasing trend as pitch increased, two holes bore unbalanced stress in stress distribution, stress borne by bolt hole at end part and its deformation were both large, and bearing capacities of end and middle bolts calculated according to the EC3 standard were relatively accurate. This study can provide a theoretical basis for design and connection structure of Q460D high-strength steel bolted connection joints.
       
  • Behaviour and design of concrete-filled mild-steel spiral welded tube
           short columns under eccentric axial compression loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Yasoja Gunawardena, Farhad Aslani Spiral-welded steel tubes (SWTs) are fabricated by helically bending a steel plate and welding the resulting abutting edges. These tubes enable larger diameters, longer joint-less lengths, smaller dimensional tolerances, and more cost-effective construction compared to other types of steel tubes. Notwithstanding this, the use of SWTs for concrete-filled steel tubes (CFSTs) has been rather limited. Many international design standards contain guidelines on strength assessment of CFST columns. Even so, unlike for other tube types, there is a lack of experimental verification of the applicability of those guidelines for concrete-filled spiral welded steel tube (CF-SWST) columns. This has inhibited their widespread use, especially since the residual stresses in SWTs are generally larger than for other tubes. Given this context, twelve self-compactingCF-SWST short columns with nominal diameters (D)equal to 102, 152, 203 and 229 mm were tested under axial compression, considering load eccentricities of 0, 0.15D and 0.4D. The tube walls were nominally 2 mm thick while the effective length to diameter ratios were in the range 4.5–6.0. A ductile failure mode was observed for all the tests consisting of flexural local buckling in the maximum compression region, which was observed during post-peak deformation. The spiral weld seam was observed to neither provide a preferential location for failure nor be detrimental to the strength capacity. On average, the predicted capacities as per six commonly used international standards agreed well with the experimentally obtained values. The predicted capacities were observed to be more conservative for eccentric loading compared to concentric loading. For eccentric loading, fibre-element analyses using material models proposed for confined concrete provided better predictions of the actual capacity. This suggested that greater confinement benefit than considered in the codes is effective for eccentrically loaded CF-SWST short columns. The study provided evidence of equivalent behaviour of CF-SWST columns to other tested CFSTs and the applicability of existing guidelines for assessing their strength.
       
  • xperimental and numerical investigation on cold-formed steel semi-oval
           hollow section compression members
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Man-Tai Chen, Ben Young A comprehensive experimental and numerical investigation on cold-formed steel semi-oval hollow section pin-ended columns was performed and is presented herein. The semi-oval hollow sections investigated in this study are composed of one semi-circular flange, one flat flange and two flat web plates. Four cross-section sizes were included and a total of 19 tests was conducted under concentric loading with different specimen lengths in the test program. A finite element model was developed and validated against the test results. The numerical model is capable to replicate the test results. Upon the validation of finite element model, an extensive parametric study was performed consisting of 200 numerical data cases, which cover a wide range of cross-section geometries and column slenderness. The results obtained from experimental program and numerical study were compared with the predicted strengths by the existing and modified Direct Strength Method. Reliability analysis was conducted to assess the reliability of the design methods. The comparison results show that the existing Direct Strength Method generally provides conservative predictions, but the predictions are scattered for slender sections. Modification was proposed to address this issue. The modified Direct Strength Method provides accurate and less scattered predictions in a reliable manner. The modified Direct Strength Method is suitable for cold-formed steel semi-oval hollow section columns, especially for short column members and columns with slender sections.
       
  • Shear behavior of corrugated web panels and sensitivity analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Moussa Leblouba, Samer Barakat, Zaid Al-Saadon Steel beams and girders with corrugated webs have found many applications, especially in industrial structures and bridges. This choice is backed by the many features, this class of structural members can offer, such as the high load carrying capacity before failure due to the web geometry. The failure of a corrugated web may occur due to material yielding or due to geometrical buckling. Three modes of shear buckling are typical for corrugated webs: local, global, and interactive shear buckling. In this paper, the shear failure mechanisms of trapezoidal corrugated webs are investigated. Nine, shear-critical, corrugated web panels were tested until failure. The new test results confirmed a previous observation that all panels achieved a residual strength of about half of the buckling shear strength, regardless of their geometry and most of them reached yielding before buckling takes place. Since the shear strength of corrugated webs is a function of several material and geometric parameters, a comprehensive global, density-based, sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate the relative contribution of each parameter to the behavior of shear strength through a previously developed mathematical model. The analysis revealed that the length of the flat folds is the most influential parameter on the shear strength of corrugated webs, while the modulus of elasticity is the least influential. The study was extended to determine ranges on which each parameter is non-influential.
       
  • Damage characteristics of thin-walled steel arch bridges subjected to
           in-plane earthquake action
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Xu Xie, Hanqing Zhuge, Zhanzhan Tang, Tong Wang, Yanhua Liao Although steel bridges generally demonstrate good seismic performance, local instabilities within steel plates and ultra-low-cycle fatigue (ULCF) damage at welded joints can cast a important effect on the seismic performance of bridge structures. To study the characteristics of the above-mentioned types of damage in steel arch bridges, a non-hinged half-through steel arch bridge was considered as an example, and a refined finite-element (FE) model, capable of accounting for local deformation within potentially damaged regions, was established. Based on simulation results concerning elastoplastic seismic response of the entire structure and ULCF damage of welded joints at locations with high strain concentrations, seismic damage characteristics of steel arch bridges and influence of steel-plate thickness of arch ribs on them were analysed. Based on FE analysis, the arch springing and beam–arch junctions were identified as locations transmitting longitudinal seismic loads, thereby suffering maximum seismic damage during in-plane earthquakes. Local deformation of steel plates within damaged areas has a remarkable effect on the overall seismic response of structures, and hence, cannot be ignored. The fibre model does not account for local deformation within steel plates; thus, when steel plates undergo local deformations, the results obtained using the fibre model tend to be misleading and dangerous. An increased steel-plate thickness of arch ribs causes significant improvement in local stability of steel arch bridges. However, this method does not guarantee prevention of ULCF failure, which could occur at welded joints within the structure and must be considered during seismic design.
       
  • Behaviour of concrete-encased CFST stub columns subjected tolong-term
           sustained loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Dan-Yang Ma, Lin-Hai Han, Wei Li, Chao Hou, Ting-Min Mu Concrete-encasedconcrete-filled steel tube (CFST) column consists of a CFST component and an outer reinforced concrete (RC) encasement. This paper numerically investigates the behaviour of concrete-encased CFST columns subjected to long-term sustained loading. A finite element analysis (FEA) model is established which incorporates the time-dependent behaviour of concrete under sustained loading using the viscoelastic model. The FEA model is validated against the experimental results from long-term loading tests. By using the FEA model, the behaviour of concrete-encased CFST columns subjected to long-term loading is thoroughly analysed, such as the full-range strain development, the internal force distribution among different components, the confinement effects between the steel tube and surrounding concrete, and the comparisons of three types of columns, i.e. concrete-encased CFST column, RC column and traditional CFST column. The creep deformation of the concrete-encased CFST column is also evaluated by the FEA model and existing design standards. The parametric analysis is conducted to investigate the influence of various parameters on the strength degradation of concrete-encased CFST columns, including the material strength, the steel ratio of CFST component, the sectional configuration, longitudinal rebar ratio, stirrup characteristic value, and the long-term axial load level. Finally, the ultimate strength of the concrete-encased CFST columns after long-term loading is evaluated, with calculation tables provided for the referencing of practical design.
       
  • Evaluation of seismic response factors for BRBFs using FEMA P695
           methodology
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Yasin Onuralp Özkılıç, Mehmet Bakır Bozkurt, Cem Topkaya This paper reports the details of a numerical study undertaken to evaluate seismic response factors for steel buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) using the FEMA P695 methodology. In the United States, BRBFs are designed according to Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7) and the Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 341). Twenty-four archetypes were designed according to the U.S. specifications and their behavior was assessed by making use of non-simulated collapse models. The interstory drift, brace axial strain and cumulative brace axial strain demands under collapse level ground motions were determined. The results obtained indicate that the current seismic response factors are adequate in terms of interstory drift and cumulative axial strain demands. On the other hand, large differences between the design level and collapse level axial strains were reported, which can result in undesirable brace behavior. Modified approaches were developed to estimate the axial strains for collapse level ground motions. These include a modification to the deflection amplification factor and a modification to the AISC 341 requirements for expected brace deformations. The archetypes were redesigned using the proposed modifications and reevaluated using the FEMA P695 methodology. The results indicate that the proposed modifications result in axial strain demands that are in close agreement with the calculated demands.
       
  • Structural evaluation of steel self-centering moment-resisting frames
           under far-field and near-field earthquakes
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Hassan Abedi Sarvestani The design formulations, structural performance, and energy-based results of steel buildings of self-centering moment-resisting frames (SC-MRFs) with post-tensioned (PT) connections of three different energy dissipation devices including bolted top and seat angles, beam bottom flange friction devices, and bolted web friction devices are investigated under far-field and near-field earthquakes. The results of nonlinear time-history analysis using DRAIN-2DX program show that the simplified analysis used to estimate the inertial forces distributed through collector beams is not sufficiently precise since it leads to the underestimation of design beam axial forces and connection moments in exterior bays. The overestimation of design displacement demands of SC-MRFs with bottom flange friction devices results in bigger sections of beams and columns than are necessary. In addition, this SC-MRF system is not as effective as other two systems to dissipate the input energy. It is recommended to symmetrically use beam flange friction devices to achieve higher level of energy dissipation and lower fabrication costs. On the other hand, SC-MRFs with web friction devices is identified as the most efficient system to minimize the recoverable energy and SC-MRFs with top and seat angles provides medium level of energy dissipation. Different from far-field earthquakes, the input energies of SC-MRF structures under near-field ground motions are distinguishable by hikes of maximum values at the early stages of earthquakes. Furthermore, absolute energy components are substantially higher than relative energy components under near-field earthquakes. These phenomena should be considered in the formulations of energy factor and energy-based design procedures of SC-MRF systems.
       
  • Component tests and numerical simulations of composite floor systems under
           progressive collapse
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Bo Yang, Yong Yang, Xu-Hong Zhou, Qiang-Fu Jiang, Shao-Bo Kang This paper presents experimental and numerical studies on the behaviour of components and composite floor system under column removal scenarios. Shear connectors, double angle-cleat connections and flush end plate connections were extracted from a three-dimensional composite floor system and tested under different loading conditions. The load-displacement curves of these components were compared with the results predicted from existing models. A simplified numerical model was developed to simulate the behaviour of composite floor systems subject to progressive collapse, in which the properties of springs were determined from component tests. The model was then validated against experimental results in terms of load-displacement relationship and failure mode. Finally, parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of slab thickness, aspect ratio and reinforcement. Numerical results suggested that the aspect ratio of slabs has the most significant effect on the load capacity of composite floor systems under progressive collapse scenarios.
       
  • Experimental study on shear behavior of studs under monotonic and cyclic
           loadings
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Changhai Zhai, Bing Lu, Weiping Wen, Duofa Ji, Lili Xie In steel–concrete composite structures, studs are critical in the shear transfer between steel and concrete. A series of push-out tests were performed to investigate the shear behavior of studs in high-strength concrete subjected to monotonic and cyclic loadings. All studs were attached to steel flanges by groove fillet welding. The primary parameters analyzed in this study included the stud diameter, stud tensile strength, and load type. The failure modes, load-slip curves, shear capacities, shear slips, shear stiffness, ductility, and energy dissipation capacities of the studs were studied. The experimental results indicate that the shear capacities, shear stiffness, and shear slips increased significantly with the increase in stud diameter. The studs subjected to cyclic loading exhibited lower shear capacities and shear slips than those under monotonic loading. The reductions in shear capacity and shear slip increased approximately with the increase in stud diameter, i.e., 25%–58% and 56%–81%, respectively. From the results of this test and those of previous works, it is deduced that groove fillet welding increased the shear capacities of 16-mm-diameter studs under cyclic loading by approximately 65% with respect to the stud welding. Finally, two empirical formulas were proposed to estimate the ultimate shear capacities and equivalent shear stiffness of studs under cyclic loading to design the studs in steel–concrete composite structures during seismic events.
       
  • Flexural strength evaluation of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST)
           composite girder
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 151Author(s): Junghyun Cho, Jiho Moon, Hee-Jung Ko, Hak-Eun Lee The flexural strength of the concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) composite girder was investigated in this study. Firstly, simple equations to evaluate the flexural strength of the CFST composite girder under both positive and negative bending moment were derived based on the plastic stress distribution method (PSDM). A series of tests was then conducted to verify the accuracy of the proposed equation, and to investigate the effect of internal shear connectors between the steel tube and concrete infill. Further, non-linear finite element analysis for each test specimen was performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism, and to set up the verified finite element analysis model. From the results, it was found that the proposed equations provided a reasonably conservative prediction of the flexural strength of the CFST composite girder under both positive and negative bending moment, and the effect of internal shear connectors between the steel tube and concrete infill on the flexural strength was negligible. A series of parametric studies was performed to investigate the effect of the D/t ratio, compressive strength of the concrete infill, and local buckling of the steel tube on the flexural strength of the CFST composite girder. Finally, some design considerations are noted based on the results of the parametric study.
       
  • Postbuckling shear capacity of high-strength steel plate girders
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Yong Xiao, Xuan Yi Xue, Fei Fei Sun, Guo Qiang Li Postbuckling capacity of plate girders still occurs after the occurrence of local buckling in the web panel. The postbuckling capacity of mild steel plate girders gradually develops because mild steel exhibits a clear yielding point and a yielding plateau. However, there are no clear yielding points nor distinct yielding plateaus for the high-strength steel (HSS) Q550 and Q690. Even though the postbuckling shear resistance is considered for the mild steel plate girder design in many international design codes, the design formula suggested for mild steel plate girders might not be suitable for HSS plate girders. The objective of this research is to quantify the shear resistance for HSS plate girders. The buckling strength and postbuckling capacity of HSS plate girders are investigated in this study by performing the nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) that includes the tested material properties. The tested stress–strain curves of HSS Q550 and Q690 are idealized by bilinear and multilinear models. This shows that the strain hardening do have an effect on the postbuckling capacities of HSS plate girders. Therefore, a more accurate multilinear material model is selected for further FEA on the shear resistance of plate girders. The differences between the FEA and EC3 formulae outcomes are notably identified. Based on the numerical studies, a new buckling coefficient formula and a new ultimate shear resistance formula for HSS plate girders are proposed in the study.
       
  • Experimental study of the short-term and long-term behavior of perfobond
           connectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Jing Zhang, Xiamin Hu, Liya Kou, Bing Zhang, Yuchen Jiang, Huihui Yu Recently, perfobond connectors for steel-concrete composite structures have received extensive research attention due to their excellent bonding and fatigue performance, and the construction convenience. However, the research on the long-term behavior of perfobond connectors was seldom reported. This paper presents the results of laboratory tests on perfobond connectors, including twenty short-term specimens and six long-term specimens. Parametric study was conducted to investigate the influence of the hole diameter in the connector, the number of the holes, the thickness of the connector, the concrete strength as well as the diameter of the transverse rebar on the shear performance of perfobond connectors. For the short-term test series, the failure modes of the connector, the load-slip response, the ultimate shear bearing capacity and the load-strain curves of transverse rebar were studied. For the long-term test series, the transverse rebar strain, the relative slip between the steel beam and the concrete slab and the stress around the holes with duration of loading were discussed. The shear performance of perfobond connectors after long-term loading was also investigated. Finally, based on the test data from both this paper and open literature, a model was proposed to predict the shear bearing capacity of perfobond connectors.
       
  • Different slit configuration in corrugated sheathing of cold-formed steel
           shear wall
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Wenying Zhang, Mahsa Mahdavian, Cheng Yu Recent research showed that shear walls with corrugated steel sheathing demonstrated high strength, high initial stiffness but low ductility under cyclic loading and thus were not favorable for seismic applications. A possible solution by creating openings in the field of the corrugated sheets in order to improve the ductility was newly proposed by the authors. This paper presents an experimental study on the seismic behavior of the cold-formed steel shear walls using corrugated steel sheathings with different slits configurations. A total of 14 full scale shear wall specimens, including seven different slit configurations and one unperforated wall configuration, were tested under lateral cyclic loading. The test results indicate that with proper slit configurations on the sheathing, the corrugated steel sheathed shear wall shows an improved high ductility without significant reduction in shear strength and stiffness. Details of the test program and general results are presented in this paper.
       
  • EXPERIMENTAL STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTOR IN CONCRETE-FILLED STEEL TUBULAR
           T-JOINTS
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Idris A. Musa, Fidelis R. Mashiri, Xinqun Zhu, Lewei Tong An experimental investigation of stress concentration factor (SCF) in Steel circular hollow section brace welded to concrete-filled circular hollow section chord (CHS-to-CFCHS) T-joints has been performed under axial tension, axial compression, in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending. The distribution of SCF around the welded brace-to-chord intersection on both the brace and chord has been investigated using three CHS-to-CFCHS T-joint specimens. The experimental SCF results have been compared with the predicted SCF in empty T-joints. The relationship between the maximum SCF in relation to parameter β, with fixed other geometrical parameters, has been investigated for the basic load conditions. The experimental maximum SCF under axial tension has been compared with the predicted maximum SCF from parametric equations for CHS-to-CFCHS T-joints previously developed by the authors. The results show that the concrete has a significant effect in reducing the SCF, mostly under axial tension and the parametric equations for predicting SCFs in empty T-joints are not suitable for CHS-to-CFCHS T-joints. The effect of parameter β on the maximum SCF in CHS-to-CFCHS T-joints is significant under axial tension and out-of-plane bending moment.
       
  • Evaluation of the seismic performance of suspended zipper column
           concentrically braced steel frames
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): K.K. Wijesundara, R. Nascimbene, Gian A. Rassati The performance of the most common type of concentric braced configuration, i.e. Chevron braces, is governed by buckling of first story braces in compression, resulting in a localization of the failure. To improve the performance of chevron concentric braced frames, zipper columns were introduced to transfer the unbalanced forces; over-strength braces were further introduced to avoid the complete collapse of the frame. Such concentric braced frames are called suspended zipper concentric braced frames.The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of suspended zipper concentric braced frames designed according to Eurocode 8 and to compare their performance with conventional concentric braced configurations. It is important to highlight that this study introduces a novel design methodology to size braces, zipper columns, beams and columns in suspended zipper frames. For this purpose, two concentric braced frame structures from each suspended zipper configuration and stud-to-ground configuration are designed and analysed for a ground motion with a probability of exceedance equal to 10% in 50 years, i.e. a return period of 475 years, with peak ground acceleration of 0.3 g.Based on the comparison of results, it can be concluded that the performance of suspended zipper frame is better than that of conventional concentrically braced frames in medium-rise buildings, but not in low-rise buildings. Furthermore, the novel design methodology is proven to be satisfactory in sizing the structural elements of suspended zipper concentric braced frames when considering the inelastic time history analyses results.
       
  • Push-out test of large perfobond connectors in steel–concrete joints
           of hybrid bridges
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Jin Di, Yang Zou, Xuhong Zhou, Fengjiang Qin, Xi Peng The size of perfobond connectors in steel–concrete joints of hybrid bridges is typically less than 75 mm. Given the limited capacity of connectors, it is essential to tightly arrange the connectors for transmitting large internal forces. Large-sized perfobond connectors with increased capacity act as an excellent alternative to reduce the number of connections, thereby simplifying the structure in steel–concrete joints. Additionally, an increased diameter can contribute to the flow of concrete coarse aggregate. To verify the mechanical properties of large perfobond connectors, 13 groups of 39 push-out specimens are introduced. The effects of hole size, hole shape, perforating rebar, concrete strength, and lateral confinement are investigated on the failure modes and load–slip curves of large perfobond connectors. The test results indicated that, under a high level of confinement of a concrete dowel, increases the geometrical size of the hole significantly improve its bearing capacity without weakening its ductility. Finally, an empirical formula is proposed for the shear capacity considering various influencing factors.
       
  • End web stiffeners for connecting ductile replaceable links
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Max T. Stephens, Peter Dusicka, Gregory Lewis The ability to restore the integrity of structural lateral systems that utilize steel links to inelastically deform in earthquakes can be improved through the use of replaceable links. Replaceable links can be removed when damaged, especially when isolated from the gravity carrying system, and can provide engineers greater design freedom with respect to structural stiffness and strength. To ensure that ductile inelastic deformation is isolated to the effective length of the replaceable link, robust connection details capable of sustaining large cyclic deformations are needed. An integrated numerical and experimental research program was performed to evaluate a bolted end plate connection detail which utilized fillet welds, instead of full joint penetration welds, between the links and end plates in an effort to simplify fabrication. Continuum finite-element methods were used to evaluate various end stiffener options to shift flange plastic strains caused by link deformation away from the welds. The results from that study informed the selection of cases evaluated in large-scale experiments. Cyclic pseudostatic tests were conducted to experimentally demonstrate the performance of the selected end-stiffener configurations. Results from the experimental investigation showed that ductile inelastic deformation within the effective length of the links can be achieved using a bolted end plate connection with fillet welds between the shear link and end plate by utilizing end stiffeners placed parallel to the web. Design recommendations for incorporating the end stiffeners are outlined based on the data and experiences gained.
       
  • A modified Direct Strength Method for nonlinear twisting model of
           simply-supported C-section purlins
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Fan Bai, Na Yang, Hao Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang This paper proposes a framework to predict the buckling limit states of C-section purlins under wind uplift load with top flange restrained by the sheeting. The prediction framework includes a nonlinear twisting model to account for the flexural-torsional behavior and the application on the Direct Strength Method. The torsional effect induced by load eccentricity and the diaphragm effects provided by sheeting are incorporated into the flexural-torsional differential equations of the nonlinear twisting model. The biaxial bending moments and bi-moment, the flexural-torsional buckling strength and the stress distribution of the purlin can be obtained from the proposed model. On the basis of the Finite Strip Method (FSM), the elastic buckling load can be calculated through reducing the applied bending moments by the load factor. Thereafter, the Direct Strength Method is modified to account for the buckling interaction behavior influenced by the warping-torsion and diaphragm effects. A database of 17 simple-span purlin tests is used to validate the proposed model.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Experimental and analytical study of telescopic lead yielding damper
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): M. Eskandari, Esmaeil Pournamazian Najafabadi In this study, a novel type of passive energy dissipation device called a Telescopic Lead Yielding Damper (TLYD) is proposed and analyzed. This device comprises co-axial steel cylinders and lead rings, such that these rings act as shear locks between the steel cylinders. TLYDs dissipate energy through the plastic shear deformation of lead metal. The telescopic mechanism used in TLYDs allows these small-sized dampers to tolerate large axial displacements with low fatigue. For each telescopic level, a yield plateau is added to the hysteresis behavior of TLYD devices. Each yield plateau resists a different performance level, namely design-based and maximum credible earthquakes. Seven single-yield level and two multi-yield level TLYDs were manufactured and tested in a quasi-static manner to investigate the hysteresis behavior of such devices. The tests indicated that these devices are rate independent, can tolerate large displacements, and are low-cycle, large-displacement fatigue resistant. In addition, a finite element (FE) model was developed to determine the accuracy of the experimental results. Since the finite element and experimental results were in good agreement, the FE analysis can be used for further studies. Furthermore, to analyze the structures equipped with TLYD devices, a telescopic model was developed in the OpenSees software. Afterwards, the cumulative dissipated energies of the specimens were calculated. The results showed that in loops where the telescopic mechanism activates, the dissipated energy grows faster. Finally, the effective damping and stiffness of TLYD specimens were calculated, and it was concluded that the damping capacity of TLYD devices was high.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • A modified DEB procedure for estimating seismic demands of
           multi-mode-sensitive damage-control HSSF-EDBs
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Ke Ke, Michael C.H. Yam, Lu Deng, Qingyang Zhao The core objective of this research is to develop a modified dual-energy-demand-index-based (DEB) procedure for estimating the seismic demand of multi-mode-sensitive high-strength steel moment-resisting frames with energy dissipation bays (HSSF-EDBs) in the damage-control stage. To rationally quantify both the peak response demand and the cumulative response demand which are essential to characterise the damage-control behaviour of the system subjected to ground motions, the energy factor and cumulative ductility of modal single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems are used as core demand indices, and the contributions of multi-modes are included in the proposed method. A stepwise procedure based on multi-mode nonlinear pushover analysis and inelastic spectral analysis of SDOF systems is developed. Based on the numerical models validated by test results, the proposed procedure is applied to prototype structures with a ground motion ensemble. The satisfactory agreement between the estimates by the proposed procedure and the results determined by nonlinear response history analysis (NL-RHA) under the ground motions indicates that the modified DEB procedure is a promising alternative for quantifying the seismic demands of tall HSSF-EDBs considering both peak response and cumulative effect, and the contribution of multi-modes can be reasonably estimated.
       
  • Discussion on “Patch loading resistance of slenderplate girders with
           longitudinal stiffeners” by B. Kövesdi[J Constr Steel Res 2018; 140:
           237–246]
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): B. Kövesdi
       
  • Seismic performance evaluation of the ceiling-bracket-type modular joint
           with various bracket parameters
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Seungjae Lee, Jaeseong Park, Sudeok Shon, Changhoon Kang In this study, the seismic performance and inelastic behavior of joints were investigated using the bracket thickness, depth, and stiffener of the ceiling-bracket-type modular system as parameters. The performances of the joints were evaluated through a cyclic loading test and the nonlinear FEA. The initial stiffness, maximum flexural strength, failure mode at the ultimate stage, energy dissipation capacity, and inelastic behavior were analyzed, and it was determined whether the strong-column/weak-beam-type mechanism occurs at the joint. The results of the analysis were compared with those of the theoretical and FE models, respectively. For the comparison of the seismic performances, the flexural strength of the joint at the 0.04 and 0.05 rad inter-story drift ratios, which exceed the plastic moment, was investigated. From the comparison results, the standard specimen had a sufficient structural performance compared to the reference model, which was a welded joint. The joint was shown to be capable of maintaining a seismic performance higher than 80% of the plastic moment, and showed strain curves pointing to a strong column-weak beam behavior. In the joints, the initial stiffness was increased with a higher bracket thickness. In addition, the maximum flexural strength showed a large change in the loading direction due to the ceiling bracket. If the number of stiffeners is reduced, the joint will have both reduced initial stiffness and reduced maximum flexural strength. The bracket-type modular building was shown to be an effective and dependable modular system for resisting seismic loads, and the energy dissipation capacity of the standard specimen was shown to be higher than those of the other modular joints
       
  • Mechanical properties of zinc-aluminum film on steel cable substrate in
           corrosion environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Hua Zhang, Qiliang Li, Yue Wang, Jian Yang This paper presents an experimental program aimed at finding out the effect of salt spray corrosion on the mechanical properties of the film in the zinc-aluminum film/304 stainless steel substrate system. At first, the salt spray tests were carried out on the film/substrate specimens to observe the corrosion phenomenon and obtain the porosity of the zinc-aluminum film. Then, the three-point bending tests were carried out on the specimens with different film thicknesses and different corrosion time by a universal testing device equipped with an acoustic emission system (AE) to obtain the effective elastic modulus of the corroded film. After that, the crack-initiation threshold of the film was accurately detected to further obtain the fracture toughness of the corroded film by AE system. Also, tensile tests were used to obtain the critical film thicknesses and the relationship between crack spacing and the film thickness of the corroded film under different strains. The test results illustrated that the effective elastic modulus and fracture toughness of zinc-aluminum film decrease with the increase of corrosion time; the porosity of the film decreases with the increase of the film thickness; the decline rate of the effective elastic modulus and fracture toughness of the corroded film can be decreased by slightly increasing the film thickness; the critical thickness of the film decreases with the increase of tensile strain and the corroded film is easier to crack than the non-corroded film due to the decrease of critical cracking strain.
       
  • Quantitative evaluation of progressive collapse process of steel portal
           frames in fire
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Jian Jiang, Chenghao Wang, Guobiao Lou, Guo-Qiang Li This paper presents quantitative investigations on the collapse behavior of steel portal frames exposed to standard fires. The complete collapse process is divided into safe, alert, dangerous and collapse stages. These four stages are to warn firefighters to make timely reactions to stay, ready to evacuate, and must evacuate, respectively. Numerical models are established and validated against fire tests on a full-scale steel portal frame. Based on the key displacements of the heated columns and rafters, the four stages are quantitatively determined in terms of visible phenomena and warning times. It is found that one should be ready to evacuate when the heated rafter shows large deflections, and must evacuate when the heated column moves back to its initial position. The 1 h, 2 h, 3 h fire rating of protected steel portal frames can be used to estimate the ready-evacuate, must-evacuate and collapse warning time, respectively. The findings from this preliminary study aim to provide references for firefighters to make wise decisions to evacuate timely and safety from the fire scene.
       
  • Energy-based low cycle fatigue analysis of low yield point steels
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Gang Shi, Yang Gao, Xun Wang, Yao Cui As examples of the new advanced high-performance structural steels, low yield point steels have attracted increasing interest owing to their excellent properties in the technology of energy dissipation and seismic design. Because dynamic cyclic loading is inevitable during service life in engineering applications, it is critical to develop in-depth understanding of the fatigue behavior of this material. Here, the low cycle fatigue behavior of low yield point steels produced in China, namely LY100, LY160, and LY225, is investigated using an energy-based approach. Axial steel coupons are tested by fully reversed and push-pull cyclic loading with a nominal strain ratio R = −1 at a constant strain rate of 0.1% S−1. The strain amplitudes range from 0.5% to 6.0% in 0.5% increments. First, experimental details and results of fatigue life are introduced. Subsequently, using an energy-based approach, the cyclic plastic strain energy, cyclic hysteresis loop properties, and fatigue life prediction are thoroughly analyzed. Finally, a simplified method for fatigue life prediction is proposed. The results show that plastic strain energy density is an important parameter for predicting the low cycle fatigue life of low yield point steels with an acceptable degree of accuracy. The proposed simplified method can provide an effective and reliable alternative for low cycle fatigue life prediction of low yield point steels.
       
  • Compressive behavior of CFRP-steel composite tubed steel-reinforced
           columns with high-strength concrete
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Jizhong Wang, Lu Cheng, Junlong Yang This paper presents a combined experimental and analytical study on the compressive behavior of FRP-steel composite tubed steel-reinforced columns (FSCSCs) through a total of 14 specimens. The key parameters examined included the cross-sectional shape, the width of grooves on the steel tube, and the number of CFRP sheet layers. The ultimate load-carrying capacity and axial deformation capacity of all circular specimens were strengthened by CFRP layers substantially, whereas the improvement was not observable for square hybrid columns. Meanwhile, the experimental results indicate that the confinement provided by CFRP-steel composite tube is more efficient when no direct axial load was applied on the steel tube, especially in circular specimens. ABAQUS was adopted for establishing an accurate FE model and the excellent agreement had been achieved between the numerical results and experimental results. Parametric studies were performed to investigate the influence of several important parameters using the validated FE model. Based on the results of the parametric analyses and previous studies, a proposed equation shows a great performance in predicting the load carrying capacity of experimental ones with high strength concrete in this study and other literature.
       
  • Strength of duplex stainless steel fillet welded connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Lu Yang, Yao Cui, Xuan Wei, Mengyue Li, Youzhen Zhang Standard uniaxial tests were conducted on round bar specimens made of stainless steel and the corresponding weld metal. The stress-strain curves of both base metal and the corresponding weld metal were obtained. The constitutive relationship for base metal and the corresponding weld metal were calibrated against the test results and were taken into consideration for further finite element analysis on stainless steel fillet welded connections. Six transverse fillet welded connections and five longitudinal fillet welded connections were tested to investigate the strength, deformation, and fracture angle of stainless steel fillet weld connections. According to the test results, the average angle of stainless steel transverse fillet weld was 29°; the average angle of stainless steel longitudinal fillet weld connection was 46°. The ultimate strength for a transverse fillet weld connection was 1.5 times than that of a longitudinal fillet weld. Relevant numerical models using ANSYS were calibrated against experimental results. Further parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effect of weld length and weld size on the strength of stainless steel fillet welded connections. Finally, both the experimental and numerical results were compared with the current design provisions. The conservatism of the European, American, and Chinese design codes was discussed. A revised prediction of fillet weld strength was proposed based on the strength of the longitudinal fillet weld strength.
       
  • Saw type seismic energy dissipaters: development and cyclic loading test
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Serhat Demir, Metin Husem This study presents the experimental, numerical and theoretical studies of a high ductility and energy dissipation capacity passive energy dissipation device called the Saw Type Seismic Energy Dissipaters (STSED), which is expressly developed for building protection during earthquakes. STSED has a series of specially shaped metallic yielding elements capable of dissipating energy by flexural yielding. STSED's key feature is its design that allows for the use of more metallic yielding elements than the existing systems in the literature while simultaneously allowing for a pinned connection with a framing system. The device is presented in detail along with the accompanying equations used to design the prototype. The shape of metallic yielding elements were designed and experimentally optimized in order to reduce stress concentration when subjected to cyclic loadings. Thus, damage was effectively distributed throughout the entire height of the metallic yielding elements. The performance of the prototype was also experimentally tested under cyclic loading. Test results showed that the STSED has both stable and symmetric hysteretic behavior under cyclic loads with high-energy dissipation and no sudden strength degradation. Furthermore, experiments verified that cyclic performance can be accurately estimated using the design equations and nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis as presented in the paper.
       
  • Seismic evaluation and upgrading details of plate-reinforced
           moment-resisting connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Roohollah Ahmady Jazany, Mohammad Soheil Ghobadi The seismic performance of cover-plate and flange-plate moment connections was evaluated experimentally and analytically in the first phase of the project. Welded flange-plate (WFP) connections met AISC requirements for special moment frames (SMFs); however new constructional detailing was proposed for failed welded cover-plate (WCP) connections and examined experimentally and analytically in the second phase of the project. Eight full-scale tests and 218 numerical finite element (FE) models including joints with unequal beam depth on both sides of the column were studied in this paper. Experimental evidences revealed that relative displacement between cover-plate and beam flange resulted from simultaneous buckling of the bottom beam flange and web, which led to an unfavorable failure mode of bottom flange fracture of the deep beam. The effects of reinforcing plate geometry on the behavior of connections were evaluated in an analytical study and acceptable geometrical limits of reinforcing plate were suggested. Based on crack potential assessment of analytical researches, WCP connections had, on average, up to 63% greater fracture potential at the intersection of the plate end and bottom flange of the beam than WFP connections. In addition, the results confirmed the design suggestions of FEMA-355D and FEMA-350 reports for plate-reinforced connections and made it possible to make some recommendations for new welding detailing and limits for reinforcing plate geometry as well as some suggestions for the case of unequal beam depth to remove the observed unfavorable failure mode and modify WCP connections. Finally, the design procedure for the modified WCP connections was presented.
       
  • Experimental behavior of double-row Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Sang-Hyo Kim, Oneil Han, Kun-Soo Kim, Jun-Seung Park Although existing studies have only analyzed Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors arranged in a single row, practical applications can apply numerous such connectors to beams with narrow spaces between them. The present study aimed to evaluate the structural behavior of double-row Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors, and thus describe grouped Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors. Push-out tests were conducted in accordance with Eurocode-4, and the relative slip, shear resistance, and ductility were measured. There were two primary variables (spacing and number of Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors) and three types of test specimens: single row, double rows (120 mm spacing), and double rows (300 mm spacing). The representative single-row specimen was used to validate the push-out test results by providing a comparison with previous tests, and provided a shear resistance reference value. The other two specimen types consisted of multiple Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors attached in parallel to an H-beam. Test results revealed that shear resistance increased as the number of shear connectors increased; however, the structural behavior depended on the shear connector spacing. The specimen with wider spacing demonstrated a better ultimate load and ductility relative to the specimen with narrower spacing. Wider shear connector spacing thus leads to better structural behavior retention.
       
  • Experimental seismic behaviour of bottom-through-diaphragm and top-ring
           connection to SST columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Shi Cao, Ganping Shu, Kunhong Lin, Ying Qin A new type of connection called bottom-through-diaphragm and top-ring connection to square steel tubular (SST) columns is presented in this paper. Five specimens were designed to investigate the seismic behaviour of this new type connection under cyclic test. Three different configurations were considered in this test, the panel zone enhanced with T-stub, different thicknesses of square steel tubular columns and top-ring plate modified with vertical plate. The failure modes, hysteretic curves, rotation capacity, stiffness degradation, skeleton curves, ductility, and energy dissipation of these connections were analyzed. The effects of these configurations on the connection seismic performance were evaluated. The experimental results indicated that the new bottom-through-diaphragm and top-ring connection to square steel tubular columns exhibited stable and plump hysteretic curves, favourable ductility, and excellent energy dissipation. This proposed connection satisfies the seismic provisions to be utilized in moment-resisting frames.
       
  • Discussion on “Patch loading resistance of slender plate girders with
           longitudinal stiffeners” by B. Kövesdi [J Constr Steel Res 2018; 140:
           237–246]
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): C. Graciano
       
  • Design of concrete-filled high strength steel tubular joints subjected to
           compression
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Hai-Ting Li, Ben Young Design of concrete-filled high strength steel tubular joints subjected to compression is examined. A numerical investigation on concrete-filled high strength steel rectangular hollow section (RHS) joints is presented in this paper. The high strength steel RHS tubes had nominal yield stresses of 700 and 900 MPa. The concrete infills had nominal concrete cylinder strengths of 35 and 100 MPa. Finite element (FE) models were developed and verified against test results, showing the capability of replicating the experimental ultimate strengths, failure modes and load-deformation histories. Upon verification, a parametric study comprised 312 FE analyses was carried out. The ultimate strengths of the concrete-filled high strength steel RHS joints obtained from the parametric study together with available test results in the literature were compared with the nominal strengths calculated from existing design provisions. It is shown that the CIDECT predictions exhibited significant scatter and generally conservative for the concrete-filled high strength steel RHS joints. However, the CIDECT predictions overestimated the strengths of concrete-filled high strength steel RHS joints with chord sidewall slenderness ratio exceeded 50. Therefore, new design rules are proposed in this study for concrete-filled high strength steel RHS joints subjected to compression. Furthermore, reliability analysis was performed to assess the design rules.
       
  • Flexural behavior of rebar truss stiffened cold-formed U-shaped
           steel-concrete composite beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Jiepeng Liu, Yi Zhao, Yohchia Frank Chen, Shaoqian Xu, Yuanlong Yang This paper presents a new configuration of rebar truss stiffened cold-formed U-shaped steel-concrete composite beams (RCUCB), of which the upper opening part of the steel U-section is connected by a rebar truss so that the torsional stability can be enhanced. A bending test was carried out on ten specimens considering the following three parameters: shear connection degree, tensile reinforcement ratio, and beam depth. The specimens exhibit three failure modes under certain conditions: longitudinal slip when tensile reinforcement is absent and the full shear connection cannot be attained; vertical uplift when the beam is furnished with detailed longitudinal tensile reinforcement or a full shear connection; both splitting and uplift when the beam is provided with a full shear connection. It is found that RCUCB possesses both high bending capacity and good ductility. Cracks and deformations are mainly controlled by the longitudinal reinforcement, while the ductility is improved by shear studs. The ductility factor can reach 17.6 by optimizing the configuration of longitudinal reinforcement and shear studs and the slip between the steel and the concrete can be reduced by 91% when the beam is installed with detailed longitudinal tensile reinforcement. Moreover, the ultimate bending capacity was calculated according to the EC4 and JGJ 138 codes with the consideration of the following three modification factors: λb,λh, and λc to account for the effective width of the slab, the effective depth of steel web, and the actual concrete compressive strength, respectively. The calculated values agree well with the test results.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • V-shaped shear connector for composite steel-concrete beam
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Luciano M. Bezerra, Otávio O. Cavalcante, Latif Chater, Jorge Bonilla Shear connectors are fundamental components for composite steel-concrete beams. Their function is to bring about a good degree of interaction between the concrete slab and the steel profile. The stud bolt connector is currently the most adopted solution, mainly because of its high productivity and practicability on construction sites. However, there are situations where stud bolts or the appropriate equipment for their application may not be available. Alternative shear connectors can substitute stud bolts. In this article, a new V-shaped shear connector is proposed. It was conceived to confine concrete in a larger frontal contact area and be easy to install and construct. With more contact area, the proposed connector distributes the shear force more uniformly, avoiding high stress concentration compared to the stud bolt option. The V-shaped connector has a higher moment of inertia. It is less flexible than stud bolts and U-connectors under bending. In this research, different V-shaped connectors, with varying thicknesses, are studied experimentally and numerically with push-out tests and FE modeling. The results are compared to standard stud bolts and show that the proposed V-shaped connector may be utilized as an alternative shear connector in composite steel-concrete beams. An equation for the shear resistance prediction of V-connectors is also developed.
       
  • Validation of a general design procedure for the transverse impact
           capacity of steel columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): M.R. Bambach There has been considerable interest over the past decade in the transverse impact response of steel columns and composite steel-concrete columns. While several researchers have developed analytical procedures for specific types of steel sections, a unified design approach has yet to be established. The present paper develops a generalised rigid-plastic procedure to calculate the design transverse impact capacity for a wide range of steel and composite column sections. The design procedure is specifically developed to align with current international hot-rolled steel design specifications, including those in Australia, North America, the European Union and China. A database of 320 impact experiments is collated from the literature, and used to validate the general design procedure. It is demonstrated that the procedure provides robust transverse impact capacity predictions for solid rectangular steel sections, steel I-sections, circular and rectangular steel hollow sections, concrete filled circular and rectangular steel hollow sections and concrete filled double skin steel hollow sections. In some cases stainless steel members were additionally included.
       
  • Experimental investigation of pod on the behavior of all-steel buckling
           restrained braces
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Seayf Allah Hemati, Mohammad Ali Barkhordare Bafghi, Ali Kheyroddin
       
  • Ultimate tensile and compressive performances of welded hollow spherical
           joints with H-beam
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Hongbo Liu, Jiaojie Ying, Zhihua Chen, Yuan Zhou, Xiangyu Yan Welded hollow spherical joints with H-beam are a new type of spatial grid structural joints. Experiments and numerical simulation were conducted to investigate the axial tensile and axial compressive performances of the welded hollow spherical joints with H-beam. The influences of material strength, size of joint, and stiffening rib on the mechanical properties, were analyzed. The formulas were proposed to calculate the bearing capacity under axial tension and compression. The major conclusions are as follows: (1) Welded hollow spherical joints with H-beam developed strength fracture under axial tensile load, and hollow spheres developed buckling failure under axial compressive load. The failure mode was related to the strength of the material. (2) Proper arrangement of stiffening ribs can increase bearing capacity of welded hollow spherical joints with H-beam. The improvement coefficients were 1.1 under axial tension and 1.4 under axial compression. (3) The compression bearing capacity of welded hollow spherical joints with H-beam increased with the increase in height and flange width of H-beam, as well as wall thickness of the hollow spheres, but it decreased with the increase in diameter of hollow spheres. (4) The formula used to calculate tensile bearing capacity of welded hollow spherical joints with H-beam was proposed according to the punching shear model. (5) The design formula of compressive bearing capacity of welded hollow spherical joint with H-beam was obtained through the linear regression of abundant numerical simulation data.
       
  • Numerical study on cable-saddle frictional resistance of multispan
           suspension bridges
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Qinghua Zhang, Jiping Kang, Yi Bao, Zhenyu Cheng, Donglin Jia, Yizhi Bu For multispan suspension bridges, the frictional resistance between main cable and saddle is vital to counterpoise unbalanced cable tension between adjacent main spans. The calculation for frictional resistance is essential for the bridge design. In this study, a numerical method for frictional resistance between main cable and saddle is developed. The proposed method is validated against large-scale saddle model tests, and then used to analyze the frictional resistance in a multispan suspension bridge. The method is used to investigate the main components of total frictional resistance, the effects of vertical friction plates, and the frictional resistance distribution along the longitudinal direction of saddle. The results indicate that the frictional resistance at the bottom and side surfaces between main cable and saddle are the main components of total frictional resistance. The distribution of frictional resistance along the longitudinal direction of saddle increases from one end to the other end of saddle. To add vertical friction plates is an effective way to increase the frictional resistance. The proposed numerical method provides an effective and feasible tool for evaluating the frictional resistance.
       
  • The continuous strength method for the design of mono-symmetric and
           asymmetric stainless steel cross-sections in bending
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Ou Zhao, Leroy Gardner The current codified treatment of local buckling in stainless steel cross-sections is based on the traditional cross-section classification framework and a simplified elastic, perfectly-plastic material model, providing consistency with the corresponding carbon steel design rules. However, the cross-section classification framework treats the cross-section as an assemblage of isolated plate elements without considering the beneficial element interaction effect, and the elastic, perfect-plastic material model neglects the pronounced strain hardening exhibited by stainless steels. These limitations have been generally found to result in unduly conservative and scattered resistance predictions through comparisons against previous test data. To address these shortcomings, a deformation-based continuous strength method (CSM) has been developed, which relates the strength of a cross-section to its deformation capacity and employs a bi-linear (elastic, linear hardening) material model to account for strain hardening. The CSM has been established for the design of doubly symmetric plated sections and circular hollow sections, and shown to yield a high level of design accuracy and consistency. In this paper, the scope of application of the CSM is extended to cover the design of non-doubly symmetric cross-sections in bending. Global member buckling is not investigated. The developed design methodology and comparisons with existing test data and numerical results generated herein are described. Finally, reliability analysis is performed, which demonstrates the suitability of the proposals for inclusion in structural design codes.
       
  • Performance and design of eccentrically-loaded concrete-filled round-ended
           elliptical hollow section stub columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Qihan Shen, Jingfeng Wang, Wanqian Wang, Zhibin Wang Concrete-filled round-ended elliptical hollow section (CFREHS) columns are gradually coming into use as piers and arches in engineering practice, owing to their unique properties concerning aesthetic perception and low flow resistance coefficients. However, there has been a paucity of studies focusing on the structural behaviour and design methods for CFREHS columns. The present study has involved investigating the behaviour of eccentrically-loaded CFREHS stub columns. A nonlinear numerical model that adopts an equivalent stress-strain model for the novel type of confined core concrete was established, and verified via experimental data. Subsequently, the effects of various parameters on the eccentric compressive response of CFREHS stub columns were analysed, including the diameter-to-thickness ratio, load eccentricity ratio, and the cross-section slenderness. Eccentric compressive capacities, failure patterns, strength indexes, stress–strain responses, contact stress, typical force-displacement curves, and M–N curves of eccentrically pressured CFREHS stub columns were also evaluated. The findings of the numerical analysis indicated that the eccentric load bearing capacity of CFREHS stub columns evidently increased for increases in the cross-section area, steel strength, and concrete strength, while the opposite was observed for increases in the load eccentricity ratio and diameter-to-thickness ratio. Finally, simplified empirical formulae were presented to predict the eccentric load bearing capacities of CFREHS stub columns. The results of the study are expected to provide a reliable reference for application to the proposed CFREHS columns in concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) structures.
       
  • Stress concentration factors of bird-beak SHS X-joints under brace axial
           forces
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Chen Li, Fenghua Huang, Yu Lou, Bin ChengABSTRACTBird-beak joints are a new type of welded square hollow section (SHS) joints and their fatigue behaviors are of the most attentions recently. The stress concentration factors (SCFs) of both square and diamond bird-beak X-joints under brace axial forces were systematically investigated in this research by using experimental and numerical methods. Four specimens including two square bird-beak X-joints and two diamond bird-beak X-joints were tested. Elastic strain distributions within crown and saddle areas were measured, and the strain concentration factors (SNCFs) at specified hot spots were obtained by using the quadratic extrapolation approach. Refined finite element models, whose accuracies have been validated by experimental data, were developed to parametrically simulate the stress concentrations at weld toes of such innovative joints. The influences of three non-dimension parameters (i.e., brace/chord width ratio β, chord wall slenderness ratio 2γ, and brace/chord wall thickness ratio τ) on SCFs of bird-beak X-joints were revealed. Comparison also shows that the saddle areas commonly contain the highest SCFs within whole joint, and that square bird-beak X-joints provide lower stress concentrations than diamond ones in case of identical non-dimensional parameters. Based on numerous results from parametric analysis, design formulas were finally proposed to calculate the SCFs at typical hot spots of both square and diamond bird-beak X-joints subjected brace axial forces.
       
  • Effect of welding and complex loads on the high-strength steel T-stub
           connection
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Fei Fei Sun, Xuan Yi Xue, Yong Xiao, Yü Min Le, Guo Qiang Li After welding, a heat affected zone (HAZ) is formed in the area near a weld toe. The main microstructure is composed of high-strength steel (HSS) that is not stable at high temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate whether EC3 formulae based on examining a mild steel T-stub can be used to design an HSS T-stub. In the study, an experiment with two groups of Q690 T-stubs was performed. The results indicate that the EC3 formulae cannot be directly used to design the HSS T-stub. The effect of HAZ was further investigated by performing a finite element analysis (FEA). With respect to the specimens in the study, the factor χHAZ that represents the effect of HAZ is quantified by using the results of the experiment and FEA. The modified EC3 method2 was validated to accurately predict the first yield resistance of HSS T-stub. The T-stub is subjected to combined axial and shear loads. The relation between transversal and axial displacements of the T-stub under combined axial and shear loads was established. The effect of combined axial and shear loads on the connection behavior of the HSS T-stub was examined through the FEA. The result shows that the ductility of the T-stub under combined axial and shear loads is lower than that of the T-stub under axial load. We introduce a factor χCL to propose a formula to predict the first yield resistance of HSS T-stub by considering the effect of combined axial and shear loads.
       
  • Progressive collapse of 3D steel composite buildings under interior
           gravity column loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Panos Pantidis, Simos Gerasimidis This paper presents a novel analytical framework on the quasi-static robustness assessment of 3D steel and concrete composite gravity framed buildings subjected to an interior gravity column loss scenario. The analytical method takes into consideration the two most presumable collapse mechanisms which can be activated in such a case, denoted as the yielding-type and the stability collapse mode. The proposed framework is formulated upon a series of elastic analyses on appropriately selected and accordingly modified structural idealizations of the building, allowing the method implementation by any structural engineering software regardless of the user experience. The method is capable of estimating the damage propagation path within the structural system, assess the gravity connections failure load including the influence of a failed connection to the system response, account for the transition from the composite to the membrane action, assess the potential for column instabilities, determine the gradual system stiffness degradation as the gravity load increases and finally calculate the ultimate collapse load and the corresponding characteristic vertical displacement on the onset of collapse. The analytical method is applied on a 9-story prototype structure performing 9 interior gravity column removal scenarios along the same column row, and the numerical validation of the method demonstrates the excellent agreement among the analytical and numerical results.
       
  • The performance of concrete filled steel tube columns under
           post-earthquake fires
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Elnaz Talebi, Manfred Korzen, Sascha Hothan In this study, a nonlinear three-dimensional finite element (FE) model was developed and validated to investigate the response of concrete filled tube (CFT) columns subjected to post-earthquake fires. Three steps were considered successively in the modelling, namely, cyclic, thermal and structural analyses. Outputs from the cyclic loading including residual deformations were imposed as an initial condition to the thermal-stress model, imitating the seismic response of the column. Subsequently, a nonlinear sequentially thermal-stress analysis was conducted to simulate the fire response of column after the earthquake. The proposed FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with the observations of full-scale fire and cyclic tests available in the literature. The validated numerical model was then used to study the behavior of CFT columns under the combined action of earthquake and fire as a multi-hazard event. Three probable seismic damage scenarios were considered in the column, namely, middle length, bottom and top end region damages. The level of damage was assumed as a high damage level, presuming that the column reached 50% of its lateral resistance while still maintaining its overall stability after the earthquake. The results showed that the top and bottom end region damages have not significantly influence the fire response of the damaged column. Besides, the column with the middle span damage performed a lesser fire resistance time owing to the coincidence of damage location to that of onset of global buckling.
       
  • Experimental characterization and component-based modeling of deck-to-pier
           connections for composite bridges
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Giuseppe Abbiati, Enrico Cazzador, Silvia Alessandri, Oreste S. Bursi, Fabrizio Paolacci, Stefano De Santis Higher stiffness and strength achieved with a reduced overall weight together with an extensive use of prefabrication justify the growing diffusion of Steel-Concrete Composite (SCC) bridges since the early 2000s, especially for the 20 ÷ 80 m span range. Former experimental campaigns aimed at investigating the static response of simply supported continuous composite decks subjected to gravity loads, highlighted deck-to-pier connections, which typically experience negative moments, as critical elements. More precisely, tensile stresses occurring in the concrete slab and compression of bottom flanges of steel girders may cause concrete cracking and steel buckling, respectively. The adoption of Concrete Cross Beams (CCBs) allows for circumventing such issues and represents an enhanced solution for deck-to-pier connections in SCC bridges with continuous deck. In detail, steel girder head plates provided with shear studs transfer compression and shear loads to the CCB whilst additional steel rebars bring tension forces coming from adjacent concrete slabs. Although deck-to-pier connection based on CCBs can be designed with the support of Eurocodes, guidelines are limited to vertical loads and no standard exist for design against earthquakes. In order to investigate the seismic response of deck-to-pier connections based on CCBs and provide relevant design guidelines, an extensive research program was developed within the European Project SEQBRI, which is summarized in this paper.
       
  • Numerical analysis of optimum treatment parameters by high frequency
           mechanical impact
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Yong Liu, Baoming Gong, Caiyan Deng, Chen Zhao, Xiuguo Liu, Dongpo Wang In the study, finite element analyses were carried out systematically to investigate the optimum treatment parameters of high frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) on the basis of notch effect reduction and residual stress, which are generally considered to be the dominating factors of fatigue strength improvement of welded joints by HFMI treatment. Taking strain rate into account, the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening model was used to describe the elastic-plastic behavior of the HFMI-treated welded joint of S355 steel. The notch stress concentration factors (SCFs) and residual stresses under different impact depths and diameters of indenter were determined, respectively. Moreover, their synthetic effects on stress distributions of HFMI-treated joints under static load were investigated. It is found that the stress distributions of HFMI-treated joints under static load are affected significantly by impacted groove depth, independent of indenter diameter. The HFMI treatment can achieve the optimal status when the original weld toe is just removed with a groove depth ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 mm. At final, the optimized diameters of 3 to 4 mm are recommended for the indenter in terms of stress concentration and avoidance of crack.
       
  • Experimental and numerical analysis of small-scale panels with indented
           stiffeners
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): John H. Chujutalli, Segen F. Estefen, C. Guedes Soares During the construction process of the ship's hull, the ultimate strength of the stiffened panels is reduced due to both initial imperfections and residual stresses. In service, these stiffened panels are exposed to damage that causes permanent deformations and localized residual strength, reducing additionally the ultimate strength of damaged panels, which must be considered in the design process to preserve the structural integrity. The paper provides analyses of the effect of damaged stiffened panels on the ultimate strength considering the residual stresses caused by indenting depth and different locations. Experiments were performed using small-scale models representative of a full-scale bottom panels from a cargo compartment at the midship of a typical Suezmax tanker. Experimental tests of the indentation were conducted on the intersection plate-stiffeners, where the force-displacement responses were analyzed. After the indentations, the panels were submitted to uniaxial compression experimental tests, in order to evaluate the loss of ultimate strength compared with the equivalent intact panel. Finite element models were developed by ABAQUS software in three steps sequentially: panel indentation, indenter taking off, and uniaxial compressive loading. Plastic strains and residual stresses caused by the indentation are incorporated in the ultimate strength analysis of the panels. Initial imperfections and maximum denting depth of the panels were measured in the small-scale models for the numerical-experimental correlation. Both indentations and ultimate strength presented a good agreement. A parametric study was performed using the numerical model to determine the residual strength due to the damage and its relationship with both dent depth and location.
       
  • Effects of different support conditions on experimental bending strength
           of thin walled cold formed steel storage upright frames
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Ali Saleh, Harry Far, Lawrence Mok Design computations of industrial storage racks in accordance with current industry standards rely in part on laboratory testing. One of these tests is for determining the bending strength of upright sections. When testing the bending strength about the axis of symmetry of the upright, a four-point bending test of the assembled upright frame is mandated. The test arrangement prescribed by the standard must permit free twisting of the section at the supports, while the applied loads and their reactions for each upright may be applied in the plane of the section's shear centre. A test arrangement that provides free twisting of the upright section at the supports is more complex and difficult to set up compared with a simple support. This paper examines if the condition of free twisting at supports is necessary in the case of shear centre loading, especially that relaxing this particular code requirement would lead to a simpler test arrangement. Laboratory testing of two sets of upright frames, loaded through the upright's shear centre but with each set having a different support condition indicated that free twisting at the supports had no effect on the bending capacity of the upright members tested. The paper outlines the test setup and reports the results in form of characteristic load deformation curves of the tested specimen.
       
  • Seismic performance of a self-centering steel moment frame building: From
           component-level modeling to economic loss assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 150Author(s): Xingquan Guan, Henry Burton, Saber Moradi The seismic performance and economic seismic losses of a 6-story self-centering moment resisting frame (SC-MRF) building using post-tensioned (PT) connections with top-and-seat angles is evaluated. A phenomenological model that captures the lateral load response of PT connections is developed and verified using previous experiments. A 2D model of the 6-story SC-MRF is constructed in OpenSees using the newly developed phenomenological model. Using the same member sizes as the SC-MRF, a model is also created for a welded moment resisting frame (WMRF) with reduced beam section (RBS) connections. Nonlinear static and incremental dynamic analyses are performed on the SC-MRF and WMRF models. The lateral load carrying capacity of the SC-MRF is found to be 40% lower than that of the WMRF. The dynamic analysis results show that the WMRF has higher collapse resistance, whereas the SC-MRF undergoes smaller residual drifts. Finally, the earthquake-induced economic impact to the two buildings is assessed using the FEMA P58 methodology, where the expected annual loss for the SC-MRF is computed to be 21% higher than that for the WMRF building. More specifically, the SC-MRF building (with PT connections and top-and-seat angles) has a lower expected loss associated with excessive residual drifts but higher collapse losses.
       
  • Performance of concrete filled stainless steel tubular (CFSST) columns and
           joints: Summary of recent research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Lin-Hai Han, Chuan-Yang Xu, Zhong Tao Concrete filled stainless steel tubular (CFSST) columns have attracted increasing research interests in the last decade. This paper briefly introduces the material properties of stainless steel and reviews recent research on behaviour of CFSST columns and joints at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The reviewed studies include tests of bond behaviour between the stainless steel tube and core concrete, and the static behaviour of CFSST stub columns, slender columns, beams, stainless steel-concrete-carbon steel double-skin tubular columns, and concrete filled bimetallic tubular columns. The cyclic behaviour of CFSST beam-columns under combined axial and lateral cyclic loading as well as the impact behaviour of CFSST columns is also introduced. Fire test results of full-scale CFSST columns are presented along with finite element analysis results. The behaviour of composite joints with CFSST columns is also briefly reviewed in this paper. Based on the previous research, future research directions on CFSST are summarised and discussed.
       
  • Stainless steel channel sections under combined compression and minor axis
           bending – Part 1: Experimental study and numerical modelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Yating Liang, Ou Zhao, Yue-ling Long, Leroy Gardner The local cross-section behaviour of stainless steel channel sections under the combined actions of axial compression and minor axis bending moment is investigated in the present paper and its companion paper, based on a comprehensive experimental and numerical study. Two channel section sizes were considered in the experimental programme, with the test specimens laser-welded at the two flange-to-web junctions from hot-rolled EN 1.4307 and EN 1.4404 austenitic stainless steel plates. The experiments involved initial local geometric imperfection measurements and 15 eccentrically loaded stub column (combined loading) tests. The loading eccentricity was varied to achieve a range of ratios of axial compression to minor axis bending moment; both orientations of bending (web in compression and web in tension) were considered. The test setup and procedures, together with the key experimental observations, including the load-carrying and deformation capacities, load-end rotation histories and failure modes, are fully reported. A finite element simulation study is then presented, in which the models were first validated against the obtained test results and then employed, in the companion paper, for parametric investigations and the assessment of design provisions.
       
  • Finite element modelling and design of welded stainless steel I-section
           columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Yidu Bu, Leroy Gardner Stainless steel is widely used in construction due to its combination of excellent mechanical properties, durability and aesthetics. Towards more sustainable infrastructure, stainless steel is expected be more commonly specified and to feature in more substantial structural applications in the future; this will require larger and typically welded cross-sections. While the structural response of cold-formed stainless steel sections has been extensively studied in the literature, welded sections have received less attention to date. The stability and design of conventionally welded and laser-welded austenitic stainless steel compression members are therefore the focus of the present research. Finite element (FE) models were developed and validated against a total of 59 experiments, covering both conventionally welded and laser-welded columns, for which different residual stress patterns were applied. A subsequent parametric study was carried out, considering a range of cross-section and member geometries. The existing experimental results, together with the numerical data generated herein, were then used to assess the buckling curves given in European, North American and Chinese design standards. Following examination of the data and reliability analysis, new buckling curves were proposed, providing, for the first time, design guidance for laser-welded stainless steel members.
       
  • Behaviour of stainless steel beam-to-column joints — Part 1:
           Experimental investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Mohamed Elflah, Marios Theofanous, Samir Dirar, Huanxin Yuan Research on stainless steel structures has primarily focused on the structural response of individual members, whilst the response of joints has received far less attention to date. This paper reports for the first time full-scale tests on stainless steel beam-to-column joints, subjected to static monotonic loads, whilst the companion paper reports numerical studies on similar connection typologies to the ones studied herein. The joint configurations tested include one flush and one extended end plate connection, two top and seated cleat connections, and two top, seated and web cleat connections of single-sided beam-to-column joints. All connected members and connecting parts including bolts, angle cleats and end plates are in Grade EN 1.4301 stainless steel. The full moment-rotation characteristics were recorded for each test and the experimentally derived stiffness and moment resistance for each joint was compared to the codified provisions of EN1993-1-8. It was verified that the connections displayed excellent ductility and attained loads much higher than the ones predicted by design standards for carbon steel joints.
       
  • Experimental behaviour of stainless steel bolted T-stub connections under
           monotonic loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): H.X. Yuan, S. Hu, X.X. Du, L. Yang, X.Y. Cheng, M. Theofanous A comprehensive experimental study on structural behaviour of stainless steel bolted T-stub connections is presented in this paper. A total of 27 stainless steel bolted T-stubs with various geometric configurations were fabricated from hot-rolled stainless steel plates and assembled with stainless steel bolts. Two stainless steel grades − austenitic EN 1.4301 and duplex EN 1.4462, and two other types of stainless steel bolts − A4-70 and A4-80, were introduced in the experimental programme. Tensile coupon tests were performed to determine the material properties of the stainless steel plates and bolts. The bolted T-stub specimens were tested under monotonic loading, and ultimate resistances, plastic deformation capacities and failure modes were obtained. Based on the experimental results, the existing design methods for predicting tension resistances of the bolted T-stub connections, including design provisions in EN 1993-1-8, the continuous strength method (CSM), AISC manual and JGJ 82 and other design formulae for T-stubs with four bolts per row, were all evaluated. It was indicated that all the existing design methods provided generally conservative predictions for stainless steel bolted T-stub connections.
       
  • Behaviour of three types of stainless steel after exposure to elevated
           temperatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Zhong Tao, Xing-Qiang Wang, Md Kamrul Hassan, Tian-Yi Song, Li-An Xie Extensive studies have been conducted in the past to investigate the behaviour of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures. In contrast, little information is available on its post-fire behaviour. In the present study, tensile tests were conducted on three types of stainless steel (i.e., austenitic, duplex and ferritic alloys) to determine their full-range stress–strain curves. Coupons extracted from the original sheet materials and the flat parts of square hollow sections were heated to various temperatures up to 1200 °C and then cooled down to room temperature. The effects of temperature on different mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength, ultimate strain and strain hardening exponent, are analysed. Based on regression analysis, suitable modifications are made to an existing stress–strain model proposed by the authors for austenitic stainless steel in an earlier paper. After the modifications, the revised model can be applied to evaluate the post-fire behaviour of all the three types of stainless steel.
       
  • Investigations on cold-forming effect of cold-drawn duplex stainless steel
           tubular sections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Jiachang Wang, Ganping Shu, Baofeng Zheng, Qinlin Jiang The cold-drawing process is currently a significant way of manufacturing cold-formed structural tubular sections at room temperature. Furthermore, cold-drawing is more suitable for forming thick-walled sections with large dimensions than cold-rolling. Plastic deformation experienced during section forming causes increases in the mechanical properties and it also induces residual stresses in the cold-formed cross sections. This paper experimentally examined residual and material stress distributions in two types of cold-drawn tubular sections - three Circular Hollow Sections (CHS) and three Square Hollow Sections (SHS), and material-duplex (S22053) stainless steel. Based on the experimental findings, strength enhancement in CHS was not obvious owing to annealing treatment, removing cold work and increasing ductility. In this case, transverse bending residual stresses in CHS were only considered due to cold-forming effect. The residual stress distribution patterns including longitudinal and transverse stresses and predictive models for enhanced strength of the flat face of cold-drawn duplex stainless steel square hollow sections were developed. Comparisons of the predictions and the test data show that the proposed models were in good accuracy.
       
  • Viscoplastic deformation behaviour of preloaded stainless steel
           connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Nariman Afzali, Natalie Stranghöner, Johan Pilhagen, Timo Manninen, Erik Schedin Preloaded bolted connections made of stainless steel are not commonly used in stainless steel structures as their application is not allowed by the execution standard EN 1090–2 and the design standard EN 1993-1-4 for stainless steel structures unless otherwise specified, respectively unless their acceptability for a particular application has been demonstrated from test results. This restriction is mainly caused by three facts: firstly, it is feared that due to the viscoplastic deformation behaviour of stainless steel, severe preload losses have to be expected, secondly, neither stainless steel bolting assemblies for preloading nor tightening procedures exist on which could have been relied and thirdly, galling and seizure of stainless steel bolting assemblies lead to problems on site. These three questions, beside others, were treated in the frame of the European RFCS-research project “Execution and reliability of slip resistant connections for steel structures using CS and SS” SIROCO. Some of the results are presented in this contribution with the main focus on the loss of preload of preloaded stainless steel bolted connections. The main conclusion is that preloaded stainless steel bolted connections can be treated similar to those made of carbon steel with regard to preload losses as they show comparable magnitudes of preload losses.
       
  • Slip factors for slip-resistant connections made of stainless steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Natalie Stranghöner, Nariman Afzali, Peter de Vries, Erik Schedin, Johan Pilhagen Stainless steels are becoming more and more popular as a construction material in both building and civil engineering structures, because of their high material strength, ductility and corrosion resistance. In this frame, the execution of slip-resistant connections made of stainless steel is necessary, e. g. in footbridges, facades etc. As no design regulations exist in any code, special experimental testing has to be performed in each case. Stainless steel alloys are thought to suffer more than carbon steels from time dependent viscoplastic deformation at room temperature. It could lead to higher preload losses and consequently to lower slip factors than achieved for carbon steels with comparable surface treatment. However, no evidence of this behaviour can be found in literature for preloaded bolted connections. For this reason, slip factors for the various stainless steel grades have to be determined experimentally if they want to be used in the steel structures. In the frame of the European RFCS-research project SIROCO, the preloading behaviour of stainless steel bolted connections as well as the slip-resistant behaviour of slip-resistant connections made of austenitic, various duplex and ferritic stainless steels have been investigated. In this paper, the results of slip factor tests on four stainless steel grades are presented and the influence of different surface treatments and the preload level on the slip factor of stainless steel slip-resistant connections is discussed. Finally, slip factors for various stainless steel grades with different surface treatments are proposed for a future implementation in the next revision of EN 1090-2.
       
  • Design of austenitic and duplex stainless steel SHS and RHS beam-columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Ju Chen, Yuner Huang, Ben Young A finite element analysis and design of austenitic and duplex stainless steel tubular section beam-columns is presented in this paper. The nonlinear finite element model was verified against experimental results of stainless steel tubular section beam-columns and beams. In this study, square and rectangular hollow sections were investigated. It was shown that the finite element model closely predicted the ultimate loads and failure modes of the tested beam-columns and beams. Hence, the finite element model was used for an extensive parametric study. The axial compressive strengths of the beam-column specimens predicted by the finite element analysis are compared with the design strengths calculated using the linear interaction equation and direct strength method. Reliability analysis was performed to assess the reliability of these design rules. It is shown that these design rules generally provide accurate and reliable predictions for stainless steel tubular section beam-columns. Design recommendations for linear interaction equation and the direct strength methods are proposed for stainless steel SHS and RHS beam-columns.
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigation of austenitic stainless steel
           hot-rolled angles under compression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Arthur A. de Menezes, Pedro C.G. da S. Vellasco, Luciano R.O. de Lima, André T. da Silva Flexural and flexural-torsional buckling are stability phenomena and the controlling limit state for carbon steel angle columns. When these columns are made of austenitic stainless steel, some structural response differences are expected and motivated the present investigation. In fact, the stainless steel grade has been investigated in last few years due to unique proprieties in comparison with the carbon steel grades. Therefore, this paper aimed to enlarge the available experimental data for austenitic angles under compression. To fulfil these objectives, thirteen specimens were tested on 64 × 64 × 6.4 hot rolled equal-legs angles with lengths varying from 250 mm to 1500 mm. A numerical study has been developed comparing the results with experimental tests. In addition, a parametric analysis was performed where the slenderness and cross sections ranges were expanded to investigate their influence on the structural behaviour. These results were compared to Eurocode 3 part 1–4 and enabled the suggestion of better-suited values for the adopted Eurocode column curve parameters λ0 and α, respectively.
       
  • Stainless steel lipped C-section beams: Numerical modelling and
           development of design rules
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Shenggang Fan, Meihe Chen, Shuai Li, Zhixia Ding, Ganping Shu, Baofeng ZhengABSTRACTExperimental results and finite element (FE) analysis results on stainless steel lipped C-section beams are scarce. Therefore, a series of tests were performed on S30408 stainless steel, including 6 major-axis bending and 6 weak-axis bending specimens. Two numerical modelling programmes, major-axis bending and weak-axis bending, have been carried out to investigate the behavior of stainless steel lipped C-section beams. The numerical models, which were developed using the FE package ABAQUS, were verified by experimental results. The models were used to conduct parametric studies of the impact of key parameters on the moment capacity of stainless steel lipped C-section beams subject to failure by local buckling. Finally, based on FE analysis of 238 specimens under major-axis bending and 229 members under weak-axis bending, direct strength equations for lipped C-section stainless steel beams under major-axis bending and weak-axis bending are proposed. A comparison of test results with equation predictions indicates that the formulas have high accuracy and reliability and can accurately calculate the moment capacity of stainless steel lipped C-section beams.
       
  • Analysis of stainless steel-concrete composite beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): R. Shamass, K.A. Cashell Stainless steel is increasingly popular in construction projects owing to its corrosion-resistance, excellent mechanical and physical properties and its aesthetic appearance. The current paper is concerned with the use of these materials in steel-concrete composite beams, which is an entirely new application. Current design codes for steel-concrete composite beams are based on elastic-perfectly plastic steel material behaviour neglecting strain hardening. Whilst this is a reasonable assumption for carbon steel, stainless steel is a very ductile material which offers significant levels of strain hardening prior to failure. Therefore, current design provisions typically result in inaccurate and overly-conservative strength predictions when applied to stainless steel composite beams. The current study presents for the first time, an analytical solution for predicting the plastic bending capacity of stainless steel–concrete composite beams with either full or partial shear connection. This method is a development of the continuous strength method (CSM). Since the analytical analysis requires complex mathematical solution, a simplified analytical solution is also proposed, utilising some of the assumptions in Eurocode 4. There are no tests currently available in the literature for stainless steel-concrete composite beams. Therefore, a finite-element model is developed and validated against a number of experimental results for composite beams made from normal or high strength carbon steel. The validated numerical model is then used to investigate the accuracy of the proposed analytical solution. It is concluded that both the full and simplified analytical solutions are reliable and the simplified analytical method provides a straight forward design tool for practical engineers.
       
  • Elevated temperature material properties of a new high-chromium austenitic
           stainless steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Yating Liang, Timo Manninen, Ou Zhao, Fiona Walport, Leroy Gardner A testing programme was conducted to investigate the material properties of a new high-chromium grade of austenitic stainless steel - EN 1.4420 at elevated temperatures. A total of 164 tensile coupons extracted from both cold-rolled and hot-rolled sheets were tested; 80 coupons were tested isothermally with temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 1100 °C, and 84 were tested anisothermally with stress levels ranging from 10% to 90% of the material 0.2% proof stress at room temperature. The experimentally derived reduction factors for the key material properties were compared with existing design values. Design recommendations for the elevated temperature reduction factors were then proposed for this new grade, and a two-stage Ramberg–Osgood model was shown to be able to accurately represent the material stress–strain response at elevated temperature.
       
  • Experimental study on residual stresses in cold rolled austenitic
           stainless steel hollow sections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Baofeng Zheng, Ganping Shu, Qinglin Jiang This paper focuses on the residual stresses in cold rolled austenitic stainless steel hollow sections. A series of residual stresses tests were carried out. Eight cross sections were tested, including four rectangular hollow sections and four circular hollow sections. The fabrication route of the test specimens was measured and introduced. Sectioning method modified with T rosettes strain gauges was used to reveal the residual stresses, including the longitudinal and transverse bending and membrane residual stresses. Totally, residual stresses of 160 points were recorded. Plane stress condition assumption was used in processing the residual strains. Test results indicate that the dominated residual stress was the longitudinal bending residual stress for RHS, and longitudinal and transverse bending residual stress for CHS. The magnitudes of all the other types of residual stress were less than 50 MPa. Residual stress distribution models were proposed based on the test data, and compared with test data available in literatures. Comparisons show the residual stresses in cold formed section highly depend on manufacturing processes and material types.
       
  • Behaviour of stainless steel beam-to-column joints-part 2: Numerical
           modelling and parametric study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Mohamed Elflah, Marios Theofanous, Samir Dirar This paper reports a detailed numerical (FE) study on planar stainless steel beam-to-column joints. A nonlinear FE model is developed and validated against the first set on full-scale tests on stainless steel beam-to-column joints reported in the companion paper. The FE model is shown to accurately replicate the experimentally determined, initial stiffness, ultimate resistance, overall moment-rotation response and observed failure modes. Parametric studies are conducted to obtain the moment-rotation characteristics of a wide range of beam-to-column joints classified as semi-rigid and/or partial strength. Due to the low ductility of the bolts compared to the high ductility exhibited by all other stainless steel joint components, in all cases the strength and ductility of the simulated joints is limited by the failure of the connecting bolts. The design rules for stainless steel connections, which are based on the specifications of EN 1993-1-8 for carbon steel joints, are reviewed and are found to be overly conservative in terms of strength and inaccurate in terms of stiffness thus necessitating the development of novel design guidance in line with the observed structural response. These conclusions are in agreement with the ones reported in the companion paper.
       
  • Fire-resistance of RHS stainless steel beams with three faces exposed to
           fire
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Shenggang Fan, Li Du, Shuai Li, Liyuan Zhang, Ke Shi To investigate fire-resistance behaviors of rectangular section stainless steel beams with three faces exposed to fire, fire resistance analysis models were established based on existing experiment data, and numerical simulation analysis was conducted. Comparison between the finite element calculation results and the experiment results verified the accuracy of the finite element models. On this basis, parametric analysis was carried out on the fire resistance behaviors of rectangular section stainless steel beams with three faces exposed to fire, with a focus on the influences of the section factor on the temperature distribution, mid-span vertical deformations and critical temperatures. Finally, the formula for the bearing capacity of the rectangular section stainless steel beams with three faces exposed to fire was fitted, providing important references for engineering designs of stainless steel structures in the future.
       
  • Effects of material nonlinearity on the global analysis and stability of
           stainless steel frames
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): F. Walport, L. Gardner, E. Real, I. Arrayago, D.A. Nethercot In structural frames, second order effects refer to the internal forces and moments that arise as a result of deformations under load (i.e. geometrical nonlinearity). EN 1993-1-1 states that global second order effects may be neglected if the critical load factor of the frame αcr is greater than or equal to 10 for an elastic analysis, or greater than or equal to 15 when a plastic global analysis is used. No specific guidance is provided in EN 1993-1-4 for the design of stainless steel frames, for which the nonlinear stress-strain behaviour of the material will result in greater deformations as the material loses its stiffness. A study of the effects of material nonlinearity on the stability of stainless steel frames is presented herein. A series of different frame geometries and loading conditions are considered. Based on the findings, proposals for the treatment of the influence of material nonlinearity on the global analysis and design of stainless steel frames are presented.
       
  • Parametric study on austenitic stainless steel beam-columns with hollow
           sections under fire
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Nuno Lopes, Mónica Manuel, Ana Regina Sousa, Paulo Vila Real This research work presents a parametric numerical study on the resistance at elevated temperatures of stainless steel members, subjected to combined bending and axial compression. Previous studies have shown the need for the development of further research works aiming at better predicting the fire behaviour of stainless steel beam-columns. However they have only considered beam-columns composed of stocky I sections. Hence, this paper focuses on austenitic stainless steel (European grade 1.4301 also known as 304) beam-columns composed of square hollow sections (SHS) and circular hollow sections (CHS), considering different cross-sections classes (1 to 4), according to Eurocode 3 (EC3) classification.The numerical analyses were performed using the finite element program SAFIR, with material and geometric non-linear analysis considering imperfections. The influence of the following parameters was evaluated: bending moment diagram shape, cross-section slenderness considering the local buckling occurrence on the thin-walled sections, and member slenderness for the global instability due to flexural buckling.Comparisons between the obtained numerical results and the interaction curves of Eurocode 3 are presented. The results show that specific design approach should be developed for these stainless steel members under fire situation, taking into account the above mentioned parameters.
       
  • Response to discussion on “Experimental seismic behavior of innovative
           composite shear walls”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Xiao-Meng Zhang, Ying Qin, Zhi-Hua Chen
       
  • Standardised material properties for numerical parametric studies of
           stainless steel structures and buckling curves for tubular columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): S. Afshan, O. Zhao, L. Gardner While the nominal material properties given in material specifications are suitable for design purposes, for the generation of realistic numerical parametric results that are ‘equivalent’ to physical experiments, material properties that are representative of actual structural members are required. Standardised values for these properties are proposed herein. Following analysis of a comprehensive database of material test data from different stainless steel products, values for the yield stress fy, the ultimate tensile stress fu, the strain at ultimate tensile stress εu and the Ramberg-Osgood parameters n and m are proposed. This enables the generation of standardised stress-strain curves for typical austenitic, duplex and ferritic stainless steel sections. Following this, an extensive numerical modelling study, incorporating the proposed standardised material parameters, was carried out to investigate the effect of production route (cold-formed and hot-finished) and material grade (austenitic, duplex and ferritic) on the flexural buckling behaviour and design of stainless steel square, rectangular and circular hollow section compression members. The FE generated flexural buckling data, combined with column test data from the literature, were used to derive a series of buckling curves for the design of stainless steel compression members. The suitability of the proposals was confirmed by means of reliability analysis.
       
  • Plastic design of stainless steel continuous beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Michaela Gkantou, Georgios Kokosis, Marios Theofanous, Samir Dirar In this paper an experimental study on eight simply-supported and four two-span continuous beams employing austenitic and duplex stainless steel rectangular hollow sections (RHS) is reported. In parallel with the tests, finite element models were developed. Upon validation against the experimental results, parametric studies were conducted to expand the available structural performance data over a range of cross-section slendernesses, structural systems and load configurations likely to occur in practice. The obtained experimental and numerical results along with collated test data were used to assess the accuracy of EN 1993-1-4 design provisions and to explore the possibility of plastic design for stainless steel indeterminate structures, simultaneously accounting for the effect of strain-hardening at cross-sectional level and moment redistribution exhibited by structures employing stocky cross-sections.
       
  • Stainless steel channel sections under combined compression and minor axis
           bending – Part 2: Parametric studies and design
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Yating Liang, Ou Zhao, Yue-ling Long, Leroy Gardner Following the experimental study and finite element (FE) model validation described in the companion paper, numerical parametric studies and the evaluation of design provisions for stainless steel channel sections under combined axial compressive load and minor axis bending moment are presented herein. The parametric studies were carried out to generate additional structural performance data over a wider range of cross-section aspect ratios and slendernesses, loading combinations and bending orientations. The test data and numerical results have been carefully analysed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the structural performance of stainless steel channel sections under combined compression and minor axis bending moment, and to assess the accuracy of the existing design provisions in Europe and North America. Comparisons of ultimate loads from the tests and FE simulations with the codified resistance predictions revealed that the current design standards typically under-estimate the capacity of stainless steel channel sections under combined compression and minor axis bending moment; this is attributed primarily to the neglect of material strain hardening and the employment of conservative interaction formulae. Improved design rules featuring more efficient interaction curves, anchored to more precise end points (i.e. cross-section resistances under pure compression and bending moment), are then proposed and presented. The new design proposals are shown to yield both more accurate and more consistent resistance predictions over the existing design provisions. Finally, statistical analyses are presented to confirm the reliability of the new design proposals according to EN 1990.
       
  • Structural behaviour of cold-formed stainless steel bolted connections at
           post-fire condition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Yancheng Cai, Ben Young This paper presents an experimental investigation on cold-formed stainless steel single shear and double shear bolted connections at post-fire condition. The connection specimens were fabricated by three different grades of stainless steel. The three different grades of stainless steel are austenitic stainless steels EN 1.4301 (AISI 304) and EN 1.4571 (AISI 316Ti) as well as lean duplex stainless steel EN 1.4162 (AISI S32101). The post-fire connection specimens were heated to different nominal temperatures of 350, 650 and 950 °C, respectively, and then cooled down to room (ambient) temperature condition. A total of 82 new connection tests was conducted. The test results of post-fire specimens were compared with those tested without post-fire condition for the same specimen series. Generally, it is found that the single shear and double shear bolted connection specimens cooled down from the nominal temperatures of 350 and 650 °C had higher ultimate strengths than those specimens without expose to high temperatures for all three different grades of stainless steel. The specimens cooled down from 950 °C generally had lower ultimate strengths than the aforementioned specimens. It is also found that the failure modes of cold-formed stainless steel bolted connection specimens at post-fire condition are similar to those tested without post-fire condition. Finally, design rules are proposed for cold-formed stainless steel bolted connections at post-fire condition for temperature up to 950 °C.
       
  • Web crippling design of cold-formed ferritic stainless steel unlipped
           channels with fastened flanges under end-two-flange loading condition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Journal of Constructional Steel ResearchAuthor(s): Amir M. Yousefi, James B.P. Lim, G. Charles Clifton In this paper, a combination of tests and non-linear finite element analyses is used to investigate the web crippling strength of cold-formed ferritic stainless steel unlipped channels with fastened flanges under the end-two-flange (ETF) loading condition; the cases of both unlipped channels with and without web holes are considered. The results of 27 web crippling tests are presented, with 9 tests conducted on unlipped channels without web holes and 18 tests conducted on unlipped channels with web holes. In the case of tests with web holes, the holes are located either centred or offset to the load and reaction plates. An extensive parametric study is undertaken, using quasi-static finite element analysis, to investigate the effects of web holes. The strengths obtained from reduction factor equations are first compared to strengths calculated from equations recently proposed for cold-formed stainless steel lipped channels. It is demonstrated that the strength reduction factor equations previously proposed for cold-formed stainless steel lipped channels can be unconservative for cold-formed ferritic stainless steel unlipped channels by up to 10%. The laboratory investigation also shows that, for the case of unlipped channels without web holes, the European Standard (EN 1993-1-4) and the American Society of Civil Engineers Specification (SEI/ASCE-8) are too conservative by 43% and 28%, respectively. From both laboratory and finite element results, web crippling design equations are proposed for both sections, with and without web holes.
       
 
 
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