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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2282 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (102 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1204 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (68 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 186 of 186 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover Journal of Constructional Steel Research
  [SJR: 1.746]   [H-I: 59]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0143-974X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Seismic performance of H-section beam to HSS column connection in
           prefabricated structures
    • Authors: X.C. Liu; Z.W. Yang; H.X. Wang; A.L. Zhang; S.H. Pu; S.T. Chai; L. Wu
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): X.C. Liu, Z.W. Yang, H.X. Wang, A.L. Zhang, S.H. Pu, S.T. Chai, L. Wu
      This paper proposes a new type of bolted assembly joint for connecting an H-shaped steel beam to a square HSS column and connecting HSS columns between each other in a prefabricated high-rise steel structure. The welding of components within the same module is completed in the factory, and the modules are assembled with bolts on site. The columns are connected via flanges and bolts; the H-shaped steel beam and HSS column are connected via cover plates that extend from the flanges, end-plates of the column base, and beam end stiffeners. Rigid and variable stiffness beam-to-column connections can be obtained by adjusting the number and specification of the bolts. The stiffness of the variable stiffness connection varies with the load. Thus, the connection can be rigid in a weak earthquake, yet the cover plate and beam flange can slip over each other strong earthquakes, which dissipates energy by slipping. The hysteretic performances of 9 joints were analysed by finite element analysis (FEA) and were tested in the paper; seismic performance metrics, such as hysteretic performance, ductility, and rotation capacity, were obtained. The bolt number, gap between the bolt shank and the bolt hole, thickness of the flange and the cover plate that impact the mechanical performance of the joint were analysed, and the slipping characteristics of the contact surface were obtained. The slipping between the cover plate and beam flange increases the assembly's capacity of deformability, ductility, energy dissipation, and slipping energy dissipation without significantly reducing its ultimate bearing capacity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T06:52:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.029
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Seismic design criteria for chevron CBFs: Proposals for the next EC8
           (part-2)
    • Authors: Silvia Costanzo; Mario D'Aniello; Raffaele Landolfo
      Pages: 17 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Silvia Costanzo, Mario D'Aniello, Raffaele Landolfo
      According to EN 1998-1, chevron concentrically braced frames (C-CBFs) are expected to provide limited ductility due to the interactions between the braces and intercepted beam. As a consequence, EN 1998-1 recommends values of the behaviour factor (namely q =2 and q =2.5 in ductility class medium and high, respectively) lower than that (i.e. q =4) given for other concentric bracing configurations, e.g. both cross and single diagonal CBFs. The research activity presented in this paper is addressed to revise the design rules and requirements of EN 1998-1 for C-CBFs in order to improve the ductility and the dissipative capacity of this structural system. The study is organized in two parts: in the first part design rules recently presented in literature are assessed, while in the second part new design criteria are proposed and validated against the results obtained from incremental dynamic analyses carried out on 2D frames extracted from low, medium and high rise buildings.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T06:52:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.028
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Strength and behaviour of reinforced double-coped beams against local web
           buckling
    • Authors: Angus C.C. Lam; Michael C.H. Yam; Cheng Fang
      Pages: 38 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Angus C.C. Lam, Michael C.H. Yam, Cheng Fang
      Double-coped beams are usually employed to avoid spatial interference when similar elevations of both the top and bottom flanges of the connected beams are required. Due to the removal of the flange parts, the load resistance can be significantly compromised. This paper discusses the effectiveness of various reinforcing strategies aiming to increase the load resistance of newly designed double-coped beams or to upgrade the existing ones. A series of full-scale tests are conducted first, covering a set of reinforcement types and varying coping dimensions. Local web buckling is found to be the governing failure mode for the unreinforced specimens, and the presence of the considered stiffeners can effectively increase the load resistance. In particular, a pair of longitudinal stiffeners for the top cope edge is shown to completely mitigate the risk of local web buckling, and the final failure mode is tensile cracking at the bottom cope corner. The doubler plates, either full-depth or partial-depth, can delay the initiation of local web bucking, and as a result the load resistance is remarkably increased. The effects of the varying reinforcement types and coping dimensions on the utilisation efficiency of section capacities are discussed in detail. A finite element study is subsequently conducted to enable further understanding of key structural characteristics and to help explain some test phenomena. Preliminary design comments and recommendations are finally proposed based on the exiting test and numerical data.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T06:52:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.030
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Simplified building models as advanced seismic screening tools for steel
           industrial buildings
    • Authors: Andrea Belleri; Mauro Torquati; Alessandra Marini; Paolo Riva
      Pages: 51 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Andrea Belleri, Mauro Torquati, Alessandra Marini, Paolo Riva
      The paper investigates the suitability of simplified building models to be used as advanced screening tools for the seismic vulnerability assessment of older industrial steel buildings. The considered buildings have been built before the enforcement of modern seismic codes and they are characterized by joints with low ductility and by the absence of capacity design provisions. In addition, such buildings, characterized by a wide plan extension, are typically part of large industrial areas. The complex geometry of the buildings makes the creation of a complete finite element model difficult. This is due to the high number of degrees of freedom and to the consequent high number of vibration modes to be included in a general response spectrum analysis. To overcome such limitations, simplified building models for advanced seismic screening are herein proposed and compared to traditional vulnerability procedures. Such procedures may be used for a first estimate of the seismic vulnerability of older and large industrial buildings, in order to identify and quantitatively rank seismic deficiencies before a detailed assessment. The validation shows that the investigated approaches are particularly suitable for seismic risk assessment of building portfolios and for providing a first estimate of the load demand in the elements of the lateral force resisting system.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.027
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Post-fire residual slip resistance and shear capacity of high-strength
           bolted connection
    • Authors: Hongbo Liu; Dongyu Liu; Zhihua Chen; Yujie Yu
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Hongbo Liu, Dongyu Liu, Zhihua Chen, Yujie Yu
      High-strength bolted connection is one of the main connecting forms of steel structure and its post-fire residual mechanical properties are important basis for post-fire evaluation and recovery of steel structure performance. This paper made an experimental study on slip resistance and shear behaviors of common engineering 8.8s and 10.9s high-strength bolted connection after high temperature, getting the load-displacement curves of high-strength bolted connection under different firing temperatures and cooling modes. The post-fire slip resistance and shear capacity of high-strength bolted connection were analyzed. Based on analysis of test data, it is found that post-fire slip resistance and shear capacity of high-strength bolted connection generally declined with the increase of the firing temperature. When the firing temperature is lower than 600°C, slip resistance and shear capacity of high-strength bolted connection were similar with those under room temperature. However, when the firing temperature exceeds 600°C, they declined quickly. The reduction factors of slip resistance and shear capacity at 900°C reduced to about 0.35 and 0.75, respectively. The cooling mode could influence post-fire slip resistance and shear behaviors of bolted connection to a certain extent, but no explicit law was discovered, which needs further deep researches. Finally, the prediction formula concerning the reduction factors of post-fire slip resistance and shear capacity of high-strength bolted connection was proposed based on test data fitting, providing certain references for evaluation of post-fire residual performance and recovery of steel structures.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.026
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Modification of dynamic increase factor to assess progressive collapse
           potential of structures
    • Authors: Javad Mashhadi; Hamed Saffari
      Pages: 72 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Javad Mashhadi, Hamed Saffari
      Progressive collapse assessment of buildings against column removal requires a time consuming nonlinear dynamic analysis therefore nonlinear static analysis considering a proper dynamic increase factor (DIF) can be utilized as an alternate analysis to predict maximum dynamic response of structures. In this study, the effect of post-elastic stiffness ratio of members on DIF in nonlinear static analysis of structures against column removal is investigated, and a modified empirical DIF is presented. For this purpose, series of low and mid-rise moment frame structures with different span lengths and number of stories are analyzed. For each ratio of post elastic stiffness, a non-linear dynamic analysis and a step-by-step nonlinear static analysis are carried out. The results of analysis reveal post-elastic stiffness ratio is an efficient parameter on DIF. Therefore the new empirical formulas including moment demand, ductility and post-elastic stiffness ratio are suggested. Finally, it is shown that the proposed DIF formulas are accurate and efficient.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.038
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • The two-way flexural performance of the PSSDB floor system with infill
           material
    • Authors: Marwan Samir Al-Shaikhli; Wan Hamidon Wan Badaruzzaman; Shahrizan Baharom; Ahmed W. Al-Zand
      Pages: 79 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Marwan Samir Al-Shaikhli, Wan Hamidon Wan Badaruzzaman, Shahrizan Baharom, Ahmed W. Al-Zand
      This paper investigates the structural performance of the Profiled Steel Sheeting Dry Board (PSSDB) system; a lightweight composite structure which is made by binding a Profiled Steel Sheeting (PSS) to a Dry Board (DB) by mechanical screws. Many studies indicated that it can be used as flooring units. However, most of them focused on utilizing the system as a one-way floor panel. It's rare to find studies that consider the two-way position, and so far none has ever considered the effect of the infill material in that situation. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the flexural performance of the two-way PSSDB floor panel with the presence of the infill material. An Experimental (EXP) and Finite Element (FE) approaches were employed. For the EXP tests, it was found that applying a steel plate (SP) can enhance the stiffness and strength of the PSSDB system by approximately 31% and 15%. The results were used to compare with the ones of a previous study, and it was shown that applying infill material can improve the strength by 13.2%. Applying both Steel Plate (SP) and infill material instead of SP alone can enhance it by 13.6%. As for the FE approach, it was demonstrated that changing the thickness of the DB and SP has a minor effect by no more than 5%, while changing the PSS's thickness can affect the performance by up to 18.3%. And finally, the effect of changing the type of infill material is less than 1%.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.039
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Simplified numerical model for global stability of corrugated silos with
           vertical stiffeners
    • Authors: P. Iwicki; K. Rejowski; J. Tejchman
      Pages: 93 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): P. Iwicki, K. Rejowski, J. Tejchman
      The paper deals with buckling of metal cylindrical silos composed of corrugated sheets and vertical stiffeners (columns). Comprehensive finite element analyses were carried out for three real perfect silos with a different geometry (two slender silos and one intermediate slender silo) by means of a linear buckling approach. Corrugated walls were simulated as an equivalent orthotropic shell and thin-walled columns as beam elements. Numerical calculations for perfect silos with different numbers of columns made it possible to establish three different ranges of the silo buckling performance. Based on results of three dimensional calculations, an original simplified segment silo wall model was proposed for calculations of silo global buckling for sparsely distributed columns. In addition, a single column resting on the elastic foundation with the improved stiffness was suggested. Both models are shown to produce predictions that are much closer to rigorous FE calculations than the hand calculation procedures of EN 1993-4-1.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.031
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Ductile cracking simulation of uncracked high strength steel using an
           energy approach
    • Authors: Ping Xiang; Liang-Jiu Jia; Ke Ke; Yiyi Chen; Hanbin Ge
      Pages: 117 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Ping Xiang, Liang-Jiu Jia, Ke Ke, Yiyi Chen, Hanbin Ge
      Ductile crack initiation and propagation simulation is of great importance in metal structures, which is one of main failure modes. Research objects of common fracture mechanics are solids with existing cracks. However, ductile fracture of uncracked solids is also one of the main concerns in structural engineering, especially for strong seismic loading. There is a great difficulty in simulating both crack initiation and propagation of uncracked solids using conventional fracture mechanics. A simple unified method to simulate the two stages with acceptable accuracy is thus required. For ductile crack initiation, a number of models based on the void growth concept have been proposed. However, research on ductile crack propagation is still limited, and there is still a lack of simple approaches to simulate both ductile crack initiation and propagation of uncracked solids. This paper aims to investigate ductile crack initiation and propagation of high strength steel under high stress triaxiality by combination of the void growth model for ductile crack initiation and an energy balance approach for ductile crack propagation. In this paper, a straightforward approach to obtain the ductile fracture energy only using smooth tension coupon tests is proposed. Two series of single edge notched specimens with different notch depths and notch configurations are manufactured. Both experimental and numerical studies under monotonic tension are conducted. The ductile crack initiation and propagation processes of notched high strength steel specimens are simulated with acceptable accuracy using the proposed approach.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Tensile resistances of L-stubs
    • Authors: Maël Couchaux; Mohammed Hjiaj; Ivor Ryan; Alain Bureau
      Pages: 131 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Maël Couchaux, Mohammed Hjiaj, Ivor Ryan, Alain Bureau
      L-stubs are commonly used to model the tensile parts of ring flange bolted connections. Contact between opposite flanges has a significant effect on the elastic and plastic behaviour of these tensile joints. In the present paper, the effects of contact between flange plates are modelled via a refined beam model which has been previously applied with success to represent the elastic behaviour of non-preloaded L-stubs and T-stubs. Taking into account the behaviour of the flange in the contact area and bolt bending, a model is developed to predict the plastic resistance of L-stub joints. Simplifications are proposed to facilitate the determination of the contact zone and the ultimate resistances corresponding to failure modes involving flange and bolt. The comparison between analytical results with 3D finite element elasto-plastic analyses and experimental tests indicates that the proposed model provides good capacity predictions. Effects of contact, and therefore of the prying force, are particularly important in the case of relatively thin flanges.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Effect of boundary conditions on the behaviour of composite frames against
           progressive collapse
    • Authors: Shao-Bo Kang; Kang Hai Tan; Hui-Yuan Liu; Xu-Hong Zhou; Bo Yang
      Pages: 150 - 167
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Shao-Bo Kang, Kang Hai Tan, Hui-Yuan Liu, Xu-Hong Zhou, Bo Yang
      Boundary conditions, such as the horizontal and out-of-plane restraints, play an important role in structural resistance and deformation capacity of composite frames under column removal scenarios. Most studies only focused on interior frames with rigid horizontal and out-of-plane restraints, whereas limited data are available on the effects of weak restraints and out-of-plane rotations on the behaviour of composite frames against progressive collapse. In this study, a series of experimental tests were conducted on composite frames with different horizontal and out-of-plane restraints. Web cleat and flush end plate connections were used in the frames. Experimental results showed that when subject to in-plane loading, exterior composite frames could mobilise significant catenary action to mitigate progressive collapse and eventually column failure might occur under catenary action in bridging beams. For composite frames with out-of-plane rotation, the ultimate resistance was substantially reduced due to lateral torsional buckling of composite beams at large deformation stage. However, the flexural resistance of frames was less susceptible to boundary conditions compared to catenary action. Furthermore, bending moments at side columns were evaluated to gain insight into the behaviour of side columns under horizontal tension force at the catenary action stage. Moreover, component-based models were developed for composite frames and validated against test data. Design recommendations were provided in accordance with experimental and numerical results.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Behaviour of steel tubular members infilled with ultra high strength
           concrete
    • Authors: Ming-Xiang Xiong; De-Xin Xiong; J.Y. Richard Liew
      Pages: 168 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Ming-Xiang Xiong, De-Xin Xiong, J.Y. Richard Liew
      This study is motivated by increasingly prevalent use of high strength steel and concrete materials in high-rise buildings to achieve better structural performance with less material usage. Previous studies and many modern design codes place some limits on the strength of steel and concrete for designing steel-concrete composite members, attributed to insufficient test data and design experience on their applications in construction. With this research gap being identified, an experimental program has been carried out to investigate the composite behaviour of concrete filled steel tubes (CFST) employing high tensile strength steel (HTS) and ultra-high strength concrete (UHSC). Both concentric and eccentric compression loads were applied to evaluate the overall buckling resistances and moment-axial force interaction with second-order effect considered. The yield strength of HTS under the investigation was about 800N/mm2 and the concrete compressive cylinder strength was up to 200N/mm2. To examine the test results, the rotational stiffness of semi-rigid end supports was analytically derived and the stress-strain models of HTS and UHSC were properly calibrated to predict the composite behaviour through finite element analysis. The Eurocode 4 approach was then checked regarding its applicability to the said high- and ultra-high strength construction materials for composite design. A new database including 1160 test data was established to further study the reliability of the use of HTS and UHSC, and suggestions were made to extend the Eurocode 4 design approach.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Probabilistic ultimate buckling strength of stiffened plates, considering
           thick and high-performance steel
    • Authors: Mahmudur Rahman; Yoshiaki Okui; Takahiro Shoji; Masato Komuro
      Pages: 184 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Mahmudur Rahman, Yoshiaki Okui, Takahiro Shoji, Masato Komuro
      The probabilistic distribution of ultimate buckling strength for stiffened steel plates subjected to a distributed axial stress was obtained using Monte Carlo simulations in association with the response surface method. The plates of both normal and high-performance steel (SBHS) were taken into account, and their thickness was varied from 10 to 90mm. The ultimate buckling strength was determined by nonlinear elasto-plastic finite element (FE) analysis, considering geometric and material nonlinearity. The initial out-of-plane deflection and residual stress were considered as two independent random variables upon which the ultimate buckling strength depends. The response surface, showing the variation of ultimate strength due to the initial deflection and residual stress, was estimated using the nonlinear FE results. Based on the obtained statistical distribution, partial safety factors for the ultimate buckling strength were proposed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Mechanism study on the low cycle fatigue behavior of group studs shear
           connectors in steel-concrete composite bridges
    • Authors: Chen Xu; Qingtian Su; Kunitomo Sugiura
      Pages: 196 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Chen Xu, Qingtian Su, Kunitomo Sugiura
      Clustering the stud shear connectors with a narrow spacing to form group studs is useful for the concrete slab prefabrication in steel-concrete composite bridges. But the existing test and analysis results have shown that arranging studs in group tends to be unfavorable to the stud static and fatigue performance. The current fatigue design of the group studs may still experience an overestimation or an underestimation problem since the fatigue mechanism study on group studs is rare. Therefore, a parametric push-out analysis was carried out for explaining the fatigue behavior of group studs, particularly the low cycle fatigue aspect with the fatigue life lower than 2millioncycles. There were 12 static and cyclic push-out models in the analysis. Meanwhile, a series of static push-out tests were also introduced to verify the analysis works. According to the static analysis results, the unequal stud shear forces in the group studs, which were indicated by the analyzed static failure mode, resulted in the reductions of stud shear stiffness and strength. According to the low cycle cyclic analysis results, the fatigue damage initiated at the bottom point of the stud root section in the push load direction, which can be called the fatigue critical point. The low cycle fatigue life reduction of group studs, which was evaluated by the analysis results and the introduced multi-axial fatigue damage criterion, can be explained by the uneven cyclic tensile strain and stress distributions on every individual fatigue critical point in the group studs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • The development of the buckling restrained braces with new end restrains
    • Authors: Ramazan Ozcelik; Yagmur Dikiciasik; Elif Firuze Erdil
      Pages: 208 - 220
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Ramazan Ozcelik, Yagmur Dikiciasik, Elif Firuze Erdil
      This paper presents an experimental investigation of buckling restrained braces (BRBs) with new end restraints and casing members (CMs). The component tests for ten BRBs with CMs consisting of concrete-filled steel tube (unbonded), plain concrete, plain concrete wrapped with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP), reinforced concrete and a built-up section were tested up to a core plate (CP) strain of 2.0%. In unbonded BRBs, an unrestrained part is usually available on the CP. This part may be a candidate for buckling during cyclic excursions. Hence both ends of the BRBs at the unrestrained part of the CP need to be restrained more effectively. The innovations of BRBs in the present study were that additional end restraints were added at the unrestrained part of the CP at both ends, isolation material was employed, and a more economical CM was used. These new end restraints consisted of hollow steel sections and steel plates welded to each other and were attached to the CM. The testing of the improved BRBs indicated that the cyclic performance of the BRBs was satisfactory up to a CP strain of 2.0%. The energy dissipation capacity of the BRBs was found to be significantly dependent on compression strength adjustment factor, β, and strain hardening adjustment factor, ω. Consequently, the improved BRBs with sufficient stiffness to resist out-of-plane buckling at both ends have acceptable cyclic performance according to the test results. Furthermore, the connection details namely slip critical, isolation materials, and their application techniques have also been investigated for the improved BRB design in this study.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • FE modelling of replaceable I-beam-to-CHS column joints under cyclic loads
    • Authors: Chunyan Quan; Wei Wang; Tak-Ming Chan; Majd Khador
      Pages: 221 - 234
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Chunyan Quan, Wei Wang, Tak-Ming Chan, Majd Khador
      This paper presents a finite element investigation on the structural behavior of replaceable I-beam-to-CHS column joints with external diaphragm plates under cyclic loads. The finite element methodology was validated against complementary experimental results and satisfactory comparisons were observed between numerical and experimental results on the hysteretic curves, initial stiffness, bearing capacity, and energy dissipation. While validating the numerical models, two key parameters — preloading force and bolt hole sizes were identified which have significant effects on the structural performance. Based on the numerical and experimental results, recommendations on the design procedures were proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.012
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Folded assembly methods for thin-walled steel structures
    • Authors: Quan Shi; Xiaoqiang Shi; Joseph M. Gattas; Sritawat Kitipornchai
      Pages: 235 - 245
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Quan Shi, Xiaoqiang Shi, Joseph M. Gattas, Sritawat Kitipornchai
      There has been significant recent interest in origami-inspired foldable structures for applications in which transportability and rapid construction are primary design drivers, for example, emergency shelters and staging structures. However, widespread application is not yet seen due to complexities in folded geometry and modelling the structural behaviour of folded sheet material. This paper proposes a fundamentally new approach whereby folded assembly methods are developed for conventional thin-walled steel construction and benchmarked in terms of their assembly effort, manufacturing accuracy, and structural performance. Manufacturing accuracy was benchmarked with 3D digital image correlation and 3D scanning and showed a folded assembly method to be accurate to within ±50% of plate thickness with assembly by unskilled persons. Structural performance under uniaxial compressive load was assessed with experimental and numerical analyses, with consistent predictions showing that conventional thin-walled steel analysis techniques are sufficient to model folded structure behaviours. Modelling of the novel folded steel structures is therefore also shown to avoid much of the complexity normally encountered in folded structure analysis, such as characterisation of fold-line rotational stiffness or folding plasticity behaviours.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Full slenderness range DSM approach for stainless steel hollow
           cross-section columns and beam-columns
    • Authors: I. Arrayago; K.J.R. Rasmussen; E. Real
      Pages: 246 - 263
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): I. Arrayago, K.J.R. Rasmussen, E. Real
      The behaviour of austenitic, ferritic and duplex stainless steel Rectangular and Square Hollow Section members subjected to compression and combined loading is investigated in this paper. A full slenderness range Direct Strength Method (DSM) approach is proposed based on experimental results and numerical strengths obtained from FE parametric studies. The method accounts for local buckling effects and enhanced material properties are also incorporated for those members stable enough to allow partial yielding of the cross-sections. The proposed method is based on strength curves previously provided for cross-sections although additional limitations have been adopted. The DSM approach for columns is based on existing buckling curves and provides accurate resistance predictions for slender and stocky cross-sections. The proposed DSM approach for beam-columns also improves capacity predictions for stocky and slender cross-sections obtained from the traditional methods for different bending moment distributions. This is attributed to the fact that the beam-column behaviour is directly calculated with a unique strength curve, considering the member and section slendernesses based on the elastic instabilities of the section subjected to the actual stress distribution instead of calculating the compressive and flexural strengths independently and combining these through an interaction equation, as is the traditional uncoupled approach. Finally, a reliability study of the full slenderness range DSM approach is presented to determine resistance factors for the different stainless steel grades columns and beam-columns.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Experimental and theoretical analysis of shear bolted connections for
           tubular structures
    • Authors: M. D'Antimo; J.F. Demonceau; J.P. Jaspart; M. Latour; G. Rizzano
      Pages: 264 - 282
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): M. D'Antimo, J.F. Demonceau, J.P. Jaspart, M. Latour, G. Rizzano
      In this paper, numerical and experimental investigations devoted to the evaluation of the bearing resistance of tubular members, with gusset plates and through-all long bolts, are presented. Unlike lap shear joints, the analysed connection shows a limited confinement of the bearing area associated with the use of long bolts and the presence of a gap in the member, which can lead to a reduction of the bearing resistance. In order to investigate the behaviour of shear connections composed by thin or thick SHS (Square Hollow Section) profiles and long bolts, experimental tests on 24 specimens and FE simulations have been conducted. Both experimental and FE results have confirmed the influence of local instability of the hole in bearing on the resistance of thin profiles and the poor accuracy of the available standards for this specific joint typology. In particular, the performed comparisons have shown that, for thin profiles, EC3 model is likely to overestimate the resistance, while for higher thickness of the SHS conservative predictions are obtained. The paper presents the conducted experimental and numerical investigations highlighting, at the end, the need for a proper formulation able to account for the local instability effect on the bearing resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.015
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Double reduced beam section connection
    • Authors: Mohamad A. Morshedi; Kiarash M. Dolatshahi; Shervin Maleki
      Pages: 283 - 297
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Mohamad A. Morshedi, Kiarash M. Dolatshahi, Shervin Maleki
      In this paper, a novel beam-to-column steel moment connection, named “double reduced beam section (DRBS)” is introduced and the seismic performance of the connection is assessed using finite element modeling. The connection is composed of double dog bone sections close to the column face to widen the plastic hinge region; consequently, reducing the resultant equivalent plastic strain. The region between the two reduced beam sections is laterally connected to the slab to protect the plastic hinge from lateral torsional buckling. A parametric study was conducted on the influence of cut parameters on the connection's seismic behavior. The results showed that, following the limitations and guidelines stated in this research, the DRBS connection exhibits outstanding hysteresis behavior. The deformation capacity of the connection was increased up to 40% in the DRBS connection, compared to the common reduced beam section (RBS) connection. Plasticization of both reduced beam sections postponed the failure buckling modes, resulting in 50 to 75% increase in the absorbed seismic energy before buckling, compared to the traditional RBS connection. Moreover, adding a second cut to the ordinary RBS connection distributed the strains over the two reduced sections, leading to 35 to 60% reduction in the equivalent plastic strain at the reduced sections, at 6% inter-story drift.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Damage avoidance solution to mitigate wind-induced fatigue in steel
           traffic support structures
    • Authors: Kyle T. Wieghaus; John B. Mander; Stefan Hurlebaus
      Pages: 298 - 307
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Kyle T. Wieghaus, John B. Mander, Stefan Hurlebaus
      Non-redundant, cantilevered traffic signal support structures undergo frequent wind-induced excitation; the subsequent vibrations result in stress reversals that lead to fatigue, and possibly fracture, particularly at the welded connections. To accommodate more lanes and reduce roadside hazards, spans continue to increase—as do the number of connection failures. Presented herein is a low-cost damage avoidance approach to mitigate wind-induced fatigue effects for cantilevered traffic support structures. Load-balancing is provided to relieve the dead load tensile stresses in the tube-to-transverse plate connections, thereby increasing fatigue capacity. The proposed damage avoidance system adds a beneficial fail-safe, load-balancing redundancy for cantilevered traffic signal structures. The benefit of the proposed system is quantified using a probabilistic fatigue assessment framework. Full-scale prototype testing is conducted in an ambient wind environment to serve as input and statistically describe response. Fatigue performance is modeled as mean stress dependent from which a dependable service life is derived. The efficacy of the proposed damage avoidance technique is assessed for a variety of wind environments where it is shown the dependable service life increases by an order of magnitude.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.037
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Numerical study on masonry-infilled steel frames under vertical and cyclic
           horizontal loads
    • Authors: Mohammed M. Eladly
      Pages: 308 - 323
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Mohammed M. Eladly
      Although there are many researches on infilled steel frames with welded beam-to-column connections, however, few studies were undertaken to investigate the behaviour of these infilled structures but with other common connection types (extended endplate, flush endplate and header plate connections), particularly under combined vertical and horizontal loading. In this paper, firstly, a simplified numerical model of infilled steel frames under cyclic loading, considering the interactions between frames, infills and beam-to-column connections' components, was constructed. The model results were compared with experimental data for cyclically-loaded infilled frames, showing good agreement. Using the verified model, a parametric study on infilled steel frames with five different beam-to-column connection types, under vertical and cyclic horizontal loads, was performed. Several parameters, including vertical load level, infill thickness and vertical load application method, were investigated. The results showed that increasing the level of vertical load (uniformly distributed on the beam) minimised the difference in performance between the frames with welded connections and those with bolted connections. Under vertical loads of 0, 16% and 24% of the columns' axial capacity, the horizontal ultimate load of frames with header plate connections, was, respectively, 73%, 86% and 91% of that of frames with welded connections. Hence, when the infilled frames are subjected to relatively high levels of vertical load, utilising header plate connections may be a viable alternative to using welded connections. Furthermore, a simple analytical method for predicting the stiffness and load-carrying capacity of masonry-infilled steel frames (with different connection types) under vertical and horizontal loads, was proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Behaviour factor (q) evaluation the CFS braced structures according to
           FEMA P695
    • Authors: Luigi Fiorino; Sarmad Shakeel; Vincenzo Macillo; Raffaele Landolfo
      Pages: 324 - 339
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Luigi Fiorino, Sarmad Shakeel, Vincenzo Macillo, Raffaele Landolfo
      An upgrade of the construction standards is required to promote the use of lightweight steel structures in seismic areas of Europe. European earthquake standard EN1998-1 does not provide seismic design guidelines for the energy dissipative structural typologies in lightweight steel constructions. CFS strap-braced stud wall is an all-steel solution to dissipate the seismic energy in lightweight steel constructions. In this regard, a numerical study is performed to provide suitable value of the behaviour factor (q) for CFS strap-braced stud wall following the procedures of FEMA P695. A set of fourteen archetypes, which represented the range of design parameters and building configurations are designed following the capacity design approach. Numerical models with the ability to simulate the non-linear response of archetype buildings are then developed and analysed using non-linear static and dynamic analysis procedures. A suite of 44 normalized and scaled earthquake records, representing the probable seismic hazard to the buildings, is used for the incremental dynamic analysis. Performance of archetypes is evaluated by measuring their collapse fragility. Based on the results, it is concluded that the design method used in this study and a behaviour factor (q) of 2.5 for CFS strap-braced stud wall are appropriate to be include in next edition of the Eurocodes.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Stiffness-based approach for Belleville springs use in friction sliding
           structural connections
    • Authors: Shahab Ramhormozian; George Charles Clifton; Gregory A. MacRae; George P. Davet
      Pages: 340 - 356
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Shahab Ramhormozian, George Charles Clifton, Gregory A. MacRae, George P. Davet
      Sliding hinge joints (SHJs) used in beam-to-column connections of moment frames have a moment-rotational behaviour that depends on asymmetric friction connection (AFC) sliding behaviour. The AFC is also applied to column base connections and friction sliding braces. In the AFC, the slotted sliding plate is clamped between one ideally fixed surface and one partially floating surface. In current practice, the AFC bolts are fully tensioned at installation (i.e. yielded) to provide the clamping force. The AFC bolts are subjected to moment, shear, and axial force (MVP) interaction during joint sliding that is expected to occur only in severe earthquake shaking. The AFC bolt tension as well as SHJ elastic strength are reduced after a few sliding cycles. In this paper, the reasons for the AFC bolt tension loss are discussed, and solutions to prevent this bolt tension loss, including the optimum use of Belleville springs (BeSs) and installing the bolts within the elastic range, are proposed. This paper analytically shows that these solutions can generate significantly improved retention of AFC bolt tension, improved AFC sliding behaviour, higher displacement capacity to accommodate prying effects, and better AFC self-centering characteristics. Examples of AFC bolt installation within elastic range and tension loss with and without BeSs are provided. Similar models are developed for symmetric friction connections (SFCs) and compares differences in behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Static strength of high strength steel CHS X-joints under axial
           compression
    • Authors: Xiaoyi Lan; Tak-Ming Chan; Ben Young
      Pages: 369 - 379
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Xiaoyi Lan, Tak-Ming Chan, Ben Young
      This paper presents an investigation on the static strength of high strength steel circular hollow section (CHS) X-joints subjected to axial compression in the braces which failed by chord face plastification. Using validated finite element models, extensive numerical simulations were conducted considering a wide range of geometric parameters and chord preload ratios. The material properties of high strength steel with nominal yield stresses of 700, 900 and 1100MPa were carefully incorporated in finite element models. The static strengths obtained from numerical analysis in this study and experimental tests in the literature were compared with those calculated from mean strength equations on which the design equations in Eurocode EN 1993-1-8 and the CIDECT design guide are based. The comparison results show that the mean strength equation adopted by the CIDECT design guide is generally more accurate than that of EN 1993-1-8. The mean strength prediction of the CIDECT design guide without using reduction factors of joint strength is relatively accurate for CHS X-joints with nominal steel yield stresses ranging from 650 to 700MPa. However, the mean strength predictions of EN 1993-1-8 and the CIDECT design guide generally become more unconservative with increasing steel yield stress. The mean strength equations are unconservative for CHS X-joints with nominal steel yield stresses exceeding 700MPa.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Simulations on progressive collapse resistance of steel moment frames
           under localized fire
    • Authors: Binhui Jiang; Guo-Qiang Li; Liulian Li; B.A. Izzuddin
      Pages: 380 - 388
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Binhui Jiang, Guo-Qiang Li, Liulian Li, B.A. Izzuddin
      Based on three steel frame tests conducted by the authors, which explicitly considered dynamic effect caused by column buckling, numerical models were developed to analyse the progressive collapse resistance of steel moment frames under a localized fire. Besides, the effects of damping and strain rate were studied, and the progressive collapse modes of the test frames were studied through amplifying the load applied to the frames. The analysis results match well with test data and show that the influence of damping on progressive collapse of steel frames under a localized fire is negligible in the range of damping ratio from 0 to 10%. However, the effect of strain rate on the structural performance of steel frames under a fire is significant for the cases involving dynamic buckling of the heated column. Besides, the strain rate effect in the heated columns is significant but is negligible in other parts of the test frames. The successful validation of the numerical models paves the way for their application in parametric studies aimed at improved guidance of structural robustness under localized fire conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.05.018
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • An efficient coupled numerical method for reliability-based design
           optimization of steel frames
    • Authors: Linh A. Le; T. Bui-Vinh; V. Ho-Huu; T. Nguyen-Thoi
      Pages: 389 - 400
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Linh A. Le, T. Bui-Vinh, V. Ho-Huu, T. Nguyen-Thoi
      The paper proposes an efficient coupled numerical method for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) of steel frames. In this RBDO problem, the objective function is to minimize the weight of the whole steel frame. Design variables are cross sectional areas of beams and columns which are considered as discrete variables and chosen from the sets of wide-flange shape steel sections provided by the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). Random variables relate to the material properties and applied loads. Probabilistic constraints of ultimate load limits and serviceability limits are defined following the specifications for structural steel buildings by AISC. For analyzing the behavior of steel frames, the finite element method for frame structures is utilized. For searching the optimal solution of RBDO problems, an efficient coupled numerical method by combining the Single-Loop Deterministic Method (SLDM) and the Improved Differential Evolution (IDE) is proposed to give the method called SLDM-IDE. In the SLDM-IDE, all of the probabilistic constraints are converted to the approximate deterministic constraints. This helps transform the RBDO problem into an approximate deterministic optimization problem which can be solved by standard optimization algorithms. This helps reduce significantly the computational cost for solving the original RBDO problem. Three numerical examples are conducted, and obtained results are compared with those of previous publications to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Shake table assessment of gusset plate connection behaviour in
           concentrically braced frames
    • Authors: Suhaib Salawdeh; Jack English; Jamie Goggins; Ahmed Y. Elghazouli; Alan Hunt; Brian M. Broderick
      Pages: 432 - 448
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Suhaib Salawdeh, Jack English, Jamie Goggins, Ahmed Y. Elghazouli, Alan Hunt, Brian M. Broderick
      Diagonal bracing members and their connections to beams and columns are the key lateral resisting components in concentrically braced frames (CBFs). Although gusset plate connections are widely used to connect bracing and frame members in such systems, their design often involves significant simplifications and idealisations due to the complexity of their behaviour under seismic loading. A conventional approach, which utilises a standard linear clearance zone that permits out-of-plane brace deformation, is typically used in the design of gusset plates. This approach can result in overly large connections with cumbersome details. The desire to achieve an improved balance between the gusset over-strength, on the one hand, and a favourable overall frame performance coupled with practical connection detailing, on the other, has prompted proposals for an improved design approach. However, before new recommendations on the design of gusset plate connections can be provided for use in codified guidance, there is a need to assess the performance of such detailing alternatives under realistic earthquake loading conditions. Accordingly, in this study, the performance of different brace connection configurations and gusset plate designs are examined using shake table testing. The paper describes twelve single-storey full scale shake table tests, which were performed on the AZALEE seismic testing facility at CEA Saclay. In seven of these tests, the gusset plates at the end of the brace members were connected to both beam and column flanges, while in the other five tests these were connected to the beam flange only. Conventional gusset plate design with a standard linear clearance was used for six tests, whereas a more balanced design with a nonlinear elliptical clearance detail was used for the others. The experimental set-up, specimen details, and loading procedures are presented, together with a detailed account of the results and observations. The main findings and their implication on the performance at the local component, as well as the overall frame levels, are highlighted. In particular, it is shown that, provided a number of recommendations are followed, the balanced design approach using a nonlinear clearance can enhance the overall drift capacity, while maintaining control of the failure mode within the bracing member.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.022
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Experimental investigation into high strength Q690 steel welded H-sections
           under combined compression and bending
    • Authors: Tian-Yu Ma; Yi-Fei Hu; Xiao Liu; Guo-Qiang Li; Kwok-Fai Chung
      Pages: 449 - 462
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Tian-Yu Ma, Yi-Fei Hu, Xiao Liu, Guo-Qiang Li, Kwok-Fai Chung
      This paper presents a systematic experimental investigation into high strength Q690 steel welded H-sections under combined compression and bending. A total of 8 slender columns with four sections of different cross-sectional dimensions were tested successfully under eccentric loads. All columns failed in overall buckling about the minor axes of their cross-sections with significant material yielding. In some cases, plastic local plate buckling in the flange outstands became apparent at failure. After tests, all the columns were inspected closely, and no fracture in welding was found. As expected, these high strength Q690 steel welded H-sections were demonstrated to behave in various ways similar to those of conventional strength steel welded H-sections. Hence, these tests may be regarded to be confirmatory tests to structural behavior of Q690 steel welded H-sections under combined compression and bending. It should be noted that the measured failure loads were compared with the predicted resistances of these H-sections based on their measured geometrical and material properties according to various design rules given in EN1993-1-1, ANSI/AISC 360-16 and GB 50017-2003 respectively. Among all these three sets of design rules, EN1993-1-1 is shown to be effective and efficient in predicting resistances for high strength Q690 steel welded H-sections under combined compression and bending with properly selected parameters. Hence, EN1993-1-1 should be readily adopted by design and construction engineers in designing these Q690 steel welded H-sections under combined compression and bending.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • High-cycle fatigue performance of high-mast illumination pole bases with
           pre-existing cracks
    • Authors: Yihui Zhou; Mina Dawood; Bora Gencturk
      Pages: 463 - 472
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Yihui Zhou, Mina Dawood, Bora Gencturk
      This paper presents the results of high-cycle fatigue testing of high-mast illumination poles (HMIPs) with pre-existing cracks at the pole-to-base plate connection detail. Resonant bending fatigue tests were conducted on five pairs of HMIP base specimens at nominal stress ranges of 41.4MPa (±20.7MPa), 27.6MPa (±13.8MPa), 20.7MPa (±10.3MPa) and 6.9MPa (±3.4MPa). The length and depth of pre-existing cracks was measured and the propagation of the individual crack was monitored throughout the testing using an ultrasonic inspection technique. The experimental results suggested that the fatigue lives of the tested specimens can exceed the predicted life for AASHTO fatigue category E details and approach category D details even in the presence of pre-existing cracks. The results provide insight into the fatigue response of HMIP with pre-existing cracks at the base connections at very low stress ranges and high cycle counts. The findings suggest that the pre-defined constant amplitude fatigue limits for AASHTO details may not strictly apply to HMIP details with pre-existing cracks.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.020
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Buckling mechanism and global stability design method of
           buckling-restrained braces
    • Authors: Bin Wu; Junkai Lu; Yang Mei; Jian Zhang
      Pages: 473 - 487
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Bin Wu, Junkai Lu, Yang Mei, Jian Zhang
      Design formulae of buckling-restrained braces, considering the stiffening part of the core and the effect of friction, are proposed, based on theoretical analyses of the buckling mechanism of the steel core in the presence of a gap between the core and the restraining member. The theoretical analyses are validated by finite element analyses. Compared to existing methods, the results of the proposed analyses are generally better and show the closest correlation with the results of the finite element analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Shear strength of tapered end web panels
    • Authors: Mohammed H. Serror; Basem H. Abdelbaset; Hesham S. Sayed
      Pages: 513 - 525
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Mohammed H. Serror, Basem H. Abdelbaset, Hesham S. Sayed
      Hot rolled beams can show insufficient strength or inertia and result in the utilization of steel plate girders in the design. For cost-effective design, tapered plate girders are employed, where the depth of the end web panel is linearly varied with the panel length. In most of design codes, the shear capacity is well estimated for prismatic web panels, with reasonable accuracy. The tapered web panels, however, are lacking investigation. The objective of this numerical study is to examine the effect of different geometric parameters of tapered end web panel on the elastic shear buckling and the nominal shear strength. The geometric parameters in question are, namely: tapering angle; tapering direction; panel aspect ratio; web slenderness ratio; flange to web thickness ratio; and attachment of transversal vertical stiffeners to panel ends. The finite element method has been employed, where linear elastic buckling and nonlinear inelastic post-buckling analyses have been performed. The numerical results have been verified against classical web buckling theory, design codes, and experimental results published in the literature. Furthermore, regression analysis has been performed for the obtained results, where new design rules have been proposed for both elastic and nominal shear strength. It has been reported that tapered end web panels possess post-buckling strength that is highly dependent on the geometric parameters.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Modeling of high-strength composite special moment frames (C-SMFs) for
           seismic analysis
    • Authors: Zhichao Lai; Zhihui Huang; Amit H. Varma
      Pages: 526 - 537
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Zhichao Lai, Zhihui Huang, Amit H. Varma
      This paper presents the development and validation of a fiber-based numerical modeling approach that can be used to evaluate the seismic response of high-strength composite special moment frames (C-SMFs). The high-strength C-SFMs consist of: (i) CFT columns made from high-strength materials (F y ≥525MPa and f' c ≥70MPa), (ii) wide flange (WF) steel beams, and (iii) double split-tee (DST) beam-to-column connections. The fiber-based numerical modeling approach uses fiber-based finite elements to model CFT columns and WF steel beams, and uses spring elements to model DST connections. Consequently, the accuracy of the fiber-based numerical modeling approach depends fundamentally on: (i) uniaxial effective stress-strain (σ-ε) relationships assumed for the fiber-based finite elements modeling high-strength CFT columns and WF beams, and (ii) effective force-displacement (P-∆) relationships assumed for the spring elements modeling DST connections. This paper develops these critical input relationships using a three-step approach. The first step consists of developing and benchmarking detailed 3D nonlinear FEM models of high-strength CFT columns, WF steel beams, and DST connections. The second step consists of conducting parametric studies using the benchmarked FEM models. The third step consists of developing effective σ-ε and P-∆ relationships using results from the parametric studies, and validating these relationships using results from experimental studies. The fiber-based numerical modeling approach for C-SMFs is validated by using them to predict the lateral force-deformation response of C-SMFs subassemblies. The benchmarked numerical modeling approach is recommended for conducting nonlinear time-history analysis of C-SMFs and evaluating their seismic response.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.018
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Valencia bridge fire tests: Experimental study of a composite bridge under
           fire
    • Authors: Jose Alos-Moya; Ignacio Paya-Zaforteza; Antonio Hospitaler; Paula Rinaudo
      Pages: 538 - 554
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Jose Alos-Moya, Ignacio Paya-Zaforteza, Antonio Hospitaler, Paula Rinaudo
      The consequences of bridge fires and the lack of guidelines on the evaluation of the fire resistance of bridges have triggered a lot of recent research. Most of these studies are based on numerical models and thus need validation by experimental studies. This paper aims to bridge this gap by describing a battery of open air fire tests carried out under an experimental bridge at the Universitat Politècnica de València in Valencia, Spain. The bridge, with a 6m span and a composite deck with two steel I-girders supporting an RC slab, was submitted to four different fire scenarios similar to those of real bridge fires, although smaller in magnitude. Results show that: (a) maximum gas temperatures are reached in the region between the I-girders, (b) as gas and steel temperatures vary significantly along the longitudinal axis of the bridge, it is unrealistic to assume a longitudinally uniform gas or girder temperature (c) temperatures in the bottom flange and the web of the I-girders are very similar and significantly higher than top web temperatures, and (d) the magnitude of the fire load and its position are key factors in the bridge response. This study is of major importance as it enables the validation of the numerical models used in bridge fire engineering and is a crucial step towards the development of a performance-based approach for the design of bridges against fires. The information given will also be useful to those interested in carrying out open air experimental bridge fire tests.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Structural behaviors of deficient steel CHS short columns strengthened
           using CFRP
    • Authors: Masoumeh Karimian; Kambiz Narmashiri; Mehdi Shahraki; Omid Yousefi
      Pages: 555 - 564
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Masoumeh Karimian, Kambiz Narmashiri, Mehdi Shahraki, Omid Yousefi
      Steel structures may need rehabilitation and restoration due to different reasons including design and calculation errors, lack of proper implementation, change in application, damage as a result of random loads, exhaustion and corrosion, and natural disasters such as earthquakes, fires, and environmental conditions. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) is one of the advanced materials for strengthening structures. This study aims to examine the structural behaviors and impact of CFRP on strengthening steel Circular Hollow Section (CHS) short columns with initial horizontal or vertical deficiency. A total of six steel CHS columns were studied in laboratory, and the same plus two more specimens were modeled using ABAQUS software. Static gradual compression force was applied in laboratory, and the Riks Non-Linear Analysis Method was utilized in simulation to observe the plastic zone buckling after post buckling. The results showed that deficiency led to reduce bearing capacity of steel columns and the impact of horizontal deficiency was higher than the vertical one. Using CFRP for strengthening deficient columns showed that CFRP yielded appropriate impact on rising bearing capacity rise, reducing stress in the damage location, and preventing local deformation (local buckling) around the deficiency appropriately.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.021
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Seismic risk assessment of cold-formed steel shear wall systems
    • Authors: Smail Kechidi; Luís Macedo; José Miguel Castro; Nouredine Bourahla
      Pages: 565 - 579
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Smail Kechidi, Luís Macedo, José Miguel Castro, Nouredine Bourahla
      This paper presents the probabilistic seismic performance and risk assessment of cold-formed steel (CFS) sheathed shear wall panel (SWP) structures adopting conventional steel moment-resisting frame (MRF) systems as a benchmark with the aim of exploring the viability of using CFS-SWP as a new structural solution in seismic prone regions. A set of 12 building structures of both systems, with 2-, 4- and 5-storey, have been designed for two seismic intensity levels. To simulate their nonlinear behaviour, the structures were modelled adopting recently developed deteriorating hysteresis models. Based on probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA), a site-specific selection of ground motion records for Incremental Dynamic Analyses (IDA) has been carried out adopting the Conditional Mean Spectrum (CMS) as a more realistic target response spectrum. Subsequently, the seismic risk was evaluated over the structure lifetime (i.e., 50years) in terms of the annual probability of exceeding the Damage Limitation, No-Local Collapse and Near Collapse limit states. The importance and usefulness of the risk metrics are highlighted and adopted as an indicator to explore the behavioural features of both structural systems. Overall, the assessment procedure showed that both systems present an acceptable seismic performance and therefore the CFS-SWP can be seen as a reliable structural solution to achieve performance-based objectives in seismic regions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Behaviour of shear tab connections in column removal scenario
    • Authors: Hossein Daneshvar; Robert G. Driver
      Pages: 580 - 593
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Hossein Daneshvar, Robert G. Driver
      Shear tabs are one of the simplest and the most cost-effective connections in steel frame construction and their behaviour under conventional loading has been well studied. However, their behaviour is highly complex under the scenario when an adjacent column is compromised and this is the subject of ongoing research. In this study, detailed finite element analyses of shear tab connections with three, four or five bolts are performed and the results are compared with available experiments. Characteristic phenomena of the connection, including rotational capacity and failure modes under the column removal scenario, are studied and discussed. The results are compared with available codes and guidelines and new equations are proposed that predict the rotational capacities of shear tab connections for progressive collapse analysis. The shear-axial-moment interaction curves for the connections under study are developed and examined, and conclusions are made based on the observed behaviour. The research uses high-fidelity finite element models of shear tab connections to study both load evolution and failure modes. These models shed more light on the performance and the sources of ductility in shear tab connections. The results can be used to select suitable connection modelling parameters for progressive collapse evaluations of steel frames with similar shear connections.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Disproportionate collapse of 3D steel-framed structures exposed to various
           compartment fires
    • Authors: Jian Jiang; Guo-Qiang Li
      Pages: 594 - 607
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Jian Jiang, Guo-Qiang Li
      This paper numerically investigates disproportionate collapse resistance of three-dimensional steel-framed structures exposed to compartment fires. The effect of fire protections (low, medium, high) as well as fire locations (corner, edge and interior) on collapse modes and load redistribution schemes is studied. The results show that the frames do not collapse immediately after this local failure but experience a relatively long withstanding period of at least 60min. This is attributed to the increasing deflection of heated slabs, resulting in increased lateral displacements of adjacent cool columns which governs their buckling. This indicates that the “fire rating” of a structure against global collapse is somewhat 1-hour longer than that of individual members. It is found that the fire protection of steel members has significant effect on the resistance of structures against fire-induced disproportionate collapse. The frames with a medium level of fire protection (2-hour fire rating for columns) withstand the fire. A comparison between 2D and 3D models shows that the 2D model produces conservative results by underestimating the collapse resistance of structures. It cannot capture the load redistribution in a 3D model where more loads are distributed along the short span than those along the long span. The presence of slabs for delaying the global collapse cannot also be simulated by a 2D model. It is recommended that the fire protection of perimeter columns should be enhanced to 2-hour fire rating and slabs should be protected to delay and prevent the collapse of structures.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • An analytical model for estimating restrainer design forces in bolted
           buckling-restrained braces
    • Authors: M. Dehghani; R. Tremblay
      Pages: 608 - 620
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): M. Dehghani, R. Tremblay
      This article presents an analytical model to predict the normal thrust force for the design of the restraining system of all-steel buckling-restrained brace (BRB) members. The proper design of the restraining mechanism is key to obtaining a stable inelastic response from BRBs. Compared with existing models, the presented model accounts for the cyclic strain hardening behaviour of the BRB's steel core, the flexibility of the restraining system, the flow of frictional forces, the longitudinal variation of the core axial load and strain, and Poisson's effects on the core cross-section properties. The buckled shape of the core and the resulting normal thrust and frictional forces are evaluated along the core length using an iterative approach to satisfy the force equilibrium and geometric compatibility. The model predicts the maximum compressive and tensile loads resisted by the brace, buckling wavelengths, and the magnitude and distribution of the normal thrust and the frictional force along the core. Using a simplified stability analysis, the required restraining stiffness to achieve a stable inelastic response and avoid excessive gap opening is provided. A method to estimate the available restraining stiffness of a typical bolted all-steel BRB is presented and the internal actions in the restraining system resulting from the local buckling of the core are obtained through a simple and practical analysis. The analytical model is validated against the results of physical tests and finite element analyses for two different BRB members. The model was found to provide sufficiently accurate results for typical earthquake engineering applications.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T05:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Development of a self-centering buckling restrained brace using
           cross-anchored pre-stressed steel strands
    • Authors: Haishen Wang; Xin Nie; Peng Pan
      Pages: 621 - 632
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Haishen Wang, Xin Nie, Peng Pan
      A refined self-centering buckling restrained brace (SC-BRB), which provides good energy dissipation and self-centering ability for structures, is proposed. The SC-BRB system is made of two tubes and core plates. To improve the energy dissipation performance under earthquake excitation, the low-yield-point steel core plates are restrained by the middle and outer tubes. The self-centering capacity is provided by a group of pre-stressed steel strands coupled with two cover plates and the middle and outer tubes. Cross-anchored technology is used to improve the deformability of the pre-stressed strands, which also improves the deformability of the SC-BRB. To study the energy dissipation performance and self-centering ability of the proposed SC-BRB, two specimens using cross-anchored pre-stressed strands were fabricated and tested. Finite element analysis using ABAQUS was carried out to simulate the behavior of the SC-BRB. Based on the finite element analyses, a parametric study was conducted by using the initial pre-stress value and cross-section area of the steel core plates as design parameters to obtain the optimal values of these two parameters. The SC-BRBs with the appropriate parameters exhibited good energy dissipation and self-centering capacity up to a deformation that equals 1% of the brace length. The finite element analysis results agree well with the physical test results, and the two design parameters are interrelated and both have significant effects on the energy dissipation and self-centering ability of the SC-BRB.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T05:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Residual stresses formation in multi-pass weldment: A numerical and
           experimental study
    • Authors: Gancho Genchev; Nikolay Doynov; Ralf Ossenbrink; Vesselin Michailov; Gizo Bokuchava; Peter Petrov
      Pages: 633 - 641
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Gancho Genchev, Nikolay Doynov, Ralf Ossenbrink, Vesselin Michailov, Gizo Bokuchava, Peter Petrov
      In this study, the residual stresses distribution induced by multi-pass arc welding of the steel S355J2+N are investigated experimentally and numerically. An extended approach is used for the simulations, which considers the change of the local microstructure properties due to multiple reheating. Experimental material data obtained from physical welding simulations with Gleeble® are used for the model calibration. The experimental stress study is performed using a neutron diffraction method on a fourier stress diffractometer. Numerical analysis of the welding stresses formation in the weldment is performed and compared to the experimental study. The results explain the influence of the welding thermal history on the resulting local thermo-mechanical properties in the heat-affected zone and, thus, on the residual stress distribution. The consideration of the local microstructure properties in the welding simulation leads to a significant increase in accuracy of the numerical results. The major influence factor on the residual stress formation is the change in the interpass microstructure yield strength. When a root pass with short cooling times is subjected to re-austenitisation in the fine-grained zone, the yield strength increases in this area and affects consequently the residual stress distribution. The influence of the reheating is detectable in the depth of the weldment, but it is less significant for the residual stress formation near the surface of the welded joint.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T05:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • ULCF assessment of X52 piping steel by means of cyclic bending tests
    • Authors: J.C.R. Pereira; A.M.P. de Jesus; J. Xavier; A.A. Fernandes
      Pages: 663 - 674
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): J.C.R. Pereira, A.M.P. de Jesus, J. Xavier, A.A. Fernandes
      Pipelines and piping components may experience large cyclic deformations during a reduced number of cycles (Ni =1–100cycles), when subjected to extreme cyclic loading events (e.g. hurricanes, support settlements, earthquakes). In accordance with these loading scenarios, a lateral movement can be applied to the pipeline inducing bending stresses that gradually promotes strain localization, due to progressive plastic instabilities (buckling), damage evolution and final failure. This work aims at characterizing ultra-low cycle fatigue (ULCF) behaviour of the X52 piping steel under bending and local buckling state. An experimental program was carried out to derive ULCF data for smooth, notched and flat-grooved specimen geometries under cyclic bending. Furthermore, the small-scale tests were simulated in ABAQUS® with the objective of computing the parameters governing the fatigue damage models. The classical Coffin-Manson strain-life relation commonly used in the low cycle fatigue (LCF) regime is proposed to model the fatigue lives. In addition, the Xue model, particularly dependent of the monotonic fracture strain was also used for the prediction of the number of cycles until the crack initiation. The numerical data obtained with these models are compared, being achieved similar fatigue lives predictions for notched plane specimens. For the case of flat-grooved specimens which provides plain strain conditions, an overestimation from the Coffin-Manson relation was observed while the Xue model reproduces very good results for both specimens' series.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T05:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.020
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Cyclic tests on corrugated steel plate shear walls with openings in
           modularized-constructions
    • Authors: Yang Ding; En-Feng Deng; Liang Zong; Xiao-Meng Dai; Ni Lou; Yang Chen
      Pages: 675 - 691
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Yang Ding, En-Feng Deng, Liang Zong, Xiao-Meng Dai, Ni Lou, Yang Chen
      Thanks to the superiority in rapid and economic construction and the cooperativity with realization of building function, modular construction provides an excellent scheme for conventional on-site buildings with repetitive units. Corrugated steel plate is a widely adopted and efficient lateral force resisting component in modular construction. The extensive use is motivated by the large initial stiffness, high level of energy dissipation capacity and the ability to accommodate openings. However, it is lack of information regarding the detailed seismic behavior of corrugated steel plate shear walls (CSPSWs), particularly walls with openings. In this paper, five full-scale quasi-static tests on CSPSWs, with and without opening, were carried out to evaluate their seismic performance. The results reveal that although initial stiffness of CSPSWs is significantly reduced due to the opening, the ultimate strength and energy dissipation ratio are averagely 14.4% and 28.7% higher than the CSPSW without opening. Two different lateral-force resistance mechanisms are observed and discussed in details. Meanwhile, several design recommendations are also given for CSPSWs, which will provide useful references for the application of CSPSWs in seismic region.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T05:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Analytical deformation characteristics and shear capacity of SRC-RC
           transfer columns
    • Authors: Wei Huang; Zhi Zhou; Jili Liu
      Pages: 692 - 700
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Wei Huang, Zhi Zhou, Jili Liu
      In a steel reinforced concrete-reinforced concrete, SRC-RC, transfer column, the steel is truncated, and this leads to distortion of the internal force transmission. According to the internal force and deformation characteristics of transfer column, the location of the inflection point was studied. Then, the shear capacity of transfer column was investigated, and the results were compared with experimental results in references. The finite element model of SRC-RC transfer column was developed by ABAQUS, considering the effect of different confinement around concrete. The model has been validated against published experimental results. Finally, parametric studies were performed to evaluate the security and rationality of the shear capacity formula in Chinese code by FEM. The results indicated that the shear capacity calculated by the existing specification is unsafe, and a modified formula was proposed by considering the internal force and deformation characteristics of transfer column.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T05:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.024
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Mechanical behaviors of the Assembled Hub (AH) joints subjected to bending
           moment
    • Authors: Qinghua Han; Yiming Liu; Jinyuan Zhang; Ying Xu
      Pages: 806 - 822
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 138
      Author(s): Qinghua Han, Yiming Liu, Jinyuan Zhang, Ying Xu
      To satisfy the demand for assembled construction of single-layer reticulated domes, a novel Assembled Hub (AH) joint with good mechanical performance and economic benefit is introduced in this paper. Two available connection types are developed to satisfy different engineering requirements. The theoretical solutions of the elastic stiffness and the bearing capacity of the new joint system are proposed based on the component method. A series of bending tests were conducted to investigate the failure mechanism of AH joints, and the FE analysis was carried out to simulate and verify the mechanical behaviors of AH joints. Finally, the strengthening effects of two kinds of stiffeners are carefully compared and discussed. The results indicate that the AH joints type I show excellent ductility in the loading process. The failure of joints is caused by the plastic instability of the hub or the excessive plastic deformation of the closure plate. The plastic moment resistance of joint is determined by the thickness, height, outer diameter and material of the hub, as well as the bolts pitch. By contract, the AH joints type II display lower ductility but higher bearing capacities in the loading process. The failure mode is the connection failure. The ring stiffeners have a better strengthening effect than the radial stiffeners. A comparison between the computations and the experiments highlights the validity of the suggested bearing capacity formulas, which can be further used to guide the joint design.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T05:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.08.026
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
       
  • Composite steel joist analysis using experimental stiffness factor from
           push-out tests
    • Authors: Sergio J. Yanez; David W. Dinehart; Sridhar Santhanam
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 137
      Author(s): Sergio J. Yanez, David W. Dinehart, Sridhar Santhanam
      The stud anchor stiffness coefficient is vital for computing the deflections of composite steel joists (CSJ), although the way to capture this value can be challenging. A commonly used experimental method to compute this coefficient is the push-out test presented in EN-1994. However, the method does not address the incorporation of the steel metal deck currently used in the vast majority of composite decks. In order to tackle this problem, we present a modified version of the push-out experiment to better determine the stiffness coefficient when the stud anchor is placed in the weak or strong side with respect to the steel deck stiffener. Furthermore, 13mm and 16mm diameter studs are used in order to investigate lower capacities and to compare with the standard 19mm diameter connector. An analytical solution of the CSJ system which incorporates the stud anchor stiffness coefficient is utilized to predict the overall system deflection when the effective composite moment of inertia of the joist is included. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of placing the stud in the strong side, and the accuracy of the enhanced push-out test.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T02:46:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2017)
       
  • Experimental study of opening effects on mid-span steel plate shear walls
    • Authors: Sina Nassernia; Hossein Showkati
      Pages: 8 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 137
      Author(s): Sina Nassernia, Hossein Showkati
      This article examines the theoretical and experimental aspects of specific types of tensile-braced mid-span steel plate shear walls and the effects of circular opening on the system. The mid-span implementation of shear walls is meant to avoid the need for strengthening the surrounding principal columns. This study was conducted on a rigid frame. The shear wall system is designed and manipulated in the middle of the frame and the bearings are modelled on that in detail. A related system was made in the laboratory scale 80∗80cm and cyclic loading is applied to the system. Cyclic loading is gradually applied with a hydraulic jack, considering fully the amount of allowable and final drifts by evaluating the amount of strain and displacement of critical points by installed strain gauges and LVDTs. The results indicate appropriate and acceptable behaviour of the system even in high levels of drift. Finally, the model was designed on the basis of the finite element method to authenticate the experimental results that confirm the system's efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.05.021
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2017)
       
  • Behavior of single bolt bearing on high strength steel plate
    • Authors: Yan-Bo Wang; Yi-Fan Lyu; Guo-Qiang Li; J.Y. Richard Liew
      Pages: 19 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 137
      Author(s): Yan-Bo Wang, Yi-Fan Lyu, Guo-Qiang Li, J.Y. Richard Liew
      This paper presents an experimental program investigating the behavior of high strength steel connections consisting of one bolt in double shear. A total of 24 bolted connections fabricated from three grades of high strength steel with the nominal yield strengths of 550MPa, 690MPa and 890MPa were tested. The effects of end distance, edge distance and steel grade on the bolt bearing behavior were evaluated. The bolt hole elongation due to bolt bearing on high strength steel plate was measured and its implication on the plate bearing resistance was discussed. The test results were compared with Eurocode 3 and AISC 360-10 predictions and it was found that Eurocode 3 could be used conservatively to predict the bolt bearing resistance on high strength steel with nominal yield strength up to 890MPa whereas AISC 360-10 method tends to overestimate the bearing resistance of the bolted connection. A regression analysis was performed based on the test data and those from the literature so that a more general method was proposed to predict the bolt bearing resistance on normal strength and high strength steel plate. Splitting failure was observed as a transitional failure mode between tearout failure and net cross-section failure. Splitting failure showed a lower resistance than the bolted connection with tear-out failure, therefore, a reduction factor was proposed to improve the prediction. The upper and lower boundaries of end distance to edge distance ratio for splitting failure were theoretically derived and experimentally verified.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2017)
       
  • Seismic behavior of circular TSRC columns with studs on the steel section
    • Authors: Xuhong Zhou; Xingzhen Zang; Xuanding Wang; Jiepeng Liu; Y. Frank Chen
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 137
      Author(s): Xuhong Zhou, Xingzhen Zang, Xuanding Wang, Jiepeng Liu, Y. Frank Chen
      The tubed steel-reinforced-concrete (TSRC) column can be interpreted as a special steel-reinforced-concrete (SRC) column where the reinforcement cage is replaced with an outer encased thin-walled steel tube for confining the concrete core. In this study, seven circular TSRC columns using high-strength concrete (f cu,150 =97.6MPa) were tested under combined constant axial compression and lateral cyclic load. Two primary system parameters, the axial load ratio and the arrangement of shear studs, were considered in this test. The test results indicate that the TSRC specimens exhibit excellent ductility and plastic deformation ability. The deformation of the steel section develops coherently with the high-strength concrete for both the specimens with shear studs on the steel section and those without, due mainly to the confinement from the steel tube. The lateral strength, ductility, and deformability of the circular TSRC specimens are not effectively enhanced by installing shear studs on the steel section. The axial load-moment interaction diagrams of the specimens were developed according to the ACI and EC4 methods. The predictions from the EC4 method appear to better match with the experimental results.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:22:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.04.023
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2017)
       
  • Response to seismic sequences of short-period structures equipped with
           Buckling-Restrained Braces located on the lakebed zone of Mexico City
    • Authors: Héctor Guerrero; Jorge Ruíz-García; J. Alberto Escobar; Amador Terán-Gilmore
      Pages: 37 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 137
      Author(s): Héctor Guerrero, Jorge Ruíz-García, J. Alberto Escobar, Amador Terán-Gilmore
      As part of an ongoing research program, this paper presents the results of a numerical study of steel frames with and without Buckling-Restrained Braces (BRBs), representative of essential buildings (e.g. hospitals). The aim of this study is to understand the effects of seismic sequences on this type of structures when located on the soft soil of Mexico City. For that purpose, three-, six-, and nine-storey frames were designed under diverse criteria and analysed under artificial sequences to understand the influence of BRBs on the peak and residual inter-storey drifts demands. The results showed that the effect of aftershocks is very significant when their intensity, in terms of peak-ground velocity, is similar to that of the mainshock. It is also shown that, although aftershock effects may not be eliminated, a proper design based on the concept of dual systems could help to mitigate aftershock effects. Based on the analytical results, expressions to estimate the magnitude of peak and residual inter-storey drift demands under mainshocks and the sequence mainshock-aftershock are offered as a helpful guide to structural designers.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T02:55:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2017)
       
 
 
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