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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2298 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 192 of 192 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Agregat     Open Access  
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Building & Management     Open Access  
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access  
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access  
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)


Journal Cover Journal of Constructional Steel Research
  [SJR: 1.746]   [H-I: 59]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0143-974X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3118 journals]
  • Automated pin-dot marking effects on steel bridge component fatigue
    • Authors: M. Noernberg; G.S. Prinz
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 142
      Author(s): M. Noernberg, G.S. Prinz
      During fabrication of multi-piece steel bridge assemblies, markings are often made on the steel surface to identify/track individual pieces or to provide reference for fabrication layout or later erection. Automated marking methods such as computer numerically controlled (CNC) pin-dot marking offer fabrication efficiencies; however, for marked steel sections subjected to frequent or repeated loading (i.e. bridge girders) many code specifications require experimental testing to verify any marking effects on fatigue capacity. In this study, the effects of automated pin-dot markings on the fatigue capacity of A709-Gr50 bridge steel are experimentally investigated from 13 specimens considering 2 marking frequencies (corresponding to marking speeds of 50in./min and 10in./min), 2 applied stress ranges (35ksi and 45ksi), and 2 material orientations (both longitudinal and transverse plate rolling directions). Results from the 13 high-cycle fatigue tests, along with other fatigue test results from the literature indicate that the surface markings from the automated marking systems have no effect on the fatigue capacity of the A709-Gr50 plate. All marked specimens achieved higher fatigue capacities than would be expected for unmarked specimens meeting the AASHTO fatigue detail category ‘A’ designation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Theoretical and experimental study on flexural behavior of prestressed
           steel plate girders
    • Authors: Mahgoub Elhaj Mahgoub Kambal; Yanmin Jia
      Pages: 5 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 142
      Author(s): Mahgoub Elhaj Mahgoub Kambal, Yanmin Jia
      Applying prestressing techniques increases the load carrying capacity of girders, leading to substantial saving in construction material. In addition, prestressing a steel girder reduces its deflection under external loads, and thus, enhances its flexural behavior. The aim of this study is to use a finite-element formulation to verify the effectiveness of the prestressing technique with respect to the flexural behavior of a steel plate girder. The strength of two steel box girders is tested, one with prestressing (prestressed girder) and one without (control girder). Based on experimental results, a theoretical model is proposed for predicting the flexural resistance of a steel box girder with external tendons. To improve the calculation accuracy, finite-element formulation is applied to prestressing and external loading stages of the girder and external tendons, which are regarded as composite structures, and the interactions between them are fully considered. The friction between tendons and deviators is considerably small. Therefore, the friction resistance between the tendons can be neglected during the force analysis. The strain in the prestressed girder is distributed linearly along its height, indicating that the calculation performed using the plane section assumption is consistent with the actual situation for the same external load. The experimental and theoretically calculated values of strain in the bottom plate of a steel girder and tension force increment for deflections at mid-span and quarter span are in good agreement. This indicates that the finite-element formulation proposed in this study is correct and efficient.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Seismic response of concentrically braced frames with staggered braces in
           split-x configurations
    • Authors: P.C. Ashwin Kumar; Dipti Ranjan Sahoo; Abhay Kumar
      Pages: 17 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 142
      Author(s): P.C. Ashwin Kumar, Dipti Ranjan Sahoo, Abhay Kumar
      Special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) are used in high-seismic regions to provide adequate lateral strength, stiffness, and ductility to a structural system. Although these frames help the structure to survive the lateral seismic actions, high uplifting/settling forces in the bracing columns may, sometimes, damage the structural integrity. This detrimental effect can be mitigated by distributing the concentrated uplifting forces among the columns using braces in staggered arrangement. Thus, the primary aim of this study is to understand the seismic response of SCBFs with staggered braces arranged in split-X configurations as compared to the conventional single-stack braced frame. Six different brace arrangements are considered for a five-story steel braced frame. Nonlinear static analyses are conducted to evaluate the lateral strength, ductility, and yielding mechanism of these study frames. In addition, nonlinear dynamic analyses have been carried out to assess the inter-story drift response and the occurrence of soft-story mechanisms in the braced frames. Analysis results highlighted the performance of staggered braced frames nearly at par with the conventional single stack arrangement. Axial force demand at the column bases are also remarkably reduced in case of staggered braces. Hence, to improve the performance of staggered braced frame a revised design method was implemented which resulted in improved lateral strength, ductility, and yield mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Experimental and numerical study on temperature distribution of square
           hollow section joints
    • Authors: Jolanta Bączkiewicz; Mikko Malaska; Sami Pajunen; Markku Heinisuo
      Pages: 31 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 142
      Author(s): Jolanta Bączkiewicz, Mikko Malaska, Sami Pajunen, Markku Heinisuo
      This paper presents the experimental and numerical results of a temperature distribution of the unprotected square hollow section (SHS) joints in a standard fire test. The experiment's programme included three fire tests in which six specimens with different joint configurations, T-, Y-, K- and KT-joint, and with different brace dimensions were examined. This paper introduces the idea of the application of component method calculations under fire conditions. The main goal of the study was to develop the temperature distribution in each component of the connection. During the tests, the temperatures in certain locations of the joint area were measured. The results indicated that the joint-area temperature field varies remarkably among different joint types. Hence, the joint should be divided into components with the same temperature distribution. This suggests that the component method for calculating the mechanical properties of structural joints at ambient conditions may be used to obtain the joint temperatures and as a consequence the behaviour of the whole unprotected steel structure. To develop the component method, a finite element (FE) model was used to simulate the joint behaviour under fire conditions. Experimental results have been used to validate and verify the numerical model created in Abaqus/CAE software to develop the equivalent component factor for each region of the joint in further studies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Structural response of unprotected and protected slim floors in fire
    • Authors: Naveed Alam; Ali Nadjai; Faris Ali; Walid Nadjai
      Pages: 44 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 142
      Author(s): Naveed Alam, Ali Nadjai, Faris Ali, Walid Nadjai
      Slim floor systems are a latest addition to the existing construction types and are currently being used for various construction purposes. Preference of slim floors over traditional composite floors is due to their ease of construction, when combined with steel decking. Considerable amount experimental work on fire response of slim floors has been conducted since 1980s. Though, these floors offer a better fire resistance, however, fire protection materials including intumescent coatings are often used in situations where a higher fire resistance is desired. Fire tests have also been conducted to analyse the performance of intumescent coating applied on steel elements as a protection material. This study presents a finite element analysis approach to model the behaviour of unprotected and protected slim floors in fire. Initially, FE analysis has been performed to model the thermo-mechanical behaviour of unprotected slim floors and results obtained have been verified against the reported test data. In the middle part, thermal behaviour of an intumescent coating, applied on a steel element as a fire protection, has been modelled and verified. The verified models have finally been combined to perform thermo-mechanical analysis for slim floors protected with intumescent coating. Results show that the protected slim floors offer a higher fire resistance as the temperature of the steel section remains within 400°C even after 60-minute standard fire exposure. Lower temperatures in steel result in lesser reductions of strength and stiffness, hence, the protected slim floors undergo lesser deflections and offer higher fire resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Seismic design and performance of SPSWs with beam-connected web plates
    • Authors: Yigit Ozcelik; Patricia M. Clayton
      Pages: 55 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 142
      Author(s): Yigit Ozcelik, Patricia M. Clayton
      Steel plate shear walls with beam-connected web plates (B-SPSWs) are an alternative steel plate shear wall (SPSW) configuration in which the web plate edges are detached from the columns to avoid high flexural demands in the columns resulting from tension field action. Releasing the columns from the web plates results in development of a partial tension field instead of the full tension field observed in conventional SPSWs, which changes system behavior and member demands significantly. A numerical study is undertaken to assess the seismic performance of B-SPSWs designed for low-seismic regions. Equations for the web plate lateral strength and the beam axial force, shear force, and moment demands are provided. Following two design approaches, eighteen B-SPSWs possessing different geometric characteristics are designed based on the provided equations. Each B-SPSW is subjected to forty ground motions representing two seismic hazard levels. The seismic performance of these B-SPSWs is evaluated based on maximum interstory drifts, member demand-to-capacity ratios, and beam-column connection rotations. The results indicate that B-SPSWs show a promising seismic behavior and may be particularly attractive lateral force-resisting alternatives for regions of low and moderate seismicity.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Study on mechanical characteristics of accordion metallic damper
    • Authors: Mehrtash Motamedi; Fariborz Nateghi-A.
      Pages: 68 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 142
      Author(s): Mehrtash Motamedi, Fariborz Nateghi-A.
      This paper presents Accordion Metallic Damper (AMD) as a unique energy dissipating system that originated from the concept of thin-walled tubes used in machinery as the shock absorber. The AMD can perform as a repairable hysteretic fuse in structural frames to enhance the lateral ductility, energy-dissipation and damping potential of the frame systems during earthquakes. The AMD consists of the corrugated thin-walled tubes installed at the brace connection to the frame. The lateral displacement of the braced frame causes yielding of the AMD in axial deformation mechanism and dissipates energy due to forming of plastic hinges along the corrugated tubes in reversed cyclic deformations. In order to evaluate the performance of the AMD for upgrading the seismic behavior of the structures a series of quasi-static cyclic tests were conducted on pre-fabricated corrugated thin-walled tubes and hysteretic load-deformation response, lateral strength, initial stiffness, and dissipated energy was investigated. Numerical studies were also carried out to provide a large parameter results to explore the effect of geometry parameters such as shape, thickness, diameter and length of the corrugated tube on the mechanical properties. The analytical model was created based on finite elements method and nonlinear inelastic analysis with considering large deformation capacity was employed for these studies. The results showed that the AMD exhibited enhanced energy-dissipation and damping potential with stable hysteresis loops and confirmed that the AMD is an excellent energy-dissipating device that can be used for upgrading the seismic behavior of framed structures.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Assessing the reliability of local buckling of plates for mild and high
           strength steels
    • Authors: N. Schillo; A. Taras; M. Feldmann
      Pages: 86 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 142
      Author(s): N. Schillo, A. Taras, M. Feldmann
      In the current Eurocode 3-1-5 [1] for local buckling, the resistance curve used to represent the reduction factor of plated elements due to local failure is based on the so-called Winter-curve, derived on a semi-empirical approach by George Winter in 1947. This design curve represents the mean reduction values achieved in the experiments conducted by Winter and other researchers. However, when applying the safety concept of EN 1990 [2], an additional safety factor γ M is necessary to ascertain a defined level of failure probability. Currently, this factor is set to 1.0 for applications in building structures. In this paper 34 stub column tests on welded, squared box sections of steel grade S500 up to S960 are described. In combination with an experimental database on stub column tests summarised in Ref. [3], a new, optimised resistance curve is derived which could act as an alternative to the Winter curve. Additionally, both functions are evaluated in regard to the safety standard EN 1990 [2] with focus on the resulting γ M. As γ M represents the safety factor for the actual material and geometric properties, which are not known by the designer, the more decisive safety factor is γ M *. This factor is used throughout Eurocode and refers to the nominal material and geometric properties. Its derivation and the influencing parameters are discussed and evaluated in the study at hand.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Reliability evaluation of the Eurocode model for fatigue assessment of
           steel bridges
    • Authors: John Leander
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): John Leander
      In European countries, the design of bridges is conducted following the specifications in the Eurocodes. For verification against fatigue of steel bridges, a simplified model is suggested based on a single vehicle load model together with λ factors to estimate a representative stress range. Since the release of the Eurocodes the accuracy of this format has been discussed and questioned. In the current paper, a probabilistic model for fatigue assessment is suggested estimating the load effect from bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) measurements. The probabilistic model has been used to estimate the reliability reached with the existing verification format for road bridges. The result shows a large scatter depending foremost on the bridge geometry and the traffic volume. A tentative calibration of the verification format has been performed and new functions for two of the λ factors have been derived. With these new functions a significant improvement in the consistency of the reliability level has been achieved. The study demonstrates the need for a more extensive calibration of the Eurocode model and indicates the parameters to focus on.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Cold-formed stainless steel RHSs/SHSs under combined compression and
           cyclic bending
    • Authors: Cheng Fang; Feng Zhou; Chenhao Luo
      Pages: 9 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Cheng Fang, Feng Zhou, Chenhao Luo
      This paper discusses the behaviour of stainless steel rectangular and square hollow sections (RHSs and SHSs) under combined constant compression and uniaxial cyclic bending. A total of 10 specimens were tested, covering a variety of section slenderness, axial load ratio, and bending direction. These test parameters were found to have evident influences on the local buckling resistance of the specimens. It was also observed that the current codified classification limits underestimate the ability of the stainless steel sections to develop plastic stresses. Moreover, the specimens exhibited low to moderate levels of ductility and energy dissipation capacity due to a relatively early occurrence of local buckling. A numerical study was subsequently conducted, shedding further light on the strength, stress pattern, ductility, and local failure behaviour of the specimens. A more extensive parametric study was then carried out, which provides basis for the proposal of a ductility-oriented design approach that aims to offer a quick yet reliable evaluation tool for predicting the available ductility supply of stainless steel RHSs/SHSs under different loading conditions. The rationality of the current major design codes for predicting the strength of stainless steel members was also evaluated, and it was found that the design codes tend to be conservative.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Hybrid strengthening of steel-concrete composite beam, part 1:
           Experimental investigation
    • Authors: Mahbube Subhani; Riyadh Al-Ameri; Muhammad Ikramul Kabir
      Pages: 23 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Mahbube Subhani, Riyadh Al-Ameri, Muhammad Ikramul Kabir
      Due to the partial interaction between steel beam and concrete slab, two neutral axes in a steel-concrete composite beam are formed, sometimes even at low load. As a result, both the soffit of the slab and beam can be in tension if slip is allowed in the composite beam which is a common case for numerous composite beams. While most the previous studies emphasised on the strengthening of the steel beam only, this study investigates the effect of strengthening both the concrete slab and steel beam. To perform this, two commonly used materials, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) and steel plates, are implemented in different combination. The arrangements include CFRP on both the slab and beam, steel plate on both concrete and steel, CFRP on concrete and steel beam separately, steel beam on the slab and beam separately and the hybrid technique which is the combination of both CFRP and steel plate. In addition, the techniques are also compared against the beams where almost full interactions are achieved to explore the suitability of the proposed scheme if partial interaction is absent. It is found that the hybrid strengthening can enhance the maximum load carrying capacity, stiffness and ductility of a steel-concrete composite beams when partial interaction is present between the concrete slab and the steel beam.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Robustness assessment of a steel self-centering moment-resisting frame
           under column loss
    • Authors: George Vasdravellis; Marco Baiguera; Dina Al-Sammaraie
      Pages: 36 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): George Vasdravellis, Marco Baiguera, Dina Al-Sammaraie
      The robustness of a seismically-designed steel self-centering moment-resisting frame (SC-MRF) under a column loss scenario is numerically assessed. The prototype SC-MRF is equipped with post-tensioned bars and optimised stainless steel energy dissipation devices. The SC-MRF was modelled in full detail using solid finite elements. The numerical model was calibrated using results from previous tests on post-tensioned beam-column connections and isolated component tests on the energy dissipation devices. Quasi-static analyses were carried out to identify the failure modes of the SC-MRF under a column loss scenario. Nonlinear dynamic analyses were also performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the frame and to assess the acceptance criteria against progressive collapse according to current formalised procedures. The results show that the SC-MRF has superior robustness and it can guarantee a high level of safety under a sudden column loss scenario due to the high fracture capacity of the stainless steel energy dissipation devices and the tie force resistance provided by the post-tensioned bars.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Design of steel wide-flange members for torsion applied through one flange
    • Authors: Muhammad Ahmad; Robert G. Driver; Logan Callele; Bo Dowswell
      Pages: 50 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Muhammad Ahmad, Robert G. Driver, Logan Callele, Bo Dowswell
      In industrial structures, it is common for steel wide-flange members to be subjected to torsional moments, which when applied through one flange can cause local cross-sectional distortion. Even when these moments are relatively small, the pragmatic design solution often chosen is to install stiffeners at the joint to engage the entire cross-section. However, these stiffeners may add unnecessary costs, which can be a significant portion of the overall cost of the structure in some cases. As such, elimination of these stiffeners wherever justifiable is desirable from an economic standpoint. Behaviour of unstiffened wide-flange members subjected to torsional loading through one flange is explored in this paper. Parametric numerical analysis studies have been performed to distinguish the effects of cross-sectional dimensions on the response of the member. In addition, nine full-scale laboratory tests were conducted to further the existing knowledge. The results of these studies provide the basis of a design procedure presented for determining whether or not the applied torque can be resisted locally without installing stiffeners.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.024
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Design of laterally restrained web-tapered steel structures through a
           stiffness reduction method
    • Authors: Merih Kucukler; Leroy Gardner
      Pages: 63 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Merih Kucukler, Leroy Gardner
      A stiffness reduction method for the design of laterally restrained web-tapered steel structures fabricated through the welding of individual steel plates is presented in this paper. Stiffness reduction functions for welded members, accounting fully for the deleterious influence of the spread of plasticity and imperfections on the structural resistance, are developed. The method is implemented through (i) dividing tapered members into prismatic segments along their lengths, (ii) reducing the flexural stiffness of each segment by means of the developed stiffness reduction functions considering the first-order forces and cross-section properties of each segment, (iii) performing Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis and (iv) making cross-section strength checks. Essentially, it is proposed to replace the current typical approach to structural design of conducting a simple elastic (with nominal stiffness) structural analysis followed by elaborate member checks with an integrated process utilising more sophisticated second-order analysis (with stiffness reduction) but very simple design checks. The distribution of internal forces within the structure is captured more accurately due to the allowance for imperfections, residual stresses and plasticity through stiffness reduction and the allowance for frame and member instability effects through the use of second-order analysis. The need for determining effective lengths and for conducting member buckling checks is also eliminated. Verification of the proposed approach against the results obtained from nonlinear shell finite element modelling is presented for various tapering geometries, slenderness values and loading conditions. Assessment of the proposed method against the European and North American steel design codes for tapered steel structures is also provided.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Fillet weld effective lengths in CHS X-connections. II: Finite element
           modelling, parametric study and design
    • Authors: Kyle Tousignant; Jeffrey A. Packer
      Pages: 77 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Kyle Tousignant, Jeffrey A. Packer
      Finite element (FE) modelling was performed to extend the results of a recently completed experimental test program to evaluate the static strength of fillet welds in X-connections between circular hollow sections (CHS). Non-linear FE models with weld fracture were validated by comparison of spot strains, load-deformation response, and fracture load with 12 experimental tests. Two hundred and fifty-six FE weld-critical CHS-to-CHS X-connections, with varied branch-to-chord diameter ratio, chord wall slenderness, branch inclination angle, and branch-to-chord thickness ratio, were analysed under quasi-static branch tension. The effect of these parameters on fillet weld strength is illustrated, and the structural reliability (or safety index) of North American specification provisions for weld effective lengths is confirmed. An alternative method for estimating fillet weld strength, with specific weld effective lengths, is proposed. Recommendations for a new design approach that meets the minimum target safety index in North America are made.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Approach for shear capacity evaluation of fire exposed steel and composite
    • Authors: V.K.R. Kodur; M.Z. Naser
      Pages: 91 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): V.K.R. Kodur, M.Z. Naser
      A simplified approach for evaluating degradation of shear capacity in fire exposed steel and composite beams is presented. This approach takes into account temperature-induced strength degradation, and sectional instability effects, as well as level of composite action developed at the beam-slab interface. The validity of the approach in evaluating shear capacity of fire exposed steel and composite beams is established by comparing predictions from the proposed approach with results obtained from finite element analysis and fire tests. Results generated from numerical studies and illustrative examples infer that the proposed approach can evaluate degradation in shear capacity of fire exposed steel and composite beams under wide range of loading scenarios.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Experimental study on continuous energy-dissipative steel columns under
           cyclic loading
    • Authors: Yan-Wen Li; Guo-Qiang Li; Fei-Fei Sun; Jian Jiang
      Pages: 104 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Yan-Wen Li, Guo-Qiang Li, Fei-Fei Sun, Jian Jiang
      This paper proposes a continuous energy-dissipative column (CEDC) system to improve the seismic resilience of framed structures. The CEDC system consists of two steel boundary columns connected by a series of replaceable steel strip dissipators (RSSD). The dual columns are continuous along the height of buildings and are connected by a rigid link at each storey level. The CEDC system is designed as a dual-function structural component under earthquake where inelastic deformation concentrates in the RSSDs, while the boundary columns remain elastic and sustain the gravity loads. Three full-scale cyclic loading tests are carried out to investigate the seismic behavior of CEDC systems and replaceability of RSSDs. The specimens differ in the distance between the dual columns, thickness and number of RSSDs, and loading schemes. The experimental results show that the proposed CEDC system has good load-bearing capacity and energy dissipation capacity. The equivalent damping ratios of all the specimens reach 0.4 for a storey drift ratio of 1/30. It was found that the boundary columns are in elastic when the steel strips first yield. The failure of CEDC systems is due to the ductile rupture of RSSDs rather than lateral or lateral-torsion buckling in them. Finite element models of CEDC systems are established and validated against experimental results. Parametric studies are carried out to investigate the effect of axial loads in the boundary columns on the seismic behavior of CEDC systems. The numerical results show that the ultimate capacity and post-yield stiffness of CEDC systems reduces as the axial load ratio increases due to the second order effect of gravity load. A simplified method to determine the design axial load ratio of CEDC under gravity loads is proposed and validated.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.015
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Numerical estimation for initial stiffness and ultimate moment of T-stub
    • Authors: Zhengyi Kong; Seung-Eock Kim
      Pages: 118 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Zhengyi Kong, Seung-Eock Kim
      The work in this paper presents the results of a series of finite-element simulations aiming at the prediction of initial stiffness and ultimate moment for T-stub connections. The developed finite element models using ABAQUS software are verified by comparison with previous experimental tests by others. Several parameters, such as the material properties, flange thickness, web thickness, flange length, and web height of T-stub, gage distance, height of column, and depth of beam are considered in the analysis. An improved model for the initial stiffness is proposed, and it agrees well with the various test data. The types of collapse mechanisms for T-stub connections are also established. The model of ultimate moment capacity is proposed, and good agreement between the proposed model and the various test data is shown.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Structural behavior of orthotropic steel decks with artificial cracks in
           longitudinal ribs
    • Authors: Muye Yang; Shigenobu Kainuma; Young-Soo Jeong
      Pages: 132 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Muye Yang, Shigenobu Kainuma, Young-Soo Jeong
      The butt welds at U-rib connections of orthotropic steel deck are usually connected by field welding. In recent years, long fatigue cracks have been observed in the field welds of U-ribs within the decks. In this study, to investigate the effect of rib fractures on structural response, the field tests were carried out at an actual bridge with artificial cracks by gas-cut. Moreover, FE models with the combination of artificial rib crack and rib-to-deck cracks were established. Based on the field measurement and FE analysis results, the deformation and stress fluctuation of structure details were investigated via quantitative analysis. The results show that once the fatigue cracks occurred at butt weld of ribs, the longitudinal stress withstood by the stiffener would be transferred to the localized deck plate and adjacent ribs. Besides, the butt weld crack of ribs would result two consequences: one is the effect of rib rotation on out-of-bending at crossbeams, another is the interaction between adjacent ribs. The fatigue strength recommended by the specifications might not applicable for the evaluation of butt welds when adjacent rib cracks occurred. In addition, for the combination of multiple cracks propagating to different directions, the strength reduction of structure could seriously compromise the bridge safety. Finally, the asphalt pavement variation caused by seasonal temperature has similar influence on the stress responses for cracked or no-cracked structures.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Standardised friction damper bolt assemblies time-related relaxation and
           installed tension variability
    • Authors: Giovanni Ferrante Cavallaro; Massimo Latour; Antonella Bianca Francavilla; Vincenzo Piluso; Gianvittorio Rizzano
      Pages: 145 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Giovanni Ferrante Cavallaro, Massimo Latour, Antonella Bianca Francavilla, Vincenzo Piluso, Gianvittorio Rizzano
      The sliding hinge joint is a type of low-damage seismic resistant connection equipped with a bolted friction damper at the bottom beam flange. To accurately control its flexural resistance, it is critical to govern the bolts' preload which depends on complex issues related to the installation procedure, and the short- and long-term phenomena. Despite the influence of these factors on the initial and life-time behaviour of bolts, currently, little information exists. Nevertheless, a statistical characterisation of the variability of the preloading force (initial and during the life-time) would be needed, in order to develop reliable design guidelines for these connections. Within this framework, this paper examines experimentally, the variability of the preloading force of European bolt assemblies applied in friction dampers, through continuously monitoring the preloading at installation over a period of time. This was done to analyse the accuracy of the standardised installation procedures and the rate of loss of the initial tension over time. The tests have evidenced a higher accuracy of the torque method, highlighting some criticisms of the combined method which, conversely, proved to be inaccurate as currently codified. The short- and mid-term tests have shown that the estimated loss after 50years, in case of assemblies with normal washers or with European standardised disc springs is, on average, equal to 10% and 27%, respectively. Additionally, in all the cases, the greatest part of the total loss (≅70%) occurred in just 30days, highlighting that time-dependent phenomena are mainly concentrated in the first days after tightening.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.029
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Axial compression capacity of steel CHS X-joints strengthened with
           external stiffeners
    • Authors: Weiping Li; Shigang Zhang; Wenying Huo; Yu Bai; Lei Zhu
      Pages: 156 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Weiping Li, Shigang Zhang, Wenying Huo, Yu Bai, Lei Zhu
      The axial compression capacity of X-joints with and without external stiffeners was experimentally and numerically investigated. Two reinforced X-joints, with the brace-to-chord diameter ratio (β) equal to 0.51 and 0.73, were tested in this study and compared with the unreinforced ones from previous work. The failure modes and load-displacement curves of the unreinforced and reinforced X-joints were compared. The comparison showed that within the range of geometric studied, the external stiffener could increase the ultimate strength of the X-joints without reinforcement. The results of the finite element simulations on the X-joints with and without external stiffeners were verified against the experimental data. 256 X-joint FE models were generated and analysed to investigate the failure modes, the influence of the size of external stiffeners and joint geometry on the improvement of ultimate capacity of the joints under axial compression. Finally, a theoretic formulation, based on the modified yield line model, was developed and examined by the experimental and numerical results.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Experimental and analytical study of Block Slit Damper
    • Authors: Hossein Ahmadie Amiri; Esmaeil Pournamazian Najafabadi; Homayoon E. Estekanchi
      Pages: 167 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Hossein Ahmadie Amiri, Esmaeil Pournamazian Najafabadi, Homayoon E. Estekanchi
      This study proposes a novel type of metallic yielding damper called block slit damper or BSD. This damper is a slit damper with very low height to thickness ratio. This device has high shear capacities, and is more economical than SSD devices with high height to thickness ratios. Based on theoretical analysis the formulation for the BSD device's main parameters is derived. Then to investigate the hysteretic behavior of the proposed devices, 5 specimens with different aspect ratios (height-width ratios) were manufactured and tested in a quasi-static manner. The tests revealed that by reducing the aspect ratios, the shear and energy dissipation capacity increases while the displacement capacity decreases. The experimental analysis is compared to analytical analysis which showed a good agreement between them. Based on the buckling analysis conducted on the BSD, it was determined that by increasing the thickness of SSD devices, the device becomes buckle resistant while the unit material's dissipated energy remains the same.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Seismic design of beam-through steel frames with self-centering modular
    • Authors: Xinlong Du; Wei Wang; Tak-Ming Chan
      Pages: 179 - 188
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Xinlong Du, Wei Wang, Tak-Ming Chan
      The beam-through steel frames with self-centering modular panels (BTSF-SCMPs) have been developed as a resilient lateral load resisting system that can address some drawbacks of conventional self-centering systems such as unusual field construction of onsite posttensioning and incompatible deformations relative to gravity framing. This paper outlines a proposed seismic design procedure for this new structural system aiming at achieving specified performance objectives. The design of gravity framing and the lateral load resisting system is decomposed. Different versions of SCMPs with different recentering stiffness are designed independently from other structural components, and are only determined by the dimension and recentering demand of the structure. During the design of the lateral load resisting system, designer only needs to select the number and version of the SCMPs for each story. A six-story five-bay planar BTSF-SCMPs frame located in a high seismic zone in China was designed using the proposed design approach. Nonlinear pushover analysis and dynamic analysis using ground motions representing two seismic hazard levels were performed for this prototype building to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed design approach.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Determination of geometrical imperfection models in finite element
           analysis of structural steel hollow sections under cyclic axial loading
    • Authors: M.S. Hassan; S. Salawdeh; J. Goggins
      Pages: 189 - 203
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): M.S. Hassan, S. Salawdeh, J. Goggins
      Global and local imperfections are required to capture accurate buckling loads and overall structural behaviour of axially loaded structural steel hollow sections in finite element (FE) models. In this paper, three methods of geometrical imperfections are considered for square and rectangular structural steel hollow sections: (i) creating the profile of the brace using a half sine wave, (ii) applying an equivalent notional lateral load at mid-length, and (iii) combining sinusoidal local imperfections with an equivalent notional lateral load for global imperfections. When modelling the initial shape of brace members with global imperfection at mid-length of the magnitude used to establish the European buckling curves (L/1000, where L is the length of the brace member), it was found that the equivalent notional lateral load methodology could best predict the buckling capacity of brace members when compared to physical test data and European buckling curves. However, both methodologies neglect the effect of local imperfection on the initial buckling loads. When it was included by generating a continuous sinusoidal wave along the member length, it did not affect the initial buckling loads, but gave a more overall representative behaviour of the brace members. The FE model is then validated using sixteen cyclic tests for brace members. The FE results are found to match the physical tests values relatively well. In other words, when comparing the ratio of yield force, buckling resistance, and total energy dissipated estimated from the FE model to the measured values in physical tests, the mean values are found to be 1.04, 0.99 and 1.24, respectively, with a coefficient of variation of 0.07, 0.07 and 0.17, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Experimental seismic study on shear walls with fully-connected and
           beam-only-connected web plates
    • Authors: B. Shekastehband; A.A. Azaraxsh; H. Showkati
      Pages: 204 - 215
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): B. Shekastehband, A.A. Azaraxsh, H. Showkati
      Typically, in conventional steel plate shear walls (SPSWs), web plates are connected to both beams and columns; however, steel shear walls connected to beams only (SSW-BOs) with the idea of reducing surrounding columns demands and alleviating web plate damage was proposed since the mid-2000s. This paper presents an experimental investigation on seismic behavior of steel plate shear walls comprising SPSWs and SSW-BOs. Cyclic loading tests were performed on four 1:6 scaled one-story specimens with two plate thickness and two different web plate boundary conditions. The observed predominant failure modes include i: plate tearing at the corners, ii: slippage along connection zone of web plates, and iii: plate-to-frame connection bearing. Using frame connection for plates increases the energy dissipation, shear strength and elastic stiffness by up to 150%, 200% and 110% on average, respectively compared to those of beams-only connected walls. Experimental results indicate that the SSW-BO systems reached a ductility ratio of 7.3 on average, almost 1.5 times the value for SPSWs. It is demonstrated further that with an increase in the slenderness ratio (height to thickness), the strength, stiffness and energy absorbed by the SPSW and SSW-BO systems show a decreasing trend being less stiff for SSW-BO panels.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • A unified formula for calculating bending capacity of solid and hollow
           concrete-filled steel tubes under normal and elevated temperature
    • Authors: Min Yu; Xiaoyan Pei; Lihua Xu; Jianqiao Ye
      Pages: 216 - 225
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Min Yu, Xiaoyan Pei, Lihua Xu, Jianqiao Ye
      Bending is one of the most common forms of deformation that may cause failure of a structural member, such as a column, especially when the member is exposed to fire. Fire resistance design is therefore an important factor that must be considered in the design process of modern building structures. Based on the authors' previous work on the unified formulation of axially loaded CFST hollow and solid columns with circular and polygonal sections, a unified formula for calculating the ultimate bending moment of solid and hollow CFST columns at room temperature is proposed first in this paper. The formula is then extended to include elevated temperature using the average temperature method. Finally, a unified formula for both room and elevated temperature are presented. Validations are carried out through comparisons with the results from experimental tests and finite element simulations.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Global stability analysis of spatial structures based on Eigen-stiffness
           and structural Eigen-curve
    • Authors: Zhao-Chen Zhu; Yong-Feng Luo; Yang Xiang
      Pages: 226 - 240
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Zhao-Chen Zhu, Yong-Feng Luo, Yang Xiang
      The global stability of a spatial structure is usually analysed via a nodal load-displacement curve (NLDC). However, the global mechanical properties of a structure can hardly be reflected comprehensively by specific NLDCs, and no criterion is available to select the representative node for getting the most reasonable NLDC. In this paper, a scalar parameter derived from the incremental equilibrium equation of nonlinear stability analysis, named Eigen-stiffness, is defined to characterize the global structural stiffness. The Structural Eigen-curve (SEC), based on Eigen-stiffness, is proposed to depict the equilibrium path. Two types of extreme points on SEC are defined to determine the critical state of the structure, including the structural limit state and the structural snap-back. Firstly, the stability of a hinge-supported planar arch is analysed to introduce the SEC concept. Then a K6 reticulated shell is designed to give further understanding. Subsequently, practical application of the SEC is illustrated in the stability analysis of a roof structure, namely, Shanghai International Conference Centre. In addition, a parametric study on a K6 reticulated shell is carried out, based on the Eigen-stiffness and the SEC, to investigate the effects of the rise to span ratio and the geometric imperfection amplitude on the structural stiffness and the structural load-carrying capacity. The results demonstrate that the ultimate load-carrying capacity obtained from the SEC is equal to that from NLDC. More importantly, unlike NLDC, the SEC — free from node selection — can efficiently capture the features of global structural behaviour and the evolution of structural stiffness.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Experimental study on joint resistance and failure modes of concrete
           filled steel tubular (CFST) truss girders
    • Authors: Wenjin Huang; Luigi Fenu; Baochun Chen; Bruno Briseghella
      Pages: 241 - 250
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Wenjin Huang, Luigi Fenu, Baochun Chen, Bruno Briseghella
      Concrete Filled Steel Tubular (CFST) structures are increasingly used not only for columns in tall buildings but also in the arch trusses of many arch bridges and in the truss girders of buildings and bridge decks. Therefore, the chords of Circular Hollow Section (CHS) truss arches and girders are increasingly filled with concrete, effectively making them CFST structures. In addition to the strength and stiffness of the CFST members, the failure mode of the CFST joint connecting them to the tubular member is also affected by the concrete filling. In this study, truss girders with different web arrangements were tested, and their behaviour investigated. The girders were not slender because they were designed to attain the peak limiting state for joint failure rather than chord failure due to bending moments. Moreover, two other types of girders were tested: one without concrete-filled chords (CHS girder) and another with only the upper chord filled with concrete; thus allowing an investigation of how a concrete-filled chord affects joint failure mode. The geometry of the CHS girder joints was such that only chord face failure and punching shear failure could occur. The former required an inward deformation that was prevented by the concrete filling in a CFST girder with similar geometry. Finally, the study considers extending the Eurocode 3 and the AWS D1.1 code formulae, originally proposed for CHS joints, to calculate the resistance of CFST joints.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Flexural behaviour of asymmetric composite beam with low degree of shear
    • Authors: Therese Sheehan; Xianghe Dai; Dennis Lam
      Pages: 251 - 261
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Therese Sheehan, Xianghe Dai, Dennis Lam
      This paper outlines an experiment on a 12m long composite beam subjected to uniformly distributed loading. Although composite beams are widely used, current Eurocode design guidelines for these types of members can be over-conservative, particularly in relation to the required degree of shear connection. The tested beam comprised a concrete slab supported by profiled metal decking, connected to an asymmetric fabricated steel I-beam using welded shear studs. The specimen was assembled using unpropped construction methods and had a degree of shear connection equal to 33%, significantly lower than the minimum required amount specified in Eurocode 4. A uniformly distributed load was applied to the specimen, which was increased until the failure occurred characterized by yielding of the steel beam. The maximum bending moment of the composite beam obtained from the test was close to the plastic bending resistance according to the Eurocode 4. No concrete crushing or shear stud failure was observed and the end slips exceeded 6mm, the limit for ductile behaviour in Eurocode 4. The test demonstrated the merits of unpropped construction, which are currently not fully exploited in Eurocode 4. The comparison and analysis suggest that the design limits governing the minimum degree of shear connection might be revised.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Behaviour and design of demountable CFST column-column connections
           subjected to compression
    • Authors: Dongxu Li; Brian Uy; Vipul Patel; Farhad Aslani
      Pages: 262 - 274
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Dongxu Li, Brian Uy, Vipul Patel, Farhad Aslani
      Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns exploit the advantages of both reinforced concrete and structural steel in building construction and thus have been gaining attention by designers due to their significant structural and economic benefits. In current engineering practice, CFST columns are welded along their perimeter as the connections, which render the CFST columns difficult to be dismantled and reused. This study attempts to develop an innovative design for CFST column-column connections, through which CFST columns can be dismantled readily and reused safely at the end of their service life. Furthermore, this study presents an extensive set of experimental results on demountable CFST column-column connections under axial and eccentric compressive loading. Demountability, ultimate strength capacity, stiffness and ductility for this type of connection are investigated. In addition, a series of parametric studies have been conducted in the experiment to investigate the effects of various parameters on the behaviour of demountable CFST column-column connections. The present paper also proposes a finite element model for the prediction of the behaviour of demountable CFST column-column connections. The results from the finite element analysis were compared with Australian Standards, and it was found that current design codes are slightly conservative in terms of their strength prediction and are safe to be used in engineering practice.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Study on collapse mechanism of steel frame with CFST-columns under
           column-removal scenario
    • Authors: Man Xu; Shan Gao; Lanhui Guo; Feng Fu; Sumei Zhang
      Pages: 275 - 286
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Man Xu, Shan Gao, Lanhui Guo, Feng Fu, Sumei Zhang
      The design of structure against progressive collapse has tended towards more quantitative design where utilizing catenary action becomes essential. In this paper, a single internal column removal test was conducted for a 1/3 scale 4-bay steel frame with concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns. The anti-collapse mechanism of the frame under the scenario of column loss is discussed. Both FE model and simplified analytical model are developed to investigate the behavior of steel frame with CFST columns in resisting progressive collapse. The accuracy of the two models is verified through the experimental results. The anti-collapse measures of the proposed model are sensitive to the modeling techniques used to simulate the CFST columns. A method based on the energy equivalence is used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the frame. The results show that the DAF (dynamic amplification factor) value of 2.0 which is recommended by DoD provision in linear static analysis is reasonable. However the mobilization of “catenary action” which is not considered in DoD provision would increase the DAF value as currently given in DoD.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Fatigue property study and life assessment of composite girders with two
           corrugated steel webs
    • Authors: Shucheng Yuan; Jiangfeng Dong; Qingyuan Wang; Jin Y. Ooi
      Pages: 287 - 295
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 141
      Author(s): Shucheng Yuan, Jiangfeng Dong, Qingyuan Wang, Jin Y. Ooi
      This paper presents the results of experimental investigations on fatigue behaviors of composite girders with corrugated steel webs (hereafter referred to as “composite girders”) subjected to bending based on the experimental work on the shear connector and corrugated steel beam. The experimental results indicated that failure started with cracks initiation and propagation at the concrete bottom plate, with the ultimate failure mode characterized as the shear failure on the bottom plate and interfacial slippage between the web and bottom plate. There was no obvious reduction in stiffness when the fatigue life approached 6×106 (equiamplitude load) or 2×106 (variable amplitude load) cycles, and the cracks grew slowly, which exhibited good fatigue resistance under the cyclic loading at quasi-static load. In addition, the cracks initiation location and fatigue life are predicted based on the fatigue damage theory, which shows good agreements with test results. The C degree of American standard AASHTO2004 is also suggested to be used in the fatigue life design of corrugated steel web in composite girders. The Palmgren-Miner cumulative linear damage theory is adopted in the partial fatigue life assessment, the fatigue life of box girder subjected to variable amplitude cyclic load is predicted when D exceeds 1. In addition, the fracture extension theory by Paris and amplitude theory of stress intensity factors are summarized to assess the fatigue life, which can be good evidence contributing to the engineering practice.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:49:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.11.022
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Seismic performance of steel-concrete composite structural walls with
           prestressed internal bracing
    • Authors: Wenwu Lan; Bing Li; Zhongwen Zhang
      Pages: 11 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Wenwu Lan, Bing Li, Zhongwen Zhang
      This paper presents research investigations on the seismic performances of steel-concrete composite structural walls with prestressed internal bracing. The lateral stiffness of the walls was increased with embedded steel while the prestressed internal braces are designed to control the cracks of the wall. Tests are conducted for steel-concrete walls with different arrangement of prestressed internal bracing. The specimens were observed and analyzed by the cracking process and patterns, the hysteresis response, the deformation component and the loss of the prestress during the loading process. Additionally, numerical investigations were performed for the tested specimens. Finite element models were built for these walls.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T12:48:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.019
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Health monitoring of a steel moment-resisting frame subjected to seismic
    • Authors: Ayman Mosallam; Tadeh Zirakian; Ayman Abdelaal; Alemdar Bayraktar
      Pages: 34 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Ayman Mosallam, Tadeh Zirakian, Ayman Abdelaal, Alemdar Bayraktar
      Structural health monitoring (SHM) offers the potential to evaluate the safety and integrity of the civil infrastructure. By obtaining accurate information about the condition of the structure, appropriate preventive measures can be taken to prolong the service life and prevent the catastrophic failure of the structure. Application of effective damage detection strategies can reduce the life-cycle costs as well. Damage reduces the stiffness and modifies the modal properties of a structure. Therefore, changes in modal properties can be used to detect damage in the structure. Although extensive research has been conducted on structural diagnosis by measuring the vibrational signals of structures, more research is still needed for development of reliable and effective damage detection techniques. This paper presents a study on damage detection of a 3-story steel moment-resisting frame structure instrumented by a network of wireless sensors and cable-based accelerometers. Experimental data from shake table testing and numerical results from finite element simulation were used for damage identification through two approaches. In the first approach, the finite element model of the structure was calibrated and used to locate and quantify the elemental stiffness loss on the basis of the experimentally-identified modal parameters. Moreover, a direct search algorithm was used for minimization of an objective function representing the difference between predicted and measured dynamic parameters of the structure. In the second approach, damage identification was performed through application of the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) and detection of the changes between undamaged and damaged conditions. Results of this study are indicative of capability and effectiveness of both approaches in identification of damage.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.023
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Free vibration analysis of horizontally curved composite concrete-steel
           I-girder bridges
    • Authors: Radek Wodzinowski; Khaled Sennah; Hamdy M. Afefy
      Pages: 47 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Radek Wodzinowski, Khaled Sennah, Hamdy M. Afefy
      Curved composite concrete-steel I-girder bridges provide an exceptional solution to the problems of urban congestion, traffic, and pollution, but their behavior is quite complex due to the coupled bending and torsion response of the bridges. Moreover, dynamic behavior of curved bridges further complicates the problem. The majority of curved bridges today are designed using complex analytical methods; therefore, a strong need exists for simplified design methods in the form of empirical equations for the structural design parameters. In this paper, a sensitivity study is conducted to examine the effect of various design parameters on the free-vibration response of curved composite concrete-steel I-girder bridges. In order to determine their fundamental frequency and corresponding mode shapes, an extensive parametric study is conducted on 336 straight and curved bridges. ABAQUS software package was employed to carry out the numerical simulation for the considered bridges in order to obtain the fundamental frequencies. From the results of the parametric study, simple-to-use equations are developed to predict the fundamental frequency of curved composite concrete-steel I-girder bridges. It is shown that the developed equations are equally applicable to curved composite steel I-girder bridges of simple span or multi-spans with equal span lengths.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Seismic performance assessment of steel frame infilled with prefabricated
           wood shear walls
    • Authors: Zheng Li; Minjuan He; Xijun Wang; Minghao Li
      Pages: 62 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Zheng Li, Minjuan He, Xijun Wang, Minghao Li
      Steel-timber hybrid structural systems offer a modern solution for building multi-story structures with more environmentally-friendly features. This paper presents a comprehensive seismic performance assessment for a kind of multi-story steel-timber hybrid structure. In such a hybrid structure, steel moment resisting frames are infilled with prefabricated light wood frame shear walls to serve as the lateral load resisting system (LLRS). In this paper, drift-based performance objectives under various seismic hazard levels were proposed based on experimental observations. Then, a numerical model of the hybrid structure considering damage accumulation and stiffness degradation was developed and verified by experimental results, and nonlinear time-history analyses were conducted to establish a database of seismic responses. The numerical results further serve as a technical basis for estimating the structure's fundamental period and evaluating post-yielding behavior and failure probabilities of the hybrid structure under various seismic hazard levels. A load sharing parameter was defined to describe the wall-frame lateral force distribution, and a formula was proposed and calibrated by the time-history analytical results to estimate the load sharing parameter. Moreover, earthquake-induced non-structural damage and residual deformation were also evaluated, showing that if designed properly, desirable seismic performance with acceptable repair effort can be obtained for the proposed steel-timber hybrid structural system.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Experimental study on axially compressed circular CFST columns with
           improved confinement effect
    • Authors: Liusheng He; Yangang Zhao; Siqi Lin
      Pages: 74 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Liusheng He, Yangang Zhao, Siqi Lin
      The concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) column has been widely used in construction due to the benefit of composite action between inner concrete and exterior steel tube. Under axial compression, the steel tube is subjected to biaxial stress state in the hoop and axial direction, and the hoop stress component provides confinement for the inner concrete. However, the existence of axial stress component accelerates the buckling of steel tube, which hinders its confinement effect to inner concrete and accordingly column's axial compressive strength and ductility. This paper aims to enhance the axial compressive strength and ductility of CFST stub columns by improving its confinement effect provided by the steel tube. CFST stub columns axially loaded/unloaded were experimentally studied for different cases: a) varying concrete strength, b) lubrication on the contact between steel tube and concrete and c) corrugations in the steel tube that are introduced to intentionally weaken the tube vertically. It was found that axial compressive strength of CFST stub columns was effectively enhanced by reducing the axial stress in the steel tube. The introduction of corrugations in the steel tube led to largely concentrated axial deformation which reduced axial stress in other portions of the steel tube and consequently resulted in “tighter” hoop confinement to the inner concrete; both axial compressive strength and ductility were enhanced.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.025
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Ultimate strength of a beam-to-column joint in a composite slim floor
    • Authors: Jinming Zeng; Wei Lu; Juha Paavola
      Pages: 82 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Jinming Zeng, Wei Lu, Juha Paavola
      The paper studies numerically the behaviour of a beam-to-column joint between a hat-shaped steel beam (WQ-beam) and a concrete-filled composite column in a slim floor steel-concrete composite frame. 3D continuum elements are used in the discretization of the joint with contact surfaces between the components. Both material and geometrical nonlinearities are included. The computational results are verified by comparing them to experimental results. The verified model is applied to study the development of the load-transfer mechanisms in the joint. The load carrying capacity of the joint is categorized on the base of five parameters: the flange width, the web height, the wall thickness and the corners of the console, and the gap between the WQ-beam endplate and the column face. In addition, a criterion to evaluate the limit load of the joint is proposed. The design capacity of the joints from the proposed criterion is compared with the values calculated according to both other criteria and design code. It can be concluded that the proposed criterion is suitable for estimating the resistance of the studied joint.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Monotonic and cyclic tests on beam-column joints of industrial pallet
    • Authors: Federico Gusella; Giovanni Lavacchini; Maurizio Orlando
      Pages: 92 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Federico Gusella, Giovanni Lavacchini, Maurizio Orlando
      Pallet racks are characterized by boltless beam-column connections and the extensive use of thin-walled cold-formed steel members. Due to the great number of beam-end connector types and member geometries, a reliable evaluation of their structural behavior, especially under seismic loads, requires a thorough modeling of beam-column joints, whose moment-rotation curves can be reliably assessed only through experimental tests. In this paper, the authors present results of monotonic and cyclic tests on four different types of industrial rack joints. Tested joints differ from one another in the type of beam-connector, which is obtained by folding the beam end or is welded to the beam-end section with different welding layouts. Moreover, joints differ in the number of tabs and the relative thickness of the upright and the beam-end connector. Experimental results from cyclic tests allows for moment-rotation curves of joints to be accurately identified, confirming that they are significantly different from traditional steel framed buildings due to pinching in hysteresis loops. Obtained curves can be used for reliable modeling of joints in seismic analyses of steel pallet racks. As producers of steel rack structures are interested in reducing the total welding length of beam-end connectors for time efficiency and cost saving, the influence of the welding layout of beam-end connectors on the structural response and failure mode of joints has also been investigated. Finally, some joints have also been equipped with additional bolts to evaluate their influence on the bearing capacity, initial elastic stiffness and dissipated energy per cycle.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Behavior of welded hollow spherical joints after exposure to ISO-834
           standard fire
    • Authors: Jie Lu; Hongbo Liu; Zhihua Chen
      Pages: 108 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Jie Lu, Hongbo Liu, Zhihua Chen
      Welded hollow spherical joints are extensively used as a connection pattern in space lattice structures. Provided that structural collapse does not occur after a fire, a reliable evaluation of the residual performances of the structures is necessary to decide whether the structures should be dismantled, repaired, or directly reused. Thus, understanding the post-fire residual behavior of welded hollow spherical joints, which act as key connection elements, is crucial for fire damage assessment of the space lattice structures. In this paper, experimental and numerical studies were conducted to reveal the residual structural behavior of welded hollow spherical joints after fire exposure. Axial compressive tests were performed on eight joint specimens after exposure to the ISO-834 standard fire (including both heating and cooling phases), and three highest fire temperatures, i.e., 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C, were considered. The temperature distributions in the specimens during the heating and cooling process and the related mechanical behavior of the specimens, such as axial load–displacement curves, initial axial stiffness, yield loads, load-bearing capacities, ductility level, and strain distributions, were obtained and analyzed. Finite element analysis (FEA), including both heat transfer and stress analysis, were also developed using the ABAQUS software. Having validated the FE models against the experimental results, a design method was proposed on the basis of parametric studies to predict both the residual load-bearing capacity and initial axial stiffness of welded hollow spherical joints after fire exposure.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.026
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Anti-collapse performances of steel beam-to-column assemblies with
           different span ratios
    • Authors: Bao Meng; Weihui Zhong; Jiping Hao
      Pages: 125 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Bao Meng, Weihui Zhong, Jiping Hao
      The local failure of one or more structural members of a steel frame could trigger the progressive collapse of the structure. In this study, the anti-collapse performances of different beam-to-column assemblies comprising three columns and two beams were investigated. Three types of specimens with different span ratios (1:0.6, 1:1.0, and 1:1.4) and constructed using welded unreinforced flange-bolted web connections were considered. Static loading tests and numerical simulations were performed, and the local failures of all the specimens were observed to occur in the beam-to-column connection zones under large deformations. Each specimen exhibited multiple peak loads because of the repeated occurrence of local damage. The specimen with equal spans was found to exhibit a higher progressive collapse resistance in the latter phase owing to the synergistic action of the two adjacent beams. It also had a better load transfer mechanism, which enhanced the anti-collapse bearing capacity. Conversely, the peak loads of the specimens with unequal spans decreased with increasing loading displacement owing to the failure of the short beam before the long beam without full realization of catenary action. It was also determined through validated FE models that, when the constraints provided by the side columns were sufficient for the development of flexural and catenary actions in a beam, the assembly constraints provided by the peripheral components amounted to surplus constraints. Furthermore, more comparable linear stiffnesses of the column and beam enhanced their synergistic action and improved the resistance of the steel frame.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Axially loaded capacity of alternatively strengthened cold-formed channel
           columns with CFRP
    • Authors: Essam A. Amoush; Mohamed A. Ghanem
      Pages: 139 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Essam A. Amoush, Mohamed A. Ghanem
      Carbon fiber is considered as a newly alternative technique used in enhancing the strength and behavior of different members in many steel structures applications. In this research, an experimental study for strengthening of cold-formed lipped channel columns using carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) is conducted. Twelve cold-formed columns specimens with different parametric variables are chosen. Different variables such flange width-thickness, web depth-thickness ratios for un-strengthened, partially, and fully strengthened short columns, as well as overall slenderness ratios for partially strengthened short and medium columns are selected. The cold-formed column specimens were tested under axial compression load. A finite element model is developed using ANSYS program to simulate and verify the laboratory tested specimen's results. The developed FE model includes both geometric and material nonlinearities. The strengthened columns behavior along with local, distortion and rupture failure modes are investigated. A comparison between experimental and finite elements as well as the direct strength method (DSM) axial capacities, is carried out. Finite element and direct strength method results are comparable with the experimental results.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Global buckling behaviour of welded Q460GJ steel box columns under axial
    • Authors: Shao-Bo Kang; Bo Yang; Xiong Zhou; Shi-Dong Nie
      Pages: 153 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Shao-Bo Kang, Bo Yang, Xiong Zhou, Shi-Dong Nie
      This paper describes an experimental and numerical study on the global buckling behaviour of welded Q460GJ steel box columns. In the experimental programme, seven steel columns with different cross sections and wall thicknesses were tested under axial compression. The load capacity of steel columns was quantified. Comparisons were made between experimental results and design values calculated in accordance with national standards. Furthermore, numerical models were established in which initial geometric imperfections and residual stress distributions were considered. The model was validated against test data with reasonably good accuracy. A parametric study was conducted on the effects of initial geometric imperfections and normalised slenderness on the load capacity of box columns. Experimental and numerical results indicated that Q460GJ steel box columns could develop higher global buckling resistances than the values calculated from GB50017-2003 and Eurocode 3, but ANSI/AISC360-10 might not be safe for welded box columns with small width-thickness ratios. Therefore, the design approaches for conventional steel columns were modified so that the buckling behaviour of box columns fabricated of Q460GJ steel could be accurately evaluated.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Fatigue behaviour of a welded I-section under a concentrated compression
           (wheel) load
    • Authors: Jaap Wardenier; Peter de Vries; Gerrit Timmerman
      Pages: 163 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Jaap Wardenier, Peter de Vries, Gerrit Timmerman
      This paper deals with the evaluation of fatigue cracks under a concentrated compression (wheel) load in an I-section with full penetration welds between the web and flange. The objective is to investigate whether cracks stop or nearly stop when they have grown through the residual tensile stress field. These experimental investigations are part of a review of a crane runway girder where after 20years of service fatigue cracks were observed in the flange at the toe of the full penetration weld. The fatigue analysis of the actual crane runway girder is described in (Wardenier et al., 2017). The fatigue tests under a concentrated wheel compression loading show that, for the specimens considered on a scale of about 1:2 with stiffeners at one side, the cracks only initiate and grow at the non-stiffened side to about 50 to 60% of the web thickness and then stop. Based only on the nominal stress range under the wheel, determined according to EN 1993-6 and neglecting the shear stress effect, an equivalent fatigue class of about 160N/mm2 was found for crack initiation in the web, whereas the minimum ratio in life between visually observed crack initiation and maximum crack length was about a factor 3. Comparison of the codes for a wheel loading in compression shows large discrepancies in effective width and fatigue classes to be used.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.027
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Out-of-plane creep buckling analysis on slender concrete-filled steel
           tubular arches
    • Authors: Yue Geng; Gianluca Ranzi; Yu-Tao Wang; Yu-Yin Wang
      Pages: 174 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): Yue Geng, Gianluca Ranzi, Yu-Tao Wang, Yu-Yin Wang
      Concrete-filled steel tubes (CFST) are becoming a popular structural solution for arch bridges because of their high compressive strength and efficiency in construction. For long span CFST arch bridges, the time-dependent behaviour of the core concrete may affect the stability of CFST arches. Despite this, only limited research has been carried out to date on their creep buckling behaviour. In this context, this study aims to investigate the influence of the prebuckling deformation induced by time effects on the out-of-plane stability of single parabolic CFST arches with fixed ends and subjected to uniformly distributed loads applied along the span by means of the finite element method using ABAQUS. The time-dependent behaviour of the concrete has been described using the Eurocode 2 model and implemented in the analysis using the integral type creep law. The nonlinear material property and the confinement effects under ultimate condition have also been taken into account and implemented in ABAQUS with UMAT subroutines. The accuracy of the proposed analysis method has been validated against the experimental results of an out-of-plane buckling test of a 1:10 scaled CFST arch reported in the literature. An extensive parametric study has been then carried out and it has been found that the ultimate capacity of the arches can be decreased by up to 18% due to the prebuckling deformation induced by time effects. Finally, designing equations are proposed based on the finite element analysis results to predict the ultimate loads of CFST arches accounting for time effects.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Behaviour of thin-walled curved steel plates under generalised in-plane
           stresses: A review
    • Authors: J.P. Martins; F. Ljubinkovic; L. Simões da Silva; H. Gervásio
      Pages: 191 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): J.P. Martins, F. Ljubinkovic, L. Simões da Silva, H. Gervásio
      Cylindrically curved plates are increasingly used in steel construction. In particular, there is a clear trend for their use in box-girder steel bridges with curved bottom flanges. However, there is a gap in standards dealing accurately with these types of structural elements under several arrangements of loadings and boundary conditions. This paper provides a state-of-the-art on the stability behaviour and design of cylindrically curved panels under generalised in-plane loading. A detailed review of the behaviour of curved panels subject to uniaxial compressive stresses, circumferential stresses, shear stresses and combined in-plane compressive stresses is presented, followed by a comparison of the design provisions of DNV and DNVGL standards with FEM numerical results obtained by the authors.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jcsr.2017.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Buckling resistance of HSS box section columns Part II: Analytical study
    • Authors: Somodi
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): B. Kövesdi, B. Somodi
      The accurate and economical consideration of the flexural buckling resistance of high strength steel (HSS) structures is highly important in the design. According to the previous research results the flexural buckling behaviour of HSS and NSS columns can be significantly different, which differences are not considered in the current design rules. The aim of the current study is to obtain a reliable design method for the flexural buckling resistance of HSS welded box section columns. The buckling resistance is previously determined by the authors based on an experimental research program and based on stochastic numerical simulations . The current paper focuses on the investigation of the theoretical background of the flexural buckling phenomena and on the implementation of the specialties regarding HSS materials into the buckling curve formulation. The analytically derived Ayrton-Perry type formulation is studied and modified based on the theoretical and numerical investigations implementing the effect of residual stresses and geometrical imperfections into the design method. Using the revised buckling curve, the flexural buckling resistance of welded box columns can be predicted with larger accuracy for steel grades between S420 – S960.

      PubDate: 2017-11-08T13:16:14Z
  • Buckling resistance of HSS box section columns part I: Stochastic
           numerical study
    • Authors: Somodi
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 140
      Author(s): B. Kövesdi, B. Somodi
      The accurate consideration of the flexural buckling resistance of high strength steel (HSS) structures is highly important in the design. Higher yield strength indicates the applicability of smaller cross-sections, which might be more sensitive for stability problems. The purpose of the current study is (1) to investigate the flexural buckling behaviour of HSS welded box section columns and (2) to determine a reliable column buckling curve. The characteristic and design values of the buckling resistances for HSS welded box section column are determined by using Monte Carlo simulation technique for a wide range of relative slenderness and steel grades. Based on the simulation results buckling curves are proposed for all the analysed steel grades. Required value for the partial safety factor is also determined considering the design resistance level of the Eurocode. The proposed buckling curves are applicable for HSS welded box section columns made from steel grades between S420–S960.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T12:48:27Z
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