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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2282 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1204 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 186 of 186 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)


Journal Cover Engineering Structures
  [SJR: 1.813]   [H-I: 83]   [13 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0141-0296
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Experimental analysis of residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels
           with pitting corrosion under compression
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 152
      Author(s): Jing Zhang, Xing Hua Shi, C. Guedes Soares
      The collapse mechanics and ultimate strength of a stiffened plate with pitting damage are investigated experimentally with specimens with circular shaped holes representing the pits in the plate. A series of compressive tests has been conducted to investigate the effect of pitting corrosion, including the initial imperfections. The pit location, pit diameter and pit depth are examined to determine the influence of the pitting on the ultimate strength. The experimental results of load-displacement relationship, the strain response and the ultimate strength under compressive loads are analysed. The ultimate strength reduction is related with the degree of pitting or volume loss.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T14:47:21Z
  • Analytical model for the strain analysis of continuous buried pipelines in
           geohazard areas
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 152
      Author(s): Gregory C. Sarvanis, Spyros A. Karamanos
      In geohazard areas, buried pipelines are subjected to permanent ground-induced deformations, which constitute major threats for their structural safety. Geohazards include seismic fault movement, liquefaction-induced lateral spreading, slope instability or soil subsidence, and are associated with the development of severe strains in the pipeline. Calculation of these strains is necessary for assessing pipeline integrity. In the present paper, an analytical methodology is presented that allows for simple and efficient pipeline strain analysis in geohazard areas. The methodology is compared with existing more elaborate analytical methodologies and finite element predictions. The analytical formulation results in closed form expressions and the model contributes to better understanding of buried pipeline behavior subjected to permanent ground-induced deformations. The proposed methodology is directly applicable to fault actions, but it can be also applicable to a wide range of geohazards. Furthermore, using this methodology, one may predict the strains developed in the pipeline wall due to ground-induced actions in a simple and efficiently manner and is suitable for the preliminary design of pipelines.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T14:47:21Z
  • Proposed new equivalent lateral force design method for low-rise
           reinforced concrete wall-frame mixed building systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 152
      Author(s): Taewan Kim, James M. LaFave
      Reinforced concrete wall-frame mixed buildings have been widely used asa seismic force resisting system because walls and frames can play complementary roles in earthquake resistance. In conventional design procedures (e.g., per ASCE 7), the walls and frames in mixed buildings have often been analyzed and designed separately by assigning a specific portion of the design lateral load to each one. These conventional procedures may in part be a product of a bygone era when computerized structural analysis programs were not widely used. However, advanced structural analysis programs are currently available, which can easily simulate the walls and frames simultaneously, and even three-dimensionally. Korean structural engineers have taken advantage of those programs and typically design such mixed buildings without separating the walls and frames or assigning any particular required strength to each one. This new design method is simple and easy to conduct, but it does not exactly follow the conventional design process for a wall-frame interactive system, even though it still uses the same seismic design parameters (from ASCE 7). Therefore, this study has investigated the feasibility of the new design method. Target buildings for the study have reinforced concrete ordinary shear walls in low-to-medium-rise wall-frame mixed buildings, and specifically those with plans having fairly limited bays except for the ones with walls, which makes it difficult to separate the walls and frames. To investigate the performance of buildings designed by the simple new method based on elastic analysis, nonlinear static pushover and nonlinear dynamic analyses have been conducted as part of this study, and engineering demand parameters such as story drift and concrete compressive strain at the wall base have been examined. Results indicate that buildings designed by the new method have good performance even for very conservative failure criteria. However, they exhibited less satisfactory performance than those designed by the conventional procedure. This shortcoming could be compensated for by a slight decrease in the response modification factor, or by specifying a lower bound wall area ratio or an upper bound wall axial load ratio. In order for these options to be applicable, some additional study may be necessary, where a wider variety of prototype buildings are examined utilizing probabilistic approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T14:47:21Z
  • Seismic behaviors of thin slender structural walls reinforced with
           amorphous metallic fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 152
      Author(s): Min-Seok Seo, Hee-Seung Kim, Gia Toai Truong, Kyoung-Kyu Choi
      In the present study, steel reinforcement details for slender structural walls were developed, which were lighter than those required by current design codes. In the developed details, transverse re-bars at wall boundaries with a relatively wide spacing and amorphous metallic fibers (AMFs) were used. Five slender wall specimens with an aspect ratio of 2.7 were constructed and tested under cyclic lateral and constant axial loads: one of these specimens was a control specimen, which was designed in accordance with the Korean concrete design code (KCI 2012), and the other four specimens were reinforced with AMFs. Two primary parameters are the fiber volume fraction of AMFs and the spacing between the transverse re-bars; three different fiber volume fractions of 0%, 0.3%, and 0.6% and three different spacing of transverse re-bars of 60mm, 90mm, and 120mm were used. The test results showed that thin slender walls reinforced with AMFs exhibited inelastic behaviors and performances similar to those of the control specimen in terms of flexural strength, drift capacity, energy dissipation, equivalent damping ratio, and strain distribution along the wall height. In particular, the walls reinforced with AMFs satisfied the drift level required for collapse prevention performance specified in ASCE 41-13. In addition, a practical analysis method evaluating the drift capacity of slender structural walls reinforced with AMFs was developed and verified by comparing its prediction with the test results.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T14:47:21Z
  • Seismic damage evaluation of high-speed railway bridge components under
           different intensities of earthquake excitations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 152
      Author(s): Xin Kang, Lizhong Jiang, Yu Bai, Colin C. Caprani
      Bridges are common features of high-speed railway infrastructure. However, the performance of such bridges under seismic scenarios has not been well studied. To quantify possible damage levels of bridge components under different intensities of earthquake excitation, a 1/12-scale bridge specimen was constructed and tested using shaking tables. The experimental results of this investigation showed that not all bridge components were damaged when subjected to earthquake with the intensity of 0.20g. A finite element (FE) model of the prototype bridge was also established and validated by the experimental results with consideration of similarity relationships. Finally, parametric studies involving different intensities of earthquake excitation were carried out by the validated modelling approach to study the damage levels of high-speed railway components under more severe earthquakes (i.e. 0.30g, 0.40g and 0.50g). The results could be applied to quantify the levels of damage of the main components of high-speed railway bridges when subjected to earthquake intensities no greater than 0.50g. Moreover, the numerical results showed that the shear reinforcement, fixed bearing and the pier installed with the fixed bearing were more vulnerable to earthquake excitation than the shear studs, slide layer, and cement asphalt mortar layer investigated in this study.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T14:47:21Z
  • Experimental investigation of seismic behavior of ultra-high performance
           steel fiber reinforced concrete columns
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 152
      Author(s): Shenchun Xu, Chengqing Wu, Zhongxian Liu, Kunpeng Han, Yu Su, Jian Zhao, Jianchun Li
      This paper presents an experimental study on seismic behavior of ultra-high performance steel fiber reinforced concrete (UHPSFRC) columns. Based on a series of cyclic loading tests on 14 UHPSFRC specimens subjected to combined static axial loading and cyclic lateral loading, the investigation and analysis have been carried out on crack status, failure modes, hysteretic loops, skeleton curves, strength and stiffness degradation, energy dissipation capacity and ductility of UHPSFRC columns. The influence of stirrup spacing, type of stirrup, axial compression ratio and shear span ratio on the seismic performance of UHPSFRC columns was also investigated in details. The experiment results show that three typical failure modes are observed, i.e., flexural, flexural-shear and shear failure mode. The existence of steel fiber could prevent the cracked concrete from spalling efficiently and delay the bulking of longitudinal reinforcement further. It noteworthy that the limit plastic drift ratio of all columns changes from 0.036 to 0.061, indicating that the UHPSFRC columns represent a good ductility which is obviously different from the conventional high strength concrete columns that exhibit much more brittleness with the increase of strength.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T14:47:21Z
  • Numerical analysis of aluminium alloy gusset joints subjected to bending
           moment and axial force
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 152
      Author(s): Zhe Xiong, Xiaonong Guo, Yongfeng Luo, Han Xu
      A test series was carried out and reported in a companion paper on the semi-rigid behaviour of aluminium alloy gusset (AAG) joints subjected to bending moment and axial force. This paper presented the results of an extensive numerical analysis program devoted to the investigation of the bending behaviour of AAG joints. The analysis was developed by means of finite element (FE) models implemented in the non-linear code ABAQUS. The procedure was accurately calibrated on the basis of the available experimental results. It is indicated that the FE models could be used effectively to describe the mechanical performance of AAG joints, including the failure modes, deformation process and bending moment-rotation curves. Furthermore, the shear connector, the thick plate and the advanced contact of bolts and bolt holes could improve the bending behaviour of AAG joints. According to the deformation process of AAG joints, a four-line model was proposed to simulate the bending moment-rotation relationship. To develop a further understanding, the effects of the member height, axial force, bolt pretension force, bolt gap and material nonlinearity on the bending behaviour of AAG joints were investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Adaptive control of a deployable tensegrity structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 152
      Author(s): Nicolas Veuve, Ann C. Sychterz, Ian F.C. Smith
      Deployable structures belong to a special class of moveable structures that are capable of form and size change. Controlling movement of deployable structures is important for successful deployment, in-service adaptation and safety. In this paper, measurements and control methodologies contribute to the development of an efficient learning strategy and a damage-compensation algorithm for a deployable tensegrity structure. The general motivation of this work is to develop an efficient bio-inspired control framework through real-time measurement, adaptation, and learning. Building on previous work, an enhanced deployment algorithm involves re-use of control commands in order to reduce computation time for mid-span connection. Simulations are integrated into a stochastic search algorithm and combined with case-reuse as well as real-time measurements. Although data collection requires instrumentation, this methodology performs significantly better than without real-time measurements. This paper presents the procedure and generally applicable methodologies to improve deployment paths, to control the shape of a structure through optimization, and to control the structure to adapt after a damage event.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Cables interconnected with tuned inerter damper for vibration mitigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Limin Sun, Dongxiao Hong, Lin Chen
      Cables in cable-stayed bridges are susceptible to vibrations induced by wind, wind/rain and indirectly by bridge tower and deck vibrations. It is common practice nowadays to supplement cable damping through external devices. However, for long stay cables, the damping provided by near-anchorage dampers is no longer sufficient. A hybrid cable network consisting of both dissipative devices and cross-ties is found to be a promising solution in this scenario. This study further proposes to embed inerter components into cable networks to improve their dissipation capacity. Specifically, a system of two cables interconnected with a Tuned Inerter Damper (TID) is studied. The system dynamics is formulated via complex modal analysis and system complex frequencies are characterized via parametric analysis. General tuning principle has been found when using the TID to maximize single mode damping and an approximate method is presented for efficient determining the TID parameters for optimal tuning and the corresponding damping ratio. Furthermore, the advantage of proposed system is shown by comparing with other passive strategies for multi-mode cable vibration control.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Co-rotational planar beam element with generalized elasto-plastic hinges
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Anas Alhasawi, Piseth Heng, Mohammed Hjiaj, Samy Guezouli, Jean-Marc Battini
      Slender elements in framed structures may undergo large displacement and experience highly nonlinear behavior. This paper presents a two-node co-rotational flexible beam with generalized elasto-plastic hinges at the beam ends. A Condensation procedure is used to remove the internal degrees of freedom so that the formulation is easily incorporated with the standard co-rotational approach. A family of asymmetric and convex yield surfaces of super-elliptic shape is considered for the plastic behavior of the hinges. By varying the roundness factor, an infinite number of yield surfaces are obtained making it possible to select the yield function that best fit experimental data of any type of cross-section and material. The nonlinear response of bolted connections subjected to both bending and axial forces are conveniently modeled with such a yield surface. Discrete constitutive equations for the hinge plastic deformations are derived using the implicit scheme for both smooth and non-smooth cases. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy of the model in predicting the large displacement inelastic response of framed structures. Effect of the roundness factor on the ultimate load strongly depends on the structure typology. It was observed that cyclic loading produces pinching effect, cyclic softening and ductile behavior. Those effects are more pronounced with anisotropic yield criteria.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Probabilistic comparative investigation on introduced performance-based
           seismic design and assessment criteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): R. Allahvirdizadeh, M. Khanmohammadi, M.S. Marefat
      Despite all valuable progresses resulted by modern seismic design approaches from reducing fatalities to prevent catastrophic failures, still higher demands are imposed by society. Therefore, another generation of methodologies so-called Performance-Based Seismic Design (PBSD) was introduced. Satisfying all objectives of this method requires developing precise predicting tools and introducing reliable thresholds. These criteria not only should represent structural/non-structural damage states at desired hazard level, but also should strongly correlate with economic aspects, residence safety and functionality. In this regard, a variety of recommendations were proposed in the literature which can be classified into two general groups, i.e. at section/component level (local) or at story/building level (global). In this article, the priority of these two groups regarding each other, their relation and reliability of proposed recommendations are investigated. In this regard, diversity of outcomes related to the employed analysis method, type of the subjected ground motion record, building’s height and desired performance level is reported. On the other hand, key parameters such as the influence of allowed percentage of elements to surpass from local limits on maximum experienced inter-story drift and amount of reserved capacity at components when global criteria controls the performance are investigated. Later, analytical approaches are followed to extract global limits and compare with those from the literature. Finally, the probability of exceeding local threshold at any desired inter-story drift/performance level and their safety indices is studied. In this regard, previously obtained outcomes and conventional safety levels are used to evaluate reliability of presented conclusions. Considering all, it is concluded that the global criteria controls performance of the building at all levels; but using local thresholds on higher levels may lead to less conservative designs. Therefore, it seems essential for global thresholds to be revised in development of PBSD to make it more compatible with its objectives.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Lateral impact response of end-plate beam-column connections
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): A. Al-Rifaie, Z.W. Guan, S.W. Jones, Q. Wang
      The behaviour of different steel beam to column connections has been studied intensively against static and seismic loading regimes. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the response of such connections against impact and blast. In order to close this gap, the most common connections with partially depth end plate (PDEPCs), asa simple connection, and flush plate (FPCs), asa moment resisting connection, were investigated under both quasi-static and impact loads. Here, eight specimens were tested under those loading conditions with different locations. 3D finite element models were then developed and validated against the corresponding experimental results. Full range analyses of the connection responses under both loading regimes are then carried out using the validated FE models to examine the internal forces of the connections. Finally, the results of full analyses under both loading regimes were compared and dynamic increase factors (DIF) were proposed to assist predicting the impact response of these types of connections using the static analysis. The results showed that failure modes under both loading regimes were similar, but with the larger fracture on the PDEPC under quasi-static load than that under lateral impact. The DIFs were found to be between 1.02 and 1.21, 1.03 and 1.36 and 1.22 and 1.45 based on the bolt tensile strength, axial resistance and bending resistance of the connections, respectively. However, if based on the energy approach, the range of DIFs was recorded between 1.25 and 1.38 using the experimental results and between 1.19 and 1.34 using the finite element analysis results.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • A maximum filter for the ground structure method: An optimization tool to
           harness multiple structural designs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Emily D. Sanders, Adeildo S. Ramos, Glaucio H. Paulino
      The ground structure method seeks to approximate Michell optimal solutions for real-world design problems requiring truss solutions. The single solution extracted from the ground structure is typically too complex to realize directly in practice and is instead used to inform designer intuition about how the structure behaves. Additionally, a post-processing step required to filter out unnecessary truss members in the final design often leads to structures that no longer satisfy global equilibrium. Here, a maximum filter is proposed that, in addition to guaranteeing structures that satisfy global equilibrium, leads to several design perspectives for a single problem and allows for increased user control over the complexity of the final design. Rather than applying a static filter in each optimization iteration, the maximum filter employs an interval reducing method (e.g., bisection)to find the maximum allowable filter value that can be imposed in a given optimization iteration such that the design space is reduced while preserving global equilibrium and limiting local increases in the objective function. Minimization of potential energy with Tikhonov regularization is adopted to solve the singular system of equilibrium equations resulting from the filtered designs. In addition to reducing the order of the state problem, the maximum filter reduces the order of the optimization problem to increase computational efficiency. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the maximum filter, including a problem with multiple load cases, and its use as an end-filter in the traditional plastic and nested elastic approaches of the ground structure method.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • A numerical solution and evaluation of dynamic stiffness of pile groups
           and comparison to experimental results
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Wentao Dai, Chen Shi, Yong Tan, Fabian Rojas
      A number of solutions and computer programs are already available to determine the dynamic stiffness of complete pile foundations, assuming linear elastic soil behavior and perfect bonding between the piles and the surrounding soil. These are assumptions that would be generally valid for properly designed machine foundations where very small strains should be expected. A number of approximate formulations have also been developed. Among these the most commonly used one is that proposed by Poulos (1971) [1,2] for the static case, computing interaction coefficients between the heads of two piles considered by themselves, then forming a matrix of these coefficients to obtain the interaction between the heads of all the piles in the group. Additional approximations have been suggested, particularly for the computation of the interaction coefficients, using closed form expressions. In this paper, a semi-analytical-semi-numerical formulation has been adopted to calculate the static and dynamic stiffness of pile foundations in the frequency domain, and some approximate expressions are suggested. They are intended for pile groups with pile spacing of the order of two to four diameters, typical range of the modulus of elasticity of the piles over that of the soil between 100 and 1000, and very small amplitude vibrations.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Flexural and shear behaviours of plain and reinforced polyvinyl
           alcohol-engineered cementitious composite beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Dan Meng, C.K. Lee, Y.X. Zhang
      In this paper, the results of an experimental investigation on the flexural and shear behaviours of plain and reinforced polyvinyl alcohol-engineered cementitious composite (PVA-ECC) beams are presented. The PVA-ECC employed in this study, which has a tensile strain capability up to 1%, has been recently developed by the authors using local sand to reduce cost. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of PVA-ECC matrix, transverse reinforcement (stirrups) and longitudinal reinforcement bars on the flexural and shear structural performances of reinforced PVA-ECC beams. Four-point bending tests were conducted and normal steel reinforced concrete beams were tested for comparison. Digital Image Correlation technique was used to monitor single crack development and was validated by LVDT measurements. Experimental results show that PVA-ECC beams present significantly improved flexural behaviour compared with normal concrete beams. Furthermore, PVA-ECC beams without stirrups eventually fail in flexure rather than in shear, and exhibit similar load-deflection, moment-curvature relationships and crack development history when compared with PVA-ECC beams with stirrups.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Effect of ferrocement infill on the strength and behavior of RCC frames
           under reverse cyclic loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): N. Ganesan, P.V. Indira, P. Irshad
      An experimental study was conducted to investigate the strength and behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) frames with ferrocement infills. For this purpose, 1/4th scaled down model of one bay-three story frames were tested under reverse cyclic lateral loading. The ferrocement infill consists of hexagonal wire mesh with different values of volume fraction of mesh reinforcement viz. 0.20%, 0.30% and 0.40%. The strength and behavior of frames with ferrocement infill were compared with frame without infill. The experimental results indicated that the strength, stiffness, energy dissipation capacity and ductility of frames with ferrocement infill were significantly improved when compared with the bare frame. However, the increase in the volume fraction of hexagonal wire mesh of ferrocement infill showed only a marginal improvement in the strength and behavior of the infilled frame.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Punching-shear behaviors of RC-column footings with various reinforcement
           and strengthening details
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Gia Toai Truong, Kyoung-Kyu Choi, Hee-Seung Kim
      In this study, various reinforcement and strengthening details for the improvement of the punching-shear behavior of concrete footings were developed. Eight test specimens of reinforced-concrete (RC) footings were constructed and tested to investigate the punching-shear behavior of the concrete footings with the developed details. The test parameters include the additional placement of a longitudinal reinforcement around the column-footing connections, the inclination of the shear reinforcement, an additional cast of high-strength concrete, and an additional concrete cast with amorphous metallic fibers (AMFs). The test specimens were supported on a bed of steel car springs that simulate the elastic behavior of soil. The test results show that the punching strength was significantly enhanced by the additional placement of the longitudinal reinforcement around the column-footing connections and by the addition of the retrofit materials (high-strength concrete and AMF-reinforced concrete). Contrarily, the shear reinforcement that was placed around the connections did not significantly affect the punching-shear strength of the footings. The test results were also compared with strength predictions for which the current design codes and the existing theoretical models were used.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • An iterative method for solving the dynamic response of railway
           vehicle-track coupled systems based on prediction of wheel-rail forces
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Wei Wang, Yahui Zhang, Huajiang Ouyang
      An iterative method based on prediction of wheel-rail forces is presented to determine the dynamic response of railway vehicle-track coupled systems. The key idea of the present method lies in the modification of the starting value of each step during the iteration by prediction. The conventional iterative method begins iteration of the current step at the previously converged value of the wheel-rail forces. However, in the present method, the predicted wheel-rail forces by the Weighted Least-Squares Error (WLSE) predictor are used as the starting value for the current step. The equations of motion of the vehicle and the track subsystems are established separately and solved iteratively. According to the response of the wheelsets and the rails, and considering the track irregularity, the predicted wheel-rail forces are corrected by the wheel-rail interaction model in which detailed wheel rail contact geometry relations and nonlinear wheel rail creep forces are taken into account. The relaxation technique is adopted to solve the problem of numerical diffusion in the iterative process. A moving vehicle travelling on a two layer flexible track is considered in this study. The accuracy of the proposed method is verified by comparing the results obtained from the present method with the results from the commercial software NUCARS and the efficiency are verified by comparing with the conventional iterative method. Numerical results show that the present method not only gives results comparable to those using the NUCARS software in terms of accuracy, but also saves at least 25% computational cost compared with the conventional iterative method. With the nonlinear wheel-rail contact relation fully considered, the present method can get more detailed results of the vehicle-track coupled model. Meanwhile, the efficiency of the present method is enhanced by means of prediction of wheel-rail forces with the WLSE predictor.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Effects of axial load on seismic performance of reinforced concrete walls
           with short shear span
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): D.T.W. Looi, R.K.L. Su, B. Cheng, H.H. Tsang
      Reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls in tall buildings are found to have a short shear span, particularly in high-degree coupled walls supported on transfer structures in low-to-moderate seismic regions. These non-seismically detailed walls in existing buildings are exposed to a high risk of failing in shear or compression before plastic hinges are formed at their base. Whilst previous research have focused on squat walls used in low-rise structures tested with zero or low axial loads, the structural response of these walls with a short shear span and limited ductility under high axial load is rarely discussed. Therefore, an experimental study that investigates the influence of the axial load ratio (ALR) on RC walls with a short shear span is presented in this paper. The specimens are designed with a low shear span-to-length ratio (SLR) and detailed with a characteristic 2% vertical and longitudinal reinforcement to represent a wall sub-structure above the transfer structure of tall buildings. Four walls are tested under reverse cyclic loading and subjected to target ALRs that range from 0.1 to 0.4 to investigate the seismic performance until gravity collapse. The ALR is found to have significant effects on crack patterns, failure modes and deformability. Two modified empirical prediction models are proposed to estimate the shear strength capacity and ultimate drift ratio of rectangular RC shear walls with a short shear span under the effects of the ALR. A unique model of the drift limit of collapse under axial load asa function of the reinforcement ratio is put forward for performance based design and assessment.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Closed form stability solution of simply supported anisotropic laminated
           composite plates under axial compression compared with experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Hayder A. Rasheed, Rund Al-Masri, Bacim Alali
      Closed form expression for the buckling load of generally anisotropic laminated composite simply supported thin plates is derived. The Rayleigh-Ritz displacement field approximation based on the energy approach introduced an upper bound solution compared to the FE results. Therefore, the critical stability matrix is used to obtain an accurate buckling formula. The effective axial, coupling and flexural stiffness coefficients of the anisotropic layup is determined from the generalized constitutive relationship using dimensional reduction by static condensation of the 6×6 composite stiffness matrix. The resulting explicit formula has an additional term, which is a function of the effective coupling and axial stiffness. This formula reduces down to Euler buckling formula once the effective coupling stiffness term vanishes for isotropic and certain classes of laminated composites. The closed form results are verified against finite element Eigenvalue solutions for a wide range of anisotropic laminated layups yielding high accuracy. Comparisons with a limited number of experiments are also performed showing good correspondence. A brief parametric study is then conducted to examine the effect of ply orientations and material properties including hybrid carbon/glass fiber composites. Relevance of the numerical and closed form results is discussed for all these cases.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Flexural strengthening of RC beams with prefabricated ultra high
           performance fibre reinforced concrete laminates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): H.M. Tanarslan
      The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams that were strengthened with prefabricated ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) laminates. In order to receive consistent results while using UHPRFC and enhance the effectiveness of its usage on site applications, it has been considered to apply UHFRPC as a laminated plate. Furthermore, differently applied UHPFRC laminates were tested to determine which method is more effective for flexural strengthening of RC beams. Accordingly, each application method was evaluated by its own benefits and the subsequent application procedure was determined after seeing the deficiencies and the positive state of previous application. In view of that, seven specimens, one of which was the control specimen and six of which were the under-reinforced test specimens, were strengthened with 50mm thick UHPFRC laminates. A minimum increase of 32% and a maximum of 208% at load carrying capacity was obtained from the UHPFRC strengthened specimens. Consequently, UHPFRC laminate usage is an effective technique to enhance the behavior and the load carrying capacity of RC beams and can be preferred to strengthen deteriorated structures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Simulating masonry wall behaviour using a simplified micro-model approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Kurdo F. Abdulla, Lee S. Cunningham, Martin Gillie
      In this paper, a simplified micro-model approach utilising a combination of plasticity-based constitutive models and the extended finite element method (XFEM) is proposed. The approach is shown to be an efficient means of simulating the three-dimensional non-linear behaviour of masonry under monotonic in-plane, out of plane and cyclic loads. The constitutive models include surface-based cohesive behaviour to capture the elastic and plastic behaviour of masonry joints and a Drucker Prager (DP) plasticity model to simulate crushing of masonry under compression. The novel use of XFEM in simulating crack propagation within masonry units without initial definition of crack location is detailed. Analysis is conducted using standard finite element software (Abaqus 6.13) following a Newton Raphson algorithm solution without employing user-defined subroutines. The capability of the model in terms of capturing non-linear behaviour and failure modes of masonry under vertical and horizontal loads is demonstrated via comparison with a number of published experimental studies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Soil-structure interaction effects in analysis of seismic fragility of
           bridges using an intensity-based ground motion selection procedure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Sotiria P. Stefanidou, Anastasios G. Sextos, Anastasios N. Kotsoglou, Nikolaos Lesgidis, Andreas J. Kappos
      The paper focuses on the effects of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) in seismic fragility analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) bridges, considering the vulnerability of multiple critical components of the bridge and different modelling approaches for soil-foundation and bridge-embankment interactions. A two-step procedure, based on the introduction of springs and dashpots at the pier foundations and the abutment to account for inertial and kinematic SSI effects, is incorporated into a component-based methodology for the derivation of bridge-specific fragility curves. The proposed methodology is applied for quantifying the fragility of a typical highway overpass at both the component and system level, while the effect of alternative procedures (of varying complexity) for modelling foundation and abutment boundary conditions is critically assessed. The rigorous SSI modelling method is compared with simpler methods and the results show that consideration of SSI may only slightly affect the probability of system failure, depending on the modelling assumptions made. However, soil-structure interaction may have a notable effect on component fragility, especially for the more critical damage states. This is an observation that is commonly overlooked when assessing the structural performance at the system level and can be particularly important when component fragility is an issue, e.g. when designing a retrofit scheme.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Reliability of lattice dome with and without the effect of using small
           number of ground motion records in seismic design
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Y.G. Li, F. Fan, H.P. Hong
      Linear and nonlinear seismic responses can be estimated using the time history analysis for given ground motion records. To reduce the computing time, design codes prescribe guidelines to select a small number of ground motion records to perform the analysis and to estimate the seismic design demand. However, the assessment of the statistics of the seismic design level by using a small number of record components and the evaluation of the failure probability of the designed structures in such a manner are unavailable. The assessment and evaluation focused on the lattice dome are presented in this study. The results indicate that the use of average response from seven ground motion record components for design can lead to over- or under-estimation of the seismic design effect, the frequency of underestimation is about 50%. The variability of the seismic design effect estimated by using seven selected record components is considerable. By carrying out simulation analysis with 1000 trials, the minimum underestimation and the maximum overestimation of the seismic design demand are 35% and 64%, respectively; the estimated failure probabilities of the dome designed by using average response from seven record components can be about half an order of magnitude greater or smaller than that of the dome designed without the effect of small sample size. This suggests that to reduce the observed relative differences in the failure probabilities, an increased number of ground motion record components needs to be used in seismic design.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Some aspects of modeling and identification of inhomogeneous residual
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): R. Nedin, V. Dudarev, A. Vatulyan
      Investigations of problems on mechanics of deformable solid body under residual (or initial, or pre-) stress state play a very important part in strength-and-stability assessment and in reconstruction of inhomogeneous properties. The present paper describes different theoretical aspects of modeling of residual stresses (RS). We compare several RS models for the vibrational problems for beams and plates and estimate numerically RS effect on their dynamical characteristics: frequency-response functions and eigenfrequency spectrum. We formulate and investigate the inverse problem on an identification of inhomogeneous plane RS state in a thin plate on the basis of the acoustic method. To solve the inverse problem, we propose two different approaches. We discuss the results of computational experiments on RS identification in detail and provide some practical recommendations on a selection of frequency range in order to obtain the highest reconstruction accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Stress concentration factors in CHS-CFSHS T-joints: Experiments, FE
           analysis and formulae
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): L.W. Tong, G.W. Xu, D.L. Yang, F.R. Mashiri, X.L. Zhao
      A CHS-CFSHS T-joint is fabricated by welding a circular hollow section (CHS) brace to a concrete-filled square hollow section (CFSHS) chord. This paper presents an investigation into stress concentration factors (SCFs) of CHS-CFSHS T-joints through experimental testing as well as finite element (FE) analysis. A series of well-designed CHS-CFSHS T-joints are first tested under axial loading (tension and compression respectively) and in-plane bending in the brace so that the strain concentration factors (SNCFs) of the joints are determined. By comparing the experimental results with those extracted from previous research on empty CHS-SHS T-joints, it is found that the in-filled concrete can effectively reduce the maximum SNCF and therefore SCF. Three-dimensional FE models are subsequently developed and validated. Then an extensive parametric study is conducted to evaluate the influences of three key non-dimensional geometric parameters (i.e. β, 2γ and τ) using the validated FE modeling strategy. Finally, SCF formulae corresponding to typical load conditions are established for fatigue design of CHS-CFSHS T-joints.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Design of stainless steel continuous beams with tubular cross-sections
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): I. Arrayago, E. Real, E. Mirambell
      This paper presents a comprehensive study on the application of global plastic design methods, not currently allowed in European specification provisions, to stainless steel rectangular and square hollow section continuous beams. The analysis of experimental and numerical continuous beam strengths highlighted that ultimate capacity predictions calculated based on global elastic analysis result in a considerable conservatism due to strain hardening and bending moment redistribution effects. Alternatively, the assessment and reliability analyses of the traditional plastic design methods demonstrated that the Class 1 cross-section limit provided in the European specification can be safely applied for the partial safety factor γM0 currently provided. However, the analysis evidenced that including bending moment redistribution in capacity predictions is not enough since strain hardening effects play an important role when stocky cross-sections are analysed. Thus, the Continuous Strength Method for indeterminate structures was also assessed and it was found to provide accurate capacity predictions for all analysed stainless steel grades. Finally, an alternative Direct Strength Method design approach is proposed for stainless steel continuous beams based on the Direct Strength Method bending capacity. The proposed method, statistically validated, accounts for strain hardening effects and moment redistribution and provides the best resistance predictions among the different design methods considered.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Design of cold-formed high strength steel tubular beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Jia-Lin Ma, Tak-Ming Chan, Ben Young
      A numerical investigation on cold-formed high strength steel (HSS) tubular beams is presented in this paper. The nominal 0.2% proof stresses of the HSS sections ranged from 700MPa to 1100MPa. In the complementary study [1], experimental investigation on the beam specimens have been performed. In the present study, numerical modelling methodology for beams was first validated and parametric study on the cold-formed HSS tubular beams was conducted. A total of 423 numerical data was obtained to investigate the structural performance of HSS tubular beams. The experimental and numerical results were then compared with the codified design guidelines from ANSI/AISC 360-10 [2], EN 1993-1-1 [3], AS 4100 [4] and AISI S100 [5] in addition to the predictions from Direct Strength Method (DSM) for square hollow sections (SHS), rectangular hollow sections (RHS) and circular hollow sections (CHS). The codified slenderness limits for sections subjected to bending were examined. Improvements on the design guidelines are proposed in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Performance enhancement of eight bolt extended end-plate moment
           connections under simulated seismic loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Machel Morrison, Shahriar Quayyum, Tasnim Hassan
      Extended end-plate (EEP) moment resisting connections provide the advantage of eliminating field welding and by virtue of this, facilitate fast field erection of building frames. The eight bolt stiffened (8ES) EEP connection is one of the prequalified moment connections in the AISC 358 standard for special moment frames (SMFs) in seismic regions. In this connection, a stiffener plate is welded between the end plate and the beam flanges to strengthen the extended portion of the end plate. This stiffener reduces prying action and more uniformly distributes flange forces among the bolt group. In experimental studies, the 8ES connection has shown ductile response to simulated seismic loading with test specimens typically failing due to beam buckling and gradual strength degradation. However, cracks initiating at the toe of the stiffener leading to brittle fracture of the beam flange has also been observed due to the high stress concentration in this region. The study reported herein proposes an eight-bolt EEP connection in which the end plate stiffener is removed and the bolt arrangement is modified to promote uniform distribution of flange forces among the bolt group. The proposed connection was developed through detailed finite element analysis in which various bolt arrangements for stiffened and unstiffened eight-bolt EEP connections were considered. The proposed connection displayed reduced beam flange stress and strain concentrations, delayed or reduced rate of strength degradation from local buckling and more uniform distribution of bolt forces when compared to the alternatives. Furthermore, when compared to the currently prequalified 8ES connection, despite requiring thicker end plates, the proposed connection is anticipated to result in cost savings from the removal of the end plate stiffener. Future analytical and experimental needs for further development of the proposed connection are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Numerical investigation of the response of I-core sandwich panels
           subjected to combined blast and fragment loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Changzai Zhang, Yuansheng Cheng, Pan Zhang, Xinfeng Duan, Jun Liu, Yong Li
      The LS-DYNA software was employed to investigate the dynamic response of I-core sandwich panels under combined blast and fragment loading. The combined blast loading was simulated by placing pre-fabricated fragments at the bottom surface of bare explosive. To facilitate evaluating the synergistic effect under combined blast loading, the resistance of sandwich panels under bare blast loading was also assessed. The results demonstrated that the damage caused by combined blast loading was more severe than that by bare blast loading. The roles of charge mass, face-sheet configuration and core configuration on the deformation/failure behavior and energy absorption characteristics of panels were analyzed and discussed in detail. Under combined blast loading, the panels exhibited a perforation and tearing failure mode accompanied by structural fragments from failed front face. The charge mass is relevant to whether the residual momentum of fragments is large enough to penetrate the back face. The face-sheet configuration that had thick front face and thin back face was favorable in mitigating the damage response. The core configuration with dense core webs provided more assistance in preventing the appearance of failure pattern with a large connected region. The face-sheet configuration and core configuration have negligible influence on the total energy absorption, but they would redistribute the energy dissipation among each panel component. Furthermore, the comparisons of blast resistance between sandwich panels and conventional monolithic counterparts were made. It turned out that the sandwich panels experienced lower level damage failure on back face but dissipated similar energy relative to equivalent solid plates.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Stress-strain model for confined concrete with corroded transverse
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Ngoc Son Vu, Bo Yu, Bing Li
      This paper presents an experimental study on the stress-strain relation of confined concrete that considers the corrosion effects of transverse reinforcement. The main variables are the corrosion level of transverse reinforcement, cross sectional shape of confined concrete, as well as arrangement and configuration of confining transverse reinforcing bars. The test results revealed that four key parameters of the complete stress-strain relation are significantly affected due to the corrosion of transverse reinforcement, including the maximum concrete strength and corresponding axial concrete strain, maximum concrete strain at the fracture of the first hoops, and descending branch of the stress-strain curve after exceeding the maximum strength. Based on the test data and regression analysis, the empirical equations to estimate these key parameters are proposed, and a complete stress-strain model for confined concrete with corroded transverse reinforcement is developed. The proposed model showed good correlation with the test data of both circular and square specimens with various corrosion levels and subjected to compression axial loading.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • In-plane failure mechanisms and strength design of circular steel planar
           tubular Vierendeel truss arches
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Yan-Lin Guo, Hang Chen, Yong-Lin Pi
      Vierendeel steel truss arches are often used in lighting zones of the spatial roof to obtain good permeability and lighting effects. They are different from conventional steel truss arches in terms of failure mechanism and strength design because they have only transverse tubes without diagonal tubes between chords. The chords of the Vierendeel truss arch undertake axial, bending and shear actions while the transverse tubes only resist the bending action. Hence, their structural design against strength is different from conventional steel truss arches. However, this aspect is not well analyzed in literature. This study analyzed the in-plane instability mechanism, failure mode and corresponding strength of the Vierendeel truss arch under a uniform radial load, a full-span uniform vertical load, a half-span uniform vertical load and their combinations. The global in-plane elastic buckling load of the arch under a uniform radial load is derived firstly and an interaction design formula for predicting the global in-plane strength of the arch under a uniform axial compression is proposed. It is found that the chords of the arch may fail in fully sectional plastic moment mode. Transverse tubes may fail because of the end moments. Slender enough arches may also undergo global failure. Strength design equations for local chord failure and for global failure of arches are developed. All of the equations proposed for predicting global in-plane elastic buckling, global in-plane ultimate strength and chord local strength of the arch agree quite well with the finite element results.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Experimental and analytical investigation of end zone cracking in BT-78
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Vidya Sagar Ronanki, David I. Burkhalter, Sriram Aaleti, Wei Song, James A. Richardson
      In the past decade, with a growing interest in long span bridge girders, designers are using an increasing number of prestressing strands. This scaling up has led to cracking issues in the end zone of narrow stemmed bulb-tees and I-girders, impacting the service life and possibly design capacities in case of excessive cracking. In a project funded by the Alabama department of transportation (DOT), a 180ft long girder design was developed by modifying a standard Bulb-Tee girder and using a 10 ksi self-consolidating concrete mix. The new girder is 78in. deep and has 66–0.6in. strands. The impact of the draping angle and debonding on the end zone cracking was first evaluated using a 3D finite element model (FEM) developed in ABAQUS. Subsequently, the critical stresses were monitored during the detensioning process of four 54ft long full-scale girders with different end zone details. It was found that the combination of limiting the draping angle and debonding the strands resulted in minimizing the end zone cracking. The detailed FEA model which was developed is also verified using experimental field data. The results of this experimental and analytical investigation will be presented in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Lateral buckling of tapered members
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Nick Trahair

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Reliability-based optimal load factors for seismic design of buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Juan Bojórquez, Sonia E. Ruiz, Bruce Ellingwood, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Edén Bojórquez
      A reliability-based development of load factors for the combination of seismic and gravity loads is presented. The procedure aims at minimizing the total expected life-cycle cost of buildings, having as a constraint a maximum value of the mean annual failure rate. The loads considered are dead, live and earthquake loads. The methodology is applied to a large inventory of reinforced concrete frames and steel frames buildings located at a soft soil region of Mexico City. Artificial Neural Networks are used to efficiently obtain the designs and the reliabilities of the buildings in the inventory. For the range of load combinations studied, the optimal load factors were found to be insensitive to the value of life, but sensitive to the fundamental vibration period of the structures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Effects of variability in ambient vibration data on model updating and
           damage identification of a 10-story building
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Amin Nozari, Iman Behmanesh, Seyedsina Yousefianmoghadam, Babak Moaveni, Andreas Stavridis
      This study presents linear finite element (FE) model updating and damage identification of a ten-story reinforced concrete building using ambient vibration measurements. Structural damage was induced to the building by removing six perimeter infill walls. Ambient acceleration response of the structure was recorded before and after the induced damage which are referred to as the reference state and damaged state of the building, respectively. An operational modal analysis method is used to identify the natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes of the structure using different sets of ambient vibration measurements at the reference state and the damaged state of the building. An initial linear FE model of the structure is created based on in-situ geometry measurements and testing of material samples. The initial model is then updated to reference models using different sets of ambient vibration measurements at the reference state of the building. The updated model parameters reveal considerable variation despite the fact that the identified modal parameters exhibit a much lower level of variability. A subset of the updated reference models are subsequently employed to detect the location and extent of the induced damage by updating the equivalent stiffness of 12 wall substructures using the measured data at the damaged state. Although the identified damage is generally in good agreement with the induced structural damage, the results are found to be sensitive to the variation of the identified modal parameters.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:41:29Z
  • Application of the high-frequency base balance technique to tall slender
           structures considering the effects of higher modes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Lianghao Zou, Tianyi Shi, Jie Song, C.S. Cai
      This paper presents a novel high-frequency base balance (HFBB) analysis approach that considers the effect of higher modes on wind-induced responses of tall slender structures. The generalized force for any mode is formulated by assuming a distribution of the wind force power spectral density (PSD) along the structural height, and employing the base moments measured from HFBB wind tunnel tests. The structural responses are then calculated by solving the equation of motion. The accuracy of the proposed method is validated by comparing the results from the proposed method with those from associated aeroelastic model testing, for a microwave communication tower, an electrical transmission tower and a TV tower. The results show that the proposed method exhibits a significant advantage for estimating wind-induced responses, especially for the TV tower. This is because the proposed method takes account of the contribution of the higher modes, which are usually not ignorable for tall and flexible lattice towers. Therefore, the proposed method greatly extends the application of the HFBB technique to tall and flexible structures where the effects of higher modes are significant.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Equivalent-force density method as a shape-finding tool for cable-membrane
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Yaqiong Tang, Tuanjie Li
      Cable-membrane structure is a kind of flexible tension structures, of which both cables and membranes are lack of bending and compressing stiffness. In order to reduce the nonlinearity and the strong coupling between its geometric shape and internal stress distribution to improve the computational efficiency and convergence, this paper developed an equivalent-force density method by identifying the equivalent axial force density and equivalent transversal force density to replace the prestress in triangular and quadrilateral membrane elements. Then the method was applied as a shape-finding tool for cable-membrane structure. Furthermore, several numerical simulations, including planar cable-membrane structure, catenoid and umbrella/tent-like cable-membrane structures, were conducted to confirm the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Dynamic analyses of square RC pier column subjected to barge impact using
           efficient models
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): W. Wang, G. Morgenthal
      Material non-linearity of pier members is an important factor that needs to be considered for dynamic analysis of the bridge pier subjected to barge impact. However, many existing studies pertaining to barge impact on the bridge pier are based on the assumption that the pier is rigid or elastic. High-resolution finite-element simulation serves as the main strategy for dynamic analysis of the bridge pier subjected to barge impact considering material non-linearity of pier members. However, high-resolution finite-element simulations are expensive regarding both calculation time and computing resources, thus efficient models are often required. This paper develops the numerical model of the square RC pier column with fixed base. By coupling the simplified mass-spring model developed by the authors previously with the RC pier column at the impact position using fibre beam elements, the efficient model is developed to predict the impact force time-history and dynamic responses of the RC pier column subjected to barge impact. The studies in this paper show that the prediction quality of the proposed efficient model is adequate for different impact scenarios.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Experimental and numerical investigations into seismic performance of
           timber-steel hybrid structure with supplemental dampers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Zheng Li, Hanlin Dong, Xijun Wang, Minjuan He
      Although building structures can be designed to meet the life safety criterion and to deform inelastically without inducing collapse under major earthquakes, the structural and nonstructural damage associated with inelastic responses is normally very costly to repair. In this paper, friction dampers are utilized to upgrade the seismic performance of timber-steel hybrid structure, which has been proposed asan alternative structural solution for multi-story buildings. The hybrid structural system consists of steel moment resisting frame and infill light wood frame shear wall, both of which serve as the main lateral load resisting components, and friction dampers are introduced as frame-to-wall connectors to mitigate earthquake-induced damage. Pseudo-static loading tests were carried out on three timber-steel hybrid lateral load resisting subassemblies, and test results showed that the friction dampers were very effective in dissipating earthquake input energy, and correspondingly, much less damage was observed within the main structural members. The software package OpenSees was used to simulate the hysteretic behavior of the hybrid structure, and the developed finite element model was further validated by test results. Moreover, an optimal damper design solution was provided for a four-story timber-steel hybrid prototype building according to the numerical results from massive time-history analyses. Finally, the floor acceleration and inter-story drift responses of the prototype building with optimal damper configurations were assessed. This research aims to contribute to the development of novel timber hybrid structural systems with enhanced seismic performance.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Experimental investigation of buckling collapse of encased liners
           subjected to external water pressure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): J.H. Wang, A. Koizumi
      This report presents the experimental results of a comprehensive investigation on the buckling of an encased liner under external water pressure. The pre- and post-buckling behaviours of tightly and loosely fitted liners, as well as their collapse mechanism, were investigated by performing a series of experiments using novel pressurizing equipment. The experimental results clearly show that an encased liner can collapse due to inelastic single-lobe buckling or elastic buckling, depending on the liner and constraint conditions. In addition, the existing related solutions are discussed, and it is identified that none of the solutions can appropriately evaluate the critical pressure for both tightly and loosely fitted liners. Moreover, recent buckling accidents are discussed, and suggestions for safe design are presented.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Experimental investigation of special-shaped concrete-filled steel tubular
           column to steel beam connections under cyclic loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Jingchen Liu, Yuanlong Yang, Jiepeng Liu, Xuhong Zhou
      This paper presents experimental investigation and numerical investigation on seismic behavior of special-shaped concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) column to steel beam joints. Exterior diaphragm and vertical rib are respectively introduced as joint stiffeners. A pseudo static experiment was conducted to investigate load transmission mechanism, failure mode and seismic performance index based on load-deformation curves and strain curves. The seismic behavior of the two kinds of joints were compared and evaluated. The classification of the joints by stiffness is conducted according to Eurocode. Inter-story drift of the specimens was calculated with data from laboratory apparatus and verified with test results. A design formula of joint shear resistance based on internal load transmission was proposed for engineering application. A finite element model of special-shaped CFST to steel beam connections was established as a supplement to analyze load transmission mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Numerical and experimental investigation of lateral torsional buckling of
           wood beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Q. Xiao, G. Doudak, M. Mohareb
      The present study reports the results of a full-scale experimental and numerical investigation aimed at predicting the elastic lateral torsional buckling capacity of wooden beams. The experimental component consists of 18 Spruce-Pine-Fir (SPF) No. 1/No. 2 grade lumber joists consisting of five 38mm×184mm×4200mm, six 38mm×235mm×3600mm, and seven 38mm×286mm×4200mm specimens. For each specimen, the shear and longitudinal elastic moduli are first determined experimentally through non-destructive tests. A full-scale bending test is then conducted on each specimen, to determine its elastic lateral torsional buckling resistance. A 3D finite element model is developed to predict the lateral torsional buckling resistance for each specimen based on the experimentally determined shear and longitudinal elastic moduli. The validity of the finite element analysis is assessed through comparisons with full-scale test results. The validated model was used to assess the Eurocode provisions and it was found that for simply supported end conditions the code equation seemed reasonable and slightly conservative. However, for cantilevered beams, the Eurocode provisions seem to be overly conservative for the case of bottom edge loading and non-conservative for the case of top edge loading. Changes have been proposed to the wording of the effective length adjustment and the results based on the revised definition provides critical moment predictions that are conservative and more consistent for cantilevers under top and bottom edge loading.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Tests of glass fibre reinforced polymer rectangular concrete columns
           subjected to concentric and eccentric axial loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Mohamed Elchalakani, Guowei Ma
      The use of Glass Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) reinforcement as an alternative to steel for use in Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures has developed significantly in recent years. GFRP’s excellent corrosion resistance, high tensile-strength-to-weight ratio, non-magnetic, nonconductive make it an excellent solution for projects requiring improved corrosion resistance or reduced maintenance costs. Despite a number of recent studies illustrating the effective use of GFRP rebars as longitudinal reinforcement for concrete compression members, the current international design codes such as ACI 440.1R-15, CAN/CSA S806, TR55, ISO 10406-1, and fib do not recommend including GFRP reinforcement in the compression member capacity calculations. The experimental study detailed in this paper involved construction and testing of 17 rectangular concrete columns reinforced with both steel and GFRP rebars. The columns were tested to failure under various loading conditions, in order to determine the effect of load eccentricity on axial capacity. The effect of ligature spacing and confinement area on axial capacity and ductility were also examined. The most important finding is that GFRP RC columns utilising less concrete cover can achieve greater strain and deformation ductility than equivalent steel RC columns. It was shown that the load carrying capacity and ductility of GFRP reinforced columns increased when the ligature spacing was reduced from 150mm to 75mm. It was also found that, the average axial load carrying capacity of GFRP RC columns was 93.5% of their steel RC column counterparts. It was also found that, the GFRP RC columns under concentric load exhibited 3.2% average increase in the load carrying capacity with respect to the plain concrete section capacity, whereas the steel ones achieved an average enhancement of 15.8%.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Seismic performance assessment of a curved bridge equipped with a new type
           spring restrainer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Jun-jun Guo, Jian Zhong, Xin-zhi Dang, Wan-cheng Yuan
      Severe damages of curved bridge, such as pounding, unseating of superstructure and pier collapse, have been frequently observed in previous strong earthquakes. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of a new type multi-level spring restrainer (MLSR) on reducing the seismic responses of a curved bridge. The optimal parametric values of the device are determined by response surface method (RSM). The numerical models of the curved bridge with and without MLSR are established using OpenSees. Three earthquake records are selected from PEER strong motion database matching the site condition of the bridge. Nonlinear time history analyses are performed for the bridge with and without MLSR. The force-deformation behavior of the bridge components, the relative displacements between adjacent girders, and the maximum pier curvature are evaluated. The numerical results show that the application of MLSR on the curved bridge will not only avoid the pounding and unseating of the superstructure, but also mitigate the pier damages of the bridge.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Continuous model and nonlinear dynamic responses of circular mesh antenna
           clamped at one side
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): W. Zhang, J. Chen, Y.F. Zhang, X.D. Yang
      The continuous model and nonlinear dynamic responses of a circular mesh antenna subjected to the thermal excitation in the space environment are investigated for the first time. A continuum cantilever circular cylindrical short shell, which is clamped at one side of the shell along the axial direction, is proposed to take place of the circular mesh antenna composed of the repetitive beamlike lattice by the principle of equivalent effect. Based on the first-order shear deformation shell theory and von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, the nonlinear governing equations of motion are derived by using the Hamilton’s principle. The Galerkin approach is used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The method of multiple scales is utilized to obtain the four-dimensional averaged equation when the 1:1 internal resonance is taken into account. The numerical results, which include the time histories, phase plots, and frequency spectrum, are obtained for the mesh antenna. The influences of the thermal excitation and the damping coefficient on the nonlinear dynamics are analyzed for the mesh antenna.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Comparison of the General Method with the Overall Method for the
           out-of-plane stability of members with lateral restraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): João Ferreira, Paulo Vila Real, Carlos Couto
      The generalised slenderness concept has been gaining popularity recently. One of the methods that is based on this concept is the General Method, which was introduced in Part 1-1 of Eurocode 3 to enable the assessment of the out-of-plane stability of steel members that fall outside the scope of the buckling resistance of uniform members formulae. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the safety and accuracy of this method, namely when dealing with members that possess complex lateral restraints. The General Method resulted from an adaptation of a method present in Part 1-5 and Part 1-6 of Eurocode 3 that is commonly designated by the Overall Method, though it is not clear why this adaptation was performed. In this paper, a comparison between numerical results and results obtained by both methods, for members with different configurations of lateral restraints, is provided. The study shows that non-conservative results are obtained when applying the Overall Method to the more restrained cases, where the in-plane and out-of-plane buckling modes occur for almost the same load amplifier, while the General Method returns conservative results for the same cases. It is seen that when the in-plane buckling mode is the critical one, the assessment of the in-plane buckling resistance of the member would be sufficient to guarantee its safety. Additionally, this study provides insight into the problem of definition of imperfections when dealing with members with lateral restraints.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Adaptive superelement modeling for progressive collapse analysis of
           reinforced concrete frames
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): J. Weng, K.H. Tan, C.K. Lee
      A new adaptive superelement procedure for progressive collapse analysis of 2D reinforced concrete frames under column removal scenario is proposed. Superelement formulation is employed to reduce the computational cost. In addition, a new procedure for rigid body rotation correction is proposed to improve the accuracy of the superelement formulation. An error indicator is developed to monitor the propagation of the nonlinear zone during analysis. The adaptive analysis procedure is then formed by combining the error indicator with a reliable member and substructure collapse identification algorithm. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the accuracy, robustness and efficiency of the modeling procedure. As the work involves establishing a novel concept to reduce computational effort when simulating the whole process of collapse, the authors only consider the impact energy of falling objects in a quasi-static manner through the use of dynamic increase factors, thereby obviating the need for time-consuming nonlinear structural dynamic analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
  • Investigations of elastic vibration periods of reinforced concrete
           moment-resisting frame systems with various infill walls
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 151
      Author(s): Ali Al-Balhawi, Binsheng Zhang
      The fundamental period of vibration is a crucial characteristic in assessing the dynamic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings because it is not only directly related to the mass and stiffness of the structure, but also to the lateral actions applied, e.g. earthquakes and winds. In this study, the RC moment-resisting frame (MRF) systems designed under gravity and wind loading have been evaluated by utilising 3D FE modelling incorporating eigen-analysis to obtain the elastic periods of vibration. The parameters considered include the number of storeys, the number and length of bays, plan configurations, mechanical properties of infill walls, and the presence of openings in the uncracked and cracked infill walls. These analyses provide a sound basis for further investigating the effects of these parameters and exploring the possibility of proposing new formulas for predicting the fundamental vibration period by utilising regression analyses on the obtained results. The proposed numerically based formula for vibration periods of bare RC frame models reasonably agrees with some cited formulas for vibration period from design codes and standards due to disregarding contributions of infills’ stiffness towards the structural systems. Meanwhile, the proposed formulas for RC MRF buildings with uncracked infills agree well with most cited experimentally based formulas and some numerically based ones. However, the proposed formulas for RC MRF buildings with cracked infills only reasonably agree with some cited numerically based formulas.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:53:13Z
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