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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2358 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1240 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 194 of 194 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)


Journal Cover Engineering Structures
  [SJR: 1.813]   [H-I: 83]   [13 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0141-0296
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Smoothing evolutionary structural optimization for structures with
           displacement or natural frequency constraints
    • Authors: Hélio Luiz Simonetti; Valério S. Almeida; Francisco de Assis das Neves
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Hélio Luiz Simonetti, Valério S. Almeida, Francisco de Assis das Neves
      The Smoothing Evolutionary Structural Optimization (SESO) technique was extended to solve 2D elastic problems with constraint of displacements or natural frequencies. At the end of each finite element analysis, a scalar representing the sensitivity due to the removal of an element is calculated. Thus, the elements that have the lowest values are removed from the structure, while the displacements in prescribed locations are kept inside of limits stated or the first frequencies are maximized. The proposed technique proved to be adequate and efficient in the execution of shape and topological optimization.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.032
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Out-of-plane behavior of two-layered free-standing masonry walls:
           Analytical solutions and small-scale tests
    • Authors: Marcin Szyszka; Jerzy Jasieńko; John A. Ochsendorf
      Pages: 11 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Marcin Szyszka, Jerzy Jasieńko, John A. Ochsendorf
      This study explores the possibility of adopting small-scale models for understanding the behavior of two-layered masonry walls. The units were made of gypsum powder and produced by a 3D printer. The tests were conducted by means of a tilting table, which provided a first order seismic analysis leading to the discovery of the minimum value of the horizontal/vertical acceleration ratio that triggers the collapse. In order to conduct a qualitative analysis, a high-speed camera and dedicated software were employed. Beforehand, theoretical predictions were given (expressed by dimensionless parameters) both for the failure domain and failure angle. Experimental tests showed that for various failure mechanisms, different reduction factors should be applied – because of the interference of imperfections. Additionally, at the borders between some failure modes, mixed modes can occur with an unfavorable effect on load capacity. A high-speed camera and software utilization helped to explain the asymmetric frame-like failure mechanism occurrence which could not have been predicted theoretically. As a final result, a new diagram with failure domains and a set of governing equations along with reduction factors were delivered.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Numerical study on the effects of diaphragm stiffness and strength on the
           seismic response of multi-story modular buildings
    • Authors: Sriskanthan Srisangeerthanan; M. Javad Hashemi; Pathmanathan Rajeev; Emad Gad; Saman Fernando
      Pages: 25 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Sriskanthan Srisangeerthanan, M. Javad Hashemi, Pathmanathan Rajeev, Emad Gad, Saman Fernando
      Modular building construction relies on prefabricated modules which are assembled onsite to form complete buildings. The assembly requires modules to be connected at discrete locations and results in the formation of discontinuous diaphragms. Diaphragm discontinuities could potentially lead to structural instability or possible diaphragm failure if unaccounted for. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of in-plane diaphragm stiffness and strength on the seismic performance of multi-story modular buildings. A simplified method is presented to establish diaphragm service stiffness considering shear deformation of individual module diaphragms as well as shear and axial deformation of diaphragm connections. This method is used to construct numerical models of a four-by-four bay four-story modular steel building. Three diaphragm stiffness levels, namely rigid, stiff and flexible, are considered for these models and were each subjected to 44 horizontal ground motions relating to seismic events having a return period of 500 years. The results show that increased diaphragm flexibility leads to inter-story drifts that are dramatically large and inertial forces that are considerably different from calculated values using the equivalent lateral force procedure described in current seismic codes. This study is extended further to evaluate performance targets for both elastic and inelastic diaphragm response under a seismic event having a return period of 2500 years. The results are used to propose new seismic design factors, which include force and ductility amplification, and could be implemented for the design of diaphragm connections in multi-story modular buildings.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.048
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Cyclic experimental and analytical studies of buckling-restrained braces
           with various gusset connections
    • Authors: Jingfeng Wang; Beibei Li; Chungche Chou; Liang Chen
      Pages: 38 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Jingfeng Wang, Beibei Li, Chungche Chou, Liang Chen
      Five buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) with various gusset connections, including pinned gusset connection, bolted gusset connection, welded gusset connection, pinned-welded gusset connection as well as pinned-bolted gusset connection, were designed and tested under axial cyclic loading. Typical failure modes for all specimens were summarized and analyzed. The experimental results showed that all specimens exhibited stable hysteretic performance, good ductility and cumulative plastic deformation capacity. In addition, the relationship between the core plate strain demand and the effective factor was adopted to assess whether a BRB deformation satisfied the requirement of at least two times the design story drift. On the basis of Whitmore section and effective length, a formula of equivalent stiffness for a BRB with various gusset plates was suggested and verified by the experimental and numerical results. Furthermore, the finite element (FE) models of BRBs with various gusset connections were established and good consistency between the numerical and test results indicated that the FE modeling could simulate the cyclic behavior of BRB well. The elastic stiffness of gusset plate should be considered in the BRB design, and various gusset connection type and corresponding configurations provided an alternative method for designers to adjust conveniently the equivalent stiffness of brace under the premise of meeting the core plate strain demand.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Use of modal interference approach (MIA) to reduce wind-induced building
    • Authors: Jiming Xie; D. Borysiuk
      Pages: 51 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Jiming Xie, D. Borysiuk
      A new method of structural optimization to reduce across-wind responses of tall buildings, named MIA (modal interference approach), is proposed in this paper. This method is based on an observation that if there are multiple modes participating in vortex-induced oscillations, these modes tend to interrupt each other, resulting in considerably smaller amplitude of vibration in comparison with a single mode response. A theoretical analysis was performed to describe this phenomenon, based on which MIA was developed. The new method is to stimulate multi-mode responses to vortex excitations by rotating the modal directions away from the wind-susceptible building directions and separating the frequencies between the participated modes. Wind tunnel studies of a high-frequency force balance model and a stick aeroelastic model verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.044
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Simulating the fire-thermal-structural behavior in a localized fire test
           on a bare steel beam
    • Authors: Chao Zhang; Hong-Xia Yu; Lisa Choe; John Gross; Guo-Hua Li
      Pages: 61 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Chao Zhang, Hong-Xia Yu, Lisa Choe, John Gross, Guo-Hua Li
      The engineering design practice may include fire protection design of steel structures in large volumes. Prescriptive methods in fire codes are based on the concept of fire compartmentation and might be inapplicable to large volumes. As an alternative, fire engineering performance based methods are developed, which may need sophisticated numerical models to adequately simulate the responses of structures in the design fire scenarios. This paper discusses an integrated fire-structural simulation model for performance based design. Sub-models were clearly described. The fire-structure simulation model was successfully applied to model the fire-thermal-structural behaviors in two localized fire tests on a real-scale steel beam recently conducted at the National Fire Research Laboratory (NFRL) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The model might be used in performance based structural fire safety design.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.036
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Lateral-distortional buckling of beams with hollow flanges and folded
           plate webs
    • Authors: N.S. Trahair; J.P. Papangelis
      Pages: 71 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): N.S. Trahair, J.P. Papangelis
      This paper is concerned with the effects of distortion on the lateral buckling of steel beams which have rectangular or square hollow flanges and folded plate webs. The hollow flanges potentially make very large contributions to the torsional stiffness, but flange distortion (in a shear mode) causes a significant reduction in the effective torsional stiffness and in the lateral buckling resistance. In this paper, the shear distortion of the hollow flanges is analysed, and the strain energy stored in a distorted flange is compared with the strain energy stored during uniform torsion of the flange. This comparison allows the development of a suitable parameter for use in the evaluation of the effect of flange distortion on the torsional stiffness of a hollow flange beam. Uniform torsion test results are used to confirm the significance of this parameter. Finite strip analyses of simply supported hollow flange beams in uniform bending show that there is a significant interaction between distortion and uniform torsion during lateral buckling, which may be approximated by combining their flexibilities. More accurate finite element analyses show that the finite strip predictions are conservative. An approximate method of predicting the effects of flange distortion on elastic lateral buckling is presented which shows good agreement with the finite element predictions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • General shell section properties and failure model for cross-laminated
           timber obtained by numerical homogenization
    • Authors: Thomas Furtmüller; Benjamin Giger; Christoph Adam
      Pages: 77 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Thomas Furtmüller, Benjamin Giger, Christoph Adam
      In this study homogenized mechanical properties are derived for structural finite element analysis of cross-laminated timber (CLT) discretized by means of shell elements. In the first step, based on the results of experimental three-point bending tests on a CLT slab component, a numerical optimization procedure is applied to identify the elastic and plastic properties of the individual spruce wood laminates, considering orthotropic elasticity and Hill’s yield criterion. Taking into account its periodic structure, a repeating unit cell (RUC) of the CLT is defined in the subsequent step. To this RUC specific loading conditions are imposed successively, yielding the entries of the homogenized elastic stiffness matrix of a general shell section. Extending the RUC simulations into the inelastic domain of deformation results in a homogenized failure surface on the structural scale, which is implemented as a postprocessing variable in a commercial finite element program. Throughout all analyses, in sensitivity studies the most decisive material properties are identified. Results of comparative simulations on a homogenized structural model and an elaborate full three-dimensional finite element model of a point-supported CLT slab show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach based on homogenized mechanical properties.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Torsional behavior of multistory RC frame structures due to asymmetric
           seismic interaction
    • Authors: Chris G. Karayannis; Maria C. Naoum
      Pages: 93 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Chris G. Karayannis, Maria C. Naoum
      Collisions between structures due to seismic oscillations have been reported many times in literature as a common case of damage. Further it is quite usual seismically induced oscillations of a structure in a city center block of buildings to be partly restrained in lateral displacements and therefore torsional behavior to be introduced in the structure. Two different types of structural interaction may be defined: (a) Diaphragm-to-diaphragm collisions (Type A). (b) The floor levels of the two structures are different. Consequently during the seismic oscillations the diaphragms of the first one impact the columns of the other (Τype B or interstory pounding). In this work the cases of an 8-story reinforced concrete building that suffers pounding with an adjacent structure that has 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 stories are studied. Pounding occurs only in one (Case 1) or in two (Case 2) columns of the structures and since the other columns are free to move without restrictions a torsional behavior is introduced (asymmetric pounding). Moreover in Type B interaction these columns of the 8-story frame structure undergo impacts at a height equal to 2/3 of their deformable length from the diaphragms of the other structure. The influence of an initial distance between the two interacting structures on the torsion effect is investigated too. Nonlinear seismic step-by-step analyses are performed. More than two hundred pounding cases with torsional effect each one for three natural seismic excitations are studied. Results in terms of shear and ductility demands of the columns are presented and commented. Both types A and B yielded high torsional structural rotation. In interaction Type B it can be deduced from the cases under examination that the column that is endured the impact from the top floor of the other structure develops high shear demands that exceed the available capacity many times during the step-by-step seismic analysis. Moreover high ductility demands have been observed for this column. Finally it is concluded that for buildings that may undergo asymmetric pounding not taking it into account may lead under certain conditions to non-secure design or even critical situations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.038
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Parametric study on effects of load position on the stress distribution in
           network arch timber bridges with light timber decks on transverse
    • Authors: Anna Weronika Ostrycharczyk; Kjell Arne Malo
      Pages: 112 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Anna Weronika Ostrycharczyk, Kjell Arne Malo
      Hanger arrangements suitable for timber network arch bridges with light timber decks on transverse crossbeams have been studied. The focus was on radial hanger patterns for glulam arches with circular shapes. The premise for the patterns are that the hangers always are attached in pairs to the transverse crossbeams, which are evenly distributed along the deck. The arrangement of hangers in network arch bridges is crucial for the structural performance of the bridges, as well as the stress distribution among the hangers. In the paper the performance of network bridges with classical radial patterns as well as introduced modified patterns under various load positions are compared. The underlying research is based on two-dimensional parametric numerical models of the network outlines. The parameters which have been varied are arch rise, hanger spread angle and location of a focal point for hanger creation. A comparison of stress ranges in hangers as well as bending moments in the arch for the considered patterns have been emphasized. The paper shows how the introduced pattern modifications influence the network arch performance. The intention is to provide a rational basis for better material utilization and design. In general it is recommended to apply a design modification leading to separate centres for the arch and the focal point for the hanger creation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.046
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • A non-destructive testing methodology for damage assessment of reinforced
           concrete buildings after seismic events
    • Authors: Maria Rita Polimeno; Ivan Roselli; Vincenza A.M. Luprano; Marialuisa Mongelli; Angelo Tatì; Gerardo De Canio
      Pages: 122 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Maria Rita Polimeno, Ivan Roselli, Vincenza A.M. Luprano, Marialuisa Mongelli, Angelo Tatì, Gerardo De Canio
      In the present study non-destructive testing (NDT) methods involving ultrasonic and sonic wave propagation in the solid matter were applied in order to detect and investigate the modifications induced by the seismic load on reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. In particular, the aim of this experimental work was to delineate a methodology for quick and easy application on-the-field to provide information on the state of health of a RC structure subjected to a seismic event by investigating the columns in lower stories, which are generally more safely reachable for inspection. The methodology was experimented through shaking table tests reproducing several earthquakes. Shaking table tests were performed at ENEA Casaccia Research Centre on a full-scale 2-storey RC frame building designed under the current Italian code (NTC2008). Among the considered NDT techniques, direct and indirect sonic methods, as well as partial and complete approaches for ultrasonic tomography application were explored. The above NDTs were applied to the specimen before and after the shaking table testing. Numerical simulations by finite element methods (FEMs) were also adopted for a better comprehension of the dynamic behaviour of the specimen and interpretation of the experimental results. Through the comparison with typical damage indicators formulated for RC buildings, derived from the modal parameters evolution and from the displacements of the structure during the seismic load, promising indications were obtained and the proposed NDT-based methodology was discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.053
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Push-out test on the web opening shear connector for a slim-floor steel
           beam: Experimental and analytical study
    • Authors: Emad Hosseinpour; Shahrizan Baharom; Wan Hamidon W. Badaruzzaman; Ahmed W. Al Zand
      Pages: 137 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Emad Hosseinpour, Shahrizan Baharom, Wan Hamidon W. Badaruzzaman, Ahmed W. Al Zand
      In slim-floor construction, the web opening of the steel beam is proposed as WO shear connectors of different shapes; square (WSO), rectangular (WRO) and circular (WCO) connectors were considered to evaluate the ultimate shear strength, failure mode and ductility performance. Six push-out tests were conducted under static loading. Finite Element (FE) models using ABAQUS software were validated using test results, and then, further models were developed. The effective parameters include web thickness of the steel beam, opening size, compressive strength of the concrete slab and group arrangement for WO connectors. The test result indicates higher shear strength for the WSO shear connector compared with WRO and WCO. FE analysis presents notable shear achievement of WSO and WRO connectors because of the larger effective width of the square and rectangular openings incorporated with infill concrete. Thicker web steel beam associated with larger opening enhanced the compressive and tensile resistance area of the infill concrete in all cases. The effective spacing between group WCO shear connectors was found to be 250 mm, and it was found to be 300 mm for WSO and WRO to achieve maximum shear strength. Finally, the ultimate shear resistance of the WCO and WSO/WRO shear connectors were predicted and validated with COV of 0.032 and 0.021, respectively.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.047
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • The effect of non-uniform bending on the lateral stability of steel beams
           with slender cross-section at elevated temperatures
    • Authors: Carlos Couto; Élio Maia; Paulo Vila Real; Nuno Lopes
      Pages: 153 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Carlos Couto, Élio Maia, Paulo Vila Real, Nuno Lopes
      In this paper, the effect of non-uniform bending on the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) of steel beams with slender cross-sections subjected to elevated temperatures is numerically investigated. Local buckling is the main failure mode for slender sections whereas the lateral torsional buckling is one of the principal failure modes for beams, thus the interaction between these two failure modes greatly affects the load-bearing capacity of the beams. In the case of fire, recent studies have shown that the design procedures of Part 1–2 of Eurocode 3 are unreliable and too conservative due to the inconsistent treatment of such interaction phenomena. On the other hand, it is known that non-uniform bending has a beneficial effect on the ultimate capacity of beams but there is limited knowledge about its influence on beams with slender cross-sections. This work aims at studying the influence of non-uniform bending on the combined local-global interaction response of beams with slender open I-sections in the case of fire. The inclusion of the factor “ f ” in a recently proposed LTB design procedure that groups the response of the beams into different ranges of effective section factors is analysed and the accuracy of such proposal is demonstrated against around 20,000 GMNIA (Geometrically and Material Non-Linear Analyses with Imperfections) simulations. Finally, the improvements of this proposal on the current Eurocode 3 design procedure are highlighted.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.033
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Design of cold-formed stainless steel circular hollow section columns
           using direct strength method
    • Authors: Yuner Huang; Ben Young
      Pages: 177 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Yuner Huang, Ben Young
      Cold-formed stainless steel circular hollow section (CHS) columns have been increasingly used in construction, due to its aesthetic appearance, long life-span and good ductility. It is shown that direct strength method (DSM) is capable of predicting cold-formed steel column strengths accurately. However, the DSM is developed for cold-formed steel sections with plate rather than curved elements, and thus its applicability for cold-formed stainless steel CHS is worth investigating. This paper presents a numerical investigation of cold-formed stainless steel CHS columns. A non-linear finite element model was developed and verified against column tests. Extensive parametric study of cold-formed duplex, lean duplex and ferritic stainless steel CHS columns has been performed to obtain column strengths. A total of 273 experimental and numerical cold-formed stainless steel CHS column strengths, which are obtained from previous researches and parametric study obtained from this study, are compared with the design strengths predicted by the current DSM. Reliability analysis was performed to evaluate the reliability of the design rules. It is shown that the current DSM provides unconservative and not reliable prediction for cold-formed stainless steel CHS columns. Therefore, modified DSM is proposed for cold-formed stainless steel CHS columns. It is shown that the modified design rule is more accurate than the current DSM, and the modified design rule is considered to be reliable.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Development of design and construction of high-speed railway bridges in
    • Authors: Chongjie Kang; Sebastian Schneider; Marc Wenner; Steffen Marx
      Pages: 184 - 196
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Chongjie Kang, Sebastian Schneider, Marc Wenner, Steffen Marx
      Bridges are vital components of high-speed rail (HSR) lines for crossing obstacles such as valleys, rivers, and existing highways or railway lines. The main goal of this paper is to provide a review of the development of HSR bridges in Germany. A short summary of the history of high-speed rail lines is given first. Subsequently, the development of HSR bridges, along with emerging design issues and the two relevant German design guidelines, is reviewed. Further, bridge structure types on German HSR lines, such as simply supported bridges, continuous bridges, arch bridges, integral and semi-integral bridges, composite truss bridges and rigid-frame bridges are discussed. The article concludes with a short discussion about the current situation and future trend of HSR bridges.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.059
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Wave load effect analysis of a floating bridge in a fjord considering
           inhomogeneous wave conditions
    • Authors: Zhengshun Cheng; Zhen Gao; Torgeir Moan
      Pages: 197 - 214
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 163
      Author(s): Zhengshun Cheng, Zhen Gao, Torgeir Moan
      When designing a floating bridge crossing a deep and wide fjord, a homogeneous wave field is usually assumed for simplicity. However, waves in fjords are commonly inhomogeneous, and hence the mentioned design practice introduces uncertainty, which should be assessed for the design. In this study, we proposed an approach to account for the inhomogeneous wave load effect on a floating bridge and applied it on a floating bridge that was initially proposed for crossing the Bjørnafjorden. The floating bridge considered is end-anchored, about 4600 m long and consists of a cable-stayed high bridge and a low bridge supported by 19 pontoons. Wave excitation loads on each pontoon were proposed to be modeled and applied separately to account for inhomogeneous waves. By considering 1-year and 100-year wave conditions, dynamic responses of the floating bridge subjected to homogeneous and inhomogeneous waves were analyzed and compared. It is found that inhomogeneous waves cause relatively larger sway motion, axial force, and strong axis bending moment, as well as significantly larger weak axis bending moment along the bridge girder than homogeneous waves. These responses depend on the inhomogeneity level of waves considered. Proper description of the wave field is therefore very important for evaluating the effect of inhomogeneous waves and associated uncertainties.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.066
      Issue No: Vol. 163 (2018)
  • Seismic vulnerability of power transformer bushings
    • Authors: Jon Bender; Arvin Farid
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Jon Bender, Arvin Farid
      While it is accepted that high voltage bushings mounted on power transformers receive amplified seismic loads due to the structural dynamics of the transformer tank, it is also the case that complex structures made from steel plates and frames often exhibit unpredictable dynamic behavior. Empirical and numerical studies have shown that many transformer designs produce bushing amplifications within the standard expected value of 2.0 times the load imposed on a rigid-mounted bushing. This 2x amplification is required for seismic testing according to IEEE (the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), and yet this same body of data has also shown that many designs impose greater dynamic amplification. This paper is a numerically-based case study of four power transformer bushing configurations. The study adds additional evidence that bushing amplifications greater than 2.0 are possible, and it demonstrates that the complexity of these systems makes generalization of design recommendations problematic.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.052
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • E. Torroja’s bridge: Tailored experimental setup for SHM of a historical
           bridge with a reduced number of sensors
    • Authors: Pablo Pachón; Rafael Castro; Enrique García-Macías; Víctor Compan; Esther Puertas
      Pages: 11 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Pablo Pachón, Rafael Castro, Enrique García-Macías, Víctor Compan, Esther Puertas
      This paper presents the design of an experimental setup with a reduced number of sensors for the structural health monitoring of the historical bridge of Posadas (Córdoba, Spain), designed by the eminent engineer Eduardo Torroja in 1957. The motivation of this study stems from the need for safeguarding this piece of cultural heritage. In particular, the singularity of this historical construction, a steel–concrete composite typology consisting of a concrete deck slab and inverted bowstring steel trusses, makes continuous in-service condition assessment essential for its maintenance. Nevertheless, the application of existing continuous monitoring systems to such large-scale structures entails considerable investments as well as complex signal processing algorithms. Whereby the optimization of the number of sensors and their location is of the utmost interest. In this line, this work presents the application of an Optimal Sensor Placement (OSP) methodology to tailor an experimental setup for a cost-efficient continuous monitoring of the E. Torroja’s bridge. Due to the fact that most OSP approaches are model-based, it is essential to count on a sufficiently accurate numerical model. To this aim, an extensive vibration-based operational modal analysis is first conducted with a large number of accelerometers. Afterward, a three-dimensional finite element model of the E. Torroja’s bridge is updated on the basis of the experimentally identified dynamic properties with a genetic optimization algorithm. Finally, an optimal sensor placement methodology is utilized to design an experimental setup with a limited number of sensors for long-term monitoring purposes. The results demonstrate that few sensors are needed to accurately assess the main resonant frequencies and mode shapes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.035
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Mechanical behavior of ECC-encased CFST columns subjected to eccentric
    • Authors: Jingming Cai; Jinlong Pan; Cong Lu
      Pages: 22 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Jingming Cai, Jinlong Pan, Cong Lu
      To increase the durability and fire resistance of concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns, engineered cementitious composite (ECC)-encased CFST columns were proposed in this paper. Seven ECC-encased CFST columns with different parameters were tested, the parameters examined included eccentricity ratio, stirrup reinforcement ratio, longitudinal reinforcement ratio and thickness of inner steel tube. The results of the experimental study indicate that the proposed composite column exhibited both superior ductility and high strength under different eccentricity. Three typical failure modes can be observed depending on different eccentricity ratios, which were compression-controlled failure mode, balanced failure mode and tension-controlled failure mode. The thickness of steel tube had significant effects on both load carrying capacity and ductility of ECC-encased CFST columns. The longitudinal reinforcement could enhance the rigidity and loading carrying capacity of ECC-encased CFST columns, and the stirrup could improve the ductility of the composite column. Finally, the failure processes for typical columns were also investigated based on the strain analysis.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Evaluation of as-installed properties of transformer bushings
    • Authors: Nicholas D. Oliveto; Andrei M. Reinhorn
      Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Nicholas D. Oliveto, Andrei M. Reinhorn
      High voltage transformers are essential parts of the electrical distribution grid. Severe failure of entire grids can occur during earthquakes, when transformer bushings fail due to structural dynamic mismatch to the seismic demands. Proper consideration of the fundamental frequency of vibration, which depends on the flexibility of the cover plate of the transformer to which they are connected, is therefore crucial for determining the seismic response of bushings. A simplified method is developed in this work for the evaluation of the “as-installed” fundamental frequency of transformer bushings. Such bushings are modeled as cantilever beams with distributed mass and elasticity, and an additional rotational spring is introduced at the base, to account for the flexibility of the cover plate of the transformer. A simple yet efficient expression is derived for the as-installed frequency, based on the Southwell-Dunkerley method. The solutions require the knowledge of the bending rigidity of the bushing and the (out-of-plane) rotational stiffness of the cover plate. The evaluation of both these quantities is presented. While analytical solutions for the (out-of-plane) rotational stiffness of circular plates are well known, solutions for rectangular plates have not yet been addressed. A semi-empirical-numerical solution is suggested, based on finite element models and analytical expressions derived by force-fitting the “circular plate solution” to the numerical analyses. The results yielded by the proposed method are compared with experiments on real bushings.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.064
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Finite element analysis of local shear buckling in corrugated web beams
    • Authors: Karnik Aggarwal; Sam Wu; John Papangelis
      Pages: 37 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Karnik Aggarwal, Sam Wu, John Papangelis
      A corrugated web beam (CWB) is a variation to the universal hot rolled or welded I section. CWBs usually comprise of wide thick plate flanges and a thin corrugated web. Due to the accordion effect shear is carried primarily by the corrugated web while bending moments are resisted by the flanges. Under shear action three different modes of shear buckling may be realised in the web – local, global or interactive. This paper describes analyses performed to investigate the local shear buckling behaviour of beams with trapezoidal corrugated webs. Finite element models of cantilever beams with different web geometries were prepared and an elastic eigenvalue buckling analysis was performed using the program ABAQUS. The influence of web thickness, panel width and web height on the local shear buckling coefficient kL was investigated. Values of kL were compared against existing equations from theory and other research. The effect of these dimensions on the local shear buckling stress was also considered. In total, 90 models were analysed. Overall, it was found that the value of kL lies between 5.34 and 8.98. This corresponds to panel boundary conditions that are between simply supported and clamped. The analysis results revealed that kL increases with stockier panels (large panel width to height ratio) but decreases with thicker webs. When the panel width was decreased, local shear buckling occurred at larger stress values. Similar results were observed when the web height was decreased and the panel thickness was increased. These results are consistent with plate buckling theory. Finally, based on these findings an equation to approximate the local shear buckling coefficient in corrugated web beams is recommended.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Symmetric free vibration of cracked arches of rigid discrete blocks
    • Authors: G. Lengyel; R.K. Németh
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): G. Lengyel, R.K. Németh
      The paper investigates the energy- and amplitude-dependent natural periods of symmetrically cracked semi-circular arches, which are loaded by their self-weight and horizontal support displacement. The cracks appear due to previous static effects. Symmetric free vibration of the arches is under analysis. The symmetry condition results in an SDoF system, but the latter purpose of the authors is to analyse nonsymmetric modes with an MDoF model. To analyse the problem an energy-based approach is developed. The motion of a structure consists of states with nonlinear vibrations, each of which has constant energy content. Between these phases inelastic impacts occur, which have effect only on the velocity field, but have no effect on the displacements, because the time duration of the impacts is assumed to be zero. In the work the position of the cracks and other geometrical parameters are under examination and the energy-, amplitude- and support displacement magnitude-dependent natural periods are obtained. These results may help to monitor the historical buildings structural safety, because with the measured natural period and amplitude one can determine the safety of the structure.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.058
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Quasi-static tests of RC columns under variable axial forces and rotations
    • Authors: Guoshan Xu; Bin Wu; Dedeng Jia; Xiaotong Xu; Ge Yang
      Pages: 60 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Guoshan Xu, Bin Wu, Dedeng Jia, Xiaotong Xu, Ge Yang
      The behaviour of reinforced-concrete (RC) elements subjected to axial force and rotation variations in conjunction with lateral displacement variation is considered a highly important topic, but only a few experimental studies investigating this topic have been performed. In this paper, five full-scale RC rectangular columns were tested by quasi-static testing (QST) to investigate the effects of large variation axial forces and rotations on the seismic behaviour of columns. Furthermore, the effects of variable axial forces and rotations on the seismic performance of RC columns in terms of the failure modes, hysteretic loops, skeleton curves, ductility factors, stiffness degradations and energy dissipations are presented and analysed. Based on the QST results, the axial force and rotation variations have significant effect on the seismic behaviour of RC columns. Generally, the variable axial forces and rotations may cause a distinct asymmetrical failure phenomenon in the specimens and reduce the lateral strength and ductility factor. Thus, RC columns should be well designed to account for the adverse effects of variable axial forces and rotations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Seismic performance of precast composite shear walls reinforced by
           concrete-filled steel tubes
    • Authors: Liwei Wu; Ying Tian; Youpo Su; Haibin Chen
      Pages: 72 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Liwei Wu, Ying Tian, Youpo Su, Haibin Chen
      A type of precast slender composite shear wall was proposed and experimentally studied. In this new precast structural wall system, concrete-filled steel tubes (CFSTs) were used to entirely replace the longitudinal reinforcement in the boundary elements of conventional reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls. At joints, the CFSTs and wall web reinforcement were connected by sleeves filled with high-strength mortar. To examine the seismic performance of the proposed system, seven 1/3-scale specimens were built and tested under quasi-static and dynamic cyclic lateral loading with a top displacement rate up to 20 mm/s. Major test variables included axial force ratio ranging from 0.075 to 0.19 and loading rate. This paper reports the damage pattern, hysteretic load-deformation response, energy dissipation capacity, and connection performance of the test specimens. Under the considered axial force levels and loading rates, lateral loads were successfully resisted at the joints and the response of all specimens was dominated by flexure. The use of CFSTs increased lateral strength and deformation capacity. The highest axial force ratio caused drift capacity to be reduced from 2.5% to 2.0%. Although loading rate nearly had no influence on either lateral stiffness or strength, it reduced energy dissipation capacity. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed detailing of sleeve-mortar connections in load transfer was validated by the similar hysteric response, joint opening, and wall sliding between monolithic and precast CFST wall specimens.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.069
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Experimental investigation of in-plane shear behaviour of grey clay brick
           masonry panels strengthened with SRG
    • Authors: Xuan Wang; Chi Chiu Lam; Vai Pan Iu
      Pages: 84 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Xuan Wang, Chi Chiu Lam, Vai Pan Iu
      Textile reinforced mortar (TRM) composites have received much attention as they are a superior sustainable material and physically compatible with masonry and historical structures. Among the numerous materials used in TRM composites, steel reinforced grout (SRG) which is produced with high strength steel cords embedded in a cementitious mortar matrix, demonstrates exceptional mechanical performance at a relatively low cost. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out on their use as in-plane shear reinforcement of masonry wall panels. The masonry panels are constructed with grey clay bricks (GCBs), a unique construction material widely used in traditional Chinese architecture. Diagonal compression tests are carried out on two unreinforced panels and six strengthened panels with different reinforcement configurations. The contribution of the SRG system to strengthening is assessed by examining the shear stiffness, shear strength, ductility under shear, and changes in failure mechanisms. A comparative analysis is carried out by using results from the previous literature, and the analytical methodologies and the practical use of the SRG system are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Probabilistic seismic risk assessment of concrete bridge piers reinforced
           with different types of shape memory alloys
    • Authors: A.H.M. Muntasir Billah; M. Shahria Alam
      Pages: 97 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): A.H.M. Muntasir Billah, M. Shahria Alam
      Shape memory alloy (SMA) has emerged as an alternative to conventional steel reinforcement for improving the seismic performance of bridges during an extreme earthquake. This paper presents the probabilistic seismic risk assessment of concrete bridge piers reinforced with different types of SMA (e.g. Ni-Ti, Cu-Al-Mn, and Fe-based) rebars. To achieve this objective, the bridge piers are designed following a performance-based approach. Ground motions with different probable earthquake hazard scenarios at the site of the bridge piers are considered. Probabilistic seismic demand models are generated using the response parameters obtained from incremental dynamic analysis. Considering maximum drift and residual drift as demand parameters, fragility curves are developed for five different SMA-RC bridge piers. Finally, seismic hazard curves are generated in order to compare the mean annual rate of exceedance of different damage states of different bridge piers. It is observed that all the bridge piers perform according to the design objective, and the performance of SMA-RC piers is significantly affected by the type of SMA used. The results show that all the SMA-RC piers have very low probability of collapse at maximum considered earthquake level. It is found that the bridge pier reinforced with FeNCATB-SMA (SMA-3) performed better as compared to the other SMA-RC piers.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.034
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Effects of predamage on the compression performance of CFRP-confined
           rectangular steel reinforced concrete columns
    • Authors: Peng Gao; Jian Wang; Zhongyuan Li; Li Hong; Zhiliang Wang
      Pages: 109 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Peng Gao, Jian Wang, Zhongyuan Li, Li Hong, Zhiliang Wang
      This study investigates the axial compressive behavior of predamaged steel reinforced concrete (SRC) rectangular short columns confined by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. The authors tested 13 large-scale CFRP confined SRC columns. The primary variables were the predamage level and number of CFRP's layers. All confined columns failed in the mode of CFRP laminates rupture after peak load. Both the working strain of CFRP and the peak load of columns decreased with predamage level. This paper also presents a new finite element numerical model for the nonlinear analysis of confined columns. This model was verified against experimental results, which led to the adoption of concrete damaged plasticity model (CDP). Simulation confirmed that the confinement effects of concrete provided by CFRP laminates is mainly restricted in the corner zones and the core area surrounded by the steel in column sections. Both the circumferential CFRP strains and confined concrete compressive stress significantly decreased with the increasing predamage level under peak load states.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.026
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Inelastic large deflection analysis of space steel frames using an
           equivalent accumulated element
    • Authors: Ahmed H. Zubydan; Ashraf I. ElSabbagh; Tarek Sharaf; Abbad-Elrahman Farag
      Pages: 121 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Ahmed H. Zubydan, Ashraf I. ElSabbagh, Tarek Sharaf, Abbad-Elrahman Farag
      This paper presents a new model to perform inelastic large deflection analysis of space steel frames depending on the spread of plasticity method. A stiffness matrix of a beam-column element with only two nodes and six degrees of freedom for each node is derived to represent the space frame member. The proposed matrix includes the effect of section yielding along the member as well as the effect of large deflection. Stiffness degradation at the cross-section due to yielded parts is calculated using a formula for the tangent modulus which is affected by the sectional internal forces. The proposed technique of accumulation of rigidity factors is submitted as a first step to get exact first order stiffness factors for a member with variable cross sections. The effect of large deflection is included by considering the axial force while deriving the stiffness factors. Both cubic and higher order shape functions are tried to produce an element that can represent the member without discretization. A finite element program based on stiffness matrix method is developed to predict the inelastic large deflection behavior of steel space frames using the derived stiffness matrix. The proposed finite element technique exhibits good correlation when compared with the conventional spread of plasticity model results. Verification by solving benchmarked steel structures is carried out. The analysis results indicate that the new model is accurate with simple equations and it achieves a significant improvement to the run time.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.059
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • A solution considering partial degree of composite action for insulated
           sandwich panels with general configuration flexible shear connectors
    • Authors: Mostafa Yossef; An Chen
      Pages: 135 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Mostafa Yossef, An Chen
      Insulated sandwich panels consist of two wythes separated by a non-structural insulation layer. These two wythes are connected using shear connectors. In recent years, Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) shear connectors have been increasingly used due to their low thermal conductivity. However, they have lower stiffness compared to other rigid shear connectors, resulting in partial degree of composite action (DCA) for the sandwich panels. Until now, insulated sandwich panels are designed based on the assumption that the longitudinal stress is uniform across the wythe, which is not reasonable since the in-plane shear flexibility of the wythe causes non-uniform distributions of the stress, which is called shear lag effect. This paper presents an analytical solution to study the behavior of insulated sandwich panels with flexible shear connecotors. To this end, a solution based on the shear lag model is firstly developed, where the partial DCA and boundary conditions from various configuations of the flexible shear connectors are considered. The effective width, an important parameter to describe the shear lag effect, is defined. The analytical model is then verified through close correlations among experimental, Finite Element (FE) and analytical resutls for multi-cell box girders; and FE and analytical results for an insulated concrete sandwich panel with FRP shear connectors. A parametric study is finally conducted using the analytical model to study the effects of deck stiffness and aspect ratio on the effective width. The results from this study can be used for the design of insulated sandwich panels.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Experimental study on the stability of the transmission tower with hybrid
           slab foundation
    • Authors: Guanglin Yuan; Biao Yang; Zhaohui Huang; Xiaozhe Tan
      Pages: 151 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Guanglin Yuan, Biao Yang, Zhaohui Huang, Xiaozhe Tan
      In this paper, a 1:5 scaled tower model for a typical 220 kV single-circuit power transmission tower with hybrid slab foundation has been designed and tested. The scaled tower model was tested under the movement of horizontal ground surface stretching with normal working loading conditions. One of the main objectives of this research is to investigate the stability of the power transmission tower subjected to horizontal ground movement by using hybrid slab foundation. The deformations of the tested tower model and stresses and strains within the different structural members of the tower and the reinforced concrete slab of the foundation have been fully measured. A large mount comprehensive test data has been generated. The research clearly indicated that compared to the isolated tower leg’s foundation the proposed hybrid slab foundation has very good resistance, in terms of truss members’ deformations and stresses, to the ground movement.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.066
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Artificial neural network based multi-dimensional fragility development of
           skewed concrete bridge classes
    • Authors: Sujith Mangalathu; Gwanghee Heo; Jong-Su Jeon
      Pages: 166 - 176
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Sujith Mangalathu, Gwanghee Heo, Jong-Su Jeon
      Recent researches are directed towards the regional seismic risk assessment of structures based on a bridge inventory analysis. The framework for traditional regional risk assessments consists of grouping the bridge classes and generating fragility relationships for each bridge class. However, identifying the bridge attributes that dictate the statistically different performances of bridges is often challenging. These attributes also vary depending on the demand parameter under consideration. This paper suggests a multi-parameter fragility methodology using artificial neural network to generate bridge-specific fragility curves without grouping the bridge classes. The proposed methodology helps identify the relative importance of each uncertain parameter on the fragility curves. Results from the case study of skewed box-girder bridges reveal that the ground motion intensity measure, span length, and column longitudinal reinforcement ratio have a significant influence on the seismic fragility of this bridge class.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.053
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • The continuous strength method for the design of high strength steel
           tubular sections in compression
    • Authors: Xiaoyi Lan; Junbo Chen; Tak-Ming Chan; Ben Young
      Pages: 177 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Xiaoyi Lan, Junbo Chen, Tak-Ming Chan, Ben Young
      This paper aims to extend the deformation-based design method named continuous strength method (CSM) for the design of high strength steel tubular sections in compression. The CSM employs a base curve relating the cross-section resistance to its deformation capacity and adopts an elastic, linear hardening material model. Non-slender and slender circular hollow sections (CHS), elliptical hollow sections (EHS), square hollow sections (SHS) and rectangular hollow sections (RHS) were investigated in this study. Hot-finished, cold-formed and built-up steel tubular sections with yield stresses up to 1405 MPa were covered. An extensive numerical study was carried out to supplement the limited test results of high strength steel stub columns in the literature. The cross-section resistances obtained from the proposed CSM, the direct strength method (DSM), and design methods in EN 1993-1-5, EN 1993-1-6, ANSI/AISC 360-10 and AISI S100 were compared with the experimental and numerical capacities of 742 stub columns. It is shown that the proposed CSM can produce more accurate and less scattered strength predictions than the current DSM and design codes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Fracture mechanics analysis for a mooring system subjected to Gaussian
           load processes
    • Authors: Xutian Xue; Nian-Zhong Chen
      Pages: 188 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Xutian Xue, Nian-Zhong Chen
      An investigation on the fracture mechanics (FM) analysis using various load combination methods for a mooring system subjected to Gaussian load processes is conducted in this paper. Low frequency (LF) and wave frequency (WF) tensions of mooring lines are predicted by a frequency-domain analysis taking into account environmental effects including wind, wave and current. The LF and WF load processes are regarded as two random processes. The narrow-band method, general wide-band methods (Dirlik method and Tovo and Benasciutti method), and dual narrow-band methods (Jiao and Moan method, Fu and Cebon method and modified Fu and Cebon method) are used for predicting the combined load induced by LF and WF motions in the FM analysis. A comparison between mooring fatigue lives predicted by the FM analysis using these load combination methods is performed and the results show that the FM analysis based on the narrow-band method generally offers the most conservative fatigue life prediction and the difference of fatigue lives of mooring chains estimated based on general wide-band methods and dual narrow-band methods is not significant. However, in some cases, the FM analysis based on Dirlik method, Jiao and Moan method, Fu and Cebon method or modified Fu and Cebon method even provides more conservative results compared with the narrow-band method.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.040
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Improved response-spectrum analysis of base-isolated buildings: A
           substructure-based response spectrum method
    • Authors: D. De Domenico; G. Falsone; G. Ricciardi
      Pages: 198 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): D. De Domenico, G. Falsone, G. Ricciardi
      Unsatisfactory numerical predictions may result from applying the classical modal analysis in conjunction with the response-spectrum-method (RSM) to nonclassically-damped systems such as base-isolated buildings. This inaccuracy is highlighted by comparing the conventional RSM outcomes with results from nonlinear time-history analyses consistent with that given spectrum. Indeed, some underlying assumptions of the conventional RSM are not really appropriate for base-isolated buildings, thus only approximate results are obtained, whereas either a complex-value modal analysis or the direct integration of the equations of motion should be undertaken to follow an exact approach to this problem. In an attempt to overcome the limitations of the conventional RSM as well as the mathematical difficulties and computational cost of the exact approach, in this paper an improved response-spectrum analysis procedure for base-isolated buildings is elaborated. Based upon the substructure approach, this procedure makes use of novel response spectra that quantify the effects of the base-isolation-system (BIS) to the superstructure while accounting for the dynamic interaction between BIS and superstructure. The developed procedure improves the conventional RSM in two aspects: (1) the seismic response of the base-isolated building is computed by applying the modal analysis to the superstructure only, which is typically considered as a classically damped system, rather than to the overall structure having nonclassical damping; (2) the BIS can potentially be modeled as a nonlinear subsystem with its actual hysteretic characteristics. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure and the improvements over the conventional RSM are scrutinized against time-history analyses with Monte Carlo simulated spectrum-compatible accelerograms.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.037
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Seismic fragility analysis with artificial neural networks: Application to
           nuclear power plant equipment
    • Authors: Zhiyi Wang; Nicola Pedroni; Irmela Zentner; Enrico Zio
      Pages: 213 - 225
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Zhiyi Wang, Nicola Pedroni, Irmela Zentner, Enrico Zio
      The fragility curve is defined as the conditional probability of failure of a structure, or its critical components, at given values of seismic intensity measures (IMs). The conditional probability of failure is usually computed adopting a log-normal assumption to reduce the computational cost. In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) is constructed to improve the computational efficiency for the calculation of structural outputs. The following aspects are addressed in this paper: (a) Implementation of an efficient algorithm to select IMs as inputs of the ANN. The most relevant IMs are selected with a forward selection approach based on semi-partial correlation coefficients; (b) quantification and investigation of the ANN prediction uncertainty computed with the delta method. It consists of an aleatory component from the simplification of the seismic inputs and an epistemic model uncertainty from the limited size of the training data. The aleatory component is integrated in the computation of fragility curves, whereas the epistemic component provides the confidence intervals; (c) computation of fragility curves with Monte Carlo method and verification of the validity of the log-normal assumption. This methodology is applied to estimate the probability of failure of an electrical cabinet in a reactor building studied in the framework of the KARISMA benchmark.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Damage and collapse mode of existing post tensioned precast concrete
           bridge: The case of Petrulla viaduct
    • Authors: Laura Anania; Antonio Badalà; Giuseppe D'Agata
      Pages: 226 - 244
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Laura Anania, Antonio Badalà, Giuseppe D'Agata
      This paper describes an investigation into the collapse mode of a single-span, segmental post-tensioned concrete bridge caused both by the effect of chloride induced corrosion in Prestressed Post Tensioned Bridge and by some initial faults during tendons design. Collapse was determined by the breakage of the tendons and the wires inside the tendons appear completely rusted. A numerical investigation was also carried out in order to determine the local mechanisms that led to the collapse of a segment of the Petrulla Viaduct in the south of Italy (Sicily) after a widespread beam damage was found. The main damage is the consequence of both an inadequate grout cementitious mortar filling, capable of introducing chemicals by which corrosion travelled along the tendons, and an inadequate distance among the ducts employed. The latter produces rotation of the wings around a point in the transversal section.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.039
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Modified sliding mode design of passive viscous fluid control systems for
           nonlinear structures
    • Authors: A.R. Zare; M. Ahmadizadeh
      Pages: 245 - 256
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): A.R. Zare, M. Ahmadizadeh
      A strategy is developed for design of passive control systems for structures experiencing inelastic deformations during earthquake loading. Besides the addition of passive energy dissipation devices, the proposed method suggests the required changes to the stiffness and strength of the structure, to reduce the absolute acceleration and relative deformation responses simultaneously. For this purpose, the locations and amounts of modifications in stiffness, strength and damping are determined by a sliding mode control algorithm to consider the nonlinear behavior of the structure. Being originally designed for active control, the sliding mode algorithm is modified to facilitate the extraction of the optimum properties of the passive control system from the active control design. By considering nonlinear structural response in design, the proposed technique provides a means for proper design of control systems to achieve the desired performance goals in major seismic events. Furthermore, by taking advantage of the freedom to simultaneously modify the structural stiffness, strength and damping properties, the proposed design method provides more versatility in the achievement of these performance goals. The effectiveness of this development is demonstrated through the analysis and design of control systems for an eight-story structure.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.042
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Modelling the mechanical behaviour of typical wall-to-floor connection
           systems for cross-laminated timber structures
    • Authors: Matteo Izzi; Andrea Polastri; Massimo Fragiacomo
      Pages: 270 - 282
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 162
      Author(s): Matteo Izzi, Andrea Polastri, Massimo Fragiacomo
      This paper proposes a numerical model capable of predicting the mechanical behaviour and the failure mechanism of typical wall-to-floor connections for Cross-Laminated Timber structures. Such systems are assembled with angle brackets and hold-downs, anchored to the wall and floor panels with profiled nails and bolts. The metal connector and the elements to which it is fastened are modelled using 3D solid bodies, while the steel-to-timber joints are simulated as non-linear hysteretic springs. Shear and tension tests are reproduced on two connection systems and results are compared to the test data obtained from similar configurations. Simulations lead to accurate predictions of the mechanical behaviour (i.e. elastic stiffness, maximum load-carrying capacity, and shape of the hysteresis cycles) and energy dissipation. Finally, the performance when lateral and axial loads are applied simultaneously is investigated. Analyses are carried out by varying the inclination of the load, with respect to the axis of the connector, between 0° and 90°. Results exhibit a quadratic interaction relationship between shear and tension loads, and prove that their coupled effect influences the stiffness and the maximum load-carrying capacity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.045
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Analytical evaluation of the dome-cylinder interface of nuclear concrete
           containment subjected to internal pressure and thermal load
    • Authors: Shen Wang
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 161
      Author(s): Shen Wang
      Nuclear concrete containment structures serve as the main line of defense to prevent escape of radioactive material during catastrophic events including the loss of coolant accident (LOCA), explosions and earthquake. In the case that such an event occurred, the containment would need to resist high internal pressure and temperature loads. This paper studies the dome-cylinder interface of concrete containments subjected to significant internal pressure and temperature load. In particular, the compatibility at geometry discontinuity and internal forces as a result of displacement discrepancy is investigated using nonlinear mechanics based formulas. A practical example of concrete containment is presented as a case study. The study reveals that the current practice in nuclear concrete containment design may significantly underestimate the stress at the dome-cylinder interface, which would lead to insufficient design. The presented approach provides an easy to use tool to assess the dome-cylinder interface of a concrete containment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.063
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Seismic retrofit options for non-structural building partition walls:
           Impact on loss estimation and cost-benefit analysis
    • Authors: Luis Sousa; Ricardo Monteiro
      Pages: 8 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 161
      Author(s): Luis Sousa, Ricardo Monteiro
      The importance of non-structural components in building performance under seismic action is well recognized in the scientific community. Damage to residential buildings registered in past earthquakes has demonstrated that the damage to non-structural components represents a substantial percentage to the resulting economic losses. In the context of performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE), the probabilistic estimation of building-specific losses has highlighted the importance of non-structural walls, in particular, due to their direct influence on building response and contribution to the overall damage. However, limited research has been produced on the subject of seismic retrofit of non-structural components and their economic advantages. In this manuscript, focus is given to non-structural partition walls, with the aim of determining the potential economic benefit of implementing non-structural retrofit solutions, in terms of the corresponding reduction in average annual earthquake losses. Building on an extensive literature review on the state-of-the-art of non-structural retrofit solutions, representative retrofit options are investigated for six combinations of building class and seismic hazard at the building location (in Italy), by means of probabilistic seismic loss estimation and corresponding cost-benefit analysis. The results show that the seismic retrofit of non-structural partition walls only (as opposed to retrofitting both structural and non-structural components) can be sufficient to achieve a reduction of seismic losses that guarantees the return of the retrofit investment during the building’s life cycle, specifically when dealing with highly vulnerable buildings located in regions of high seismicity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.028
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Fatigue strength of repaired welded connections made of very high strength
    • Authors: A. Akyel; M.H. Kolstein; F.S.K. Bijlaard
      Pages: 28 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 161
      Author(s): A. Akyel, M.H. Kolstein, F.S.K. Bijlaard
      Modern steel manufacturing techniques make it possible to produce steel with the nominal yield strength up to 1300 MPa for structural purposes. However, the application of very high strength steels is still limited in the civil engineering structures due to lack of knowledge about the effects of the manufacturing process and experimental results regarding the structural behaviour of the material. Moreover, in a fatigue loaded very high strength steel structure absolute and relative stress variations will be higher compared to stresses in structures made of lower steel grades. Accordingly, the fatigue issue will be one of the most important design criteria for very high strength steel structures. In this current study, V-shape welded specimens were manufactured from S690 and S890 rolled steels and cast steels with similar yield strengths. Fatigue cracks were created in the weld toe of the specimen under a fluctuated loading and subsequently the fatigue damaged specimens were repaired by the removal of the cracks with subsequent welding. The fatigue strength curves of repaired specimens are compared with the detail categories of EN 1993-1-9 [8] and the fatigue strength curves of the test results in the as-welded condition from literature. The fatigue strength of the fatigue damaged connections was completely recovered by the established repair procedure.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Strut-and-tie models for deteriorated reinforced concrete half-joints
    • Authors: Pieter Desnerck; Janet M. Lees; Chris T. Morley
      Pages: 41 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 161
      Author(s): Pieter Desnerck, Janet M. Lees, Chris T. Morley
      A reinforced concrete half-joint bridge consists of suspended span dapped-end beams or a full-width deck supported on the nibs of abutments or adjacent beams. The design of their disturbed regions is traditionally performed by means of strut-and-tie modelling. The design provisions found in standards and codes can be used for the assessment of existing structures with minor adjustments. However, current documents provide limited guidance on the incorporation of deterioration aspects such as corrosion, insufficient anchorage lengths, and crack formation. Experiments performed on 12 half-joint beams demonstrated the effects of single defects, but synergistic effects were also found to exist and might lead to much higher reductions than expected from the sum of individual defects. These results were compared to different strut-and-tie models (STMs) and the application of STMs to achieve the highest lower bound estimate of the load carrying capacity is discussed. For the beams studied in the current work, the predictions based on codes and standards, combined with appropriate methods to incorporate deterioration effects, led to safe load bearing capacity estimates. However, the developed STMs seem to be, in some instances, unable to pick up alternative load paths that develop as soon as the capacity of a certain tie is reached. Hence the actual capacities might be higher than what is obtained from the STM calculations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Development of optimum cold-formed steel sections for maximum energy
           dissipation in uniaxial bending
    • Authors: Jun Ye; Jurgen Becque; Iman Hajirasouliha; Seyed Mohammad Mojtabaei; James B.P. Lim
      Pages: 55 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 161
      Author(s): Jun Ye, Jurgen Becque, Iman Hajirasouliha, Seyed Mohammad Mojtabaei, James B.P. Lim
      Cold-formed steel (CFS) elements are increasingly used as load-bearing members in construction, including in seismic regions. More conventional hot-rolled steel and concrete building structures are typically allowed by the design standards to exceed their elastic limits in severe earthquakes, rendering parameters indicating ductility and energy dissipation of primordial importance. However, insufficient research has yet been conducted on the energy dissipation of CFS structures. In the majority of previous optimization research on CFS sections the ultimate capacity, as typically controlled by local, distortional and/or global buckling modes, is considered to be the sole optimization criterion. This paper aims to improve the seismic performance of CFS elements by optimising their geometric and material highly non-linear post-buckling behaviour to achieve maximum energy dissipation. A novel shape optimisation framework is presented using the Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) algorithm, linked to GMNIA ABAQUS finite element analyses. The relative dimensions of the cross-section, the location and number of intermediate stiffeners and the inclination of the lip stiffeners are considered to be the main design variables. All plate slenderness limit values and limits on the relative dimensions of the cross-sectional components as defined by Eurocode 3, as well as a number of practical manufacturing and construction limitations, are taken into account as constraints in the optimisation problem. It is demonstrated that a substantial improvement in energy dissipation capacity and ductility can be achieved through the proposed optimization framework. Optimized cross-sectional shapes are presented which dissipate up to 60% more energy through plastic deformations than a comparable commercially available lipped channel.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.070
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • A numerical study of spent nuclear fuel dry storage systems under extreme
           impact loading
    • Authors: Mohammad Hanifehzadeh; Bora Gencturk; Reza Mousavi
      Pages: 68 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 161
      Author(s): Mohammad Hanifehzadeh, Bora Gencturk, Reza Mousavi
      The structural integrity of concrete dry storage systems under an impact loading caused by a simulated commercial airplane engine crash is evaluated in this study. A finite element model of a generic vertical dry storage system including the concrete overpack, multi-purpose canister, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) basket, and SNF assemblies was developed using a commercial finite element analysis software. The strain rate effect was considered for the steel parts of the cask via a rate dependent and nonlinear constitutive model. The modeling approach was first validated using experimental data available in literature on projectile impact of concrete and steel/concrete composite (sandwich) panels. Then, a comprehensive comparison in terms of strains, damage and deformations was performed for two configurations of reinforced and sandwich cask overpacks commonly used in the industry. Critical impact height was identified by an examination of the strains and accelerations in the SNF assemblies. Furthermore, the effect of boundary conditions for the two cases of free-standing and anchored configuration was investigated. The maximum deformation and stress as well as the peak acceleration were identified in the SNF basket to assess safety of the SNF assemblies. The minimum impact velocity causing tip-over from aircraft engine impact was determined.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.068
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Residual shear strength of a severely ASR-damaged flat slab bridge
    • Authors: Ricardo Antonio Barbosa; Søren Gustenhoff Hansen; Linh Cao Hoang; Kurt Kielsgaard Hansen
      Pages: 82 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 161
      Author(s): Ricardo Antonio Barbosa, Søren Gustenhoff Hansen, Linh Cao Hoang, Kurt Kielsgaard Hansen
      Although the residual shear strength of ASR-damaged slab bridges without shear reinforcement has been discussed for several decades, the amount of published research on this topic is very limited. This paper presents the results of a test series on 18 reinforced beams sawn from a severely ASR-damaged flat slab bridge. Flexural failure as well as shear failure were observed. The test results indicate that the ASR cracks in the beams strongly influenced the propagation of load-induced cracks. Generally, the calculated moment capacity of beams tested in three-point bending was lower than the maximum moment carried by the beams. For the beams tested in asymmetric four-point bending, an increase in the shear span-to-effective depth ratio resulted in a decrease in the measured shear strength. The measured shear strengths were compared with calculated shear strengths using the Eurocode 2. Calculations based on the compressive strength of drilled cores were rather conservative at low shear span-to-effective depth ratios. However, the conservatism of the Eurocode 2 decreased with increasing shear span-to-effective depth ratios. With the inclusion of ASR-induced pre-stress effect, the calculated shear strengths correlated better with the measured shear strengths. The test results indicated that the ASR-induced pre-stress effect can, to some extent, compensate for the significant loss in material properties.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.056
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Resistant force model of viscous damping wall considering influence of
           loading frequency
    • Authors: Feifei Sun; Tanye Wu; Gang Mo
      Pages: 96 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 161
      Author(s): Feifei Sun, Tanye Wu, Gang Mo
      Due to the heterogeneity and velocity-dependency of viscous fluid, it’s quite difficult to simulate the dynamic behavior of viscous damping wall (VDW). The existing formulae for resistant forces need different parameter values for different loading frequencies. This may lead to large errors in resistant forces of VDWs subjected to an earthquake with large frequency change. A small-scale shaking table test and a large-scale dynamic actuator test were performed to investigate the influence of loading frequency, showing that direct data fitting with a single set of parameter values for different frequencies will lead to erroneous hysteretic cycles. Based on experimental results, five assumptions were proposed and thereafter a unified model was developed considering the influence of loading frequency by means of introducing the effect of loading history. The proposed model was validated with satisfactory accuracy in predicting the test results.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.01.071
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Long-term monitoring of a damaged historic structure using a wireless
           sensor network
    • Authors: Esequiel Mesquita; António Arêde; Nuno Pinto; Paulo Antunes; Humberto Varum
      Pages: 108 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 161
      Author(s): Esequiel Mesquita, António Arêde, Nuno Pinto, Paulo Antunes, Humberto Varum
      Recent advances on sensing and data communication systems have allowed the optimization of the structural health monitoring systems, as well their employment for long-distance remote monitoring of civil structures. Moreover, structural health monitoring techniques can be particularly interesting for heritage constructions assessment, because they allow a real-time analysis of the structural properties, and the collected data can be used as support of safety maintenance. This work describes the strategies employed for structural health monitoring of a damaged historic structure from the XVI century, namely the Foz Côa Church (in Portugal), beside the results of 1-year monitoring of the displacements observed on the structural elements of the church. Additionally, the influence of the temperature and relative humidity were studied. Removing the environmental influences from the observed displacements in the structural elements allowed to conclude that these are not motived by the damage progression, instead they are related with influence of environmental parameters.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Seismic effectiveness of top-story mass dampers for inelastic two-way
           asymmetric-plan buildings
    • Authors: Jui-Liang Lin
      Pages: 118 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 161
      Author(s): Jui-Liang Lin
      Self-mass dampers, which use intrinsic parts of structures as tuned mass dampers, are economically advantageous in terms of the materials and space required. Previous research proposed using the top story of a two-way asymmetric-plan building as a self-mass damper, referred to as a top-story mass damper (TSMD), for suppressing the seismic response of an elastic building. In light of the promising results of that research, this study further explores the seismic effectiveness of TSMDs when two-way asymmetric-plan buildings become inelastic under earthquake loads. Furthermore, this study explores the possibility of using a pair of elastic TSMDs to alleviate the detuning effects caused by yielding of the main structure. One TSMD of the pair is designed according to the previous research and is responsible for suppressing the vibrations of the target building in elastic states. The other TSMD is designed based on the properties of collective force–deformation relationships and is responsible for suppressing the vibrations of the target building in inelastic states. The collective force–deformation relationships are the pushover curves of the target building when subject to the collective modal inertia force vectors of the first triplet of vibration modes of the building. This study looks at one single-story building and one 20-story building, which are shaken into various damage states, as the numerical examples for evaluating the seismic effectiveness of TSMDs for inelastic two-way asymmetric-plane buildings.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Investigation of residual fatigue life in shear studs of existing
           composite bridge girders following decades of traffic loading
    • Authors: B. Ovuoba; G.S. Prinz
      Pages: 134 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Engineering Structures, Volume 161
      Author(s): B. Ovuoba, G.S. Prinz
      Adequate design of composite bridge girders requires accurate determination of stud capacities and demands that develop during force transfer at the steel–concrete interface. This paper focusses on residual stud fatigue capacities and accumulated stud damage in existing bridge girders, following decades of high traffic loading. The paper includes discussion from non-destructive magnetic-particle inspection (MPI) and dye-penetrant testing (DPT) crack investigations on the studs of two existing bridge girders following deck removal. In addition, three destructive fatigue push-out tests are performed on the flanges of an existing high-traffic bridge girder to help understand stud residual fatigue capacity. Historic traffic count data are combined with these destructive and non-destructive tests to provide insight into accumulated bridge damage during many years of traffic loading, and to provide insight into potential conservancies in the current AASHTO stud design provisions. Results from the non-destructive MPI and DPT investigations indicated no detectable fatigue cracks within the studs of the two bridge girders (which were estimated to have seen over 25,000,000 and 38,000,000 truck cycles respectively). Results from all three fatigue tests exceeded the AASHTO design life expectancy of approximately 850,000 cycles (at 11.6 ksi (80 MPa)) by over 2.5 million cycles. This residual fatigue life is over 400% of the expected shear stud fatigue life, even after over 38,000,000 truck cycles estimated during the in-service life of the bridge. The excellent shear stud fatigue performance observed is likely due to additional shear transfer through adhesion and or friction between the concrete deck and steel flange during service loading, which are not considered in the current AASHTO design calculations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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