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    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (207 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (202 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 201 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
Territorium : Revista Portuguesa de riscos, prevenção e segurança     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2412-3811
Published by MDPI Homepage  [202 journals]
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 12: Performance of Two Bioswales on Urban
           Runoff Management

    • Authors: Qingfu Xiao, E. McPherson, Qi Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Randy Dahlgren
      First page: 12
      Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of two bioswales eight years after construction in Davis, California. The treatment bioswale measured 9 m × 1 m × 1 m (L × W × D). Engineered soil mix (75% native lava rock and 25% loam soil) replaced the native loam soil. Four Red Tip Photinia (Photinia × fraseri Dress) trees and two Blueberry Muffin Hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis umbellata (Thunb.) Makino) shrubs were planted in the bioswale. Runoff flowed into the bioswale from an adjacent 171 m2 panel of turf grass. An identically sized control bioswale consisting of non-disturbed native soil was located adjacent to the treatment bioswale. Surface runoff quantity and quality were measured during three experiments with different pollutant loads. When compared to the control, the treatment bioswale reduced surface runoff by 99.4%, and reduced nitrogen, phosphate, and total organic carbon loading by 99.1%, 99.5%, and 99.4%, respectively. After eight years, tree growth characteristics were similar across both sites.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040012
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 13: Composites for Timber-Replacement
           Bearers in Railway Switches and Crossings

    • Authors: Sakdirat Kaewunruen, Ruilin You, Makoto Ishida
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Recent developments in composite materials have resulted in their pilot adoption in railway industry, such as ‘fibre-reinforced foamed urethane (FFU)’, ‘geopolymer concrete’, ‘recycled polymer’, and ‘CarbonLoc composite’. Railway track support systems are critical for safe and reliable operations of railway tracks. There are two types of support structures, which can be designed to be either a slab or a cluster of discrete bearers or sleepers. The choice of turnout support system depends on asset management strategy of the rail operators or maintainers. The aim of this paper is to present the criteria, fundamental and multi-disciplinary issues for the design and practical selection of composite materials in railway turnout systems. As a case study, a full-scale trial to investigate in-situ behaviours of a turnout grillage system using an alternative material, ‘fibre-reinforced foamed urethane (FFU)’ bearers, is presented. Influences of the composite bearers on track geometry (recorded by track inspection vehicle ‘AK Car’ and based on survey data), track settlement, track dynamics, and acoustic characteristics are highlighted in this paper. Comparative studies of composite materials for railway track applications are reviewed and presented in order to improve material design process. This state-of-the-art review paper will also focus on practicality and environmental risks of composite components in railway built environments. It embraces the requirement considerations of new materials for use as safety-critical track elements.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040013
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 14: Creating Stakeholder Value through Risk
           Mitigation Measures in the Context of Disaster Management

    • Authors: Minna Räikkönen, Riitta Molarius, Kari Mäki, Kim Forssén, Peter Petiet, Albert Nieuwenhuijs
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The resilience of critical infrastructure (CI) to extreme weather events (EWE) is one of the most demanding challenges for all stakeholders in modern society. Although partial risk reduction is feasible through the introduction and implementation of various risk mitigation measures (RMM), decision-makers at all decision-making levels are pressured to find ways to cope with the impending extreme weather and to have a thorough understanding of the EWE impacts on CI. This paper discusses how the value of RMMs can be created and assessed in a stakeholder network. Qualitative research methods, namely literature review and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process), were applied as research methods. The paper examines how disaster management and value creation both converge and differ from each other. It also presents a case study on the value of various RMM and the impacts of extreme winter conditions on electricity distribution in Finland. Based on the case study, the most important value criterion was the benefits of the RMM in economic, social, and environmental terms. At a fundamental level, the value of RMM should be expressed not only in terms of money but also in regard to safety, security, societal acceptability, CI dependability, and other typically intangible criteria. Moreover, the results reveal that the interrelationship of value creation and disaster management offers new insights to both approaches.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040014
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 15: Finite Element Modelling and Retained
           Life Estimation of Corroded Pipelines in Consideration of Burst
           Pressures—A Fractural Mechanics Approach

    • Authors: Chinedu Ossai
      First page: 15
      Abstract: This study used Finite Element Modelling (FEM) to determine the relationship between the burst pressure (Pb) of internally, circumferentially corroded pipelines, with the corrosion defect depth (d), pipe wall thickness (t) and the pipe diameter (D). After modelling X46 and X52 grades of pipes, the Pb estimated was compared with those determined experimentally and with industry standard models—ASME B31G (modified), RSTRENG, DNV F101, SHELL92 and FITNET FFS. The comparison specified a Root Mean Square Percentage Error (RMSPE) that ranged from 7.06% to 20.4% and a coefficient of determination (R2) that varied from 0.7932 to 0.9813. Multivariate regression was also used to compute a general linear relationship between the burst pressure (Pb) and (d/t), (L/D) and (L/√Dt). The resulting FEM burst-pressure model, developed with multivariate regression, was later used to estimate the expected allowable operating pressure of a corroded X46 grade pipeline over the lifecycle duration, for low, mild, high and severe corrosion categories. It was observed that the burst pressure retention ratio (Rr), which is an indicator of the reliability of the pipeline, decreased with the increase in (d) but did not show distinctive changes with the increase in (L). Considering the robustness of the FEM developed in this study, it can be concluded that it will be very vital for flowline design and pipeline integrity management.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-10-15
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040015
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 16: CFD Evaluation on the Pre- and Post-
           Renovation, and Windows and Doors Opening, of a Typical, Walled, Detached
           Family House in the Philippines

    • Authors: Napoleon Enteria, Odinah Cuartero-Enteria
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Natural ventilation is an important consideration to minimize the usage of mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning systems in the design, use, and renovation of residential houses and buildings. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to evaluate the wind field around and inside the walled, detached family house after a series of house renovations, with the effect of window and door openings. The effect of the lot perimeter wall is investigated as to how it affects the wind field around and inside the house. The results show that the height of the lot perimeter wall affects the wind field around and inside the house. They show that the opening of the doors and windows significantly affects the wind field around and inside the house. The construction of the firewall at the back of the house affects the wind field. Based on the results, the design of the house with the consideration of wind direction, neighborhood, and how the occupant uses the house have a great impact on the optimum utilization of the prevailing wind for natural ventilation, as they affect the wind field around and inside the house.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040016
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 17: New Trends for Reinforced Concrete
           Structures: Some Results of Exploratory Studies

    • Authors: Ricardo Carmo, Eduardo Júlio
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Today, the concrete sector is being pushed to innovate in order to better address current challenges with higher competitiveness and more sustainable solutions. Different research studies have been conducted all over the world in which novel approaches and paths were proposed. It is important to spread information to define new strategies for the future of this industry. The enhancement of concrete properties and the impact of these changes in structural design are some of the topics analysed in those studies. This paper presents four experimental studies conducted by the authors where different types of concrete and structural members were tested. The common goal of these studies was to develop innovative solutions with high performance and low environmental impact. The scope of the first study was the structural behaviour of members produced with lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Results of several beams, ties, and slabs are herein presented and analysed. The advantage of using glass fibre–reinforced polymer (GFRP) rebars was addressed in a second study, and main results obtained with this type of rebar are also herein presented. Recent advances in nanotechnology led to the development of concretes incorporating nanoparticles into the binder matrix. Typically, these nanoparticles have a diameter of 10–300 nanometers and are added to the mixture to reduce the porosity and increase the density of the binder matrix, improving the mechanical properties and durability. To analyse their influence on steel-to-concrete bonding and on the shear and flexural behaviour of the beams was the main goal of the third study herein described. Finally, a new concept to produce reinforced concrete members with high durability using a special concrete cover, which was the goal of the fourth study, is also herein presented.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040017
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 18: Design of a Corporate SDI in Power
           Sector Using a Formal Model

    • Authors: Italo Oliveira, Jean Câmara, Rubens Torres, Jugurta Lisboa-Filho
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Geospatial data are essential for the decision-making process. However, obtaining and keeping such data up to date usually require much time and many financial resources. In order to minimize the production costs and incentivize sharing these data, countries are promoting the implementation of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) at the different public administration levels. The International Cartographic Association (ICA) proposes a formal model that describes the main concepts of an SDI based on three of the five viewpoints of the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP). Afterwards, researchers extended ICA’s model to describe, more properly, the actors, hierarchical relationship and interactions related to the policies that drive an SDI. However, the proposed extensions are semantically inconsistent with the original proposal. Moreover, the use of ICA’s formal model and its extensions has not been assessed yet to specify a corporate-level SDI. This study describes the merger of actors and policies proposed by the ICA and its extensions in order to eliminate differences in the semantics or terminology among them. This unified model was applied to specify a corporate SDI for a large Brazilian corporation, the Minas Gerais Power Company (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais (Cemig)), which is comprised of about 200 companies in the power sector. The case study presents part of the specification of the five RM-ODP viewpoints, i.e., the three viewpoints featured in ICA’s formal model (Enterprise, Information, and Computation) and the other two viewpoints that make up the RM-ODP (Engineering and Technology). The adapted ICA’s model proved adequate to describe SDI-Cemig. In addition, the case study may serve as an example of the specification and implementation of new SDIs, not only corporate ones, but also of public agencies at any hierarchical level.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040018
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 19: Case Study of a Nearly Zero Energy
           Building in Italian Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Hassan Khan, Muhammad Asif, Mohammed Mohammed
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The building sector is an important stakeholder in the energy and environmental scenario of any country. It continues to grow across the world due to factors such as population growth, and economic and infrastructure development. Within the European Union, buildings account for 40% of the total energy requirements and 30% of carbon dioxide emissions. The building sector is keen to improve its sustainability standards and also to help achieve the 20-20-20 targets set by the European Union. The present work aims to design a nearly zero energy sports gymnasium building in Calolziocorte, Italy. Various sustainability techniques are applied in an integrated design project approach using ECOTECT software to undertake the energy modelling exercise. Firstly, the base-case is modelled with conventional building materials and the total energy demand is calculated. Duly considering the local climatic conditions, sustainable materials are chosen for walls, the floor, the roof, and windows and a 38% reduction is noted in the total energy demand of the building compared to the base-case. The impact of louvers as a passive design technique has also been examined on the total energy demand of the building. The monthly load/discomfort analysis is undertaken for various individual functions inside the building to identify the critical areas that consume more energy. The monthly load/discomfort analysis is performed with the proposed materials and the air infiltration rate is improved through the building envelope and 63% reduction is noted in the total energy demand of the building compared to the base-case. A solar access analysis is conducted to understand the on-site energy production and then the building net energy demand is calculated, which is reduced to 90% compared to the base-case.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040019
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 20: Integrated Big Data Analytics Technique
           for Real-Time Prognostics, Fault Detection and Identification for Complex

    • Authors: Chinedu Ossai
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Real-time prediction of the state of complex systems is vital for integrity management since it is easier to plan for asset maintenance, reduce risks associated with unplanned downtime and reduce the cost of maintenance. This study utilized a four-fold cross-validation ensemble for an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that used Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) in a backward propagation technique for haul crane prognosis. Big data on components’ degradation states obtained from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems were used to implement the study. After preprocessing the dataset, importance scoring was used to compute the Cumulative Target-component Percentage-influence (CTP) of the input variables (source components) on the output variable (the target component) at the 95.5%, 99.3%, 99.9% and 100% levels. The specific source components responsible for the CTP levels of the target component were later used for the ANN network training that followed the cross-validation ensemble technique. The cross-validation ensemble ANN technique was also compared to the classic ANN and other machining learning algorithms. Finally, the best-trained cross-validation ensemble ANN network, which was obtained at the 99.9% CTP level, was used for future estimation of the time of failure of the system to enhance planning for the expected maintenance program that will be required at such times.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040020
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 21: Isolated and Single Pedestrians and
           Pedestrian Groups on Sidewalks

    • Authors: Francesco Pinna, Roberto Murrau
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Walking freedom can define the quality of an urban area, but this freedom is conditioned by various factors. The research objective is to study pedestrian behavior on sidewalks. Data are collected during on site surveys by means of concealed camcorders. For each pedestrian many factors are observed, such as gender, age, direction, distractions, transport of objects, etc., which could influence pedestrian behavior. Data processing allows the identification of mathematical models describing the average pedestrian’s behavior, subdivided for user type (isolated, single, group). In general, the mean walking pedestrian speed decreases depending on user type (in a linear manner if age class grows for isolated pedestrians, while with the square of age for other user types), of gender, and of facing type. Models obtained for the different pedestrian types were compared to understand the differences in speeds, underlining that pedestrian interferences play a significant role in defining behavior and, therefore, speed. The results support the idea that, to define a smooth pedestrian speed as an indicator of the “walkability” of a path, in addition to considering the path and user’s characteristics, it is also necessary to define the type of user for which the infrastructure is designed.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040021
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 22: A System-of-Systems Approach for
           Integrated Resilience Assessment in Highway Transportation Infrastructure

    • Authors: Ali Mostafavi
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The objective of this paper is to propose a System-of-Systems (SoS) approach for an integrated assessment of resilience in civil transportation infrastructure in the U.S. A SoS approach is adopted for systemic assessment. Data obtained from case studies of two recent natural disasters in the U.S. are utilized to explore the status quo, key players and interactions, and the drivers to and barriers of improving resilience in transportation infrastructure systems. The findings indicate that strategies for enhancing resilience in transportation infrastructure systems include redistributing the available funding through a special funding vehicle, using resilience-based performance measures, and integrating the efforts of different stakeholders. The SoS approach along with the findings from the case studies provides an analytical tool for understanding the dynamics of resilience in infrastructure systems. Such understanding could lead to identifying strategies for enhancing resilience in infrastructure systems. The study presented in this paper provides new insights to identify the determinants of resilience in highway transportation infrastructure based on a SoS approach.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-12-10
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040022
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 23: Framework for Flexural Rigidity
           Estimation in Euler-Bernoulli Beams Using Deformation Influence Lines

    • Authors: Yasha Zeinali, Brett Story
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Structural degradation is an inevitable part of a structure’s service life. Detecting structural impairments and assessing their nature is a significant challenge. Degradations reduce structural system stiffness and subsequently affect system deformations. An appropriate structural health index that is able to capture these changes in deformation and relate them to a structural system stiffness may help engineers to adequately rate structural condition. This paper outlines a theoretical framework for the utilization of static deformation influence lines for estimating the flexural rigidity of Euler-Bernoulli beams. In the proposed technique, the relationship between the second derivative of the deformation influence line and the flexural rigidity for both statically determinate and indeterminate beam structures is presented. The proposed method provides a flexural rigidity estimate (FRE) over the entire span that is based on a single measurement location and estimates both the location and severity of impairments, regardless of the location of the measurement or the damaged zones. Noisy analytical simulations are presented with noise levels of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%; in all cases the modeled damage is quantified and localized using the FRE. A laboratory experiment is also presented that validates the theoretical framework.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2040023
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 9: The Potential of Active Contour Models
           in Extracting Road Edges from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    • Authors: Pankaj Kumar, Paul Lewis, Tim McCarthy
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Active contour models present a robust segmentation approach, which makes efficient use of specific information about objects in the input data rather than processing all of the data. They have been widely-used in many applications, including image segmentation, object boundary localisation, motion tracking, shape modelling, stereo matching and object reconstruction. In this paper, we investigate the potential of active contour models in extracting road edges from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) data. The categorisation of active contours based on their mathematical representation and implementation is discussed in detail. We discuss an integrated version in which active contour models are combined to overcome their limitations. We review various active contour-based methodologies, which have been developed to extract road features from LiDAR and digital imaging datasets. We present a case study in which an integrated version of active contour models is applied to extract road edges from MLS dataset. An accurate extraction of left and right edges from the tested road section validates the use of active contour models. The present study provides valuable insight into the potential of active contours for extracting roads from 3D LiDAR point cloud data.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2030009
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 10: A Novel Application of Photogrammetry
           for Retaining Wall Assessment

    • Authors: Renee Oats, Rudiger Escobar-Wolf, Thomas Oommen
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Retaining walls are critical geotechnical assets and their performance needs to be monitored in accordance to transportation asset management principles. Current practices for retaining wall monitoring consist mostly of qualitative approaches that provide limited engineering information or the methods include traditional geodetic surveying, which may provide high accuracy and reliability, but is costly and time-consuming. This study focuses on evaluating failure modes of a 2.43 m × 2.43 m retaining wall model using three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry as a cost-effective quantitative alternative for retaining wall monitoring. As a remote sensing technique, photogrammetry integrates images collected from a camera and creates a 3D model from the measured data points commonly referred to as a point cloud. The results from this photogrammetric approach were compared to ground control points surveyed with a total station. The analysis indicates that the accuracy of the displacement measurements between the traditional total station survey and photogrammetry were within 1–3 cm. The results are encouraging for the adoption of photogrammetry as a cost-effective monitoring tool for the observation of spatial changes and failure modes for retaining wall condition assessment.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2030010
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 11: Factors Contributing to the Hydrologic
           Effectiveness of a Rain Garden Network (Cincinnati OH USA)

    • Authors: William Shuster, Robert Darner, Laura Schifman, Dustin Herrmann
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Infiltrative rain gardens can add retention capacity to sewersheds, yet factors contributing to their capacity for detention and redistribution of stormwater runoff are dynamic and often unverified. Over a four-year period, we tracked whole-system water fluxes in a two-tier rain garden network and assessed near-surface hydrology and soil development across construction and operational phases. The monitoring data provided a quantitative basis for determining effectiveness of this stormwater control measure. Based on 233 monitored warm-season rainfall events, nearly half of total inflow volume was detained, with 90 percent of all events producing no flow to the combined sewer. For the events that did result in flow to the combined sewer system, the rain garden delayed flows for an average of 5.5 h. Multivariate analysis of hydrologic fluxes indicated that total event rainfall depth was a predominant hydrologic driver for network outflow during both phases, with average event intensity and daily evapotranspiration as additional, independent factors in regulating retention in the operational phase. Despite sediment loads that can clog the rooting zone, and overall lower-than-design infiltration rates, tradeoffs among soil profile development and hydrology apparently maintained relatively high overall retention effectiveness. Overall, our study identified factors relevant to regulation of retention capacity of a rain garden network. These factors may be generalizable, and guide improvement of new or existing rain garden designs.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2030011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 5: Reply to Giannakos, K. Comment on:
           Toughness of Railroad Concrete Crossties with Holes and Web Openings.
           Infrastructures 2017, 2, 3

    • Authors: Erosha Gamage, Sakdirat Kaewunruen, Alex Remennikov, Tetsuya Ishida
      First page: 5
      Abstract: n/a
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2020005
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 6: Machine Learning and Optimality in Multi
           Storey Reinforced Concrete Frames

    • Authors: Georgios Bekas, Georgios Stavroulakis
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The present study investigates the potential of the implementation of machine learning techniques in optimized multi storey reinforced concrete frames. The variables that are taken into account in the objective function of the optimization problem are the following: the frame type (frame bay length optimality) and dimensioning of the cross sections. The objective function has the goal of attaining a minimum cost design based on market data, after a structural analysis of the frames. A number of optimized examples with widely encountered cases of total lengths of frames and with various loadings are presented. Modeling is based on Eurocode 2. Optimization takes place with the use of evolutionary algorithms. The optimized results are subjected to predictive modeling based on neural networks. The objective of the study is to create predictive models with the aim of minimizing the usage of scarce resources.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2020006
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 7: Highway Bridge Infrastructure in the
           Province of British Columbia (BC), Canada

    • Authors: Kader Siddiquee, M. Alam
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Some recent catastrophic impacts on highway bridges around the world have raised concerns for assessing the vulnerability of existing highway bridges in Canada. Rapid aging of bridge infrastructure coupled with increased traffic volume has made it crucial to establish an advanced Bridge Management System (BMS) for highway bridges. This paper aims at developing a highway bridge inventory for the province of British Columbia (BC) which is critical for efficient assessment of the existing structural health condition of the bridges, predicting their future deterioration, and prioritizing their maintenance and retrofitting works. This inventory is an extensive assemblage of data on highway bridges in BC under the responsibility of the BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (BC MoT) that includes more than 2500 highway bridges. It includes identification of the most common bridge types along with their location, structural and geometric parameters such as construction materials, bridge length, number of spans, deck width, skew angle, bridge pier, and foundation type, structural health condition rating and construction period. This information is of paramount importance for effective infrastructure management, proper rehabilitation solutions, and efficient design of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Control System for enhancing structural resilience of highway bridges in BC. Several statistical analyses have been carried out for efficient utilization of the information available in the inventory for further research and analyses, as well as for developing a proper BMS for the province’s bridges.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2020007
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 8: An Enhanced Algorithm for Concurrent
           Recognition of Rail Tracks and Power Cables from Terrestrial and Airborne
           LiDAR Point Clouds

    • Authors: Mostafa Arastounia
      First page: 8
      Abstract: This study proposes an enhanced algorithm that outperforms the methods developed by the author’s earlier contributions for the recognition of railroad assets from LiDAR point clouds. The algorithm is improved by: (1) making it applicable to railroads with any slope; (2) employing Eigen decomposition for the rail seed point selection that makes it independent of the rails’ dimensions; and (3) developing a computationally efficient fully data-driven method (simultaneous identification of rail tracks and contact cables) that is able to process poorly sampled datasets with complicated configurations. The upgraded algorithm is applied to two datasets with quite different point sampling and complexity. First dataset is scanned by a terrestrial system and contains three million points covering 630 m of an inter-city railroad corridor. It presents a simple configuration with nonintersecting straight rail tracks and cables. Second dataset includes 80 m of a complex urban railroad environment comprising curved and merging rail tracks and intersecting cables. It is scanned from an airborne platform and contains 165,000 points. The results indicate that all objects of interest are identified and the average recognition precision and accuracy of both datasets at the point cloud level are greater than 95%.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2020008
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 1: Comparative Analysis of Triangulation
           Libraries for Modeling Large Point Clouds from Land and Their

    • Authors: Luis Lopez-Fernandez, Pablo Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, David Hernandez-Lopez, Damian Ortega-Terol, Diego Gonzalez-Aguilera
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Although the generation of large points clouds from geomatic techniques allows us to realize the topography and appearance of the terrain and its infrastructures (e.g., roads, bridges, buildings, etc.), all these 3D point clouds require an unavoidable step to be conveniently treated: the definition of the surface that connects these points in space through digital surface models (DSM). In addition, these point clouds sometimes have associated attributes and geometric constraints such as breaklines and/or exclusion areas, which require the implementation of efficient triangulation techniques that can cope with a high volume of information. This article aims to make a comparative analysis of different Delaunay triangulation libraries, open or with academic versions available for the scientific community, so that we can assess their suitability for the modeling of the territory and its infrastructures. The comparison was carried out from a two-fold perspective: (i) to analyze and compare the computational cost of the triangulation; (ii) to assess the geometric quality of the resulting meshes. The different techniques and libraries have been tested based on three different study cases and the corresponding large points clouds generated. The study has been useful to identify the limitations of the existing large point clouds triangulation libraries and to propose statistical variables that assess the geometric quality of the resulting DSM.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2010001
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 2: Quantifying the Financial Impact of
           Climate Change on Australian Local Government Roads

    • Authors: Jacqueline Balston, Steven Li, Ivan Iankov, Jon Kellett, Geoff Wells
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Australia’s 560 Councils are responsible for assets worth approximately $270 billion, many of which have a life span >50 years and so will be affected by climate change. Maintenance and replacement of Council infrastructure is guided by principles, models and tools in the International Infrastructure Management Manual that currently do not allow for climate change impacts or the likely flow-on effects to asset and financial management. This paper describes a financial simulation model developed to calculate the financial impacts of climate change on three major asset classes of importance to Australian Councils: hotmix sealed, spray sealed and unsealed roads. The research goes beyond previous studies of climate change impacts on roads in that it provides a location specific toolkit that is designed to assist councils in their asset management and planned maintenance programmes. Two categories of inputs are required for the model: climate inputs, relating specifically to baseline temperature and rainfall distributions and climate change parameters for temperature and rainfall; and engineering inputs, relating specifically to the three road types and the key parameters of their performance and useful lives over the scenario period. The baseline distributions are then shifted mathematically within the model by the mean change as projected by a selected Global Climate Model (GCM) scenario. Outputs of the model are the historical baseline climate variable distributions and the climate change (CC) impacts on road performance are in the form of changes to the useful life of the asset and associated changes in asset resurfacing and rehabilitation costs. Ten case study local councils in southern Australia are examined. Using IPCC AR4 scenarios, the results suggest that the incremental impact of climate change on all three types of road infrastructure modelled will be generally low. There are small cost reductions over the period for all road types as a result of the expected drying and warming trends in the climate.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2010002
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 3: Toughness of Railroad Concrete Crossties
           with Holes and Web Openings

    • Authors: Erosha Gamage, Sakdirat Kaewunruen, Alex Remennikov, Tetsuya Ishida
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are principally designed in order to carry wheel loads from the rails to the ground of railway tracks, as well as to secure rail gauge for safe train travels. Their design takes into account static and dynamic loading conditions. In spite of prestressed concrete crossties being most commonly used in railway tracks, there have always been many demands from rail engineers to improve the serviceability and functionality of concrete crossties. For example, signaling, fiber optic, equipment cables are often damaged either by ballast corners or by the tamping machine. There has been a need to re-design concrete crossties to incorporate cables internally so that they would not experience detrimental or harsh environments. Also, many concrete crossties need a retrofit for an automatic train control device and similar signaling equipment. In contrast, the effects of holes and web openings on the structural capacity of concrete crossties have not been thoroughly investigated. This paper accordingly highlights the experimental investigations into the effect of holes and web openings on the toughness and ductility of concrete crossties. The key outcome of this research is to enable a better decision making process for retrofitting prestressed concrete crossties with holes and web openings in practice.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2010003
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 2, Pages 4: Comment on: Toughness of Railroad
           Concrete Crossties with Holes and Web Openings. Infrastructures 2017, 2, 3

    • Authors: Konstantinos Giannakos
      First page: 4
      Abstract: n/a
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures2010004
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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