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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2415 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (206 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (201 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (112 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1273 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (392 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (57 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (78 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (96 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (201 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 206 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access  
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access  
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 290)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 78)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
Territorium : Revista Portuguesa de riscos, prevenção e segurança     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Infrastructures
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2412-3811
Published by MDPI Homepage  [205 journals]
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 17: Sustainable Materials for
           Transportation Infrastructures: Comparison of Three Commercially-Available
           Metakaolin Products in Binary Cementitious Systems

    • Authors: Matthew S. Sullivan, Mi G. Chorzepa, Hiwa Hamid, Stephan A. Durham, S. Sonny Kim
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Metakaolin is the only major natural pozzolan to be specified for use as a supplementary cementitious material in the United States. As a result, the metakaolin market for concrete has grown dramatically in the past 20 years. As of now, the specifications of up to 16 state departments of transportation allow for the use of commercially-available and high-reactivity metakaolin products. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no study has been performed to evaluate whether these products are comparable in their performance. Three commercially-available (U.S.) metakaolin products, each replacing 10%, 15%, and 20% of the cement content in concrete and mortar mixtures are studied. Concrete mixtures contained a cementitious content of 422 kg/m3, a coarse aggregate fraction of 985 kg/m3, and a water-to-cementitious ratio equal to 0.43. Varying levels of a superplasticizer were used to maintain a uniform workability between mixtures. Each mixture was subjected to the following tests: compression, split-cylinder tension, modulus of rupture, dynamic elastic modulus, rapid chloride-ion penetrability, alkali–silica reactivity, sulfate resistance, the coefficient of thermal expansion, and drying shrinkage. Benefits from the inclusion of metakaolin were highly product-dependent and include increases in mechanical strength. All metakaolin supplemented concrete mixtures benefitted from decreased permeability and increased resistance to chemical attacks, with the exception of the sulfate resistance of mortars including a metakaolin product with high fineness. The inclusion of any metakaolin at any replacement level increased the coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete specimens. Reasons for difference in performance between products are discussed, and predictors of quality are recommended.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3030017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 18: Critical Analysis of International
           Precast Concrete Pipe Standards

    • Authors: Lui S. Wong, Moncef L. Nehdi
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) standard guidelines and industry practice have rather been disconnected from the end-users’ expectations. No genuine effort has so far been made to create synergy between the expertise gained and advances made around the world. With the advent of strong competition from flexible pipe products and changing end-user expectations, a critical look at the current state-of-the-art is needed. In the present paper, RCP standards from a study area representing a quarter of the world’s population (Canada, United States, United Kingdom, China, Australia and New Zealand) were critically analyzed. Comparisons were made in terms of product and material requirements, structural load testing, hydrostatic performance, and durability requirements. It is shown that the RCP sector lags modern developments in concrete technology, standard code advances and materials innovations. The analysis also revealed various knowledge gaps in terms of the mechanical, hydrostatic and durability performance of RCP. Recommendations emanating from this critical analysis aim at tailoring performance-based guidelines that can better capture current market needs and user expectations.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3030018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 19: Special Issue: “Concrete Structures:
           Present and Future Trends”

    • Authors: Jónatas Valença
      First page: 19
      Abstract: n/a
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3030019
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 20: In Situ Measurements of Thermal
           Properties of Building Fabrics Using Thermography under Non-Steady State
           Heat Flow Conditions

    • Authors: Itai Danielski, Morgan Fröling
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This study describes a quantitative method using thermography to measure the thermal properties of building fabrics that are subjected to non-steady state heat flow due to consistently changing meteorological conditions. The method includes two parts. First, the convection heat transfer coefficient is measured by thermography and heat flux meters on a small segment of the examined building fabric with uniform surface temperature. Then, thermal properties of large building fabrics are evaluated by thermography. The two parts are measured simultaneously. The method was tested on 140/160/190 mm thick massive laminated spruce timber walls of a test facility cabin located in Östersund, Sweden. The results varied by only a few percent in comparison to validation measurements performed with heat flux meters and in comparison, to values from the literature. Due to rapid changes in weather conditions the measured values had large disparity, but still a linear regression with low confidence interval was obtained. Obtaining an accurate value of convection heat transfer was important for achieving high measurement accuracy and, therefore, the value of this parameter should be measured. Other important factors to consider are solar radiation, reflected infrared (IR) radiation from nearby objects and the number of thermal images.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3030020
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 21: Spatial Analysis of the Public
           Transport Accessibility for Modelling the Modal Split in the Context of
           Site Identification for Charging Infrastructure

    • Authors: Waldemar Brost, Teresa Funke, Michael Lembach
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The spread of charging infrastructure (CIS) for battery electric vehicles is crucial for coping with the increasing number of electric vehicles. Therefore, the selection of ideal (fast-) charging locations determines acceptance, utilization and, thus, the economic viability of a single site or the whole charging network. The methodology of the Integrated Model Approach STELLA (STELLA is the acronym for the German term “STandortfindungsmodell für ELektrische LAdeinfrastruktur”) for site identification of CIS uses reliable methods of traffic modeling such as the classic four-step traffic modeling in a new context to enable statements regarding the positioning of CIS. Because only (electric) motorized individual traffic is of importance for CIS, the share of trips is calculated by differentiating the modal split between various transport groups. To estimate the public transport share in the model approach STELLA there are several factors used. One aspect is the accessibility of stops, which can be determined with accessibility radii one the one hand, and with network analyses on the other hand. The methods have been evaluated for the region of Nuremberg. Depending on the spatial characteristics there is a difference of up to 60% between the two methods in the area covered by public transport. Therefore, the network analysis leads to a more accurate estimation of the public transport share. The modal split determination is then implemented in the model approach STELLA, which is currently developed for a planning area covering the entire territory of the Federal Republic of Germany.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3030021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 22: Building up and Characterization of
           Calcined Marl-Based Geopolymeric Cement

    • Authors: Galal El-Habaak, Mohamed Askalany, Mahmoud Abdel-Hakeem
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The present study mainly investigates the synthesis of calcined marl-based geopolymeric cement under different synthesis conditions including NaOH concentration, sodium silicate (SS)/sodium hydroxide (SH) mass ratios, solid (S)/liquid (L) mass ratios, calcination temperatures, curing temperatures, curing times, and aging intervals. The studied head sample was obtained from the Abu-Tartur phosphate mine in the Western Desert of Egypt and subjected to chemical and mineralogical characterizations using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform–infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR). Regarding calcination, this was conducted at 550, 650, 750, and 850 °C for one hour and resulted in thermal decomposition of calcite and saponite and the formation of new mineral phases including anthophyllite, wollastonite, and silica. On the other hand, the geopolymerization process was initiated by mixing the calcined marl sample with the alkali activation solution at different mixing ratios and varying curing conditions. The compressive strength measurements indicate that 750 °C, 12 M NaOH, 0.6 SS/SH mass ratio, 2 S/L mass ratio, 80 °C curing temperature, 12 h curing time, and 28 days aging time are considered all to be the optimum synthesis conditions of the Abu-Tartur calcined marl-based geopolymer.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3030022
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 23: On the Development of a Sustainable and
           Fit-for-the-Future Transportation Network

    • Authors: Karin Markvica, Bin Hu, Matthias Prandtstetter, Ulrike Ritzinger, Jürgen Zajicek, Claudia Berkowitsch, Georg Hauger, Sarah Pfoser, Thomas Berger, Sandra Eitler, Reinhold Schodl
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Population growth in cities and expanding city territory as well as population decline in rural areas pose a challenge for the existing transport network. Consequently, we observe a rapid change in transport infrastructure and transportation technology within the last few years. Due to novelty or differentness, it will initially be challenging to integrate them into the existing network in Western European cities and to identify suitable corridors leading to especially beneficial effects on the overall transport network. The effects of new technologies and (high-performance) infrastructures are hardly examined. It remains unclear how these novel transportation technologies will change society, our understanding of spatial proximity, mobility, and consequently the logistics sector. In this work, we give an overview regarding first considerations and reflections on the impacts of the changes and developments in the field of freight transportation. Our work mainly focusses on the estimation of the impacts of high-performance transport technologies on the society, spatial proximity, and the logistics sector while extending the European transportation network accordingly. In our understanding, we refer to high-performance transportation technologies as mobility systems with either high throughput (fast and/or high utilization loads) or very flexible application. To be more specific, we focus on Hyperloop technologies, Cargo-Sous-Terrain, freight airships, and drones.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3030023
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 8: Novelties in Material Development for
           Massive Concrete Structures: Reduction in Heat of Hydration Observed in
           Ternary Replacement Mixtures

    • Authors: Hiwa Hamid, Mi Chorzepa, Matthew Sullivan, Stephan Durham, S. Kim
      First page: 8
      Abstract: As the size of modern infrastructure increases, novelties related to mass concrete mixtures including supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) become critical. The effects of binary and ternary cement replacement mixtures including metakaolin, silica fume, ground calcium carbonate, granulated blast furnace slag, and fly ash on the rate and amount of heat generated in concrete mixtures are investigated. Twenty three binary and ternary mixtures with a water-to-cementitious binder ratio of 0.43 are evaluated. Between 15% and 45% cement replacement by weight is considered. Results indicate that binary mixtures containing metakaolin or silica fume offer no advantage in reducing the amount of heat but increase compressive strength by 20%. On contrary, ternary mixtures, including two pozzolanic materials, provide 15% reduction in the amount of heat evolution without compromising strength. This reduction is observed regardless of alumina (Al) or silica (Si) content in pozzolanic materials when 45% cement is replaced with a combination of slag and metakaolin, or slag and silica fume. Furthermore, the effect of increased calcium (Ca) content is investigated. It is concluded that ternary mixtures with decreased Ca/(Al+Si) ratio reduce internal temperature in mass concrete structures and are less likely to be exposed to the threshold temperature for delayed ettringite formation.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3020008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 9: An Experimental Study of Portland Cement
           and Superfine Cement Slurry Grouting in Loose Sand and Sandy Soil

    • Authors: Weijing Yao, Jianyong Pang, Yushan Liu
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Grouting technology is widely applied in the fields of geotechnical engineering in infrastructure. Loose sand and sandy soil are common poor soils in tunnel and foundation treatments. It is necessary to use superfine cement slurry grouting in the micro-cracks of soil. The different effectiveness of Portland cement slurry and superfine cement slurry in sandy soil by the laboratory grouting experiment method were presented in this paper. The grouting situations of superfine cement slurry injected into sand and sandy soil were explored. The investigated parameters were the dry density, wet density, moisture content, internal friction angle, and cohesion force. The results show that the consolidation effect of superfine cement is better than that of Portland cement due to the small size of superfine cement particles. The superfine cement can diffuse into the sand by infiltration, extrusion, and splitting. When the water–cement ratio of superfine cement slurry is less than 2:1 grouting into loose sand, the dry and wet density decrease with the increase in the water–cement ratio, while the moisture content and cohesive force gradually increase. When the water–cement ratio of superfine cement slurry is 1:1 grouting into loose sand and sandy soil, the dry density, wet density, and cohesive force of loose sand are larger than those of sandy soil. The results of the experiment may be relevant for engineering applications.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3020009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 10: Adaptation Becoming Business as Usual:
           A Framework for Climate-Change-Ready Transport Infrastructure

    • Authors: Andrew Quinn, Emma Ferranti, Simon Hodgkinson, Anson Jack, John Beckford, John Dora
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Extreme weather damages and disrupts transport infrastructure in a multitude of ways. Heavy rainfall and ensuing landslides or flooding may lead to road or rail closures; extreme heat can damage road surfaces, or cause tracks, signalling or electronic equipment to overheat, or thermal discomfort for passengers. As extreme weather is expected to occur more frequently in the future, transport infrastructure owners and operators must increase their preparedness in order to reduce weather-related service disruption and the associated financial costs. This article presents a two-sided framework for use by any organisation to develop climate-change-ready transport infrastructure, regardless of their current level of knowledge or preparedness for climate change. The framework is composed of an adaptation strategy and an implementation plan, and has the overarching ambition to embed climate change adaptation within organisational procedures so it becomes a normal function of business. It advocates adaptation pathways, i.e., sequential adaptive actions that do not compromise future actions. The circular, iterative structure ensures new knowledge, or socio-economic changes may be incorporated, and that previous adaptations are evaluated. Moreover, the framework aligns with existing asset management procedures (e.g., ISO standards) or governmental or organisational approaches to climate change adaptation. By adopting this framework, organisations can self-identify their own level of adaptation readiness and seek to enhance it.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3020010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 11: An Integrated Dynamical Modeling
           Perspective for Infrastructure Resilience

    • Authors: Jean-Denis Mathias, Susan Spierre Clark, Nuri Onat, Thomas P. Seager
      First page: 11
      Abstract: This paper considers a dynamical way to connect resilience outcomes and processes by nesting process-based approaches inside a controlled dynamical system under resource constraints. To illustrate this, we use a dynamical model of electric power generation to show the complementary aspects of outcome, resources, and process-based approaches for analyzing infrastructure resilience. The results of this stylized model show that adaptation is the most influential process and that for monitoring to be efficient it must account for associated costs. Beyond these specific results, we suggest that nesting outcome- and process-based approaches within a dynamical controlled framework can be very useful and complementary for infrastructure managers and designers tasked with effectively allocating resources for enhancing system resilience.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3020011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 12: Dynamic Amplification Factor of
           Continuous versus Simply Supported Bridges Due to the Action of a Moving
           Vehicle

    • Authors: Arturo González, Omar Mohammed
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Research to date on Dynamic Amplification Factors (DAFs) caused by traffic loading, mostly focused on simply supported bridges, is extended here to multiple-span continuous bridges. Emphasis is placed upon assessing the DAF of hogging bending moments, which has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. Vehicle-bridge interaction simulations are employed to analyze the response of a finite element discretized beam subjected to the crossing of two vehicle types: a 2-axle-truck and a 5-axle truck-trailer. Road irregularities are randomly generated for two ISO roughness classes. Noticeable differences appear between DAF of mid-span moment in a simply supported beam, and DAFs of the mid-span sagging moment and of the hogging moment over the internal support in a continuous multiple-span beam. Although the critical location of the maximum static moment over the internal support may indicate that DAF of hogging moment would have to be relatively small, this paper provides evidence that this is not always the case, and that DAFs of hogging moments can be as significant as DAF of sagging moments.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3020012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 13: A 5D Building Information Model (BIM)
           for Potential Cost-Benefit Housing: A Case of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
           (KSA)

    • Authors: Ibrahim Alrashed, Komali Kantamaneni
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The Saudi construction industry is going through a process of acclimatizing to a shifting fiscal environment. Due to recent fluctuations in oil prices, the Saudi construction sector decided to adjust to current trade-market demands and rigorous constitutional regulations because of competitive pressures. This quantitative study assesses and compares existing flat design vs. mid-terrace housing through cost estimation and design criteria that takes family privacy into consideration and meets the needs of Saudi Arabian families (on average consisting of seven members). Five pilot surveys were undertaken to evaluate the property preference type of Saudi families. However, Existing models did not satisfy the medium range family needs and accordingly a 5D (3D + Time + Cost) Building Information Modelling (BIM) is proposed for cost benefiting houses. Research results revealed that mid-terrace housing was the best option, as it reduced land usage and construction costs. While, 5D BIM led to estimate accurate Bill of Quantities (BOQ) and the appraisal of construction costs.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3020013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 14: Impact of Pavement Surface Condition on
           Roadway Departure Crash Risk in Iowa

    • Authors: Ahmad Alhasan, Inya Nlenanya, Omar Smadi, Cameron A. MacKenzie
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Safety performance is a crucial component of highway network performance evaluation. Besides their devastating impact on roadway users, traffic crashes lead to substantial economic losses on both personal and societal levels. Due to the complexity of crash events and the unique conditions in each country and state, empirical local calibration for the correlation between attributes of interest and the safety performance is always recommended. Limited studies have established a procedure to analyze the impact of pavement condition on traffic safety in a risk analysis scheme. This study presents a thorough analysis of some roadway departure crashes which occurred in Iowa between 2006 and 2016. All crash records were mapped onto one-mile segments with known traffic volume (i.e., AADT), posted speed limits (SL), skid numbers (SN), ride qualities (IRI), and rut depths (RD) in a geographic information system (GIS) database. The crash records were correlated to the pavement surface condition (i.e., SN, IRI, and RD) using negative binomial regression models. Moreover, a novel risk analysis framework is introduced to perform crash risk assessment and evaluate the possible consequences for a given combination of events. The analysis shows a significant impact of pavement skid resistance on roadway-departure crashes under all accident conditions and severities. Risk analysis will facilitate coordination between the pavement management system and safety management system in the future, which will help with optimizing the overall highway network performance.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 15: A Coupled CFD–DEM Simulation of
           Slurry Infiltration and Filter Cake Formation during Slurry Shield
           Tunneling

    • Authors: Zixin Zhang, Tong Yin
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Tunneling in highly permeable ground using a slurry shield machine can be challenging because it is difficult to form the so-called filter cake on the tunnel face to transport the support pressure. Consequently, destructive accidents might happen, such as face instability and water inrush. How to form an efficient filter cake in time is crucial during engineering practice, especially in ground with high permeability. Various theoretical and experimental analyses regarding the formation of filter cakes have been conducted. However, due to the complexity of this problem, which has to incorporate the mechanical and hydraulic behaviors of the fluid–solid mixture system, few numerical simulations are found in the literature. In this paper, with the aid of a newly developed numerical tool, a coupled CFD (computational fluid dynamics)–DEM (discrete element method) simulation is established to study the slurry infiltration and filter cake formation during slurry shield tunneling. The slurry infiltration process is simulated by modelling the scheme of the infiltration column test, in which sedimentation behaviors of slurry particles are captured and compared with experimental results. The results show that the sedimentation behaviors of the slurry particles and filter cake formation phenomenon are well captured by simulations and in accordance with the experiments, which indicates the robustness of the coupled CFD–DEM simulation used in present work.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3020015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 16: Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in Three
           Asphalt Pavement Layers

    • Authors: Patricia Kara De Maeijer, Wim Van den bergh, Cedric Vuye
      First page: 16
      Abstract: In the present study, a new approach to the installation of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in three asphalt pavement layers (the surface layer and both base layers) was implemented for the first time in Belgium. Fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) are diagnostic tools that accurately and efficiently monitor in situ structural behavior. However, nowadays, this technology is not commonly used in asphalt due to its application restrictions under installation and service conditions. FBGs are fragile and break easily under loading. Therefore, there is a need for suitable protection of FBG sensors if they are to be installed during the rough construction process and exposed to heavy-duty loading afterwards. The main objective of the present study is to show the FBG results only for the initial construction process, and, if successful, to continue studying this FBG monitoring system and to plan the next research step by adjusting the system for its application in heavy-duty pavements. Two approaches to FBG installation in three asphalt layers (placed at the bottom of each layer) were tested in the present study: (1) installation of FBGs in prefabricated asphalt specimens in the base layer, directly on the base, and (2) installation of FBGs on the surface of the previously constructed asphalt layer. Both innovative approaches allow the implementation of FBGs without sawing the whole layer into two parts. The obtained results proved a survival rate of 100% for the FBGs. It can be concluded that these new described methods of FBG installation—using a cross-section configuration to carry out strain measurements in two directions (transverse and longitudinal)—can be applied for the monitoring of heavy-duty pavements, while providing the possibility to further re-evaluate current pavement design methods used in Flanders (Belgium).
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3020016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 1: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of
           Infrastructures in 2017

    • Authors: Infrastructures Editorial Office
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Infrastructures maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...]
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 2: Material Structural Deficiencies of Road
           Bridges in the U.S.

    • Authors: Daniel Farhey
      First page: 2
      Abstract: This study analyzes the National Bridge Inventory in the U.S. to determine the relative structural deficiencies of bridge materials, comparing between the overall national values and each state, geographically. The analysis considers the most common bridge construction materials—concrete, steel, and prestressed/post-tensioned concrete. The results suggest need to reassess the efficacy of best performance practices for steel bridges and for states with structural deficiencies above the national average. Geographic consistency of structurally deficient bridge density with population density shows need to improve intervention strategies for regions with higher levels of service usage. The study also compares the relative operational lifespan of bridge materials in each state. The average structurally deficient bridge ages are lower than the 75-year life-cycle expectancy. Prestressed/post-tensioned concrete bridges reveal relatively lower lifespan. Over time, concrete and steel bridges show some gradual improvement with decreasing percentage of structural deficiency and increasing lifespan. Prestressed/post-tensioned concrete bridges reveal shifting earlier accumulation of structural deficiency for a particular age group. The study also reveals relative climate effects. Climate conditions correlate differently with the structural deficiency and life cycle of bridge materials in each state. Structurally deficient bridge densities show correlation with climate maps, especially under colder and moist conditions.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 3: State-of-the-Art Review of Railway Track
           Resilience Monitoring

    • Authors: Chayut Ngamkhanong, Sakdirat Kaewunruen, Bruno Costa
      First page: 3
      Abstract: In recent years, railway systems have played a significant role in transportation systems due to the demand increase in conveying both cargo and passengers. Due to the harsh environments and severe loading conditions, caused by the traffic growth, heavier axles and vehicles and increase in speed, railway tracks are at risk of degradation and failure. Condition monitoring has been widely used to support the health assessment of civil engineering structures and infrastructures. In this context, it was adopted as a powerful tool for an objective assessment of the railway track behaviour by enabling real-time data collection, inspection and detection of structural degradation. According to relevant literature, a number of sensors can be used to monitor track behaviour during the train passing under harsh environments. This paper presents a review of sensors used for structural monitoring of railway track infrastructure, as well as their application to sense the performance of different track components during extreme events. The insight into track monitoring for railways serving traffic with extreme features will not only improve the track inspection and damage detection but also enable a predictive track maintenance regime in order to assist the decision-making process towards more cost-effective management in the railway industry.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 4: Improving Freeze–Thaw Resistance of
           Concrete Road Infrastructure by Means of Superabsorbent Polymers

    • Authors: Bart Craeye, Geert Cockaerts, Patricia Kara De Maeijer
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The scope of the paper is to report an investigation on durability of infrastructure concrete for roads and bridges by creating a size and shape-designed pore systems in concrete in order to improve it, especially in terms of freeze–thaw resistance. By means of this experimental laboratory study, an alternative for usage of air entrainment agents (AEA) in concrete infrastructures was found in the way of using superabsorbent polymer materials (SAPs). The effect of the addition of SAPs of different amounts and different types into fresh concrete mix was investigated, including: compressive strength tests, weight loss measurements, visual and microscopic inspections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The detrimental strength reduction effect was not observed. The freeze–thaw procedure was varied, using different types of de-icing salts and heating/cooling regimes. It can be concluded that an improvement of the freeze–thaw resistance of concrete infrastructure depends on the particle size and optimal amount of SAPs added into concrete mix. The addition of 0.26 wt % of dry SAPs into the fresh concrete reference mix led to the significant decrease of scaling up to 43% after 28 freeze–thaw cycles. Both dosage and particle size of the SAPs had a significant impact on the obtained results and the freeze–thaw resistance in this experimental laboratory study.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 5: Innovative Method for Automatic Shape
           Generation and 3D Printing of Reduced-Scale Models of Ultra-Thin Concrete
           Shells

    • Authors: Ana Tomé, Isaías Vizotto, Jónatas Valença, Eduardo Júlio
      First page: 5
      Abstract: A research and development project has been conducted aiming to design and produce ultra-thin concrete shells. In this paper, the first part of the project is described, consisting of an innovative method for shape generation and the consequent production of reduced-scale models of the selected geometries. First, the shape generation is explained, consisting of a geometrically nonlinear analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) to define the antifunicular of the shell’s deadweight. Next, the scale model production is described, consisting of 3D printing, specifically developed to evaluate the aesthetics and visual impact, as well as to study the aerodynamic behaviour of the concrete shells in a wind tunnel. The goals and constraints of the method are identified and a step-by-step guidelines presented, aiming to be used as a reference in future studies. The printed geometry is validated by high-resolution assessment achieved by photogrammetry. The results are compared with the geometry computed through geometric nonlinear finite-element-based analysis, and no significant differences are recorded. The method is revealed to be an important tool for automatic shape generation and building scale models of shells. The latter enables the performing of wind tunnel tests to obtain pressure coefficients, essential for structural analysis of this type of structures.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 6: Structural Performances of Bridge Types
           in the U.S. National Bridge Inventory

    • Authors: Daniel Farhey
      First page: 6
      Abstract: This paper demonstrates a comprehensive national network-level analysis to determine the relative deteriorations and operational structural performances of the various types of bridge structural design and/or construction. The study analyzes the entire database of the U.S. National Bridge Inventory for the year 2013 and considers bridge counts along with bridge deck areas that provide more significant results. Analysis of the proportional distribution of structural deficiency reveals issues of deterioration. Considering the structural deficiency, service life cycle and deterioration trends of bridge types over time, the multi-criteria equivalent structural performances incorporate the condition, durability, longevity, rate and pattern performances. The results provide support for more sustainable engineering and management decisions. Stringer/multi beam or girder (type 02) bridges are the most common bridge type, 40.75% by counts and 61.88% by areas. The structural performance of type 02 bridges seems comparable to the average of all bridges, yet they have lower durability and longevity performances, revealing a relative service life cycle vulnerability. The lowest structural performances are orthotropic (type 08) and segmental box girder (type 21) bridges; while their condition performances are rather high, their durability, longevity, rate and pattern performances are essentially low. The slight improvement of structural performance from 2006 to 2013 for most bridge types is not significant over seven years. Also, certain bridge types worsened.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Pages 7: Cooperating to Compete in the Global Air
           Cargo Industry: The Case of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo A.G. Joint
           Venture Airline ‘AeroLogic’

    • Authors: Glenn Baxter, Panarat Srisaeng
      First page: 7
      Abstract: This paper presents a case study of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo strategic joint venture cargo airline ‘AeroLogic’, the global air cargo industry’s largest operative joint venture between an airline and a leading international express and logistics provider. The study used a qualitative research approach. The data gathered for the study was examined by document analysis. The strategic analysis of the AeroLogic joint venture was based on the use of Porter’s Five Forces framework. The study found that the AeroLogic joint venture airline has provided synergistic benefits to both partners and has allowed the partners to access new markets and to participate in the evolution of the air cargo industry. The new venture has also enabled both joint venture partners to enhance their competitive position in the global air cargo industry through strengthened service offerings and has provided the partners with increased cargo capacities, a larger route network, and greater frequencies within their own route networks. The study also found that the AeroLogic business model is unique in the air cargo industry. A limitation of the study was that AeroLogic’s annual revenue or freight traffic data was not available. It was, therefore, not possible to analyse the business performance of the joint venture.
      Citation: Infrastructures
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/infrastructures3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2018)
       
 
 
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