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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2282 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (102 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1204 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (68 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (90 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 186 of 186 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
  [SJR: 0.585]   [H-I: 9]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 1996-6814
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Comparing the effects of oil palm kernel shell and cockle shell on
           properties of pervious concrete pavement

    • Authors: Elnaz Khankhaje; Mohd Razman Salim; Jahangir Mirza; Salmiati; Mohd Warid Hussin; Rawid Khan; Mahdi Rafieizonooz
      Pages: 113 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Elnaz Khankhaje, Mahdi Rafieizonooz, Mohd Razman Salim, Jahangir Mirza, Salmiati, Mohd Warid Hussin
      Nowadays, pervious concrete pavement is one of the best materials used in construction industry as a top layer of permeable pavement system to control the storm water at source. In addition, increasing production of waste materials, increased the interest in utilising the waste materials for environmental and technical benefits. Therefore, this paper compared the effect of using two different sizes of oil palm kernel shell (OPKS) and cockleshell (CS) as partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate on properties of pervious concrete pavement. Thirteen mixtures were made, in which 6.30-mm natural gravel was replaced with 0, 25, 50 and 75% of 6.30-mm and 4.75-mm of both shells. The relationships between the properties of pervious concrete mixtures were also determined. The replacement of OPKS and CS as the natural aggregate decreased the compressive strength, while the angular shape of both shells caused higher void content and permeability as compared to those of control pervious concrete. On the other hand, pervious concrete containing CS showed better properties than those of incorporating OPKS. Apart from that, strong relationships between density, void content, permeability, compressive strength values indicated that they can be used as a pervious concrete quality control tests for prediction of properties of pervious concrete pavement before placement in the field.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T17:24:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2017.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 122 (2017)
       
  • Aggregate Fatigue Failure on Macro Texture Polishing of Asphalt Pavement

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Zhenyu Qian, Yinghao Miao, Haocheng Xiong, Linbing Wang
      The macro-texture of asphalt pavement greatly affects the traffic safety of driving. In this study, the 3D laser scanning data, which is captured from the pavements, is used for reverse modeling. FE software ANSYS is used to analyze the contact stress distribution of pavement macro-texture and tire. The results shows that the macro texture will be affected by fatigue failure considering the size effect of coarse aggregate. The fatigue life distribution of pavements is analyzed using the fatigue analysis software FE-SAFE which is based on linear cumulative damage theory. The developing tendency of texture depth with respect to the number of loading times is obtained by analyzing the results of fatigue life. Compared with the results of accelerated loading test shows that the factor of fatigue failure has remarkably affected the macro texture under low loading times. This effect is gradually decreased with the increasing of cyclic loading times.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T08:07:02Z
       
  • Characterization of Mortar Fracture based on Three Point Bending Test and
           XFEM

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Yucheng Huang, Yanhua Guan, Linbing Wang, Jian Zhou, Zhi Ge, Yue Hou
      Mortar is one of the most widely used civil infrastructure materials, where the mortar fracture properties will significantly affect the structure service performance and life. In this paper, the fracture toughness of mortar specimen with respect to different thickness is investigated byconducting thethree point bending test. The Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is also employed to model the crack propagation and failure process in the mortar specimen. It is found that the thickness of mortar specimen will affect the mortar cracking performance and the new emerged numerical tool XFEM is able to characterize the fracture properties of mortar specimen.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T08:07:02Z
       
  • Study on Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Influence on Mechanical
           Properties of Flexible Pavement

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Jie Ji, Di Wang, Zhi Suo, Ying Xu, Shi-fa Xu
      To study the influence of DCLR (Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue) on mechanical properties of flexible pavement, the DCLR/compound DCLR modified asphalt mixture was prepared. The 15°C and 20°C compression resilience moduli of DCLR/compound DCLR modified asphalt mixtures were measured using the uniaxial compression test. The influences of DCLR/compound DCLR modified asphalt mixture on deflection, upper layer thickness, and bending flexural tensile stress of layer bottom were analyzed using Bisar3.0 and HPDS software. The test results show the DCLR/compound DCLR modified asphalt has higher compression resilience modulus. Due to higher resilience moduli of DCLR/compound DCLR modified asphalt mixture, they can be used as bottom layer in pavement. Under the identical loadings, the upper layer thickness can be reduced by adding DCLR and compound DCLR. If the upper layer thickness is same, the bending flexural tensile stress of layer bottom and deflection will decrease significantly.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T08:07:02Z
       
  • Seasonal variations and in situ assessment of concrete pavement foundation
           mechanistic properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Yang Zhang, Pavana K.R. Vennapusa, David J. White, Alex E. Johnson
      In cold climates, pavement surface and foundation layers are subjected to seasonal temperature variation and freeze-thaw cycles. The number and duration of freeze-thaw cycles in the foundation layers can significantly influence the pavement performance. Seasonal variation in foundation layers is accounted for in pavement design by empirically adjusting the foundation layer moduli values. This paper presents results from in situ falling weight deflectometer (FWD) and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) tests conducted over a two-year period at five sites in Iowa; at one of these sites, temperatures of the foundation layers were continuously monitored during the testing period. FWD testing was conducted to determine the modulus of subgrade reaction (k) values. DCP testing was conducted to estimate California bearing ratio (CBR) values of the subbase and subgrade. Temperature data was analyzed to determine freezing and thawing periods and frost penetrations. Seasonal variations observed in the foundation mechanistic properties were compared with the assumed design values. Empirical relationships between the different mechanistic properties are explored.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T08:07:02Z
       
  • Application of piezoelectric transducer in energy harvesting in pavement

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Xiaochen Xu, Dongwei Cao, Hailu Yang, Ming He
      Mechanical energy appears everywhere in the nature, road vibration energy created by the vehicle will not only do damage to pavement structure, but also is difficult to collect. Utilizing electromechanical conversion characteristics of piezoelectric material, gather the vibration energy when vehicle passing on the pavement, and design the piezoelectric transducer package box, for traffic lights along the roads, signs, and so on. Save the cost of laying long distance transmission line, also take full advantage of the loss of energy. Experiments of piezoelectric boxes has been conducted in pavement to prove the effectiveness of this product. This study shows that utilize piezoelectric technology in road energy harvesting is feasible and has a bright future.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T08:07:02Z
       
  • Using ESEM to Analyze the Microscopic Property of Basalt Fiber Reinforced
           Asphalt Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Chunmei GAO, Weijie WU
      The basalt fiber staggered distribution in the asphalt concrete matrix and the bonding situation between asphalt are analyzed by images collected using field emission environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) test equipment. The results show that bonding of the fiber and the asphalt binder is very good and there is a strong binding force of chemical bonding connections between the two; the lipophilicity of basalt fiber is very good, the wrapped cover ability of asphalt for fiber is very strong; basalt fiber forms the local space network structure in the asphalt concrete matrix, effectively overcome the relative slip between the particles, connect the damaged parts into a whole; basalt fiber across internal micropores, and the internal defects in material can be remedied. At the same time, crack resistance mechanism of the fiber to internal micro cracks is qualitatively explained according to the magnitude of the stress intensity factor K f .

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T08:07:02Z
       
  • Sensitivity Analysis of the Mainline Travel Lane Pavement Service Life
           When Utilizing Part-Time Shoulder Use with Full Depth Paved Shoulders

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Sean Coffey, Seri Park, Leslie Myers McCarthy
      Part-time Shoulder Use (PTSU) is an Active Traffic Management (ATM) strategy that utilizes the shoulder as an additional travel lane during high congestion periods to temporarily increase roadway capacity. This strategy has become increasingly popular on freeways around major metropolitan areas in the United States (U.S.) and Europe. This research focused on freeways near major metropolitan areas where the roadways are structurally sound, but widening roadways has become increasingly expensive to implement. These areas typically utilize full-depth paved shoulders, defined as shoulders built to the same pavement structural profile as the mainline travel lanes and structurally sufficient to carry heavy vehicle loading. As a result of PTSU, the load repetitions on the mainline travel lanes can be reduced for multiple hours during each day by shifting vehicles to the shoulder and this load reduction may indirectly increase the mainline pavement’s service life. This research explored the potential benefits of PTSU based on a variety of conditions, including climate conditions, pavement types, and traffic loading levels. The results suggest that across all of these conditions an extension of 10 to 20% in service life can be expected for both flexible and rigid pavements in the mainline travel lanes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T08:07:02Z
       
  • Laboratory Characterization of Asphalt Binders Modified with Waste
           Vegetable Oil Using SuperPave Specifications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Aslam A. Al-Omari, Taisir S. Khedaywi, Mohammad A. Khasawneh
      The goal of this study is to check the validity of using the waste vegetable oil as an additive to the asphalt cement, to be used later in the construction of flexible pavements. This will be considered as a proper and legal method of disposing this waste material. In this study, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% of waste vegetable oil by volume of the asphalt cement were used. Several laboratory tests were performed on the original and waste vegetable oil -modified asphalt cements. It was found that choosing the appropriate amount of waste vegetable oil will improve most of the tested properties. Therefore, it can be concluded that using the suitable amount of waste vegetable oil as a cement modifier is feasible, and can be considered as a proper and legal method for disposing the waste vegetable oil.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T08:07:02Z
       
  • Study on the Microscopic Friction Between Tire and Asphalt Pavement Based
           on Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Yue Hou, Hanfei Zhang, Jiangfeng Wu, Linbing Wang, Haocheng Xiong
      Good pavement friction performance between tire and asphalt pavement is the prerequisite to ensure traffic safety and driving comfortability. In this paper, the microscopic friction between tire and asphalt pavement is studied using the Material Studio and LAMMPS software. A 3D contact model of tire, asphalt layer and the substrate layer is established. The Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation is conducted to simulate the friction behavior under different environments. The influence of different environmental conditions including vehicle speed (20∼120km/h) and pavement surface temperature (-30∼35°C) on the pavement surface friction coefficient is also studied. Simulation results show that vehicle speed and pavement surface temperature have significant effects on the friction coefficient at microscale.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T08:07:02Z
       
  • A preliminary study on the highway piezoelectric power supply system

    • Authors: Hailu Yang; Linbing Wang; Bin Zhou; Ya Wei; Qian Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Hailu Yang, Linbing Wang, Bin Zhou, Ya Wei, Qian Zhao
      Pavement piezoelectric energy harvesting technique is to use a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester (PEH) to convert the mechanical energy of vehicles into electrical energy. A lot of research has been done on the technology of piezoelectric energy collection, but it is mainly focused on the theoretical model and the laboratory tests and lacks the on-site performance evaluation. In this paper, a stacked array type PEH is designed with protection package, which can improve the performance and the service life of the PEH. The demonstration project is also carried out to test the field performance. It is found that under the actual vehicle loading, the obtained piezoelectric energy can successfully light LED signs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T00:55:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.08.006
       
  • Using a modified asphalt bond strength test to investigate the properties
           

    • Authors: Taha A. Ahmed; Hosin “David” Lee; R. Christopher Williams
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Taha A. Ahmed, Hosin “David” Lee, R. Christopher Williams
      This paper presents a feasibility of a modified Asphalt Bond Strength (ABS) test method for use with a new adhesion testing device with three different pullout stubs and its application for evaluating Polyethylene (PE) wax-based Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) additive. Four different asphalt binders were used to evaluate the feasibility of applying the existing AASHTO ABS test method using a new ASTM-certified adhesion testing device and three different pullout stubs. The modified ABS test method was used to evaluate the loss of adhesion and cohesion in asphalt bond strength due to moisture-induced damage. The paper also discusses rheological properties of extracted asphalt binders from three different test sections in Minnesota, Ohio and Iowa constructed using PE wax-based WMA additive and different amounts of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) materials. Based on the modified ABS test results using the new adhesion testing device, it was found that the proposed pullout stub with 0.0 mm thickness (no edge) exhibited consistent results. Based on the results from extracted asphalt performance grading and the multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test, it was found that the PE wax-based WMA additive, which was specially designed for asphalt mixtures with a high RAP content, significantly improved the rheological properties of aged asphalt binders from RAP materials.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T19:52:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.08.004
       
  • Laboratory experiment on resilient modulus of BRA modified asphalt
           mixtures

    • Authors: Muhammad Karami; Hamid Nikraz; Surya Sebayang; Laksmi Irianti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Muhammad Karami, Hamid Nikraz, Surya Sebayang, Laksmi Irianti
      The objective of this research is to determine the potential effect on the resilient modulus of asphalt mixtures of using granular Buton Rock Asphalt (BRA) modified binder. The indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM) tests were performed to examine the resilient modulus of unmodified and BRA modified asphalt mixtures for dense graded aggregates of 10mm (DG10) and 14mm (DG14) based on standard AS-2891.13.1-1995. In these tests, three percentage of BRA natural binder, including 10%, 20% and 30% by total weight of asphalt binder, were chosen asa substitute for the base asphalt binder in the BRA modified asphalt mixtures, with the purpose of improving the resilient modulus values. According to the test results, the resilient modulus of BRA modified asphalt mixtures was higher as compared to the unmodified asphalt mixtures. A higher percentage of BRA modifier binder content resulted in a higher resilient modulus. Furthermore, the unmodified and BRA modified containing only 20% BRA modified binder of DG10 were tested under different conditions of temperature, rise time, and pulse period. The results indicated that the BRA modified asphalt mixtures containing 20% BRA modified binder were less sensitive to the changes in the temperature, traffic volume and loading frequency. In addition, the substitution of 20% BRA modifier binder reduced the effect of the rest period ratio and loading time on the resilient modulus of the asphalt mixtures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T19:52:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.08.005
       
  • Enhancing the crumb rubber modified asphalt’s storage stability through
           the control of its internal network structure

    • Authors: Mohyeldin Ragab; Magdy Abdelrahman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Mohyeldin Ragab, Magdy Abdelrahman
      The current research investigated the effect of the internal network structure developed in the crumb rubber modified asphalt (CRMA) on its storage stability. The authors investigated the influence of asphalt-crumb rubber modifier (CRM) interaction parameters (interaction time, interaction speed, and interaction temperature) on the development of the internal network structure in CRMA. The authors found that the existence of three dimensional (3D) network structures in the CRMA enhanced its storage stability. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy was utilized to determine the nature of CRM components responsible for the development of 3D network structure in the liquid phase of CRMA. This was achieved by monitoring the changes of the IR distinctive peaks in the CRMA liquid phase. Dissolution tests and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were carried out on the extracted CRM after interaction with asphalt to determine the role of CRM dissolved amounts and released components on the development of 3D network structure in CRMA. The asphalt-CRM interaction parameters were found to be essential to induce the formation of the 3D network structure within the liquid phase of the CRMA through controlling the swelling, dissolution and release of CRM components into the asphalt liquid phase. The existence of 3D network structure in the CRMA had determinant impact on the enhancement of its storage stability.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T19:52:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.08.003
       
  • A Digital Image Analysis of Gravel Aggregate using CT Scanning Technique

    • Authors: Jiangfeng Wu; Linbing Wang; Yue Hou; Haocheng Xiong; Yang Lu; Lei Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Jiangfeng Wu, Linbing Wang, Yue Hou, Haocheng Xiong, Yang Lu, Lei Zhang
      Particle shape was one of the most important factors which affects the gravel aggregate’s properties. It was also one of the important factors that directly affects the performance of asphalt pavements. In this paper, the gravel aggregate of quartzite was studied by using the industrial CT instrument. MATLAB was used to capture the aggregate slice properties including reverse color, median filtering, noise reduction, binaryzation and so on. The 3D aggregate model was reconstructed by using the software of MIMICS. The three-dimensional model of the aggregate was further optimized. The best fitting cuboid, cylinder, cone and sphere information of the aggregate were obtained by using the characteristics analysis function.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T19:52:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.08.002
       
  • Investigation on surface characteristics of epoxy asphalt concrete
           pavement

    • Authors: Ke Zhong; Xu Yang; Xiaohao Wei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Ke Zhong, Xu Yang, Xiaohao Wei
      The mechanical performance of epoxy asphalt concrete has been well reported in existing studies. This study investigated the surface characteristics of asphalt concrete, including the permeability, friction coefficient, moisture damage resistance and surface texture. The permeability test, dynamic friction test, Cantabro test, Hamburg test and laser texture scanning test were carried out for such investigations. Test results show that the permeability of the epoxy asphalt concrete was very low, which is desirable for protecting the steel deck. The friction coefficient can satisfy the requirement for steel deck bridge according to the Pendulum Number. However, it was found that the skid resistance could be a concern when the vehicle speed is higher than a certain level according to the dynamic friction test. The results suggested to control the traffic speed when epoxy asphalt concrete is applied as steel bridge pavement. In terms of the raveling and stripping, it was found that the epoxy asphalt mixture has an excellent anti-stripping performance based on the Cantabro test and Hamburg wheel tracking test results. The yield point was not reached after 20,000 loading cycles at 60 °C in the immersed Hamburg wheel tracking test. The mean profile depth of the epoxy asphalt concrete is 0.305mm, much lower than conventional asphalt concrete indicating a very fine surface texture.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T19:52:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.07.009
       
  • Design method for piezoelectric cantilever beam structure under low
           frequency condition

    • Authors: Qian Zhao; Yinan Liu; Linbing Wang; Hailu Yang; Dongwei Cao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Qian Zhao, Yinan Liu, Linbing Wang, Hailu Yang, Dongwei Cao
      In this study, to obtain the optimum design of piezoelectric cantilever beam under a low frequency condition, piezoelectric cantilever beams are designed based on finite element method with the validation of laboratory experiments. The finite element analysis software ANSYS is used to calculated the relationship between the dimension and the natural frequencies of the piezoelectric cantilever beam. Two piezoelectric cantilever beams are designed using both theoretical analysis and simulation results. Results show that the natural frequencies of the two kinds of piezoelectric cantilever beam are 9.77Hz and 10.02Hz, respectively. Laboratory experiments of the two piezoelectric cantilever beam show that the natural frequencies are 8.79Hz and 8.83Hz, respectively, with the peak voltage of 42.6V and 57.0V, and the average power of 1.04mW and 1.97mW. The good agreement on natural frequencies between numerical analysis and laboratory experiments demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed design method.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T19:52:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.08.001
       
  • Characteristics relation model of asphalt pavement performance based on
           factor analysis

    • Authors: Peng Tian; Ashish Shukla; Lei Nie; Gaofeng Zhan; Shuli Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Peng Tian, Ashish Shukla, Lei Nie, Gaofeng Zhan, Shuli Liu
      Pavement performance of asphalt is an important criterion for road engineering quality evaluation. Proposed research paper designed an orthogonal experiment using three asphalt mixtures, including SMA-13, AC-20 and ATB-25 to get their relation models and evaluate pavement performances. Total twenty-seven samples from private companies have been selected and seven crucial parameters are analyzed via factor analysis. Further analysis concluded three main factors corresponding to the three main pavement performance parameters (i) high-temperature stability (ii) durability and (iii) shear resistance. Based on scores of each asphalt mixtures 3D scatter-map are plotted. Analysis found the relationship between three above-mentioned parameters. Relationship between the three main performance parameters has been established using graphical analysis. A separation plane can define the different type of asphalt mixtures scatter distribution area, and get the regression equation for the plane. Based on the equation for the plane a more intuitionistic model has been made which describes the relationship of asphalt pavement performance.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T02:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.07.007
       
  • State of the Art: Asphalt for Airport Pavement Surfacing

    • Authors: Greg White
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Greg White
      Airport runways and taxiways are commonly comprised of a flexible pavement with an asphalt surface. Marshall-designed asphalt with sawn grooves is the most frequent airport asphalt surface material. However, some airports have adopted alternate asphalt mixtures for improved resistance to shear stress and for increased surface texture, allowing grooving to be avoided. Of the alternate asphalt mixtures, stone mastic asphalt is the most commonly reported. Resistance to shear stress is a critical performance requirement for airport surface asphalt. Shear stress resistance minimises the risk of rutting, shoving and groove closure. However, fracture resistance must not be ignored when developing even more shear resistance asphalt mixtures. Significant distress in airport asphalt surfaces, compliant with the traditional prescriptive specification, has increased interest in a performance-based airport asphalt specification. Commonly reported distresses include groove closure in slow moving aircraft areas and shearing in heavy aircraft braking zones. Development of reliable performance-indicative test methods is expected in the future and will enable warranted performance-based asphalt mixture design for airport surfaces.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T02:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.07.008
       
  • A Prototype IOT Based Wireless Sensor Network for Traffic Information
           Monitoring

    • Authors: Yucheng Huang; Linbing Wang; Yue Hou; Wei Zhang; Yinning Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Yucheng Huang, Linbing Wang, Yue Hou, Wei Zhang, Yinning Zhang
      An Internet of things (IOT) based wireless sensor system, solely using wireless accelerometers, is developed for traffic volume and vehicle classification monitoring in this paper. A series of laboratory test, field test as well as numerical simulation were performed to validate the feasibility and accuracy of the monitoring system. Besides, in order to eliminate the impacts of noises in the output signals, an advanced algorithm is developed to analyze the test data. The findings based on the test results indicate that the system is capable of reliably detecting axles and calculating axle spacing in both laboratory and field tests. In addition, compared with the actual measurements, the numerical simulation further validates the feasibility of the integrated wireless sensor system for traffic information monitoring.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T02:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.07.005
       
  • Effect of tack coat application on interlayer shear strength of asphalt
           pavement: a state-of-the-art review based on application in the United
           States

    • Authors: Weiguang Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Weiguang Zhang
      The effect of tack coat application on pavement interlayer shear strength attracts strong interest during asphalt paving. Given its extensive use, tack coat is known to behave as a bond material to reduce pavement distresses such as slippage crack. The effectiveness of tack coat in increasing shear strength may be affected by multiple factors, such as tack coat material, test condition, pavement surface condition, and moisture. This article is a literature review focus on how the interlayer shear strength varied when relevant influential factors are changing. Review results indicate that the interlayer shear strength increased with the decreased test temperature, increased traffic load (within design limit), and increased test confinement pressure. Additionally, the milled pavement surface always has higher shear strength then the non-milled pavement surface. It is also found that laboratory-prepared specimens resulted in higher interlayer shear strength than field pavement cores. The effect of other factors on tack coat application may follow different trends depending on mix type and existing pavement condition. For instance, optimum tack coat rate that corresponds to peak shear strength is widely reported, while it is also found that tack coat does not greatly affect shear strength on dry, clean and milled pavement surface. Furthermore, shear strength reduced when mixture is designed with high percentage of air voids or coarse aggregate structure, such as porous asphalt and stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures. More findings and recommendations can be found in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T06:51:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.07.003
       
  • Dissipated Energy Analysis of Four-Point Bending Test on Asphalt Concretes
           made with Steel Slag and RAP

    • Authors: Marco Pasetto; Nicola Baldo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Marco Pasetto, Nicola Baldo
      The paper discusses the results of an experimental study and a statistical analysis on the stiffness and the fatigue performance of recycled asphalt concretes, evaluated by the four-point bending test, at 20°C and 10 Hz. The laboratory study was conducted on five different base-binder bituminous mixtures, made with recycled aggregates, namely Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement aggregate (RAP) and Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steel slag, up to 70% by weight of the aggregate. In order to evaluate statistically the influence of the recycled aggregates on the stiffness of the mixes, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been performed on the modulus data. The fatigue tests were performed in stress and strain control mode, in order to describe completely the fatigue properties of the mixes. A dissipated energy method, based on the internal damage produced within the asphalt concretes, was used for the fatigue analysis. The damage curves, expressed in terms of the Plateau Value of the Ratio of Dissipated Energy Change, for both the stress and the strain control mode, were elaborated and statistically analyzed in order to unify the fatigue analysis. Compared to the control asphalt concrete, made exclusively with natural aggregate, the mixes with RAP and EAF slag resulted characterized by improved stiffness and fatigue performance.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T06:51:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.07.004
       
  • Deterioration trends of asphalt pavement friction and roughness from
           medium-term surveys on major italian roads

    • Authors: Alberti Susanna; Maurizio Crispino; Filippo Giustozzi; Emanuele Toraldo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Alberti Susanna, Maurizio Crispino, Filippo Giustozzi, Emanuele Toraldo
      Deterioration models are the key factor for effective Pavement Management Systems, helping out road agencies to assess the actual pavement condition and forecast future performance of the asset. Among pavement condition characteristics, friction should be taken into account due to its important effect on user safety, while roughness could be used to express user comfort. The purpose of this study was to provide a reasonable case study for future improvements of Italian road management, even if the length of the analysed highways was not intended to be representative of the overall Italian network. This research studied the friction trend (Side Force Coefficient) depending on traffic levels (ESALs) and pavement aging for Italian highways, combining the data with roughness and macrotexture. Surface characteristics were monitored during a seven-year time span. A selection of different road sections with homogeneous traffic levels, similar environmental conditions and surface material was performed and high-speed/high-quality road surveys were used for distress data collection. Pavement deterioration models for Italian road sectors were developed at project level, as starting point to advance pavement management practices in Italy. Degradation curves showed the same trends for similar pavement structures, materials and traffic levels; on the other hand, differences in pavement characteristics, increased ESALs and various maintenance treatments significantly altered those trends.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T21:35:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.07.002
       
  • Sensitivity Quantification of Airport Concrete Pavement Stress Responses
           Associated with Top-Down and Bottom-Up Cracking

    • Authors: Adel Rezaei-Tarahomi; Orhan Kaya; Halil Ceylan; Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan; Sunghwan Kim; David R. Brill
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Adel Rezaei-Tarahomi, Orhan Kaya, Halil Ceylan, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Sunghwan Kim, David R. Brill
      The Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s) rigid pavement design standard employs the NIKE3D-FAA software to compute critical pavement responses of concrete airport pavement structures. NIKE3D-FAA is a modification of the original NIKE3D three-dimensional finite element analysis program developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) of the U.S. Department of Energy, and is currently used in the FAA’s FAARFIELD program. This study evaluated the sensitivity of NIKE3D-FAA rigid pavement responses with respect to top-down and bottom-up cracking. The analysis was conducted by positioning a Boeing 777-300ER (B777-300ER)aircraft at different locations (interior, corner, and edge of slab) as baseline while varying other NIKE3D-FAA inputs, including rigid pavement geometric features, mechanical properties of paving and foundation materials, equivalent temperature gradient and thermal coefficient of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) layers. Several sensitivity charts were developed by examining the sensitivity of critical pavement responses to each input variation. Sensitivity evaluations were performed using a normalized sensitivity index (NSI) as the quantitative metric. Using such sensitivity evaluation, the most significant NIKE3D-FAA input parameters for generating an effective synthetic database that will lower computational cost for future modeling developments were identified.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T21:35:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.07.001
       
  • The Strip Clustering Scheme for data collection in large-scale Wireless
           Sensing Network of the road

    • Authors: Zhoujing Ye; Xinlong Tong; Hailu Yang; Lingjian Meng; Wenjing Xue; Linbing Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Zhoujing Ye, Xinlong Tong, Hailu Yang, Lingjian Meng, Wenjing Xue, Linbing Wang
      For intelligent traffic and road structural health monitoring, Wireless Sensing Network has been applied widely in transportation, and large quantity of sensor nodes have been embedded in roadways. Now the service lives of sensors are limited mainly because of their battery power storage. So the life cycle of the whole network can be extended if the service life of each sensor in the network is prolonged. In this paper, the Strip Clustering Scheme (SCS) is proposed to replace the conventional scheme (CS). This method includes region division, cluster head node selection, link construction, data fusion and transmission. Adopting SCS can reduce a lot of redundant data and the total energy consumption of the network by data fusion. In addition, adopting SCS can also extend the monitoring area without increasing the communication range of the Access Point (AP), and facilitate further expansion of the network as a result. Based on the numerically simulated results, CS method can be used for the WSN within 75m, and SCS method is more suitable when the monitoring range is larger than 75m. To achieve the optimal network costs and the network life cycle by using SCS, the range of d (the longitudinal spacing of adjacent nodes), is suggested as 10-12.5m and the energy of cluster head nodes is 60% higher than the energy of non-head nodes with fixed w (the transverse distance of adjacent nodes). And the extra energy of head nodes can be obtained by adding the number of battery within the head nodes or using renewable energy technologies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T00:37:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.06.005
       
  • The Applicability of Alkaline-resistant Glass Fiber in Cement Mortar of
           Road Pavement: Corrosion Mechanism and Performance Analysis

    • Authors: Qin Xiaochun; Li Xiaoming; Cai Xiaopei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Qin Xiaochun, Li Xiaoming, Cai Xiaopei
      The main technical requirements of road pavement concrete are high flexural strength and fatigue durability. Adding glass fiber into concrete could greatly increase flexural strength and wearing resistance of concrete. However, glass fiber has the great potential of corrosion during the cement hydration, which will directly affect the long-term performance and strength stability. In this paper, accelerated corrosion experiments have been made to find out the corrosion mechanism and property of alkali-resistant glass fiber in cement mortar. The applicability and practicabilityof alkaline-resistant glass fiber in road concrete have been illustrated in the analysis of flexural strength changing trend of cement mortar mixed with different proportion of activated additives to protect the corrosion of glass fiber by cement mortar.The results have shown that a 30% addition of fly ash or 10% addition of silica fume into cement matrix could effectively improve the corrosion resistance of alkali-resistant glass fiber. The optimal mixing amount of alkali-resistant glass fibershould be about 1.0 kg/m3 in consideration of ensuring the compressive strength of reinforced concrete in road pavement. The closest-packing method has been adopted in the mixture ratio design of alkali-resistant glass fiber reinforced concrete, not only to reduce the alkalinity of the cement matrix through large amount addition of activated additives but also to greatly enhance the flexural performance of concrete with thesplit pressure ratio improvement of 12.5%-16.7%. The results suggested a prosperous application prospect for alkaline-resistant glass fiber reinforced concrete in road pavement.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.06.003
       
  • Prediction on Rutting Decay Curves for Asphalt Pavement based on the
           Pavement-ME and Matter Element Analysis

    • Authors: Chen Zhang; Hainian Wang; Zhanping You; Yu Liu; Xu Yang; Jinkun Xiao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Chen Zhang, Hainian Wang, Zhanping You, Yu Liu, Xu Yang, Jinkun Xiao
      In China, the research on asphalt pavement deterioration was hindered by a lack of comprehensive investigations on field data collection of pavement performance within its service life. The problem of traditional methods that yield inadequate data can be addressed by using a combination of the Pavement Mechanistic-Empirical (PME) system and matter-element analysis (MEA). Measured data for the rutting of a road section in the Shaanxi province was employed as the validation data in this study. The input parameter for PME was localized, and a decay model based on the predicted results of PME was established by the MEA method. The results from PME indicate that the predicted results of rutting show a “lagging” characteristic when compared with the measured data. Some optimization measures are employed to process the predicted results of PME so as to better fit the measured data. The predicted data for rutting resistance can be considered essential data for the MEA method to investigate the decay tendency of the rutting of asphalt pavement in its design life. A case study indicates that the rutting resistance of asphalt pavement will deteriorate from excellent to good, good to medium, medium to inferior, and inferior to bad in 13.8 months, 32.5 months, 43.8 months, and 55.2 months, respectively. The combination of PME and MEA proves to be appropriate to evaluate rutting potential in project level pavements. Follow-up research can be carried out on the developing trend of pavement damage, so as to better determine the maintenance time for a chosen road section.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T11:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.06.002
       
  • Investigating cohesive healing of asphalt binders by means of a dissipated
           energy approach

    • Authors: Ezio Santagata; Orazio Baglieri; Davide Dalmazzo; Lucia Tsantilis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Ezio Santagata, Orazio Baglieri, Davide Dalmazzo, Lucia Tsantilis
      The paper reports the results of an experimental investigation in which the cohesive healing properties of different types of asphalt binder were evaluated by means of the dissipated energy ratio approach. A specifically designed testing methodology was proposed which involves comparing the response of binders subjected to continuous oscillatory shear loading carried out without rest periods and with single rest periods introduced at predefined levels of damage A rheological parameter (Healing Ratio) was introduced to quantify the magnitude of healing occurring during rest time and to rank the consequent healing potential of binders. Obtained results indicate that the investigated binders did not completely recovered their original fatigue resistance after rest time, confirming the existence of some intrinsic irreversible damage, the amount of which depends on the total damage experienced before load removal. Experimental results also indicate that healing performance of binders can be significantly enhanced by polymer modification.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T01:30:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.06.004
       
  • Using a Constructive Pavement Texture Index for Skid Resistance Screening

    • Authors: Chia-Pei Chou; Cheng-Chun Lee; Ai-Chin Chen; Cherng-Yann Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Chia-Pei Chou, Cheng-Chun Lee, Ai-Chin Chen, Cherng-Yann Wu


      PubDate: 2017-06-17T01:30:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.05.002
       
  • Strength, shrinkage, erodibility and capillary flow characteristics of
           cement-treated recycled pavement materials

    • Authors: William Fedrigo; Washington Peres Núñez; Thaís Radünz Kleinert; Matheus Ferreira Matuella; Jorge Augusto Pereira Ceratti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): William Fedrigo, Washington Peres Núñez, Thaís Radünz Kleinert, Matheus Ferreira Matuella, Jorge Augusto Pereira Ceratti
      Full-depth recycling with portland cement (FDR-PC) has been widely used for pavement rehabilitation; however, doubts remain regarding factors affecting some properties of the recycled material. Aiming on quantifying the effects of those factors on the strength, drying shrinkage, erodibility, capillary rise and absorption of cement-treated mixtures (CTM) of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and graded crushed stone, tests were conducted considering different RAP contents, cement contents, compaction efforts and curing times. Cement addition increased the mixtures strength and reduced their erodibility and capillary flow characteristics, but increased shrinkage. Low cement contents resulted in acceptable strength for CTM, but in high capillary rise and absorption, not being suitable if the layer is exposed to long periods of water soaking. Higher compaction effort led to similar effects as cement addition, counterbalancing low cement contents usage and reducing costs and shrinkage cracking risk. Strength and shrinkage showed higher growth rates at early stages, and then precautions should be taken in order to avoid moisture loss. Increasing RAP content decreased strength; though, RAP effect on the other properties was statistically non-significant, indicating a similar behaviour as CTM without RAP. Considering the studied properties, the mixture with most satisfactory behaviour for field applications was identified. The results highlighted strength is not the only property to be considered when designing FDR-PC mixtures; although presenting acceptable strength, some mixtures may fail due to shrinkage cracking or erosion, when exposed to water content variations.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T20:03:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.06.001
       
  • Oil and gas processing products to obtain polymers modified bitumen

    • Authors: Serhiy Pyshyev; Volodymyr Gunka; Yuriy Grytsenko; Maria Shved; Victoria Kochubei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Serhiy Pyshyev, Volodymyr Gunka, Yuriy Grytsenko, Maria Shved, Victoria Kochubei
      To obtain modified bitumen with excellent adhesive properties, coumarone-indene resin (CIR) was used. However, bitumens modified by CIR have somewhat worse plastic properties. For the improvement of the plastic properties of road bitumen modified by coumarone-indene resin, the paper proposes to use plasticizers. Characterized by a high content of rings (aromatic-naphthenic oils), a range of compounds was used as plasticizers. Of all different plasticizers tested, the tar produced from West-Ukrainian oils has been found to be the most effective one. The optimal ratio between modified bitumen components was determined enabling to obtain the commercial product of polymers modified bitumen of BMP 60/90-52 brand. The complex thermogravimetry and differential-thermal analysis has been used to analyze the initial and modified bitumen. Bitumens modified by CIR have shown by far the highest themal stability under operation conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-19T11:00:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.05.001
       
  • Effects of Graphite on Rheological and Conventional Properties of
           Bituminous Binders

    • Authors: Yunus Erkuş; Baha Vural Kök; Mehmet Yılmaz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Yunus Erkuş, Baha Vural Kök, Mehmet Yılmaz
      In this study, the effect of graphite used for developing the rheological and conventional properties of bitumen were investigated using various bituminous binder tests. Penetration, softening point, rotational viscosity (RV), dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR) tests were applied to bituminous binders modified with four different proportions of graphite by bitumen weight. The penetration values declined while softening point values increased with rising graphite content. While graphite induced 8°C increases in mixing-compacting temperature by increasing the viscosity values, it also increased the rutting parameter. According to the BBR test, the deformation and stiffness values changed significantly with increasing graphite content, but the m-values did not change significantly. These results showed that graphite generally used for improving the thermal properties can improve to high temperature performance of mixtures.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T22:30:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.04.003
       
  • Laboratory investigation of the effect of temperature on frictional
           properties of concrete pavements containing crushed glass

    • Authors: Hassan Ziari; Alireza Teymoori Barakoohi; Ali Moniri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Hassan Ziari, Alireza Teymoori Barakoohi, Ali Moniri
      In this research the effect of temperature on skid resistance of concrete pavements has been evaluated. An experimental approach has been used for this purpose and concrete mixtures containing crushed glass as fine aggregate with different surface textures were tested at different temperatures using British Pendulum Tester, so that concrete mixtures containing crushed glass with 3 different surface textures with different patterns of contact surface (smooth, brushed, grooved) were evaluated at temperature range from 0°C to 50°C. The optimum amount of crushed glass in concrete mixtures was determined using the compressive strength test and the mixtures produced by virgin lime aggregates were taken as control mixture. The results indicated that the skid resistance of concrete mixtures with brushed surface had the highest amount compared to other surface textures. Crushed glass aggregates had positive effect on compressive strength, flexural strength and skid resistance of concrete pavements. It was also found that the skid resistance of all mixtures decreased with an increase in temperature.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T18:35:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.04.006
       
  • Effects of Tire Inclination (Turning traffic) and Dynamic Loading on the
           Pavement Stress-Strain Responses Using 3-D Finite Element Modeling

    • Authors: Xiaodi Hu; Abu N.M. Faruk; Jun Zhang; Mena I. Souliman; Lubinda F. Walubita
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Xiaodi Hu, Abu N.M. Faruk, Jun Zhang, Mena I. Souliman, Lubinda F. Walubita
      In this study, ABAQUS finite element (FE) modeling in three-dimensional (3-D) loading mode was utilized to analytically investigate and quantify the effects of tire inclination and dynamic loading on the stress-strain responses of a pavement structure under varying loading and environmental conditions. The input variables for modeling consisted of actual laboratory and field data obtained from an in-service highway US 59 and included the in-situ pavement structure, material properties (i.e., modulus and shear strength), traffic, and climatic (i.e., temperature) data. Computational modeling and sensitivity analyses were conducted through variation of the following two input variables with a focus on the top surfacing hot-mix asphalt (HMA) layer: a) tire inclination angle to simulate turning traffic, and, b) dynamic loading to simulate accelerating, steady rolling, and decelerating (braking) traffic. The generated maximum shear stress and vertical strain responses were then analyzed and correlated to the HMA material strength and the actual measured/observed field rutting performance data. The corresponding results indicated that inclined tires (simulating turning traffic) and decelerating (braking) vehicles induced the most severe shear stresses and vertical strains on the pavement structure in terms of magnitude (i.e., increased); exceeding the HMA material strength in some cases. Thus, for pavement design and structural analysis purposes, the following critical highway areas that may be subjected to extreme stresses and strains due to turning and stopping (braking) traffic, particularly in high temperature environments, should be given more attention with respect to material strength characterization to mitigate potential shear/rutting failures: intersections, junctions; urban stop-go sections, and curves.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T18:35:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.04.005
       
  • Field and Laboratory Investigations on Pavement Backfilling Material for
           Micro-Trenching in Cold Regions

    • Authors: Leila Hashemian; Mohammad Rezaei; Alireza Bayat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Leila Hashemian, Mohammad Rezaei, Alireza Bayat
      Micro-trenching is an innovative utility installation method that involves creating a narrow trench to place cable or conduit in the road pavement. Compared to other installation methods, micro-trenching provides minimal disturbance to the community and surrounding environment. Despite the advantages of micro-trenching, it is not widely accepted by municipalities because of its potential to damage the existing pavement. Quality of backfilling is an important factor in long-term sustainability of the micro-trench, particularly in cold regions. This paper investigates the performance of two typical micro-trench backfilling methods in cold climates by studying a pilot project in a parking lot in Edmonton, Alberta, followed by a laboratory evaluation of the material used. For this purpose, the installations were monitored through ground-penetrating radar, optical time-domain reflectometer, and visual observations for three years. The monitoring results revealed that conduit had significant vertical movement inside the trench; several premature failures were also observed in the backfilling material. Laboratory investigation showed that the backfilling material did not meet the criteria for use in cold climates, and micro-trench performance could be enhanced by using alternative materials.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T21:18:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.03.010
       
  • A Molecular Dynamics Simulation on Tire-Aggregate Friction

    • Authors: Fengyan Sun; Yue Hou; Linbing Wang; Lu Huang; Zhenyu Qian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Fengyan Sun, Yue Hou, Linbing Wang, Lu Huang, Zhenyu Qian
      The friction between tire and road surface is fundamentally depending on the molecular forces. In this paper, the nanoscale 3D contact model is employed to investigate the tire-aggregate friction mechanism. The tire and aggregate micro-structure are both constructed to evaluate the microscopic performance of tire-aggregate friction influence. Simulation results show for a high velocity, the energy dissipation of sliding on crystal structure is small, which results in a small friction coefficient; temperature will have influences on the friction coefficient, and with the increasing of velocity, the effect will gradually reduce.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T07:54:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.03.009
       
  • Permanent deformation and deflection relationship from pavement condition
           assessment

    • Authors: Fabricio Leiva-Villacorta; Adriana Vargas-Nordcbeck; José P. Aguiar-Moya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Fabricio Leiva-Villacorta, Adriana Vargas-Nordcbeck, José P. Aguiar-Moya
      The development of permanent deformation in flexible pavements has been a research topic for several decades. Currently there are models included in the structural design of pavements that can predict this type of failure. However, the variables required for the prediction of this distress are complex or difficult to obtain in the field, making its application in pavement evaluation also difficult. Measurement of the deflection of pavement structures by means of non-destructive testing is a technique used to assess the condition of the pavement. This research study seeks to correlate data from deflections of the pavement surface with probable permanent deformation in time. In addition, prediction of the remaining life of the pavement structure using a specified criterion is also analyzed. In order to accomplish these objectives, data acquired from 4 different full scale accelerated pavement test tracks was used to develop a permanent deformation model as a function of deflection, load repetitions and pavement layer thickness. The developed model considered a time series model that incorporates an Auto-regressive parameter of order 1. The proposed model presents an advantage over currently available models because it reduces the required parameters to predict the permanent deformation and/or remaining life in the structure and because these variables can be easily found and updated in a pavement management system.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T07:54:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.03.005
       
  • Effects of interlayer bonding conditions between semi-rigid base layer and
           asphalt layer on mechanical responses of asphalt pavement structure

    • Authors: Shuhua Wu; Huaxin Chen; Jiupeng Zhang; Zhonghua Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Shuhua Wu, Huaxin Chen, Jiupeng Zhang, Zhonghua Zhang
      Shear spring compliance was adopted to simulate interlayer bonding conditions between semi-rigid base layer and asphalt layer. The parametric sensitivity of the thickness and modulus of base layer and surface layer, and the horizontal force on deflection, tensile stress, shear stress was analyzed by orthogonal method under different interlayer bonding conditions. The effects of different interlayer bonding conditions and asphalt layer thicknesses on shear stress, tensile stress were further studied. The results show that when interlayer contact conditions change from the full bonding to half bonding or full slipping condition, the variation amplitude of interlayer maximum shear stress is the largest and its value is 0.48MPa, and tensile stress is the second, and the variation of deflection is the smallest. When the pavement structure is affected by horizontal force, pavement mechanics index is sensitive to asphalt layer thickness, and 12cm is the unfavorable thickness for mechanical response of pavement structure. When the interlayer horizontal shear coefficient is between 107N/m3 to 1011N/m3, the interlayer between semi-rigid base layer and asphalt pavement layer is in half bonding condition, and the variation of each pavement mechanics index is very prominently.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.02.003
       
  • Stabilization of alluvial soil for subgrade using Rice Husk Ash, Sugarcane
           Bagasse Ash and Cow Dung Ash for rural roads

    • Authors: Anjani Kumar Yadav; Kumar Gaurav; Roop Kishor; S.K. Suman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Anjani Kumar Yadav, Kumar Gaurav, Roop Kishor, S.K. Suman
      This paper concerned with the stabilization of subgrade soil using different types of locally available materials such as Rice husk ash (RHA), Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) and Cow dung ash (CDA). The RHA, SCBA and CDA were mixed by partially replacing of soil by weight in 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 12.5%. The natural soil was found as intermediate plastic clay which reduces the dry density and increases the optimum moisture content after stabilization. The trend of CBR and UCS are increasing and then decreasing, it indicates a peak point which shows an optimum content of ash (7.5).This study shows that there is a significant improvement in CBR, UCS and also able to control the volumetric change.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T16:35:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.02.001
       
  • Production and Performance of Desulfurized Rubber Asphalt Binder

    • Authors: Yanping Sheng; Haibin Li; Jiuguang Geng; Yu Tian; Zuzhong Li; Rui Xiong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Yanping Sheng, Haibin Li, Jiuguang Geng, Yu Tian, Zuzhong Li, Rui Xiong
      Asphalt rubber binder typically exhibits disadvantages like segregation and high viscosity; however, this can be improved by the incorporation of desulfurized rubber powder. This study examined the swelling principle of desulfurized rubber asphalt (DRA). In addition, it evaluated the performance of DRA fabricated with various rubber powder contents under different shear conditions and development time. Superpave binders tests, including Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR) tests, were applied on three control binders (i.e., neat, 20 mesh asphalt rubber binder, 40 mesh asphalt rubber binder) and a DRA binder. Binder testing results indicated that rubber powder swelled into the base binder yielding enhanced stability. Optimum performance of the DRA binder was achieved by adding 20% (by weight) of rubber powder into the base binder at shear rate, shear temperature, shear time and development time of 7000 r/min, 170°C, 60 minutes and 45 minutes, respectively. Modified ranges of production conditions were also provided to widen the utilization of DRA in field construction applications. It appeared that DRA binder benefited from the recovered plasticity and viscosity of the rubber, and consequently, exhibited superior performance over the neat and conventional asphalt rubber binders. Preliminary mixture evaluation was also conducted and the DRA binder was found to significantly improve the mixture resistance to permanent deformation and water damage. Overall, the DAR binder is encouraged to be used as a modified binder for flexible pavements.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T16:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.02.002
       
  • Implementation of Nondestructive Testing and Mechanical Performance
           Approaches to Assess Low Temperature Fracture Properties of Asphalt
           Binders

    • Authors: Salman Hakimzadeh; Behzad Behnia; William G. Buttlar; Henrique Reis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Salman Hakimzadeh, Behzad Behnia, William G. Buttlar, Henrique Reis
      In the present work, three different asphalt binders were studied to assess their fracture behavior at low temperatures. Fracture properties of asphalt materials were obtained through conducting the Compact Tension [C(T)] and Indirect Tensile [ID(T)] strength tests. Mechanical fracture tests were followed by performing Acoustic Emissions test to determine the “embrittlement temperature” of binders which was used in evaluation of thermally induced microdamages in binders. Results showed that both nondestructive and mechanical testing approaches could successfully capture low-temperature cracking behavior of asphalt materials. It was also observed that using GTR as the binder modifier significantly improved thermal cracking resistance of PG64-22 binder. The overall trends of AE test results were consistent with those of mechanical tests.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T18:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.01.005
       
  • Study on recycling of waste asphalt blocks containing roadbed materials
           using new screenless separation equipment with a vibration device

    • Authors: Milkos Borges Cabrera; Tomoaki Satomi; Hiroshi Takahashi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Milkos Borges Cabrera, Tomoaki Satomi, Hiroshi Takahashi
      Waste asphalt blocks from construction sites are usually processed in the recycling plants to be used as recycled asphalt aggregates. These blocks are usually fed into the grizzly to break them into small pieces and to remove the soil attached on their surfaces. At present, the soil content of grizzly-under-materials does not satisfy the required standard value (Japan Road Association, 1992). Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the amount of soils in the grizzly-under-materials, to be used as expensive recycled aggregates. In 2009, we developed an equipment to remove the soils from grizzly-under-materials. This equipment was able to reduce the amount of soils in the grizzly-under-materials, but the efficiency was not so high. In this study, this equipment was modified by adding a vibration device in order to reduce the pipe inclination angle and to keep the long processing time. It was found through the experiments that the vibration device worked well and efficiency to remove the amount of soils increased compared to the previous equipment. It was also found that, the highest equipment capacity to reduce the initial soil content in the grizzly-under-materials was equal to 1.66% and it was achieved with pipe inclination angle, amplitude, frequency and water content equal to 15°, 1 cm, 260 RPM and 5% respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-02-10T15:59:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.01.006
       
  • Quality Evaluation Tests for Pervious Concrete Pavements’ Placement

    • Authors: Milena Rangelov; Somayeh Nassiri; Zhao Chen; Mark Russell; Jeffery Uhlmeyer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
      Author(s): Milena Rangelov, Somayeh Nassiri, Zhao Chen, Mark Russell, Jeffery Uhlmeyer
      Pervious concrete pavements are gaining popularity for stormwater management. Therefore, there is an impending need for the development of quality control and acceptance specifications. In this study, the necessary initial steps are taken towards this goal. The procedures to conduct fresh and hardened density/porosity (φ) and 28-day compressive strength (f’c ) were evaluated. The proper methodology for casting specimens in the field was identified by examining the agreement between the fresh (D) and hardened density (ρ). The effect of cylindrical size, and curing methods as combinations of air and moist curing during the four-week period on f’c was studied. Both cylinder sizes demonstrated comparable values of hardened porosity (φ = 16 percent) and hardened density (D = 2.11 kg/m3), as well as strong linear ϕ-D correlations (R2 range 0.60-0.90). The values of D agree well with those of the fresh density (two percent or less difference), which confirmed the suitability of the implemented casting and compaction procedure. Small cylinders presented higher 28-day f’c than large cylinders by 7.7 to 19 percent, depending on the curing category. The two-week air followed by two-week moist curing (2A2M) method yielded the highest 28-day f’c for both specimen sizes, however, longer periods of moist curing did not result in higher strengths. Cylinders from 1A3M, which were exposed to the longest moist curing, demonstrate the lowest f’c. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the trends seen in 28-day f’c and proved (that) longer moist curing resulted in the loss of C-S-H and Ca(OH)2.

      PubDate: 2017-02-10T15:59:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.01.007
       
 
 
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