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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2410 journals)
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    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (112 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1268 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (392 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (201 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 201 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 286)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 78)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
Territorium : Revista Portuguesa de riscos, prevenção e segurança     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.311
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1996-6814 - ISSN (Online) 1997-1400
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • Numerical Analysis of Drying Process of Soils Using Finite Volume Method

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Xiaojun Li, Kun Zhang The accurate prediction of the moisture content in soil is important for pavement engineering. The MEPDG uses the Enhanced Integrated Climate Model (EICM) to consider the effects of environment on the moisture contents of unbound and subgrade soil using models related to unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. These models are mostly empirical and not applicable to relatively dry conditions. This is because at relatively dry condition, the moisture in the pore structure of the soil is not inter-connected. Therefore, the moisture diffusion in porous material controls the moisture migration. When the diffusion coefficient is a nonlinear function of pore relative humidity (RH), there is no closed-form solution of the constitutive differential equation of the moisture diffusion. This study used finite-volume method (FVM) and finite-element method (FEM) for the numerical simulation of the moisture diffusion in soils. The FVM, which is similar as the FEM, uses small and finite-sized elements for simulation, but is based on the law of conservation. Therefore, FVM will be more suitable for flux conservation problems such as moisture diffusion. The FVM results were verified with laboratory experiments and compared with FEM results. The results indicate the applicability of using FVM in the simulation of the moisture migration in soils.
       
  • Asphalt Binder Performance Grading of North Korea for Superpave Asphalt
           Mix-Design

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Jong-Sub Lee, Jin-Hwan Kim, Oh-Sun Kwon, Byung-Duk Lee This study is to determine asphalt binder performance grades (PGs) of North Korea (N.K.) so that the asphalt pavement can be designed to resist distresses of rutting and cracking occurred due to seasonal temperature changes. The first step of determining the PG is to establish high and low temperatures for a location because the asphalt binder is a temperature sensitive viscoelastic material. The temperature zoning for developing the PG map were performed by obtaining last 26 year temperature data of 27 cities in N.K. from world meteorological organization. A trend and statistical reliability of the temperature data were analyzed to secure asphalt binder performance. Three air-pavement temperature prediction models of Superpave, South Korea, and Japan were utilized to predict the pavement temperatures. Finally, the reliability levels of 98% and 50% were used to determine the local PGs. Since the Superpave equation includes the dependent variable of latitude that can more reflect geographic locations of North areas rather than the other models, this study finally adopted the SHRP Superpave model to determine the binder PGs. Based on the Superpave models with the reliability analyses, PG maps were drawn. It was found out that the most common grades used for low volume roads are PG 58-22 and 58-28, covering 79% and 93% of the N.K. area.
       
  • Sealing of paving stone joints

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Mauro Coni, Silvia Portas, Francesca Maltinti, Francesco Pinna This paper reports an experimental analysis of the joint-sealing material of stone pavement subjected to a heavy load in an urban context. Joint sealing is needed to avoid water intrusion and to prevent pumping phenomena. According to a literature review, the sealing process improves the structural behavior, interlocking, and roughness. Paving stone irregularity affects safety in particular for bikes and motorbikes. The traditional use of cement slurries has short-term benefits due to their rigid and brittle behavior, while the use of asphalt sealants is often incompatible with the desired aesthetic quality. A novel sealing technique was tested during the resurfacing of a historic stone pavement in the waterfront of the city of Cagliari (Italy). Laboratory four-point bending tests and finite element (FE) simulations were conducted on prismatic specimens obtained by connecting sealing material and granite samples. FastFWD on the newly sealed stone pavement validate the laboratory results and numerical simulations. The results demonstrate the benefits of the novel sealing technique: high bonding capacity, better distribution of stress, greater interlocking and minor relative displacements between stone elements. The load transfer efficiency (LTE) between blocks is increased from a mean of 84% for sand-cemented joints to 95.5% for the new resin joints, while the stress is 28% less.
       
  • Nondestructive analysis techniques for freeze-thaw damage detection in
           concrete slabs using shear waves

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Katelyn Freeseman, Lev Khazanovich, Kyle Hoegh Freeze-thaw damage in concrete structures is a serious issue for infrastructure in cold regions. Accurate detection of this type of damage at early stages allows for the selection of optimum strategies for preservation and rehabilitation activities. This paper explores the feasibility of utilizing ultrasonic shear wave technology, called MIRA, for quantification of damage in concrete slabs for the detection of freeze-thaw damage. Four slabs with varying levels of freeze-thaw damage were tested and two analysis techniques were developed to characterize the damage present. These methods involve the formulation of reconstruction images to analyze the subsurface condition, as well as the creation of a numerical index based upon recorded shear wave signal characteristics. The results of both analyses showed agreement both with each other and with the visual survey assessments for detection of freeze-thaw damage. However, the methods were also able to detect damage in portions of the slab where no visual cracks were observed. These techniques showed promise for an accurate nondestructive quantification of the extent of freeze-thaw damage, or similar damage manifestations, in concrete structures. Advantages of the methods include their applicability on in-situ concrete infrastructure for determining real-time concrete condition, without requiring previous measurements for comparative purposes.
       
  • Using ESEM to analyze the microscopic property of basalt fiber reinforced
           asphalt concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): Chunmei Gao, Weijie Wu The basalt fiber staggered distribution in the asphalt concrete matrix and the bonding situation between asphalt are analyzed by images collected using field emission environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) test equipment. The results show that bonding of the fiber and the asphalt binder is very good and there is a strong binding force of chemical bonding connections between the two; the lipophilicity of basalt fiber is very good, the wrapped cover ability of asphalt for fiber is very strong; basalt fiber forms the local space network structure in the asphalt concrete matrix, effectively overcome the relative slip between the particles, connect the damaged parts into a whole; basalt fiber across internal micropores, and the internal defects in material can be remedied. At the same time, crack resistance mechanism of the fiber to internal micro cracks is qualitatively explained according to the magnitude of the stress intensity factor Kf.
       
  • Seasonal variations and in situ assessment of concrete pavement foundation
           mechanistic properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): Yang Zhang, Pavana K.R. Vennapusa, David J. White, Alex E. Johnson In cold climates, pavement surface and foundation layers are subjected to seasonal temperature variation and freeze–thaw cycles. The number and duration of freeze–thaw cycles in the foundation layers can significantly influence the pavement performance. Seasonal variation in foundation layers is accounted for in pavement design by empirically adjusting the foundation layer moduli values. This paper presents results from in situ falling weight deflectometer (FWD) and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) tests conducted over a two-year period at five sites in Iowa; at one of these sites, temperatures of the foundation layers were continuously monitored during the testing period. FWD testing was conducted to determine the modulus of subgrade reaction (k) values. DCP testing was conducted to estimate California bearing ratio (CBR) values of the subbase and subgrade. Temperature data was analyzed to determine freezing and thawing periods and frost penetrations. Seasonal variations observed in the foundation mechanistic properties were compared with the assumed design values. Empirical relationships between the different mechanistic properties are explored.
       
  • Study on direct coal liquefaction residue influence on mechanical
           properties of flexible pavement

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): Jie Ji, Di Wang, Zhi Suo, Ying Xu, Shi-fa Xu To study the influence of DCLR (direct coal liquefaction residue) on mechanical properties of flexible pavement, the DCLR/compound DCLR modified asphalt mixture was prepared. The 15 °C and 20 °C compression resilience moduli of DCLR/compound DCLR modified asphalt mixtures were measured using the uniaxial compression test. The influences of DCLR/compound DCLR modified asphalt mixture on deflection, upper layer thickness, and bending flexural tensile stress of layer bottom were analyzed using Bisar3.0 and HPDS software. The test results show the DCLR/compound DCLR modified asphalt has higher compression resilience modulus. Due to higher resilience moduli of DCLR/compound DCLR modified asphalt mixture, they can be used as bottom layer in pavement. Under the identical loadings, the upper layer thickness can be reduced by adding DCLR and compound DCLR. If the upper layer thickness is same, the bending flexural tensile stress of layer bottom and deflection will decrease significantly.
       
  • Application of analytic hierarchy process in network level pavement
           maintenance decision-making

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): Hongmei Li, Fujian Ni, Qiao Dong, Yuqin Zhu This paper proposes an Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP) theory based method to determine the weight of the decision-making influence factors, considering their relative significance and generating an overall ranking for each road section. A case study on the highway network maintenance priority was conducted to illustrate the proposed procedure. A total of five pavement maintenance decision-making related factors were considered in the study, including pavement performance, pavement structure strength, traffic loads, pavement age and road grade. The weightings of the five factors were quantified through AHP method. Then, the comprehensive ranking index value Ui was determined, which indicated the maintenance priority of a road section in network level decision-making. From the aspect of maintenance cost, the sensitivity analysis results were in accordance with the weightings of different maintenance decision-making factors. The pavement maintenance cost was significantly sensitive to the change of pavement performance. The case study clearly demonstrated the applicability and rationality of the AHP theory based decision-making method and it can be used as a guideline for pavement maintenance agencies.
       
  • Characterization of mortar fracture based on three point bending test and
           XFEM

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): Yucheng Huang, Yanhua Guan, Linbing Wang, Jian Zhou, Zhi Ge, Yue Hou Mortar is one of the most widely used civil infrastructure materials, where the mortar fracture properties will significantly affect the structure service performance and life. In this paper, the fracture toughness of mortar specimen with respect to different thickness is investigated by conducting the three point bending test. The Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is also employed to model the crack propagation and failure process in the mortar specimen. It is found that the thickness of mortar specimen will affect the mortar cracking performance and the new emerged numerical tool XFEM is able to characterize the fracture properties of mortar specimen.
       
  • Accelerated pavement testing efforts using the Heavy Vehicle Simulator

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): L. du Plessis, A. Ulloa-Calderon, J.T. Harvey, N.F Coetzee This paper provides a brief description of the technological developments involved in the development and use of the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) accelerated pavement testing equipment. This covers the period from concept in the late 1960’s, to the current state-of-the art HVS Mk-VI and highlights the development and improvements being built into the Mk VI. It also provides a brief overview of the research performed by the various accelerated testing programs currently using the HVS as their accelerated testing tool, which include the Gauteng Provincial Department of Transportation and the CSIR (South Africa), the UC Pavement Research Center (California), the U.S Army Corps of Engineers Engineering Research and Development Center (CRREL and WES), the Florida DOT HVS test program, the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the HVS programs of the University of Costa Rica and the Mexico Institute of Transportation amongst others. Brief descriptions of HVS research and summaries of key results from these programs are provided. Planned research is covered where available.
       
  • Study on water permeability, shear and pull-off performance of waterproof
           bonding layer for highway bridge

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): Meng Guo, Yiqiu Tan, Linbing Wang, Zhoujing Ye, Yue Hou, Jiangfeng Wu, Hailu Yang The performance of waterproof bonding layer directly effects the durability of the highway bridge. Water permeability, shear strength and tension strength are three main indicators evaluating the waterproof bonding layer. In this research, three waterproof bonding materials including SBS modified asphalt, SBR modified asphalt emulsion and second order reaction waterproof material were selected. The water permeability, shear strength and pull-off strength were tested. The effect of different temperature and different contents were analyzed. Results show that: the water permeability resistance of waterproof bonding layer ranked as follows: SBS modified asphalt > Second order reaction waterproof material > SBR modified asphalt emulsion. Compared to SBR modified asphalt emulsion and second order reaction waterproof material, SBS modified asphalt has a better shear resistance. Three waterproof materials used in this research all have temperature sensitivity. Their shear strength and tension strength decrease dramatically with temperature increasing.
       
  • Asphalt foaming quality control model using neural network and parameters
           optimization

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): An-Lin Wang, Zhen-Sheng Fu, Fu-Min Liu Industrial asphalt foaming is a process of mixing, transferring heat and phase transition of multi-phase multi-component flow in the expansion chamber, including a series of complex problems such as difficult analysis and observation. In the context of this research, asphalt foaming quality control model using neural network was constructed to map the pertinent parameters (asphalt temperature, water content and air pressure) into the foaming properties (maximum expansion ratio and half-life time). In addition, Particle swarm optimization was adopted to avoid the local infinitesimal defect and slow constringency in the traditional BP algorithm. The prediction error of Shell 60/70 quality control model indicates that the asphalt foaming quality control model using PSO-BP neural network is effective, and this provides a novel idea for studying of the foam asphalt, which has practical significance for the design of asphalt foam equipment. Finally, a parameter optimization model with the maximization of the foaming index was proposed based on the quality control model to improve the foaming performance of the asphalt foaming equipment. With the analysis of a parameter optimization model of Shell 60/70 asphalt, the better foaming properties are the maximum expansion ratio of 12.28 times and half-life time of 11.02 s at the foaming condition of asphalt temperature of about 168 °C, the water content of about 1.5 wt% and the air pressure of about 1 bar. The method proposed in this paper is of important reference significance for the engineering with difficult analysis and observation.
       
  • Fatigue endurance limit of epoxy asphalt concrete pavement on the deck of
           long-span steel bridge

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): Zhongwen Wang, Shunxian Zhang Fatigue crack damage in the epoxy asphalt concrete pavement of long-span steel bridge deck is still one of the most severe problems even though the fatigue endurance performance has been studied for a long time. In this study, it aimed at exploring the mechanism why the fatigue damage of the epoxy asphalt concrete occurred, as well as finding out the reason why fatigue test results in laboratory were different from those in practical engineering application. A finite element mechanics method was first applied to analyze the maximum strain value of the epoxy asphalt concrete pavement at different load positions, then fatigue performance of the epoxy asphalt concrete was investigated using a four-point bending fatigue testing method, and finally a three-parameter fatigue equation model, which was demonstrated to be feasible and rational, was utilized to determine fatigue endurance limit for the first time. The fatigue damage of the epoxy asphalt concrete occurred in a short time once the strain level with driving load was larger than fatigue endurance limit. In contrast, the fatigue damage did not appear in a long time if the strain level was less than the fatigue endurance limit. It is suggested that the fatigue endurance limit be adopted as a control parameter in the design phase of epoxy asphalt concrete pavement. These findings advance previous design specifications in the world, and could help extending service life of epoxy asphalt concrete pavement of long-span steel bridge deck.
       
  • Application of piezoelectric transducer in energy harvesting in pavement

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): Xiaochen Xu, Dongwei Cao, Hailu Yang, Ming He Mechanical energy appears everywhere in the nature, road vibration energy created by the vehicle will not only do damage to pavement structure, but also is difficult to collect. Utilizing electromechanical conversion characteristics of piezoelectric material, gather the vibration energy when vehicle passing on the pavement, and design the piezoelectric transducer package box, for traffic lights along the roads, signs, and so on. Save the cost of laying long distance transmission line, also take full advantage of the loss of energy. Experiments of piezoelectric boxes has been conducted in pavement to prove the effectiveness of this product. This study shows that utilize piezoelectric technology in road energy harvesting is feasible and has a bright future.
       
  • Synergistic performance of piezoelectric transducers and asphalt pavement

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): Hongduo Zhao, Luyao Qin, Jianming Ling The deformation of piezoelectric transducer and asphalt pavement differs because of their different stiffness. As the piezoelectric transducer is embedded in asphalt pavement, the differential deformation may cause a non-uniform stress and degrade their performance. In this paper, the synergistic performance of piezoelectric transducer and asphalt pavement is studied through finite element analysis. Results show that the energy conversion efficiency of the transducers decreases with increasing burial depth and modulus of surface course. Under the vehicle loading, the piezoelectric transducer and asphalt pavement are easily separated by shear stress. For the asphalt pavement, the change in the stress of pavement structure and surface deflection is very small, which means that the differential deformation has no effect on fatigue cracking. Furthermore, an energy harvesting system composed of transducers array and asphalt plate is made and evaluated in a laboratory. Results show that the transducers within asphalt pavement have acceptable efficiency and high durability.
       
  • Using atomic force microscopy and molecular dynamics simulation to
           investigate the asphalt micro properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4Author(s): Meng Guo, Yucheng Huang, Linbing Wang, Jianxin Yu, Yue Hou In this study, the asphalt microstructure and micro mechanical properties are first investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments. The AFM experiment results show that the asphalt samples have very complex microstructure morphology. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is then conducted to model the asphalt molecular structure. A tension loading is applied on the asphalt structure. It is discovered that the structure will be gradually stretched and the potential energy for van der Waals interactions takes a major part in the total energy. The effect of molecules number on the MD results was analyzed. The phase field method was also used to simulate the micro mechanical properties considering the material viscoelasticity.
       
  • Synergistic influence of Aging and Moisture on Performance of Warm Mix
           Asphalt

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Nishant Bhargava, Bhaskar Pratim Das, S. Anjan Kumar In this study, the influence of aging and moisture on the two different mechanical behavior of warm mix asphalt was studied. The cracking and permanent deformation resistance were assessed in terms of tensile strength and flow number computed using a three stage model respectively. The influence of temperature on the tensile strength and both stress and temperature levels on the permanent deformation response of aged and moisture conditioned warm mix asphalt were investigated. Results show that moisture and increase in temperature had a negative impact on the tensile strength of warm mix asphalt while aging had a positive impact. However, the variation in tensile strength of mixtures was strongly related to variation in percent air voids. Aging and interestingly moisture conditioning found to increase the resistance to permanent deformation of warm mix asphalt. Permanent deformation behavior of moisture conditioned samples was further studied to assess the impact of saturation. Results showed that the presence of moisture in samples increase the permanent deformation resistance. From the statistical analysis it was found that both the individual and interaction of aging and moisture had a significant effect on the tensile strength and flow numbers.
       
  • Stabilization of Colombian lateritic soil with a hydrophobic compound
           (organosilane)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Laura Daniela Jerez, Orlando Elías Gómez, Carol Andrea Murillo In Vichada state, Colombia, the lack of suitable construction road materials has forced the local authorities to use local materials, such as laterite, that has not been yet completely studied, and doesn’t comply with the current regulations for road construction. In this research, the improvement of the mechanical behaviour of a lateritic material from Vichada state was determined, after the addition of a hydrophobic compound (organosilane). Basic mechanical and chemical characterizations of the natural material were carried out. The grain seize distribution was manufactured for each test, to guarantee homogeneity for all samples. Properties such as maximum dry density, unsoaked and soaked CBR, permeability coefficient (k) and soil water characteristics curves were investigated for the natural soil (RP1) and compared with the stabilized soil with the addition of 1 l/m3 organosilane (RP1OS). Tests of unsoaked and soaked CBR were compared within the natural soil (RP1) and the stabilized soil (RP1OS), the stabilized soil (RP1OS) achieved 533% higher soaked CBR values. Likewise, there was a decrease in the k permeability coefficient of 41% with respect to the natural material.
       
  • Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) characterization of polymer modified
           asphalt binder containing wax additives

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Ahmed Wajahat Ali, Hyun Hwan Kim, Mithil Mazumder, Moon-Sup Lee, Soon-Jae Lee The effect of wax additives on the characteristics of polymer modified asphalt (PMA) binders (SIS, SBS and CRM) was investigated in this study. The binders were blended using the two wax additives (LEADCAP and Sasobit) and then artificially aged using rolling thin film oven (RTFO) and pressure aging vessel (PAV) procedures. Superpave binder tests were conducted to determine viscosity, G∗/sin δ, G∗sin δ and stiffness values. Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test was carried out to evaluate the rutting resistance properties, in original and RTFO aged states. In general the results showed that (1) after the addition of wax additives, the viscosity of PG 64-22 and PMA binders was decreased; (2) higher cracking resistance (i.e., lower stiffness and G∗sin δ values) was observed at the binders with LEADCAP; (3) by adding the wax additives, the percentage increase of rutting resistance (G∗/sin δ) was found to be higher for PG 64-22 binder, compared to the PMA binders; (4) it was found that the effect of wax additives cannot be identified using MSCR test results; (5) the MSCR test was observed to be potentially inappropriate to measure the rutting performance of CRM binder.
       
  • Laboratory investigations on the utilization of RCA in asphalt mixtures

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Farzaneh Tahmoorian, Bijan Samali Considerable usage of natural aggregates for road construction, and at the same time, the increasing amount of solid wastes, have attracted the attention of many researchers in the pavement industry to investigate the feasibility of the application of some of the waste materials in pavement construction.Construction and demolition wastes, including Recycled Construction Aggregate (RCA) constitute a major part of the municipal solid wastes. Using RCA in asphalt mixtures generally results in significant economic and environmental benefits. However, in spite of such promising potentials, insufficient and inconclusive data and information on the engineering properties of RCA had limited the reliability and design specifications of RCA to date. In light of this, this paper aims to investigate the feasibility of the application of RCA in asphalt mixtures.As the suitability of aggregates for using in asphalt mixtures is determined based on the aggregate characteristics, an experimental program is set up to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of RCA. This laboratory investigation included the measurement of RCA compressive strength, particle shape, water absorption, flakiness index, crushing value, weak particles, wet/dry strength variation, and particle density. Based on this research, it was observed that RCA has a lower value of flaky and misshapen particles in comparison with basalt, implying that asphalt mixtures containing the certain amount of RCA can have better workability, deformation resistance and compaction. However, the test results show higher water absorption and wet/dry strength variation for RCA compared to natural materials, emphasizing on the necessity of an appropriate mix design.
       
  • Fatigue properties of nano-reinforced bituminous mixtures: a viscoelastic
           continuum damage approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Fabrizio Miglietta, B. Shane Underwood, Lucia Tsantilis, Orazio Baglieri, Kamil E. Kaloush, Ezio Santagata The experimental investigation described in this paper focused on the effects of nanoclays on the fatigue behaviour of bituminous mixtures. Damage characteristics of a bituminous mixture produced by making use of a nano-reinforced binder were compared to those of a reference mixture obtained by employing the same neat bitumen used as a base in the preparation of the nanoclay–bitumen blend. Dynamic modulus tests and direct tension cyclic fatigue tests were carried out to determine the linear viscoelastic properties and the damage evolution characteristics of materials. Corresponding results were modelled by means of a viscoelastic continuum damage approach and by making use of a more empirical evaluation based on the classical Wöhler representation. It was found that the use of nanoclays produced a reinforcement of bituminous mixtures, the benefits of which were observed both in the progression of damage and in the occurrence of ultimate failure conditions.
       
  • In-situ and laboratory investigation of modified drilling waste materials
           applied on base-course construction

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): Chang-Seon Shon, Cindy K. Estakhri This study focuses on in-situ and laboratory evaluation of modified drilling waste materials (MDWMs) applied on base course construction. Cement treated drilling waste materials have been used on a limited basis for full-depth base repair on Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) low volume roads. A road inspection was made of full-scale county roads that were constructed with the MDWMs. Field test results measured by the falling weight deflectomer (FWD) showed reasonable in-situ strengths. The MDWM section had stiffness values similar to those typically observed for newly constructed flexible bases. The old, in-service flexible base adjacent to the MDWM section exhibited values half those of the MDWMs. Cores removed from the field also had significantly higher strength values than the lab-molded samples. Moreover, the other non-TxDOT low volume county roads using MDWMs exhibited good field performance. From this observation, it is concluded that this material clearly has some unique engineering properties which has the ability to gain strength with time though weak initially and there is the potential applicability used in the low volume roadway.
       
  • Effects of crumb rubber content and curing time on the properties of
           asphalt concrete and stone mastic asphalt using dry process

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): H.T. Tai Nguyen, T. Nhan Tran Along with the rapid increase in the number of road vehicles, a large amount of waste tires have been created, causing negative effects to the environment. Many attempts have been made to effectively reduce this type of solid waste including the reuse of recycled rubber powder from waste tires as an additive for improving the performance of asphalt mixtures. In this work, the authors aim to study the effects of crumb rubber (CR) on the mechanical properties, especially the rutting resistance, of CR modified asphalt concrete (AC) and stone mastic asphalt (SMA) by varying two factors-namely, the content of additive and the curing time. The dimension of used CR ranges from 0 to 2.36 mm, which is not too coarse for promoting the CR–bitumen interaction and not too fine for facilitating the production of CR. The content of CR was increased gradually from 0 to 3% to examine the effects of CR content on the engineering properties and determine the optimal content in the mixture. It was observed that the optimal content is 1.5–2%, while the optimal curing time that contributes to the maximal increase in the mechanical characteristics of both mixtures could not be determined. In the range of 0–5 h of curing time, the longer the asphalt mixture is maintained at a high temperature, the better the performance of mixture will be. Ageing was found to have influence on the performance of asphalt mixtures; however, its effects are not as important as those of CR modification.
       
  • Investigation of load transfer efficiency in jointed plain concrete
           pavements (JPCP) using FEM

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): Vahid Sadeghi, Saeid Hesami Owing to heavy traffic loads, rigid pavements encounter various types of failures at transverse joints during their lifetime. Three-dimensional finite-element method (3D-FEM) was used to assess the structural response of jointed concrete pavement under moving tandem axle loads. In this study, 3D FEM was verified using an existing numerical model and field measurement of the concrete slab traversed by a moving truck. This paper also investigated the effects of multiple parameters: material properties, slab geometry, load magnitude and frictional status of the slab and base layer on load transfer efficiency (LTE) of the transverse joints. Further study has been done to investigate the slab performance without the dowel bars which occurs when parts of the pavement needed to be repaired using precast slabs. The aggregate interlock between the new slab and the existing slab is simulated by frictional interface. In 3D FEM model, the load transfer efficiency has been improved by increasing the elasticity modules of the concrete slab and the base layer or increasing the slab thickness. This can decrease the joints' deflections, reduces the damages on pavement joints. Removing dowel bars adversely affected the load transfer.
       
  • Evolution of tyre/road noise research in India: Investigations using
           statistical pass-by method and noise trailer

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): Vivek Khan, Krishna Prapoorna Biligiri The objective of this research study was to investigate and analyze the acoustical characteristics of asphalt concrete and cement concrete surface types by two noise measurement techniques: statistical pass-by (SPB) and Close Proximity (CPX) methods. A noise trailer was devised and manufactured as part of the CPX methodology to evaluate tyre/pavement noise interaction at source. Two national highway test sections covering over 11 km of asphalt and cement concrete surfaces were selected to carry out the noise measurements, and the effects of vehicle speeds and/or sizes on the overall noise profiles were investigated. The major contribution of this first of its kind study in India was the utilization of sophisticated tools and techniques to measure the tyre/pavement interaction noise at source through CPX, which helped correlate the influence of road surfaces on the generation of overall road traffic noise using SPB technique. The SPB method noise profiles revealed that the noise pressure levels increased with increasing vehicle speeds and weights. The noise trailer CPX findings corroborated the results obtained from the SPB method in that cement concrete surface produced a higher noise at source than that of the asphalt concrete surface by about 5 dBA. Further, there was about 5 dBA differential in noise between SPB and CPX methods for cement concrete pavement sections; also, there was about 10 dBA differential in noise between the two methods for asphalt concrete pavement stretches.
       
  • Fracture resistance of asphalt concrete modified with crumb rubber at low
           temperatures

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): A. Razmi, M.M. Mirsayar The main objective of this study is to obtain fracture toughness of asphalt concrete modified by Crumb Rubber (CR) and Sasobit at low temperatures. First, Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) test was performed on unmodified binder (binder 60/70), binder 60/70 + 3%Sasobit and 20%CR + 3%Sasobit modified asphalt binder to find how each modifier affect asphalt binder stiffness and relaxation rate at low temperatures. Mixed mode I/II fracture tests were conducted by cracked Semi-Circular Bending (SCB) specimens and the critical stress intensity factors were calculated for pure mode I, mixed mode I/II and pure mode II conditions. Results of BBR tests indicated that 20%CR + 3%Sasobit reduces stiffness and the m-value increase at low temperatures. As a result, 20%CR + 3%Sasobit has positive effect on low temperatures performance by improving thermal cracking resistance. Also, according to the fracture toughness test results, the Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) mixture containing 20% CR, shows higher resistance against crack growth than WMA mixture. It was found that mixed mode I/II can be more detrimental than pure mode I and II conditions.
       
  • Multi-parametric characterization of mode I fracture toughness of asphalt
           concrete: Influence of void and RA contents, binder and aggregate types

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): Saannibe Ciryle Somé, Montassar Abdhelack Fredj, Mai-Lan Nguyen, Arnaud Feeser, Alexandre Pavoine This study aims to evaluate the fracture toughness (KIc) in mode I cracking using semi-circular bending test (SCB). Experiment has been performed to investigate the influence of bitumen grade (using P15/25 and P50/70 bitumens), reclaimed asphalt (RA) content (using 0%, 20% and 40% RA contents) and temperature (using −20 °C, −5 °C, 10 °C test temperatures), through ANOVA. Additional investigations have been performed: (i) to evaluate the effect of the use of polymer modified bitumen (PMB), (ii) to evaluate the effect compactness using 5% and 8% air void contents, (iii) to evaluate the effect of aggregate type using siliceous-limestone and porphyry aggregates. The results show an important decrease in KIc when temperature increases from −5 °C to 10 °C and a slight decrease between −20 °C and −5 °C. The results also show that increasing RA content increases slightly the KIc. It was found from the ANOVA that the influent parameters can be ranked as follows: temperature, RA content and binder grade. The investigations show that PMB increases the KIc value than pure bitumens. Porphyry aggregates increase the KIc by about 16% than silica-limestone aggregates at low temperatures between −20 °C and −5 °C. However, this ranking is slightly inverted at 10 °C. In addition, KIc decreases by about 12% at 10 °C with an increase in air voids (by 5% to 8%). Void content effect is more significant at −5 °C and 10 °C, and negligible at −20 °C.
       
  • Warm mix asphalt: Chemical additives’ effects on bitumen properties and
           limestone aggregates mixture compactibility

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): Raul Pereira, Ana Almeida-Costa, Cátia Duarte, Agostinho Benta Asphalt industries consume large amounts of fuels and emit pollutant gases into the atmosphere. Warm mix asphalt is the most recognized way to minimize these negative impacts, which have given rise to numerous issues related to their performance and the materials used. In this study, the basic and rheological properties of three different bituminous binders, modified with two different chemical additives, were evaluated, determining their behaviour and susceptibility to modification. The results showed that, although chemical additives do not affect the binder by reducing its viscosity, they act on the mixture, allowing to improve its compactability and, consequently, reduce the required production and compaction temperatures.
       
  • Predicting the impact of temperature and stress on the glasphalt
           mixtures’ rutting behavior

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): Mostafa Sadeghnejad, Mahyar Arabani, Mohammad Taghipoor In recent years the use of additives in asphalt mixtures has increased to strengthen them against dynamic loads considerably. New researches have shown that the optimal use of waste glass in hot mix asphalt mixtures increases its dynamic characteristics dramatically. The purpose of this study is to predict the impact of temperature and stress on the glasphalt mixture rutting behavior. In order to achieve the objectives of this study, ABAQUS software has been used. To achieve this goal, the results of repeated load axial test were used to model the rutting behavior of asphalt mixtures in wheel track test. The results of this study show that the presented models in this study are well able to predict the rutting of glasphalt mixtures at different temperatures and stresses. Also the results of models show that the waste glass powder is able to improve the performance of asphalt mixtures against permanent deformation significantly.
       
  • Review of ice and snow runway pavements

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): Greg White, Adrian McCallum Antarctica is the highest, driest, coldest, windiest, most remote and most pristine place on Earth. Polar operations depend heavily on air transportation and support for personnel and equipment. It follows that improvement in snow and ice runway design, construction and maintenance will directly benefit polar exploration and research. Current technologies and design methods for snow and ice runways remain largely reliant on work performed in the 1950s and 1960s. This paper reviews the design and construction of polar runways using snow and ice as geomaterials. The inability to change existing snow and ice thickness or temperature creates a challenge for polar runway design and construction, as does the highly complex mechanical behaviour of snow, including the phenomena known as sintering. It is recommended that a modern approach be developed for ice and snow runway design, based on conventional rigid and flexible pavement design principles. This requires the development on an analytical model for the prediction of snow strength, based on snow age, temperature history and density. It is also recommended that the feasibility of constructing a snow runway at the South Pole be revisited, in light of contemporary snow sintering methods. Such a runway would represent a revolutionary advance for the logistical support of Antarctic research efforts.
       
  • Investigating influence of mineral filler at asphalt mixture and mastic
           scales

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, Volume 11, Issue 3Author(s): Aboelkasim Diab, Mahmoud Enieb This study is devoted to understand the mechanisms of mineral fillers in asphalt at the mixture and mastic scales. To do so, the physical properties of asphalt mixtures and mastics were evaluated; in addition, a chemical investigation was presented into the mastic scale for the sake of providing insight into the possible mechanisms between asphalt binder and mineral filler. Three mineral fillers namely hydrated lime (HL), limestone (LS), and cement bypass dust (CD) were incorporated into an asphalt binder at different filler-to-binder (F/B) ratios. For the mechanistic evaluation of the mixtures, the indirect tensile strength (ITS), moisture damage evaluation, resilient modulus, and static creep-recovery tests were carried out. The fracture energies also were quantified for all the studied mixtures. The results of penetration and softening point tests, as well as their pertinent penetration index (PI), were discussed to elucidate some physical properties of the mastics. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was performed on the mastics to obtain information on molecular structures of the formed composites. The findings of this study emphasize that the physical properties of mixtures and mastics are highly dependent on type and concentration of mineral filler. The 1H NMR and 13C NMR results proved that the inclusion of the studied fillers did not change the molecular structure of the base asphalt binder; hereby the physical mechanisms stand behind the attained properties. It is believed that the findings of this work would contribute to growing knowledge of the mechanisms of mineral fillers in asphalt mixtures.
       
  • Capillary rise, suction (absorption) and the strength development of HBM
           treated with QD base geopolymer

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Duc Bui Van, Kennedy Chibuzor Onyelowe, Manh Van Nguyen Test soil sample was investigated and characterized under the laboratory conditions with the preliminary tests. It was classified as A-2-6 group soil according to the AASHTO classification method. It was also classified according to USCS as poorly graded (GP) with high clay content (CH). It was also classified as highly plastic with plasticity index above 17% and expansive. The soil sample was further treated with synthesized Quarry dust (QD) base Geopolymer cement (GPC) at room temperature and the effects of the varying proportions of the GPC added in the proportions of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, 22.5%, 25%, 27.5%, 30%, 32.5%, 35%, 37.5% and 40% by weight of solid on the cemented and non-cemented test soils under varying curing times on the soil capillary rise, suction and strength development parameters (UCS, CBR and MRD) were investigated. The results obtained showed a consistent reduction in capillary rise and suction with increased proportion of QD base GPC and an increase in these properties with increased curing time. But cemented soil showed a slight higher reduction in capillary rise and suction than the non-cemented soil, but at 15% QDbGPC all the trials have capillary rise below 25%. The strength development consistently improved with increased proportion of QDbGPC, that at 12.5% GPC, the trials achieved CBR above 30%, a minimum required for a material to be used as base course material and reduced with prolonged curing time due to loss of strength on prolonged water absorption. Portland cement has high shrinkage, and less capillary and absorption tendencies, though it showed lesser values of capillary rise and suction but the difference between cemented and non-cemented soils is too small that QD base GPC can totally replace OPC because of the construction properties it exhibits. It also shows that QD base GPC beyond 40% by weight will keep improving the strength of treated soils and achieve higher compressive strengths.
       
  • Use of conditional inference trees for evaluating the effect of reclaimed
           asphalt pavement content and binder grade on the dynamic modulus of
           asphalt concrete mixtures

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Jidong J. Yang, Pe-Tseskme A. Lakte, Sung-Hee Kim Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) has seen increasing use because it significantly reduces the paving cost, conserves energy, and protects the environment. This paper evaluates how RAP content and binder grade affect the dynamic modulus E∗ of asphalt concrete mixtures. The mix design includes four RAP contents (0%, 15%, 25% and 30%) and three binder grades (PG64-22, PG67-22, PG76-22). Dynamic modulus tests were performed and E∗ was measured at four levels of temperatures (40, 70, 100, 130 °F) and six loading frequencies (25, 10, 5, 1, 0.5, 0.1 Hz) in accordance with AASHTO T 342. Based on the test results, a conditional inference tree was estimated, which showed a higher level of RAP content or binder grade generally results in a higher E∗ . Across the four levels of RAP contents, a significant increase in E∗ occurred as RAP increased up to 30%. The hierarchical structure of the estimated conditional inference tree reveals the interplay between the two mix design variables (i.e., RAP content and binder grade) depending on the levels of loading frequency and temperature. In general, the binder grade has a stronger association with E∗ than the RAP content when the reduced frequency is high while the RAP content has a stronger association with E∗ than the binder grade when the reduced frequency is low. This implies that a balanced mix design should be sought in selecting proper levels of RAP content and binder grade subject to application contexts in terms of temperature and traffic loading.
       
  • An improved artificial bee colony algorithm for pavement resurfacing
           problem

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Tapas Ranjan Panda, Aravind Krishna Swamy Pavement resurfacing is a maintenance activity that is undertaken to enhance the service life of pavement. This pavement resurfacing activity involves laying a new layer of asphalt concrete over existing pavement after certain time. Due to engineering factors, economic variables and uncertainty in forecasting, the pavement resurfacing decision process is a complicated activity. Various optimization approaches currently used are simplified models for finding optimal frequency and resurfacing intensity within pavement maintenance framework. In this research, artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed to solve this pavement resurfacing optimization problem. This algorithm mimics the collective behaviour of bees while searching for nectar. In this approach, various scenarios are generated, optimality of each case is evaluated, and the information thus generated is used in subsequent evaluation until global optimality is reached. The effectiveness of proposed method is demonstrated through a numerical example. The solution obtained is similar to the exact solution reported in literature. The results indicate optimal resurfacing values can be obtained with little computational effort with proposed approach. The main advantage of proposed algorithm is removal of specification of trigger values for maintenance decision.
       
  • Effect of local calibration of dynamic modulus and creep compliance models
           on predicted performance of asphalt mixes containing RAP

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Saman Esfandiarpour, Ahmed Shalaby MEPDG software can predict long term performance of the asphalt mixes based on asphalt input data. When laboratory measured data of an asphalt mix are not available, this software uses the predictive models to estimate the mix properties. AASHTO recommended calibrating these input models based on local materials and mixes. Previous studies showed that local calibration of dynamic modulus (E∗) and creep compliance predictive model improved the reliability of the predictions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of local calibration of E∗ and creep compliance models on long term performance of mixes containing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), and to assess the sensitivity of the predicted distresses to RAP content. Three Levels of asphalt input data were considered; Level 1, calibrated Level 3, and Level 3. For calibrated Level 3, the predicted E∗ and creep compliance obtained from calibrated models were used as input data. The results showed that the Level 3 input data tend to overpredict the distress predictions of the asphalt mix compared to calibrated Level 3 or Level 1 asphalt input data. It was found that the calibrated Level 3 asphalt input data can be used for the design and analysis of mixes with comparable accuracy of Level 1 input. As conducting laboratory tests for individual mixes is expensive and time consuming, utilizing reliable calibrated models to predict E∗ and creep compliance can substantially reduce operating and testing expenses. Also, it was found that the predicted distresses are not sensitive to the RAP content.
       
  • Behavioural study of pavement quality concrete containing construction,
           industrial and agricultural wastes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Abhishek Jindal, G.D. Ransinchung R.N. This study proposes the use of industrial and agricultural wastes as mineral admixtures for enhancing the mechanical and durability aspects of concrete containing recycled concrete aggregates derived from concrete waste. The study was carried out by testing specimens prepared from concrete mixes with and without recycled concrete aggregates and three different mineral admixtures viz: fly ash (an industrial waste), rice husk ash and bagasse ash (agricultural wastes) for their compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength, workability, chloride ion concentrations, carbonation, sorptivity and abrasion resistance in order to assess the variations and improvements. It was observed that concrete mix upon incorporating mineral admixtures showed significant improvement in both mechanical and durability properties when compared to concrete mix with recycled concrete aggregates alone.Fly ash admixed mixes showed a gain of 15% and 24% for compressive and flexural strength parameters, while the gain for rice husk ash mix and bagasse ash mixes was observed to be 12% and 25%, 13% and 20% respectively when compared to recycled aggregate concrete mix without mineral admixtures. Improvements in durability aspects were observed by incorporating mineral admixtures supported by lower parameters for water absorption, sorptivity coefficients and chloride ion concentrations and increased hydration products as concluded from scanning electron microscopic investigations.
       
  • Rheological properties of warm mix asphalt binders and warm mix asphalt
           binders containing polyphosphoric acid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Jun Liu, Kezhen Yan, Jenny Liu This paper presents the laboratory investigation of properties of warm mix asphalt (WMA) binders and WMA binders containing polyphosphoric acid (PPA).Two types of warm mix additives were used to produce the WMA binders. Superpave tests were carried out on original and short-term aged binders through the rotational viscometer, the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and the bending beam rheometer (BBR). The results indicated that the WMA binders with different warm mix additives showed different viscosity values, however, the addition of PPA remarkably increased the viscosity values of these two kinds of WMA binders used, in the present study, to a similar level. The WMA additive type and the PPA had significant effects on the complex modulus (G*), phase angle (δ) and G∗/sinδ regardless of the binders’ aging state (without aging or short-term aging). In addition, two WMA binders with different additive types showed significant differences on the creep stiffness and m-value, and the addition of PPA degraded the low temperature rheological properties of the WMA binders.
       
  • Assessment and modification of nationally-calibrated dynamic modulus
           predictive model for the implementation of Mechanistic-Empirical design

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): A.S.M. Asifur Rahman, Md. Rashadul Islam, Rafiqul A. Tarefder This study modifies the viscosity (η) based Witczak dynamic modulus ( E∗ ) predictive equation which is used in the recently developed AASHTOWare pavement Mechanistic-Empirical (ME) design software. A total of 21 Superpave (SP) mixtures with different gradations and binder grades were tested for E∗ at different temperatures and frequencies of loading. Results show that the η-based Witczak model underestimates the E∗ for New Mexico’s SP mixes. Therefore, revised model is developed using regression analysis. A phase angle (ϕ) predictive model is also developed using the ϕ-values obtained during the E∗ testing. It was found that the revised η-based Witczak model determines the E∗ more accurately compared to the original η-based Witczak model.
       
  • Case study of longitudinal thermal cracking related to asphalt concrete
           pavement construction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Martin Lavoie, Félix Doucet, Maxime Laplante-Boivin
       
  • The development of the Scaled Accelerated Loading Simulator facility and
           transfer functions to the full-scale pavement using theory of similitude
           by finite element analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Shih-Hsien Yang, Chien-Wei Huang, Yi-Ning Sun, Hery Awan Susanto The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of the vertical deformation between the scaled-down pavement test and full-scale pavement structure according to the theory of similitude-based analysis procedure. Finite element analysis used to investigate and establish the relationship between the scaled-down and full-scale models. Four scaled-down models with scaling factors of 0.9, 0.75, 0.6, and 0.45 with two types of constitutive models of asphalt concrete materials, elastic and viscoelastic, are considered. The results show that the vertical deformation in the full-scale model achieved by applying a vertical shift to the vertical deformation in the scaled-down model. The vertical shift factor varies linearly in normal and logarithm scale with the scaling factor from 0.9 to 0.45 for linear elastic and viscoelastic material, respectively. Moreover, this study proposes a systematic analysis procedure to determine the testing temperature in the SALS test at a specific loading speed by using the time–temperature superposition principle. This study contributes considerably to preliminary understanding of the relationship between the scaled-down tester in the laboratory and the full-scale model according to the theory of similitude.
       
  • Effect of blending time on viscosity of rubberized binders with wax
           additives

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Hyun Hwan Kim, Mithil Mazumder, Moon-Sup Lee, Soon-Jae Lee The effect of blending time on the viscosity of rubberized binder with wax additives was evaluated through the rotational viscometer at 135 °C and 120 °C. The 10% crumb rubber modified (CRM) binders were produced with four blending periods (1, 30, 60, and 90 min), and then mixed with two commercial wax additives. Three different testing periods of 30, 120, and 240 min were applied to the rotational viscosity test to evaluate the viscous properties depending on the blending time. From the results, it is concluded that (1) the addition of wax additives can significantly decreases the binder viscosity, (2) all the viscosity values of CRM binders are observed to increase after certain time, regardless of the addition of wax additives, (3) CRM mixes with wax additives are expected to have a better haul management, based on the less viscosity change, (4) in general, the effect of blending time at 177 °C on the viscous property of CRM binder is found to be insignificant.
       
  • Experimental investigation on related properties of asphalt mastic with
           activated coal gangue as alternative filler

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Rui Xiong, Lu Wang, Xiaokai Yang, Fa Yang, Yanping Sheng, Bowen Guan, Huaxin Chen To evaluate the feasibility of using activated coal gangue (ACG) as replacement of mineral filler in asphalt mixture, some properties of asphalt mastic containing ACG were investigated in this paper, compared with the traditional limestone mineral filler (LMF). The investigated mastic consisted of asphalt and filler at a mass ratio of 1:1. Cone penetration test (CPT), Dynamic Shear Rheometer test (DSR), Brookfield viscosity test (BVT) and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) were applied to research the shear resistance rheological property, rutting resistance, high-temperature viscosity characteristics and low-temperature property of asphalt mastic. With the application of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), the mechanism of ACG imposed on asphalt mastic was analyzed. Results indicate the possibility of ACG as inorganic filler derived from solid waste to improve the performance of asphalt. The ACG has better effect on improving the shear strength and temperature sensitivity of asphalt mastic than LMF. Besides, ACG has positive effect on high-temperature properties while some negative effect on low-temperature properties of asphalt mastic. The results also indicate that the physical adsorption between the ACG filler and asphalt binder is the main mode of action.
       
  • Kaolin soil and its stabilization potentials as nanostructured
           cementitious admixture for geotechnics purposes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): K.C. Onyelowe The use of nanostructured kaolin as an additive in the stabilization of lateritic soils and its effect at different percentages on the natural soil were investigated. A UV–vis spectrophotometric characterization was conducted to determine the absorbance and average particle size of the nanostructured kaolin. The preliminary tests on the soil showed that it was a poorly graded (GP) soil on USCS. The soil sample was also observed to be silty clayey sand. The consistency limits result showed a liquid limit (LL) of 47% and plastic limit (PL) of 25.15%. The soil was observed to be highly plastic, of high swelling potential and medium expansion properties. Further, the effect of the addition of Nanostructured kaolin (NK) in the proportions of 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15% by weight of the treated lateritic soil recorded the following results; the consistency limits results showed that the addition of variable proportions of nanostructured kaolin (NK) improved the plasticity index of the stabilized soil and gave 11.77%-a medium plastic material at 15% NK by weight addition compared to the preliminary result at 0% by weight additive which gave 21.85%-a highly plastic material. The strength properties test also showed significant improvements with the addition of NK; CBR test results recorded 23% at 15% by weight proportion of NK, which satisfies the material condition for use as a sub-base material and the UCS test results similarly improved consistently and recorded a maximum of 340.18 kN/m2 at 15% by weight proportion of NK addition, which satisfies “very stiff” material consistency for use as a sub-base material. With the foregoing, NK has shown to be a good admixture material for soil stabilization towards solving the myriad pavement and environmental failures and problems with our road pavements.
       
  • Evaluation of significant factors for aggregate retention in chip seals
           based on mesostructured finite element model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Li Liu, Wenkai Xie, Yuqiang Wang, Shenghua Wu The retention of aggregates or chips on chip seal is critical for the durability of chip seal application in pavement maintenance. Most evaluation on aggregate retention have focused on laboratory experiment regarding asphalt-aggregate bonding, however, there are many other factors that are needed to be investigated as a whole picture. As such, this paper presents a mechanistic point view of understanding the effects on the aggregate retention based on a two-dimensional finite element model of aggregate-asphalt interface. The horizontal strain and shear strain in the interface are evaluated in terms of six factors including asphalt type, temperature, loading level, horizontal loading, aggregate shape, and interface bonding conditions. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of influencing factors for critical response is further conducted. The results show that shear strain is more significant than the horizontal strain, which should be taken as an evaluation index for aggregate retention in chip seal. The influence of six factors on the shear strain of aggregate-asphalt interface is highly significant. The greatest significant influence is temperature, followed by horizontal loading, asphalt type, loads, aggregate shape, and interface bonding conditions. The results of this study provides a mechanistic viewpoint for chip seal designer to consider varying conditions for ensuring aggregate retention in chip seal.
       
  • Gray relational entropy analysis of high temperature performance of
           bio-asphalt binder and its mixture

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Junfeng Gao, Hainian Wang, Zhanping You, Xu Yang Most of the existing researches only focus on some performances of the bio-asphalt binders instead of the asphalt mixtures, and the relationship between the performance of bio-asphalt binder and the performance of the mixture has been rarely reported. To analyze the gray relational entropy of high temperature performance of bio-asphalt binder and mixture, the bio-asphalt modified by 1% SBS with the concentrations of 0% (50#), 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by the weight of bio-asphalt binder, respectively, was used in this study. The performance indexes of bio-asphalt binder were tested through the conventional performance test and Superpave test of asphalt. The correlation between the performance indexes of the asphalt binder and the dynamic stability of the mixture was studied through the gray relational entropy method. The results showed that the high temperature performance of bio-asphalt had a certain degree of reduction before RTFO with the incorporation of bio-oil. The binder test parameters showed different changes in the law with the changes of bio-oil content. The dynamic stability of bio-asphalt mixtures decreased with an increase in bio-oil content. The RTFO aging had a great influence on the entropy correlation between the performance indexes of the bio-asphalt binders and the dynamic stability of the mixture. The non-recoverable creep compliance of bio-asphalt with low content (1%) of SBS modifier was weakly correlated with the dynamic stability of the mixture. The dynamic viscosity of bio-asphalt and the dynamic stability of the mixture exhibited the highest gray entropy correlation, which could be used as the key index of high-temperature performance evaluation of bio-asphalt.
       
  • Using damage theory to analyze fatigue of asphalt mixtures on flexural
           tests

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Luiz Guilherme Rodrigues de Mello, Márcio Muniz de Farias, Kamil Elias Kaloush Federal agencies and research centers around the world are studying and producing laboratory tests and procedures, as well predicting models, trying to obtain better insights related to fatigue in hot mix asphalt. The increasing interest in the development of fully mechanistic models for pavement design is changing the guidelines for newer studies. Even with climatic and traffic information as sources of empirical but necessary inputs, it is important to assess how damage increases and calculate damage properties of asphalt concrete toward the next generations of mechanistic design tools. This work presents an extensive analysis of fatigue test results using different asphalt concretes. The linear viscoelastic characterization of all mixtures was done by frequency sweep tests (E∗). An approximate interconversion process was also used to find additional viscoelastic properties. Fatigue data were treated using the continuum damage approach, and damage parameters were obtained. Furthermore, a relationship was evaluated among viscoelastic properties and damage parameters, which might be useful for fatigue characterization.
       
  • Stress-dependent behavior of marine clay admixed with fly-ash-blended
           cement

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Qiangqiang Cheng, Kai Yao, Yong Liu To investigate the stress-dependent behavior of fly-ash blended cement (FAC)-admixed marine clay, isotropic consolidated drained (CID) triaxial tests were performed in the confining pressure range of 50–350 kPa. Stress dilatancy was observed when the confining pressure was in the lowest range of 50–100 kPa. The peak strength increased linearly with increasing confining pressure; this linear relationship was described by the following equation: pp = 1.7σ3 + 581 kPa, wherein pp is the peak strength and σ3 is the confining pressure. In the CID tests, failure modes of specimens were similar under different confining pressures. From the Mohr circles, it was found that the angle of shearing resistance was 52.8° and the cohesion intercept was 230.5 kPa. When the confining pressure was lower than the primary yield stress, some variation in the secant modulus were observed. However, the secant modulus tends to increase when the confining pressure exceeds the primary yield stress.
       
  • Modeling rutting susceptibility of asphalt pavement using principal
           component pseudo inputs in regression and neural networks

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Parnian Ghasemi, Mohamad Aslani, Derrick K. Rollins, R. Christopher Williams, Vernon R. Schaefer Permanent deformation is a major load-associated distress occurring in flexible pavement systems and increases with load repetitions affecting road roughness, serviceability, and the international roughness index (IRI). Early detection of rutting is necessary for maintenance and rehabilitation activities, but due to the complex behavior of asphalt mixtures, accurately predicting the permanent deformation of asphalt pavement is difficult. Historically, multivariate regression modeling and recently, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used widely for material properties prediction. The ability to model accurately the response variable is adversely affected when inputs have pairwise correlations. To overcome this barrier, principal component analysis (PCA), as a dimensionality reduction technique, can be used to produce uncorrelated linear combinations of the original inputs as illustrated in this work using 83 (i.e., samples) laboratory compacted specimens from the State of Wisconsin. Asphalt binder, aggregate, and mix properties are obtained and used as the model inputs. The response parameter is the accumulated strain at the corresponding flow number. Using the developed pseudo inputs from PCA, a multivariate regression and an ANN model are generated and were able to fit the test cases with rfit of 0.8 and 0.97 respectively. The developed machine learning-based framework is shown to be a capable tool in estimating the rutting behavior of asphalt mixture.
       
  • Effect of corn and soybean oil derived additives on polymer-modified HMA
           and WMA master curve construction and dynamic modulus performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Joseph H. Podolsky, R. Christopher Williams, Eric Cochran In previous work, Isosorbide Distillation Bottoms (IDB), and other isosorbide and soybean based materials with similar properties were shown to act as antistrips in a polymer modified warm mix asphalt (WMA) at a 0.75% dosage level both through visual observations and statistical analysis of Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device (HWTD) test results. Because of this evidence, there is an interest in how specimens produced with isosorbide and soybean bio-derived chemical additives would perform in the dynamic modulus test, as this is the main input used in AASHTOWare Pavement ME in the prediction of rutting performance. The main objective of this research is to compare and contrast dynamic modulus performance of two isosorbide, two soybean bio-derived chemical additive mixtures against each other and controls compacted at both hot mix asphalt (HMA) and WMA compaction temperatures. Master curve modeling with a proposed new (PN) model based on the Yang and You model and Booij and Thoone model for phase angle (δ) master curve construction led to the conclusion that proper placement of coefficients makes it possible to maintain precision and accuracy in the determination of E∗ master curves while co-determining δ master curves. From the master curve results, it was observed that some of the corn and soybean bio-derived chemical additives may be affecting the viscous behavior at intermediate and high test temperatures. Results from statistical analysis were inconclusive, and thus it is felt that further work must be done comparing HMA and WMA produced specimens in the HWTD test.
       
  • Influence of temperature on J nr values of polymer
           modified asphalt binders

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Khaleel Al-Adham, Hamad Al-Abdul Wahhab At desert environment, asphalt binders that have performance grades of PG 70-16 or PG 76-16 may show early signs of rutting under heavy loads due to lack of strain recovery when used in the design of asphalt mixes and structures. Type and amount of polymer in addition to testing temperature are the major factors that affect the recovery properties of asphalt binders. This study was conducted to evaluate Jnr parameters of four different polymers (Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene “SBS”, Crumb Rubber “CR”, light density Polyethylene “PE” and modified Olefin “OF”) used to modify asphalt binders. Asphalt samples were tested at various temperatures and regression models were created. These models are useful to properly select the polymer type and amount suitable to the area of concern and to be used in the design of pavement structures especially in Mechanical–Empirical Design Guide. It is found from this study that power-law models best described the relationship between Jnr and temperature with signs of shear thickening. The results of Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene Modified asphalt binders have shown best behavior of recovering the strain at high temperatures with Non-recoverable creep compliance (Jnr) values less than 0.5 obtained at 76 °C. Polyethylene and Olefin polymers could improve local asphalt binders at areas where PG 58 and PG 64 are required. The Jnr-temp curves can be considered as master curves for local conditions and material.
       
  • Toward Utilization of ground tire rubber and reclaimed pavement materials
           with asphalt Binder: Performance evaluation using essential work of
           fracture

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018Source: International Journal of Pavement Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Dharamveer Singh, Shashibhushan Girimath Utilization of ground tire rubber (GTR) binder in combination with reclaimed asphalt pavements (RAP) binder can provide added benefits in terms of material, cost and environmental saving, and hence a promising step toward sustainable construction of pavements. The present study utilized essential work of fracture (EWF) principal to evaluate performance of a GTR binder blended with two different types of RAPs: RAP-A and RAP-S, having different rheological properties. The GTR binder was mixed with different percentages (0%, 15%, 25% and 40% by weight of virgin binder) of RAP-A and RAP-S. First, Superpave performance grade (PG) of different combinations of asphalt binders was determined in the laboratory. Thereafter, the EWF of binders was determined using a newly developed double edge notch tension (DENT) test. Further, the data obtained from the DENT test were used to estimate critical crack tip opening displacement (CTOD). The results showed that addition of RAP decreased fracture resistance of GTR binder. Addition of RAP-A resulted in a faster decrease in performance of GTR binder compared to RAP-S. It can be concluded that low percentage of RAP may be utilized with GTR binder. Further, analyses indicated that RAP sources and its quantity could have significant impact on performance of asphalt mixes.
       
 
 
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