Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2846 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (451 journals)
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    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (97 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (249 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 250 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Civil Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Construindo     Open Access  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Eurasian Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal Of Civil Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Inersia, Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
JACEE (Journal of Advanced Civil and Environmental Engineering)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 81)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University     Open Access  
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Hydrology X     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Road and Traffic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Application Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Soft Computing in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Structural Integrity and Maintenance     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies     Open Access  
Jurnal Gradasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Lithosphere     Open Access  
Material Design & Processing Communications     Hybrid Journal  
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Media Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Civil Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Open Waste Management Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ovidius University Annals of Constanta - Series Civil Engineering     Open Access  
PADURAKSA : Jurnal Teknik Sipil Universitas Warmadewa     Open Access  
Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Structural Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.599
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 46  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1369-4332 - ISSN (Online) 2048-4011
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1093 journals]
  • Effects of mixing water salinity on the properties of concrete
    • Authors: Tanaz Dhondy, Yu Xiang, Tao Yu, Jin-Guang Teng
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The use of seawater and sea-sand in producing concrete has attracted increasing research attention in recent years to address the shortage of river sand and in certain applications the shortage of freshwater. In particular, reinforced concrete structures made of seawater sea-sand concrete (SSC) and corrosion-resistant fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) are particularly attractive for the development of coastal and marine infrastructure (e.g. on remote islands) as durable structures can be created using locally available materials. Existing studies on SSC or seawater concrete have been largely limited to the use of mixing water with a salinity level close to the world-average ocean salinity. Against this background, the present paper reports the first ever systematic study on the effect of salinity of mixing water on the properties of concrete. The present study covered a wide range of salinity levels from 16.5 g/L to 82.5 g/L, and examined a wide range of short-term concrete properties including the heat of hydration, shrinkage, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. The test results show that the salinity of mixing water has a considerable effect on the rate of hydration heat and shrinkage at early ages, as well as the cumulative release of hydration heat. It is also shown that the water salinity has a slight negative effect on the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete at ages older than 14 days.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T05:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220965272
       
  • Theoretical and numerical studies of the slip resistance of main cable
           clamp composed of an upper and a lower part
    • Authors: Rusong Miao, Ruili Shen, Lu Wang, Lunhua Bai
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Cable clamps are important connection members widely used in suspension bridges and cable structure buildings. The clamps are usually tightened on the cable through pre-stressed bolts and resist cable axial component of the external load by friction. Current relevant standards provide slip resistance formulas for anti-slip design of the clamps but are conceptive and simple, lacking explicit and quantitative mechanical derivation. This paper develops an analytical model and proposes a novel slip failure criterion based on the slippage amount, aiming at understanding the force state and estimating the slip resistance of the main cable clamp composed of an upper and a lower part. Finite element analyses then validate that the analytical model can correctly reveal the influences of the multiple factors including hanger tensile force and orthotropic friction on the force state of the cable-clamp system. Moreover, the original Coulomb-friction-law-based slip resistance formula is briefly revised by introducing a partial factor in order to take the nonlinearity of the connection system into account. The revised slip resistance formula implies its promising applicability in obtaining reliable and flexible solution to anti-slip problem of the clamp with different level of safety redundancy.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T05:01:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220965271
       
  • Geometric design of rotary retractable plate structures based on
           parallelogram closed-loop chain linkages
    • Authors: Feng Yu, Xian Xu, Yaozhi Luo
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      For large-span retractable roof structures, the mechanism should be simple and efficient for the convenience of motion control. The kinematic characteristics of parallelogram closed-loop chain linkages (PCCL) show that a set of the angulated beams of PCCL rotates around the fixed points, which is suitable for retractable structures. This paper focuses on the geometrical design of the rotary retractable plate structures (RRPS), which evolves from PCCL by replacing the rotation angulated beams with cover plates. Each plate of RRPS has a fixed support and all the plates rotate simultaneously with a single DOF. The fixed points used as supports for cover plates to improve the stability and simplify the motion control of the system restrict the open area of the RRPS. By adjusting the contact boundaries of the cover plates, an optimisation method is proposed to increase the open area of the RRPS after fully deployed. The design approach is successfully extended to both symmetrical and asymmetrical RRPS. An example is carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and a simple physical model is manufactured to validate the design result in the example.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T05:00:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220963747
       
  • A new physical parameter identification method for shear frame structures
           under limited inputs and outputs
    • Authors: Jing-Liang Liu, An-Hua Yu, Chia-Ming Chang, Wei-Xin Ren, Jing Zhang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A new physical parameter identification method with a name of EKPF-LS is proposed for shear frame structures under limited inputs and outputs by a combination of extended Kalman particle filter (EKPF) and least square (LS) algorithm. The basic principle of EKPF-LS is to establish the proposed distribution function of the particle filter through EKF-LS. In this method, EKPF is introduced to get rid of the restriction of Gaussian white noise model and reduce the linearization error caused by EKF. Meanwhile, LS is utilized to address the problem of unmeasured excitation estimations. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed EKPF-LS method is verified by a numerical example of a four-story hysteretic shear frame under an earthquake excitation and an experimental test of a four-story shear type frame using Gaussian white noise and sine sweep signal as excitations, respectively. Gaussian colored noises are then added to the solved and measured response signals in the numerical example and experimental test, respectively. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can identify the stiffness of shear frame structures effectively and is superior to the existed EKF-LS approach when the structural system is nonlinear structural system or Colored noise model.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T04:59:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220963733
       
  • Comparisons of design wind pressures on roof-mounted solar arrays between
           wind tunnel tests and codes and standards
    • Authors: Jingxue Wang, Qingshan Yang, Yi Hui
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The current codes and standards concerning wind loads on roof-mounted solar panels are discussed and summarized. Wind pressures on flat- and slope-roof-mounted solar arrays obtained from wind tunnel tests are compared with the recommended design values in ASCE 7-16 and JIS C 8955: 2017. Different parameters, including building side ratio, aspect ratio and parapet height, are examined. Results show that the largest wind pressures on flat-roof-mounted solar panels of all zones in ASCE 7-16 tend to be 10% to 26% smaller than the experimental results when normalized tributary area An is larger than 103. Uplift wind forces on flat-roof-mounted solar panels in downstream regions obtained from experiments can be larger than the recommended values in JIS C 8955: 2017 for adverse wind, but downward force coefficients are basically smaller than those in JIS C 8955: 2017 for fair wind. 40% to 60% increase on the pressure equalization factor for slope-roof-mounted solar panels is suggested for the potential refinement of ASCE 7-16 based on this study. Meanwhile, proposed pressures of slope-roof-mounted solar panels in JIS C 8955: 2017 might be too conservative according of experimental results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-20T05:47:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220965274
       
  • Numerical study of dynamic responses of reinforced concrete infilled
           frames subjected to progressive collapse
    • Authors: Jun Yu, Yi-Ping Gan, Jun Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, the contribution of infill walls on progressive collapse resistance of reinforced concrete (RC) structures attracts a great many research attentions, but the research interests are mainly concentrated on the static resistance and the macro-modeling approaches, which require predefined one-dimensional load paths through two-dimensional walls. However, the load transfer paths in dynamic loading regime are still not fully understood. To this end, high-fidelity finite element (FE) models of multi-story RC infilled frames are built and validated through quasi-static experimental results. Then the FE models are used to investigate the dynamic responses of infilled frames under different single and double CRS as well as the effect of the number of stories on the load transfer paths of full-height infill walls (FHIW) and infill walls having opening (IWHO). The results indicate that the load paths along the infill walls in static and dynamic loading regimes are similar prior to the peak resistance but different in post-peak resistance for single infilled story frames. Such difference results from the loading distribution pattern, in which the static loading is typically represented by a concentrated load whereas the dynamic loading involves the uniformly distributed load. Moreover, increasing the number of infilled stories with FHIW, trans-story load paths due to composite effect always exist to enhance resistance and such paths are scenario-dependent. In comparison, the load paths for multi-story frames with IWHO are relatively scenario-independent with minor composite effect. Therefore, to generalize the macro-modeling, it is conservative to ignore the trans-story load paths.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-20T05:47:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220965273
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigation on seismic performance of hollow
           floor interior slab-column connections
    • Authors: Longji Dang, Rui Pang, Rui Liu, Hongmei Ni, Shuting Liang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper aims to investigate the seismic performance of hollow floor interior slab-column connection (HFISC). In this new connection system, several tube fillers are placed in slab to form hollow concrete. Moreover, locally solid zone, shear components, and hidden beam around the connections are installed to improve the bearing capacity and ductility of specimens. Three slab-column connections with different shear components were tested under cyclic loading and every specimen was constructed with parallel tube fillers in the north direction and orthogonal tube fillers in the south direction. The seismic behavior of specimens was evaluated according to the hysteretic response, skeleton curve, ductility, stiffness degradation, and energy dissipation. A finite element model was then developed and validated by a comparison with the experimental results. Based on experimental results and finite element analysis results, the relative effects of the hollow ratio of slab, the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement, the shear area of bent-up steel bars, and the arm length of welding section steel cross bridging were elucidated through parametric studies. This new slab-column connection showed better plastic deformation capacity while the bearing capacity was kept. Specimens with parallel tube fillers showed better seismic behavior than those of specimens with orthogonal tube fillers.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-16T07:42:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220965275
       
  • Effect of recycled coarse aggregate on physical and mechanical properties
           of concrete
    • Authors: Ahmed A Elansary, Mostafa M Ashmawy, Hany A Abdalla
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Recycling of building waste has become essential process in the construction industry due to the sustainability and economic benefits such as decreasing the waste to landfill, conserving natural resources, and reducing pollution. Large amount of building waste is produced from the construction and demolition process of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In this paper, the effect of using recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) on the behavior of concrete is experimentally studied. The RCA is prepared by crushing and sieving of waste of standard compression test cubes having a compressive strength ranging between 25 MPa and 30 MPa. The physical and mechanical properties of RCA are experimentally estimated and compared to those of natural coarse aggregate (NCA). A set of 72 standard concrete cubes, cylinders, and beams specimens are made using coarse aggregate replacement ratios (CARR) of 0%, 30%, 50%, and 100%. The specimens are tested to estimate the compressive, splitting, and flexure strengthens at the ages of 7 and 28 days. The study is extended by using the RCA in casting 12 RC columns with CARR similar to those of specimens. The columns are tested in an axial compression test protocol till failure. Crack patterns, failure loads, strains, displacements, and toughness of the tested columns are compared. It is concluded that using a CARR of 30% and 50% and a specific water cement ratio provides better mechanical behavior than that of NCA while the CARR of 100% yields worst mechanical behavior compared to that of NCA.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-16T07:42:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220963792
       
  • Vibration control by active integrated control system under bidirectional
           ground motions
    • Authors: Osman Akyürek, Nakin Suksawang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To improve the safety and security of the structures with irregular plan configuration, the new torsionally effective passive control system (ICS) was first proposed by the author, which utilizes a new design configuration to dissipate the unwanted energy from the structures in the lateral and torsional directions. In this research, a new active structural control approach, which is the active form of the ICS (or active integrated control system, AICS), is introduced as an alternative active control system, especially for the buildings with torsional sensitivity. In the design of active system configurations, two actuators driven by the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) are implemented and used to apply the optimum control forces to the ATMDs and AICS. For examining the performance of the proposed system configuration, the final design is applied to the 9-story Benchmark steel structure subjected to bidirectional three historical earthquakes. The obtained results show the overall performance of structural performance by using the AICS is substantially improved as compared to conventional ones (ATMDs) under selected ground accelerations with a 3% to 6% improvement in the lateral directions and by nearly 20% in the torsional direction in terms of the peak and root mean square response reduction.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-16T07:41:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220963728
       
  • Fatigue crack growth behavior of rib-to-deck double-sided welded joints of
           orthotropic steel decks
    • Authors: Yang Liu, Fanghuai Chen, Da Wang, Naiwei Lu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Innovative double-sided welding is expected to improve the fatigue resistance of rib-to-deck welded joints of orthotropic steel decks (OSDs). Welding crack-like defects are the crucial issue affecting the fatigue performance of rib-to-deck double-sided welded joints. This study presents a numerical simulation of three-dimensional (3D) mixed mode fatigue crack growth behavior of rib-to-deck double-sided welded joints of OSDs. Maximum tensile stress theory and equivalent stress intensity factor (SIF) were used to simulate mixed mode fatigue cracks growth. The Paris law model was employed to predict the fatigue life. Fatigue cracks of rib-to-deck double-sided welded joints were characterized by the presence of mixed mode cracks of modes I (open), mode II (shear), and mode III (tear), which was dominated by mode I. The equivalent SIF was found to be complex at the growth stage with the maximum value at the two ends of the crack front and the minimum value at the midpoint of the crack front. The crack shape became flatter in the later phase of the crack growth. The fatigue crack surface underwent deflections during crack growth, making the final crack shape exhibiting the characteristic of a spatial curved surface. The initial crack geometry showed a significant impact on the fatigue life.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-14T06:35:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220961757
       
  • Experimental study on stress-strain curves of seawater sea-sand concrete
           under uniaxial compression with different strain rates
    • Authors: Kaijian Zhang, Jianzhuang Xiao, Qingtian Zhang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In order to investigate the mechanical properties of seawater sea-sand concrete (SSC) under uniaxial compression, the SSC prisms with different mix proportions are designed and prepared, and the compressive strength and stress-strain curves under uniaxial compression are tested, in which five loading strain rates 10−5/s, 10−4/s, 10−3/s, 10−2/s, and 10−1/s are selected. The failure patterns of the SSC specimens under different strain rates are discussed, and the peak stress, peak strain (strain at the peak stress), elastic modulus, and ultimate strain are analyzed. The influence of the strain rate and the shell particle content on the stress-strain curves is intensively evaluated. It shows that the peak stress and elastic modulus increase with an increasing strain rate while the peak strain and ultimate strain have no obvious trend. Additionally, the shell particles seem to have contributions to the increase of the compressive strength of SSC base on the test results of cube and prism specimens, but further considerations about this phenomenon are necessary. Finally, the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of characteristic indices of SSC is put forward.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-14T06:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220958765
       
  • The seismic performance of precast short-leg shear wall under cyclic
           loading
    • Authors: Xiuli Du, Min Wu, Hongtao Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In order to study the seismic performance of precast short-leg shear wall connected by grouting sleeves (PSSW), the three-dimensional numerical model was established by using the experiment of PSSW subjected to low cyclic loading. Based on good agreement between numerical results and experimental results, the numerical analysis models with different structural parameters of axial compression ratio and splicing position were designed in detail, and the effects of various parameters on the seismic performance of PSSW were analyzed. The results show that the PSSW exhibits wide and stable hysteresis loops, indicating a satisfactory hysteretic performance and an excellent energy consumption capacity. With the increase of the axial compression ratio, the shear capacity of horizontal splice seam is improved, but the ductility coefficient and total energy consumption decrease obviously. The most disadvantageous position of PSSW can be effectively avoided by changing the position of the post pouring seam. The bearing capacity of the specimens is basically stable, and the energy consumption increases significantly, so the post pouring seam of precast wall is recommended to be far away from the bottom section of the wall. In addition, the failure mechanism of different splicing positions was analyzed in detail.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-14T06:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220963722
       
  • Atomistic investigation of GFRP composites under chloride environment
    • Authors: Xing Quan Wang, Denvid Lau
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Fiber reinforced polymer composites have paved the way for the evolution of the engineering materials. Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) has become one of the most promising materials among the novel composites due to its low price and high performance. Here, the GFRP composite in investigated by fill atomistic molecular dynamics, which contains the epoxy matrix and amorphous silica substrate. The degradation in chloride environment is revealed through the interfacial interactions, the structural changes of the epoxy matrix and hydrogen bonding in the composites. Compared to dry and aqueous environment, the simulation results show that chloride environment leads to the worst deterioration of interfacial adhesion, which correlates with structural and mechanical degradation of bonded interface, as indicated by the decreased epoxy density close to interface. It is indicated by examining the nano-structures of the interface during the pulling process that the chloride environment hinders the formation of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the GFRP composites. These findings indicate the deterioration towards bond and matrix is critical in the presence of the chloride environment, which provides the fundamental insight for designing and predicting performance degradation of macroscopic GFRP composites in the marine application.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-10-13T07:54:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220961749
       
  • Extreme value modeling of coincident lane load effects for multi-lane
           factors of bridges using peaks-over-threshold method
    • Authors: Junyong Zhou, Cuimin Hu, Zhixing Chen, Xiaoming Wang, Tao Wang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Multi-lane factor (MLF) is a probability reduction reflecting unfavorable traffic loads over multiple lanes acting simultaneously on the most adverse position of a bridge. It is one of the key components of traffic load models for bridges. The most recent research established a multi-coefficient MLF model that clearly illustrated the lane load disparity and the probability reduction of their simultaneous actions. However, it used the block maxima (BM) method for extreme value modeling, which requires a large amount of traffic data. This study aims to adopt the peaks-over-threshold (POT) method to obtain more information from short-term traffic data and model the extreme coincident lane load effects (LLEs) for multi-coefficient MLF calibration. First, the multi-coefficient MLF model was reviewed. Thereafter, the bivariate POT method for coincident LLEs modeling using generalized Pareto distribution was proposed and formulated. Critical issues such as bivariate threshold selection and parameter estimation were addressed. Numerical examples were demonstrated to verify and validate the approach. Finally, the proposed approach was applied for calibrating the MLF of an experimental site with four traffic lanes. The results indicated that the coincident LLEs modeling using the POT approach was accurate and more effective than using the BM method when applied to limited data. The calibrated MLFs from the experimental site effectively revealed the lane load disparity of traffic loads over multiple lanes, which is not involved in the traffic load models of current bridge design specifications. Furthermore, the influence of other problems such as weight restriction on coincident LLEs modeling and MLF calibration were discussed. The proposed technique provides a sound approach for multi-coefficient MLF calibration of bridge assessment with short-term site-specific traffic data.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-25T05:52:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220960275
       
  • Aerodynamic coefficients and pressure distribution on two circular
           cylinders with free end immersed in experimentally produced downburst-like
           outflows
    • Authors: Djordje Romanic, Andrea Ballestracci, Federico Canepa, Giovanni Solari, Horia Hangan
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Thunderstorms winds are localized and transient phenomena characterized by three-dimensional non-stationary velocity fields. While numerous studies investigated the wind loading on cantilevered structures under thunderstorm downburst winds, there is a lack of fundamental research on the behavior of simple circular cylinders subjected to downburst-like outflows. This paper investigates the pressure distribution and aerodynamic coefficients of two cylinders with different diameters immersed in three different types of wind: (1) isolated downburst (DB); (2) downburst embedded in an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind (DBABL); and (3) steady ABL wind. The focus of this study is to provide a comparative analysis between aerodynamic coefficients (drag and lift) and surface pressures that result from these three different wind systems. The ABL winds caused a higher drag on the thinner cylinder than the two DB-like outflows. The lift coefficients during the primary vortex passage in the DB-like outflows were negative at the base of the cylinders and approached zero or to slightly positive values close to the cylinders’ top. The location of the cylinders in DB-like outflows is the dominant factor for their aerodynamics.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-24T08:55:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220958763
       
  • Study on support characteristic curve of primary support structures in
           underground excavation considering bond-slip behavior
    • Authors: Wei Lu, Huibin Sun
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Steel reinforced shotcrete lining (SRSL) support is the primary structure to maintain the stability and mobilize the self-bearing capacity of surrounding rock. However, the structural design of SRSL in underground excavation still relies on experience-based method and lack of quantitative mechanical analysis. This paper aims to propose a modified analytical model of support characteristic curve (SCC) that represents the mechanical behavior of SRSL structures in underground construction, through which the interface bond-slip behavior between steel arch and shotcrete layer is taken into consideration. Four-point bending test of SRSL composite beam was carried out to study the bearing mechanism and failure performance. Test results show that the shotcrete-steel interface is prone to slip failure which significantly reduces the overall strength of SRSL. The laboratory test is complemented by non-liner finite element parametric studies considering the bond-slip properties to clarify the design principles and to obtain the flexural stiffness of tunnel primary lining structures. Based on above studies, the simplified formulas for the SCC of SRSL is constructed. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the design and application of SRSL structure in related projects.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-22T05:17:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220958764
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigations on cyclic behaviors of precast
           segmental bridge piers with the hybrid of high-strength bars and unbonded
           prestressing tendons
    • Authors: Teng Tong, Siqi Yuan, Weiding Zhuo, Zhao Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Precast segmental piers are gaining increasing attentions in low-medium seismic-risked regions. In this paper, cyclic behaviors of two precast segment piers reinforced with the hybrid of high-strength energy dissipation (“H” ED, ≥500 MPa) bars and unbonded tendons were experimentally investigated, accompanied with another two piers reinforced with merely “H” ED bars for the comparative study. It was observed that unbonded tendons benefitted the segmental piers in rising the lateral strength and mitigating the residual drift. On the other aspect, the tendons also made concrete prone to damage. Alongside, the finite element (FE) model is constructed for the four tested segmental piers, discritized with the displacement-controlled beam-colum element with a fiber section. With the bond-slip behavior of the “H” ED bars being incorporated, the numerical model accurately reflects the piers’ seismic behaviors.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-22T05:17:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220956814
       
  • A co-simulation method for the analysis of train running performance on a
           sea-crossing bridge in crosswind environment
    • Authors: Pin Liu, Shengai Cui, Chen Guo, Enqi Cui, Bing Zhu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      When a train crosses a bridge in a crosswind environment, the coupled vibration problem of the train-bridge system becomes prominent, and train safety and riding comfort are difficult to guarantee. Therefore, using the Pingtan Strait bridge in China as a case study, a co-simulation platform for the train-bridge system coupled vibration in crosswind environments was established based on computational fluid dynamics, finite element method, and the multi-body system dynamics. Based on this platform, dynamic response analysis of the train-bridge system was performed at different wind and train speeds. The results indicate that the dynamic response of the train and bridge under double-line conditions is greater than that under single-line conditions. With an increase in wind speed, the mid-span vertical displacement of the bridge changes little, while the lateral displacement increases significantly. Meanwhile, with increasing wind and train speeds, the train dynamic indexes obviously increase. Moreover, the dynamic index of the head car is the largest among all the train sections.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T05:54:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220956830
       
  • Effects of guardrails on wind environment for vehicles and aerodynamic
           stability for bridges with box girders
    • Authors: Junjie Guo, Haojun Tang, Yongle Li, Zewen Wang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Normally strong winds in mountainous areas possess potential threats to the safety of vehicles travelling over the long-span bridges. Generally, decreasing the porosity of the guardrails could improve wind environment for vehicles, while the changed flow field around the bridge’s girder may weaken the structural aerodynamic stability simultaneously. To solve the two seemingly contradictory issues, such a long-span suspension bridge in mountainous areas is taken as the case study, and the guardrails are optimized with different schemes. The effects on wind environment for vehicles under normal traffic conditions are first studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The further effects on the aerodynamic stability of the bridge under extreme winds are then determined by wind tunnel tests, and the observed non-divergent flutter is explainedbythe change in dynamic flow field. Results show that reducing the porosity of guardrails does improve the wind environment above the bridge deck, and the improvement on wind environment increases with the increase in angle of attack. After closing the guardrails completely, however, the girder appears non-divergent vibration different from the linear theoretical flutter when the critical wind speed is exceeded. The different post-flutter behaviors at different angles of attack are mainly related to the synchronization condition between the movement of vortex and the motion of the girder.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-14T07:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220956827
       
  • Study on shear capacity of connections with external stiffening rings
           between square steel tubular columns and steel beams
    • Authors: Bin Rong, Lei Wang, Ruoyu Zhang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper studied the shear behavior of the connections with external stiffening rings between square steel tubular columns and steel beams by experimental, numerical and analytical methods. Two connections with external stiffening rings were tested under low cyclic loading to investigate the effect of axial compression ratio on the shear behavior and capacity of the connection. The test result showed that the change of the axial compression ratio had little effect on the shear capacity of the connection while the ductility of the connection was decreasing with the increase of the axial compression ratio. Seven nonlinear finite element models were designed to investigate the seismic behavior of the connection under cyclic test. Parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the following parameters on the shearing capacity and deformation in panel zone: the width and the height of the steel tube in panel zone and the thickness of the external stiffening rings. Finally, based on the model considering the post-buckling strength of the web of the steel tube in panel zone, a calculation formula was fitted by the results of the finite element simulation.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-14T07:46:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220956832
       
  • Shaking table experiment of a recycled concrete block masonry building
           structure with a ‘self-contained’ structural system
    • Authors: Xiaoyan Ding, Zhongfan Chen, Ming Xu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposed a ‘self-contained’ structural system for structural columns and ring beams and used recycled concrete blocks (RCBs) as wall materials. Based on this design concept, a full-scale model of a new masonry building structure was established. The Castaic wave, the Taft wave, and an artificial wave were sequentially input to the shaking table, and the effects of different ground motions on the structural model were simulated. The changes in the natural frequency and damping ratio of the test model and the acceleration, displacement, and strain responses of the structure were studied under different seismic wave excitations. Finally, the overall seismic resistance of the model was determined. The results showed that the ‘self-contained’ structure system exhibited excellent cooperative performance. Moreover, the test model can fully meet the degree-7 seismic fortification requirements, in which the damage sustained from small earthquakes is not substantial, the damage sustained from moderate earthquakes can be repaired, and the damage sustained from large earthquakes does not cause structural failure. The results showed that RCBs can replace ordinary concrete blocks in practical engineering projects. However, the construction measures for the door and window openings should be strengthened in actual projects.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-12T07:36:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220956828
       
  • Improved time-dependent seismic fragility estimates for deteriorating RC
           bridge substructures exposed to chloride attack
    • Authors: Fengkun Cui, Huihui Li, Xu Dong, Baoqun Wang, Jin Li, Hongyun Xue, Meili Qi
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      RC bridge substructures exposed to chloride environments inevitably suffer from corrosion of reinforcement embodied in concrete. This deterioration issue leads to the loss of reinforcement areas and a reduction in seismic capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) bridge substructures. To quantify the effect of steel corrosion on seismic fragility estimates, this paper proposes an improved time-dependent seismic fragility framework by taking into account the increase in the corrosion rate after concrete cracking and the reduction in seismic capacity of RC bridge substructures during the service life. Additionally, an analytical method based on a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) is proposed to provide probabilistic capacity estimates of deteriorating RC substructures. A three-span T-shaped girder bridge is selected as a case study bridge to provide improved time-dependent seismic fragility estimates that consider uncertainties in the material properties, geometric parameters, deterioration process and ground motions. The obtained fragility curves show that there is a nonlinear increase in the exceedance probability of deteriorating RC bridge substructures for different damage states during the service life. In addition, time-dependent seismic fragility analysis shows that the cases of considering only the effect of an increase in seismic demand or the reduction in seismic capacity as well as neither of them may lead to a significant underestimation of the seismic vulnerability of deteriorating RC bridge substructures.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-12T07:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220956812
       
  • Experimental data interpretation using genetic algorithm for global health
           assessment of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to cracking
    • Authors: Michael Daves, Elizabeth K Ervin, Chuangshuo Zeng
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Bridge deterioration must be monitored to ensure continued safety. Strategic repair can offer asset managers the benefit of saving money and time. However, knowing prime location and appropriate repair can be challenging when relying on visual techniques alone. This work quantitatively measures global damage from progressive cracking in a reinforced concrete slab. A novel combined framework of frequency methods, damage metrics, and genetic algorithm techniques is employed for maximum effectiveness of health evaluation. Through experimental modal analysis, tri-axial accelerometer data is interpreted via genetic algorithm using 24 damage indices based upon mode shapes. Along with easily interpretable visualization, four decision criteria validate the optimized results. Both general location and relative severity are estimated: when one artificial crack was induced by cutting, a relative strength change of 58% was detected. With four to eight cuts, change over 90% was detected.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-11T11:41:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220953542
       
  • Localizing and quantifying structural damage by means of a beetle swarm
           optimization algorithm
    • Authors: Yufeng Jiang, Shuqing Wang, Yingchao Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An efficient meta-heuristic algorithm, named beetle swarm optimization (BSO), is proposed to localize and quantify structural damage using limited vibration measurement data. The beetle antennae search (BAS) algorithm that imitats a random walking mechanism in nature was recently developed to solve the optimization problem. However, the ratio of convergence of this algorithm significantly relys on the random direction and deviation for high-dimensional problems. To overcome this shortcoming, the BSO inspired by the swarm intelligence strategy is proposed. In the iterative search process of the BSO, each beetle swarm moves in a random direction like the BAS and the swarm of beetles is cognitive with the optimal one for the searching behavior. Consequently, the optimal one is updated step by step until a better beetle appears. To demonstrate the capability and robustness of the BSO, numerical and experimental studies using limited vibration measurement data of an offshore wind turbine structure are carried out for structural damage identification. An novel objective function is established by combining natural frequencies with mode shapes of the structure. The numerical results show that the BSO can accurately localize and quantify various types of damage even in a noise and temperature variations polluted environment. Moreover, it has higher accuracy and faster convergence speed than the BAS and the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms. These promising performances could contribute to establishing a structural monitoring system for safety assurance of wind turbine structures.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-11T11:41:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220956829
       
  • Prediction of average debris launch velocity from a reinforced concrete
           structure based on SDOF system
    • Authors: Seung-Hun Sung, Hun Ji, Surin Kim, Jinwung Chong
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents a physics-based model for debris launch velocity prediction of a reinforced concrete (RC) structure subjected to a blast load. The model is basically derived from energy conservation equation. Especially, a resistance-deflection relationship for the structural single degree of freedom (SDOF) system is newly considered to evaluate the energy consumed by the damage and fragmentation of the RC structure. By applying the resistance-deflection relationship, the proposed model can consider the interactions between reinforcing bars and concrete. Moreover, since the resistance-deflection curve is evaluated considering various structural properties as well as boundary conditions, the proposed model can be flexibly utilized compared to conventional approaches. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed model, a comparative study was carried out against benchmark experiments on closed concrete box structures under an internal blast. From the comparative study, it was shown that the debris launch velocities estimated from the proposed model had a good agreement with the test results compared with the other models.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T06:51:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220960277
       
  • A study of the bond behavior of FRP bars in MPC seawater concrete
    • Authors: Wen Sun, Yu Zheng, Linzhu Zhou, Jiapeng Song, Yun Bai
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Using magnesium potassium phosphate cement (MPC) and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bar to produce reinforced concrete can overcome the durability problems facing conventional steel reinforced PC concrete. In addition, FRP bar reinforced MPC concrete can also mitigate the CO2 emission issues caused by Portland cement (PC) production and the shortage of natural resources such as virgin aggregates and freshwater. This paper, therefore, is aimed at investigating the bond behavior of the FRP bars in MPC seawater concrete. The direct pullout tests were conducted with a steel bar, BFRP bar, and GFRP bar embedded into different concretes. The effects of reinforcing bars, type of concrete and mixing water on the bond behavior of FRP and steel bars were investigated and discussed. The results showed that the MPC concrete increases the bond strength of BFRP and GFRP bars by 51.06% and 24.42%, respectively, compared with that in PC concrete. Using seawater in MPC concrete can enhance the bond strength of GFRP bar by 13.75%. The damage interface of the FRP bar -MPC is more severe than that of PC with a complete rupture of the FRP ribs and peeling-off of the resin compared to that in steel reinforced MPC specimens. Moreover, the bond stress-slip models were developed to describe the bond behavior of MPC-FRP specimen, and the analytical results match well with the experimental data. In conclusion, the FRP bars showed better bond behavior in the MPC seawater concrete than that in the PC counterparts.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T06:06:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220956816
       
  • Grid patterns optimization for single-layer latticed domes
    • Authors: Masaki Teranishi, Koichiro Ishikawa
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In previous studies on optimized single-layer latticed domes, the inner space and external shape of the optimized dome is different from those of the initial dome. This difference may result in loss of structural functionality and aesthetics intended by the designers, making it difficult to separately evaluate the mechanical properties of the grid patterns and shape of the surface. In this study, 64 types of single-layer latticed domes having different geometric properties are optimized to obtain mechanically effective grid patterns. Six types of objective functions are employed. The nodal coordinates of the domes serve as the design variables under geometrical constraints, where the nodes of the domes can be shifted on the surface area. The geometric and mechanical properties of the optimized grid patterns are evaluated quantitatively against the objective functions. Moreover, interactions between the geometric and mechanical properties are investigated. The results show that the optimized grid pattern has superior mechanical properties and geometric imperfection sensitivity. This optimization scheme can be applied for designing mechanically effective grid patterns for single-layer latticed domes.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T06:06:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220956813
       
  • Development of a novel tuned liquid damper with floating base for
           converting deep tanks into effective vibration control devices
    • Authors: Tanmoy Konar, Aparna (Dey) Ghosh
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the proven effectiveness of tuned liquid dampers (TLDs), readily available liquid storage tanks are rarely utilized for vibration control of laterally-excited structures, as these are deep tanks with low inherent damping. Further, the fluctuation in liquid level in these tanks also causes variation in the fundamental sloshing frequency, leading to detuning. To overcome these problems, a novel TLD with floating base (TLD-FB) is proposed, in which a constant and shallow liquid level is maintained between the free liquid surface and the floating base. The liquid above the floating base acts as a conventional shallow TLD that always remains tuned to the structural frequency. The paper demonstrates how the TLD-FB can be incorporated into a water storage tank system on an example building without disturbing its functionality and achieves structural response reduction, despite water level fluctuations in the tanks.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T06:03:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220953539
       
  • Vehicle collision with bridge piers: A state-of-the-art review
    • Authors: Lin Chen, Hao Wu, Tao Liu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Although the probability of vehicle collision with bridge piers is relatively low, it may cause the pier to fracture and even the entire bridge to collapse, resulting in casualties and huge economic losses. Therefore, bridge piers should be properly designed against vehicle collision. This paper aims to make a state-of-the-art review of the research on vehicle collision with bridge piers, to summarize the achievements and current limitations in this field, and to give some suggestions for future research. It is organized within a framework of performance-based design, which is divided into four types of problems, that is, hazard analysis, structural analysis, damage analysis, and loss analysis. Studies show that reinforced concrete (RC) piers under vehicle impact generally exhibit three damage modes, that is, local damage, shear damage, and flexural damage. When a large truck hits a pier, the engine and container (cargo) may contribute to a two-stage impact characteristic, which has a great influence on the response and damage of the pier. The vehicular impact (force) models and nonlinear response models of RC members under impact loads have been developed respectively, which can be combined to quickly analyze the nonlinear response of RC piers under vehicle impact. Deformation-based methods should be developed to quantify the damage level of RC piers under different damage modes. Current codes still mainly adopt the equivalent static force design method, but some provisions regarding probabilistic (reliability) analysis have appeared. More attention should be paid to the statistical analysis of roadside crashes and vehicle-related parameters in order to obtain a more realistic probabilistic analysis model, and further establish a performance-based design method for RC piers subjected to vehicle collision.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-10T06:01:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220953510
       
  • Displacement response of submerged floating tunnel with flexible boundary
           under explosion load
    • Authors: Luo Gang, Pan Shaokang, Zhang Yulong, Ren Yi, Xiong Kai
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, a single-span submerged floating tunnel (SFT) is simplified as an elastic supporting beam model with movable ends. This model is used to analyze the displacement response of the SFT subjected to an underwater explosion in an ocean environment. The effects of the shock wave pressure and bubble pressure are considered simultaneously. The dynamic equilibrium equation was established based on D’Alembert’s principle. When the pipe segment of the SFT vibrates, the additional inertia force and the damping force of the surrounding water to the pipe are calculated using the Morison equation. The motion differential equation of an SFT under the load of an underwater explosion is obtained using the Galerkin method. The displacement analytical expressions of an SFT under four different stages of load are derived, and a comprehensive analysis is performed to assess the influence of key parameters, including the brace stiffness, damping, scaled distance, and bubble oscillation frequency, on the displacement of the SFT. It was observed that the key parameters mentioned above all significantly influence the displacement response of the SFT. Some reasonable suggestions for different parameters are proposed to provide a reference for the SFT design.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-09-02T05:50:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220950612
       
  • Experimental study on friction performance of damaged interface in
           steel-concrete composite beam connected by high-strength bolt
    • Authors: Ying Xing, Ya-ning Xu, Qi Guo, Jin-feng Jiao, Qing-wei Chen
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Although traditional steel-concrete composite beam has excellent structural characteristics, it cannot meet the requirement of quick disassembly and repair in the bridge. This article presents an experimental study on friction performance of damaged steel-concrete interface in recoverable composite beam connected by high-strength frictional bolts. A total of 21 specific split tests were carried out using different concrete strength, steel strength, and surface treatment of steel. The experimental results showed that the demountable high-strength frictional bolt used in composite beam has similar performance as in the bare steel structures. The initial friction coefficient and slip stiffness were measured to be 0.34–0.47 and 52.3–116.1 kN/mm, respectively. Friction performance of damaged interface was obtained, proving that friction coefficient and slip stiffness will not decrease after the first slip damage. It is also confirmed that shot blasted steel and concrete with higher strength were more suitable in the demountable composite beam.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T07:38:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220947200
       
  • Feasibility of studying 460 MPa high-strength steel affected by strain
           aging with acoustic emission method
    • Authors: Yiting Yang, Yan Wang, Kehao Li
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Strain aging significantly influences the behavior of partially damaged structural steel. The effects of strain aging can be determined based on mechanical experiments, but the sampling process causes further damage to the structures. To explore the possibility of using nondestructive testing (NDT) technology to distinguish the strain aging effects on steel materials, this study investigates the characteristics of acoustic emission (AE) signals for high-strength steel (HSS) affected by strain aging. First, different strain aging effects were applied to 460 MPa HSS specimens. Second, pencil lead break (PLB) tests were performed on the specimens with strain aging, and the generated AE signals were recorded. Finally, tensile tests were conducted, that the strain aging effects on mechanical behavior were determined. The obtained AE signals were compared by extracting the AE parameters and analyzed in the frequency and time-frequency domains with a fast Fourier transform (FFT) and a wavelet transform (WT), respectively. The study shows that the strain aging effects change the characteristics of the AE signals. Compared to the prestrain, the aging time has a more pronounced impact on the AE behaviors. This research proposes a possible NDT method to determine the effects of strain aging on steel materials. Experimental data are provided to detect the degree of partial damage to 460 MPa HSS owing to strain aging using the AE method.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T07:38:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220950615
       
  • An experimental study on the flexural behavior of local prestressed
           steel–concrete composite continuous box beams
    • Authors: Xuebing Zhang, Zhanwei Zhang, Guohui Cao, Dongshan Mo
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The flexural bearing capacities of three composite continuous box beams with different prestressing degrees were tested and studied to investigate the influences of local prestressing bundles on the deflection, relative slip of interface, strain, and redistribution of the internal force of the steel–concrete composite continuous box beam. Results show that the arrangement of local prestress can not only improve the bending stiffness at the mid-span of the composite continuous box beam, but also significantly enhance the ductility. In the design process of the local prestressed composite continuous box beam, the influence of the slip at the middle support should be fully considered, and the deflection could not be taken as a control factor. The internal force redistribution of the local prestressed continuous box beam is lower than that of the ordinary continuous box beam, but it still has good plastic internal force redistribution. The number of prestressing bundles in the negative moment region is the main factor that affects the internal force redistribution of the middle support.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-25T04:16:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220949464
       
  • The impact of uneven temperature distribution on stability of concrete
           structures using data analysis and numerical approach
    • Authors: Xuyan Tan, Weizhong Chen, Luyu Wang, Jianping Yang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Temperature variation is an essential factor to influence the stability of concrete structure. In contrast to the uniform distribution of temperature in most existing approaches, this paper aims to study the natural temperature distribution in concrete structure and analyze its impact on structural mechanical behaviors in field. As a case study, an underwater shield tunnel is investigated using the presented method. Firstly, temperature sensors are installed in different positions to achieve real-time monitoring in field. Then, a statistical model is derived by monitoring data to describe temperature variation. As a core component of the approach, the devised statistical model is integrated into our program to determine the external loads imposed on model. Finally, the mechanical behaviors of concrete structure are discussed under uneven temperature distribution. Analytical results indicated the magnitudes of temperature distribution is related to different positions of structure, in which the significant distinctions can be observed at upper and lower of tunnel as well as the inside and outside structures. Also, the tensile stress of tunnel lining increases with the rise of temperature, for instance, in this case study per temperature rising would lead to an increment 25.3 KPa of tensile stress. As a promising application, the analytical results provide an assessment of concrete structure stability.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-21T09:35:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220950610
       
  • The mechanical performance of concrete shear key for prefabricated
           structures
    • Authors: Xihong Zhang, Hong Hao, Jingbin Zheng, Francisco Hernandez
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The mechanical performance of concrete connection plays an important role in the response of precast concrete structures. Unlike conventional small concrete shear key which is mainly to help with alignment at installation, large concrete shear keys have been often designed in recent engineering practice to improve joint shear resistance. However, the mechanical properties of large concrete shear keys have not been properly studied. This paper utilizes experimental and numerical methods to investigate both direct shear and flexural bending properties of shear keys. Four types of shear keys comprised of trapezoidal shape, semi-spherical shape, dome shape and wave shape are investigated, which are found to strongly influence the mechanical properties of the keyed joint. Laboratory shear test found unlike conventional shear key, with increased tenon size failure moves to concrete mortise. A detailed numerical model is built to help understand stress developed at the key joint. Flexural bending tests are carried out to evaluate the flexural bending properties of these key joints. Through comparing with theoretical derivation for plain flat joint, similar bending moment resistances from the keyed joints are measured with that of plain flat joint, but larger rotation angles are recorded probably because more damages at the key joint. Among the four different joint patterns, shear key with smoothed pattern could effectively relief concrete damages.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-21T09:35:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220950618
       
  • Experimental and numerical studies on Seismic Performance of The SCFST
           Column Eccentrically Braced Frames
    • Authors: Ya-Peng Wu, Zhi-Hua Chen, Ting Zhou, Xian-Dong Chen, Xiao-Dun Wang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The quasi-static experiments and finite element analysis of three groups of special-shaped concrete-filled steel tube (SCFST) column chevron braced frames (two groups of eccentrically braced frames and one group of concentrically braced frame) were carried out. The differences of quasi-static mechanical properties between the three groups frame were compared. The damage mechanism of the concentrically and eccentrically braced frames was significantly different, and the eccentrically braced frame could significantly improve the energy-dissipation ability and ductility. When the single limb of columns was connected by double-steel-plate, the stiffness of eccentrically braced structure could be improved around 10.4% and showed better energy-dissipation capacity. The finite element simulation was built on the basis of experiments, and parametric analysis was examined. The analysis results showed that section forms of the SCFST column and the thickness of brace have significant impacts on the quasi-static properties of such type of structure.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T10:23:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220950609
       
  • Health monitoring sensor placement optimization based on initial sensor
           layout using improved partheno-genetic algorithm
    • Authors: Xianrong Qin, Pengming Zhan, Chuanqiang Yu, Qing Zhang, Yuantao Sun
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Optimal sensor placement is an important component of a reliability structural health monitoring system for a large-scale complex structure. However, the current research mainly focuses on optimizing sensor placement problem for structures without any initial sensor layout. In some cases, the experienced engineers will first determine the key position of whole structure must place sensors, that is, initial sensor layout. Moreover, current genetic algorithm or partheno-genetic algorithm will change the position of the initial sensor locations in the iterative process, so it is unadaptable for optimal sensor placement problem based on initial sensor layout. In this article, an optimal sensor placement method based on initial sensor layout using improved partheno-genetic algorithm is proposed. First, some improved genetic operations of partheno-genetic algorithm for sensor placement optimization with initial sensor layout are presented, such as segmented swap, reverse and insert operator to avoid the change of initial sensor locations. Then, the objective function for optimal sensor placement problem is presented based on modal assurance criterion, modal energy criterion, and sensor placement cost. At last, the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed method are validated by a numerical example of a quayside container crane. Furthermore, the sensor placement result with the proposed method is better than that with effective independence method without initial sensor layout and the traditional partheno-genetic algorithm.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-19T04:26:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220947198
       
  • Strengthening and Characterization of Existing Reinforced Concrete Beams
           for Flexure by Effective Utilization of External Steel Elements
    • Authors: Akhtar Gul, Bashir Alam, Wisal Ahmed, Nauman Wahab, Khan Shahzada, Yasir Irfan Badrashi, Sajjad Wali Khan, Muhammad Nasir Ayaz Khan
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Strengthening of structural members is a common practice around the world that may arise due to deterioration of concrete with age or upgradation of design code. This paper aims to elucidate a technique used for strengthening of the reinforced concrete beam for flexural capacity by using externally welded steel angles and steel bars. For this motive, three beams were strengthened with external steel angles and three with external steel bars. The external strengthening steel elements were attached at the bottom of the beam with shear reinforcement. Control samples without external steel angles and steel bars for comparison purposes were also prepared. All reinforced concrete beams were first constructed using a concrete ratio of 1:2:4, and then external steel elements were added to existing flexural reinforcement by using a fillet weld with tee joints having thickness and length of 5/16" (7.9 mm) and 6" (152.4 mm), respectively. Fourth point loading criteria were used to investigate the flexural capacity of beams in positive bending. All beams were designed strong enough in shear, to resist the ultimate loads without shear failure. Test results indicated that beams strengthened with this technique have an average increase of 238% with steel angles and 106% with steel bars, in load-carrying capacity than control samples. Strengthened beams showed a uniform crack pattern. Moreover, the concrete cover made a good bond with existing concrete and was strong enough to withstand ultimate loads. Conclusively, the steel angles and steel bars can be used as an external strengthening material, to enhance the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete beams.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-18T04:54:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220950614
       
  • Seismic assessment of a cable-stayed arch bridge under three-component
           orthotropic earthquake excitation
    • Authors: Salar Farahmand-Tabar, Majid Barghian
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The occurred damages during the past significant earthquakes have proved that vertical seismic excitation has tremendous effect on bridges. Three-component earthquake excitations are preferred to resemble the earthquakes. In this article, a cable-stayed arch bridge, a new type of bridge with the hybrid system of half-through arch and stay-cables, was analyzed under a set of different earthquake excitations (more than 21 ground motion records). Both vertical and horizontal components of the ground motions were considered to act simultaneously at the bridge supports. By using different three-component earthquake excitations, the dynamic responses of the bridge, including the displacements and accelerations of the main parts of the bridge, were obtained. The effects of various parameters such as soil type, epicentral distance, spatial variation of the ground motions, and dimensional variation of the structure were investigated. The results of the numerical study indicate that the cable-stayed arch bridge subjected to both horizontal and vertical components of earthquakes are more vulnerable than those subjected to horizontal ground motion only.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-13T09:34:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220948756
       
  • Influence of rib parameters on mechanical properties and bond behavior in
           concrete of fiber-reinforced polymer rebar
    • Authors: Pu Zhang, Shuangquan Zhang, Danying Gao, Fang Dong, Ye Liu, Jun Zhao, Shamim A Sheikh
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced polymer rebar and bond behavior between the fiber-reinforced polymer rebar and concrete are highly related to rib parameters, including rib depth and rib spacing. Therefore, rib parameters should be taken into account when fiber-reinforced polymer bars are used as the structure reinforcement. In this article, the tensile properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer rebars with different rib depths and rib spacings are tested. The influences of different rib depths and rib spacings on the bond behavior between glass-fiber-reinforced polymer rebar and concrete are investigated by pull-out test. Experimental results show that the rib depth has a distinctive effect on the ultimate tensile strength, elastic modulus, and ultimate elongation of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer rebar. The tensile strength and elastic modulus of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer rebar with shallow rib are remarkably higher than those of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer bars with deep rib. However, compared with the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer bars with shallow rib, the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer bars with deep rib contribute larger bond strength with concrete. Besides, the bond strength and basic anchorage length are predicted by taking rib depth and rib spacing into account. A modified Bertero–Popov–Eligehausen model is adopted to simulate the bond stress–slip behavior, and the ascending branch of bond stress–slip curve expressed by rib depth and rib spacing is also proposed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the test ones.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T07:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220947196
       
  • Development of rectangular hybrid-stiffened-plate structural system with
           fibre-reinforced polymer fabric composite in tension zone
    • Authors: Inderpreet Kaur Dhindsa, Hardeep Singh Rai, Harvinder Singh
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Reinforced concrete plates stiffened by the beams in the orthogonal directions are widely used in bridges and buildings. Local failure occurs due to stiff beams whereas shallow beams cause global collapse failure in the plate. A theoretical model using inelastic analysis (yield line analysis) has been formulated to predict the behaviour of the rectangular hybrid-reinforced concrete-stiffened-plate system which recognized the benefits of different types of fibre-reinforced polymer fabric and ferrocement in tension side. Parametric study was also conducted to capture the influence of different parameters such as number of panels, plate aspect ratio and beam strength parameter on the flexural capacity of plate system. Designer can select the proportionate hybrid-stiffened-plate system which fails globally to avoid negative yield lines through design chart. In the experimental study, four rectangular hybrid-stiffened-plate structural systems were developed with two internal beams in each perpendicular direction incorporating ferrocement and unidirectional carbon fibre–reinforced polymer fabric, unidirectional basalt fibre–reinforced polymer fabric and bidirectional glass fibre–reinforced polymer fabric sheet on the bottom side. The experimental ultimate load was recorded maximum in unidirectional carbon hybrid–stiffened-plate system, however, unidirectional basalt hybrid–stiffened-plate system gave the best performance with respect to the cost analysis. The numerical analysis had a reasonable consistency with experimental and analytical results.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-12T07:12:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220948755
       
  • Durability of glass-fibre-reinforced polymer composites under seawater and
           sea-sand concrete coupled with harsh outdoor environments
    • Authors: Milad Bazli, Xiao-Ling Zhao, Armin Jafari, Hamed Ashrafi, RK Singh Raman, Yu Bai, Hamed Khezrzadeh
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents an investigation on the durability of different glass-fibre-reinforced polymer composites when subjected to harsh outdoor conditions, including freeze/thaw cycles, ultraviolet radiation and moisture, as well as when used with seawater sea-sand concrete for construction applications. To achieve this, the effects of a number of parameters, including the environment of exposure, exposure time, profile cross-sectional configuration and orientation of fibres, on the mechanical properties of different glass-fibre-reinforced polymer composites were studied. To investigate the degradation of the mechanical properties, three-point bending, compression and tension tests were conducted on both reference and conditioned samples. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed to examine the contribution of microstructural deterioration to the damage mechanisms of the conditioned composites. Finally, the test results were used to develop empirical regression models to predict the level of retention of mechanical properties of different composites under different environmental conditions. The findings showed the maximum flexural, compressive and tensile strength reductions to be 35%, 48% and 37%, respectively, with regards to the pultruded profiles exposed for 3000 h to freeze/thaw cycles followed by 90 days of seawater sea-sand concrete immersion, while the flexural strength reductions recorded for the vacuum-infused samples subjected to 2000 h of freeze/thaw cycles followed by 90 days of seawater sea-sand concrete immersion were 28%, 72% and 56% for the unidirectional, woven and chopped strand mat laminates, respectively.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T04:51:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220947897
       
  • Strength compensation of deep beams with large web openings using carbon
           fiber–reinforced polymer sheets
    • Authors: Abbas A Allawi, Nazar K Oukaili, Waleed A Jasim
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents the results of an experimental investigation of using carbon fiber–reinforced polymer sheets to enhance the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams with large web openings in shear spans. A set of 18 specimens were fabricated and tested up to a failure to evaluate the structural performance in terms of cracking, deformation, and load-carrying capacity. All tested specimens were with 1500-mm length, 500-mm cross-sectional deep, and 150-mm wide. Parameters that studied were opening size, opening location, and the strengthening factor. Two deep beams were implemented as control specimens without opening and without strengthening. Eight deep beams were fabricated with openings but without strengthening, while the other eight deep beams were with openings in shear spans and with carbon fiber–reinforced polymer sheet strengthening around opening zones. The opening size was adopted to be 200 × 200 mm dimensions in eight deep beams, while it was considered to be 230 × 230 mm dimensions in the other eight specimens. In eight specimens the opening was located at the center of the shear span, while in the other eight beams the opening was attached to the interior edge of the shear span. Carbon fiber–reinforced polymer sheets were installed around openings to compensate for the cutout area of concrete. Results gained from the experimental test showed that the creation of openings in shear spans affect the load-carrying capacity, where the reduction of the failure load for specimens with the opening but without strengthening may attain 66% compared to deep beams without openings. On the other hand, the strengthening by carbon fiber–reinforced polymer sheets for beams with openings increased the failure load by 20%–47% compared with the identical deep beam without strengthening. A significant contribution of carbon fiber–reinforced polymer sheets in restricting the deformability of deep beams was observed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T04:50:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220947195
       
  • An effective method for damage assessment based on limited measured
           locations in skeletal structures
    • Authors: Parsa Ghannadi, Seyed Sina Kourehli
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article proposes a new damage detection method using Modal Test Analysis Model and artificial neural networks. A challenge in damage detection problems is lack of measured degrees of freedom, as well as limitations of attached sensors. Modal Test Analysis Model has been used in order to estimate unmeasured degrees of freedom. An experimental cantilever beam was used to show Modal Test Analysis Model’s efficiency in estimation of unmeasured mode shapes. To solve the inverse problem of damage detection, mode shapes estimated by Modal Test Analysis Model were used as inputs, and characteristics of the damage served as outputs of the artificial neural network. The sensitivity analysis carried out for each example showing the performance of artificial neural network after mode shape expansion was efficiently improved. Three numerical examples for plane and space truss structures are considered, in order to verify effectiveness of the proposed method. Results demonstrate a high accuracy of Modal Test Analysis Model and artificial neural network for structural damage detection.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T04:50:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220947193
       
  • Quantification of shear strength in reinforced concrete beams using
           digital image correlation: Experimental and analytical study
    • Authors: Assia Nouri, Mostefa Hamrat, Bensaid Boulekbache, Said Nouri, Farid Bouziadi, Abderrahim Labed, Abdelkader Haddi, Chafika Djelal
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents an experimental study aiming to provide reliable experimental data for the prediction of the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams without stirrups. The shear strength results obtained from the proposed model as well as those from the design codes (ACI 318, Eurocode 2 and BS 8110) are compared with the database containing 700 beams made of both high strength concrete and normal strength concrete. Furthermore, the experimental results were used to assess the contribution of each shear mechanism obtained from Chen’s, Cavagnis’s and Fernández Ruiz’s models. The contribution of these various shear-transfer actions is also quantified experimentally, using a digital image correlation. As a result, the measured contributions of dowel action, aggregate interlock and compression zone to the total shear resistance were estimated as 45% to 50%, 20% to 35% and 17% to 31%, respectively, for high strength concrete beams. On the contrary, the average test-to-predicted contribution of the shear-transfer action ratio determined by the Chen formula is 1.15 for short beams, whereas the Fernández Ruiz and the Cavagnis models yielded average ratios of 1.04 and 1.52, respectively, for slender beams. The proposed formulae give a rational prediction for either both short and slender beams, and yield accurate and consistent results compared to the other models used in this study, with a lowest average value of the test-to-predicted at 1.08 and that of the coefficient of variation at 23.06%, particularly for short beams. However, ACI 318 is the only code that does not take into account the size effect, leading to a severe underestimation of the shear strength for short beams.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T12:02:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220944510
       
  • Strength reduction factor of self-centering structures under near-fault
           pulse-like ground motions
    • Authors: Huihui Dong, Qiang Han, Xiuli Du, Canxing Qiu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Many studies on the strength reduction factor mainly focused on structures with the conventional hysteretic models. However, for the self-centering structure with the typical flag-shaped hysteretic behavior, the corresponding study is limited. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the strength reduction factor of the self-centering structure with flag-shaped hysteretic behavior subjected to near-fault pulse-like ground motions by the time history analysis. For this purpose, the smooth flag-shaped model based on Bouc-Wen model which can show flag-shaped hysteretic behavior is first described. The strength reduction factor spectra of the flag-shaped model are then calculated under 85 near-fault pulse-like ground motions. The influences of the ductility level, vibration period, site condition, hysteretic parameter, and hysteretic model are investigated statistically. For comparison, the strength reduction factors under ordinary ground motions are also analyzed. The results show that the strength reduction factor from near-fault pulse-like ground motions is smaller. Finally, a predictive model is proposed to estimate the strength reduction factor for the self-centering structure with the flag-shaped model under near-fault pulse-like ground motions.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T12:02:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220945055
       
  • Exterior girder rotation of skew and non-skew bridges during construction
    • Authors: Md Ashiquzzaman, Li Hui, Ahmed Ibrahim, Will Lindquist, Nader Panahshahi, Riyadh Hindi
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In bridge design, bridge decks regularly overhang past the exterior girders in arrange to extend the width of the deck whereas constraining the specified number of girders. The overhanging part of the deck comes about in uneven eccentric loads to the exterior girders which are by and large most prominent. These eccentric loads are primarily a result of bridge construction operations as well as the weight of new concrete and other construction live loads. These unbalanced loads can lead to a differential edge deflection of overhang deck and a rotation of the exterior girders. The girder rotation or differential deck deflection can also affect local and global stability of the entire bridge. The objective of this study is to enhance the knowledge and understanding of external girder behavior due to unbalanced eccentric construction loads and to identify the critical factors affecting their rotation. In this article, field data obtained during the construction of two skewed (one with a small skew (3.8°) and the second with a severe skew (24°)) and one non-skewed steel girder bridges are described, and a detailed comparison is presented. The three bridges experienced maximum outward exterior girder rotation during construction which subsequently decreased following construction operations. The field results were used to validate and calibrate the finite element models. The numerical and field-monitored data showed good agreement and can be used to assist bridge designers and construction engineers to design appropriate systems to limit girder rotation during construction.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T12:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220945061
       
  • Seismic performance test of rammed earth wall with different structural
           columns
    • Authors: Tiegang Zhou, Zaiyu Zhang, Zhifan Su, Peng Tian
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Rammed earth wall load-bearing dwellings are widely distributed in western China. Rammed earth has the advantages of warm in winter and cool in summer, and it is a kind of sustainable construction material. In recent years, in previous earthquakes, the collapse of rammed earth buildings is serious, resulting in huge losses of personnel and property. To improve the seismic performance of rammed earth buildings and retain the characteristics of local buildings, a reinforcement measure with additional structural columns is proposed in this article. Three kinds of structural columns are designed, which are cast-in-place concrete, square steel tube, and concrete-filled square steel tube core column. Through the quasi-static experimental study on the rammed earth wall, the effects of different structural columns on the failure shape, bearing capacity, deformation capacity, and energy dissipation capacity of the wall are compared. The test results show that adding structural columns on both sides of the wall can effectively restrain the rammed earth wall, restrain its brittle failure, significantly improve the energy dissipation capacity of the wall, and obviously improve the seismic performance of the wall. This measure is applicable to rammed earth buildings and provides theoretical support for improving the seismic performance of traditional dwellings.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-28T10:24:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220944506
       
  • Probabilistic analysis models to determine capsule dosage for healing of
           cracks in concrete
    • Authors: Miaomiao Wang, Xiangming Hu, Yanyun Zhao
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In order to analyze the optimal dosage of capsule pre-embedded in concrete materials, this article simplified the irregular cracks generated in concrete materials into linear regular hexagonal cracks in two-dimensional plane and planar cracks in three-dimensional space. Then, the probability model describing the interaction between the cracks and capsules was established using the probability theory of integral geometry. The theoretical solutions for the required capsule dosage for the two- and three-dimensional cases were derived. Finally, the calculated results for the theoretical model were compared with those provided by the computer simulation software. The results indicated that the model is suitable for analyzing and optimizing the capsule dosage required to repair cracks in concrete materials. It can provide a theoretical basis for the design of self-healing materials.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T09:59:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220942868
       
  • Comprehensive sensitivity analysis of rotational stability of a super-deep
           underground spherical structure considering uncertainty
    • Authors: Hua-Ping Wan, Yanfeng Zheng, Yaozhi Luo, Chao Yang, Xian Xu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory central detector is located 700 m below the ground and also submerged into an ultrapure water pool. The main structure of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory central detector is a hybrid spherical shell that is vulnerable to rotation under the buoyancy effect. The influences of the model parameters on the rotational stability of this complex and unique structure are investigated. Since the model parameters are inevitably subjected to many sources of uncertainties (e.g. manufacturing tolerances and geometrical imperfections), the parameter uncertainty is taken into account. In addition, linear and nonlinear rotational stabilities of this super-deep underground spherical structure are also under consideration. Specifically, the critical loading multiplier is used as the evaluation indicator of linear rotational stability and the load proportionality factor-θ curve is considered as the evaluation indicator of nonlinear rotational stability. The sensitivity of linear and nonlinear rotational stabilities to uncertain parameters is systematically studied in terms of univariate and multivariate global sensitivity analyses. The univariate global sensitivity analysis is able to evaluate the effects of uncertain parameters on each evaluation indicator, whereas multivariate global sensitivity analysis enables to assess the global influence of uncertain parameters on all evaluation indicators. A polynomial chaos expansion surrogate model is utilized to replace the time-consuming simulation model for analytical implementation of the univariate and multivariate global sensitivity analyses. The present polynomial chaos expansion-based univariate and multivariate global sensitivity analyses effectively and efficiently reveal the sensitivity of the rotational stability of this super-deep underground spherical structure to uncertain parameters, and provide a practical method for comprehensive sensitivity analysis of similar structures.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T09:59:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220944511
       
  • Experimental test for mechanical properties of new tenon composite wall
           using thermal self-insulation block
    • Authors: Dongyue Wu, Hui Su, Shilin Wang, Wei Chen
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Concrete hollow blocks have the advantages of simplified construction, reduced construction time, and better thermal performance, and can thereby achieve energy conservation in building engineering and significantly improved thermal and mechanical performance. A new tenon composite block is presented to achieve better self-thermal insulation and mechanical performance by integrating thermal materials into blocks. The tenon composite block application requires satisfying mechanical and seismic performance. Therefore, to prove the mechanical and seismic performance of the tenon composite block, a low cyclic loading test was performed on two self-thermal insulation wall specimens: the tenon composite block and the “Martha” block (used as the comparison specimen). The crack distributions, failure modes, force–displacement data expressed using hysteresis and skeleton curves, mechanical parameters of strengths, displacements, ductility coefficients, stiffness degradations, and equivalent viscous damping coefficients of the two specimens were analyzed in the low cyclic loading test. By analyzing the specimen crack distributions and failure modes, the tenon composite block was proven capable of effectively connecting the heat insulation and loading bearing parts. The differences in the force–displacement data and the mechanical parameters between the tenon composite block and “Martha” block specimens, such as the higher strength and stiffness of the tenon composite block specimen and similar ductility performance with the widely applied “Martha” specimen, were mainly caused by the size differences between the tenon composite block and “Martha” specimens. Finally, suggestions for tenon composite block applications are proposed to overcome the limitations of the tenon composite block’s ability to consume seismic energy.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T09:59:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220944508
       
  • Durability of seawater and sea sand concrete and seawater and sea sand
           concrete–filled fibre-reinforced polymer/stainless steel tubular stub
           columns
    • Authors: Ying-Lei Li, Xiao-Ling Zhao, RK Singh Raman
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents an experimental investigation on the durability behaviour of seawater sea sand concrete and seawater sea sand concrete–filled fibre-reinforced polymer/stainless steel tubular stub columns. Effects of NaCl of seawater on the strength of seawater sea sand concrete and on the deterioration of fibre-reinforced polymer were studied. Accelerated degradation tests were conducted on fibre-reinforced polymer rings exposed to a combined environment of 3.5% NaCl solution and seawater sea sand concrete. Obvious hoop strength reductions were observed in glass fibre-reinforced polymer and basalt fibre-reinforced polymer rings after 6-month exposure at 60°C. Seawater sea sand concrete–filled glass fibre-reinforced polymer tubular stub columns were exposed to an indoor environment (i.e. aged in air at room temperature) for a maximum duration of 2.5 years and no degradation was found by comparing the axial compressive test results from unexposed and exposed specimens. Seawater sea sand concrete–filled stainless steel tubes did not show any deterioration in strength after a 2.5-year exposure to an indoor environment or a 1.5-year immersion in NaCl solution. This study indicated that a hydrothermal environment (e.g. full immersion in solution) is much more aggressive to fibre-reinforced polymer than a dry environment. The reliability of using accelerated degradation test data to estimate the long-term performance of fibre-reinforced polymer–related structures in a real environment may need further research.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T09:59:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220944509
       
  • Seismic behavior of exteriorbeam–column joints withhigh-performance
           steel rebar: Experimental and numerical investigations
    • Authors: Fei Gao, Zhiqiang Tang, Shilong Mei, Biao Hu, Shitao Huang, Junbo Chen
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Three full-scale exterior beam–column joints with anti-seismic steel reinforcement were tested under quasi-static cyclic loading and column axial compressive loading. The test variables were column axial load ratio and joint core hoop reinforcement ratio. Experimental results, including failure mode, hysteretic curve, ductility, energy dissipation, stiffness degradation, and decoupling of deformations, were presented and analyzed. The tests revealed that the anti-seismic rebar resulted in good joint seismic performance and that column axial load ratio and joint core hoop reinforcement ratio impose limited influence of joint performance when the joint failed in beam flexural failure. The calibrated finite element models developed based on OpenSees were then used to simulate the behavior of joint specimens. Parametric studies via finite element modeling were performed to study the influence of various parameters on the performance of beam–column joints.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-27T09:58:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220942870
       
  • On the influence of resin pocket area on the failure of tapered sandwich
           composites
    • Authors: Milad Soleymani, Masoud Tahani, Pedram Zamani
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Structural defects such as resin pocket area are inevitably created between surface and core of composite structures during the production of wind turbine blades using vacuum infusion process. In this article, four-point bending tests were performed on tapered sandwich composites to investigate the effect of resin pocket area on the mechanical strength, crack growth path, and failure mode. Specimens were in similar shape to wind turbine blade profiles, and a shear-dominant load was applied to the resin pocket area during the experiments. The extended finite-element method was applied in order to predict crack growth path and failure mode. The average static strength of the specimens including the small size of resin pocket area had almost no change in compare with the specimen with no resin pocket area. Moreover, the medium size of resin pocket area decreased the strength for 3.5% while the large size one enhanced it for 1.75%. Thus, it can be deduced that the defect area does not have a significant effect on the flexural strength of the sandwich composite tapered specimens, but it can arrest the crack. Therefore, the crack propagates in the opposite direction at the interface of the face and core. Although the resin pocket area arrests the crack, it was observed that the size of resin pocket area directly affects the crack growth and its path. The smaller resin pocket area leads to slower crack growth, and early collapse occurs for the larger size of defect area. So, the size of resin pocket area has considerable importance during manufacturing of such structures. Finally, numerical results have shown good agreement with experimental ones.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-21T07:18:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220940816
       
  • Axial monotonic and cyclic compressive behavior of square GFRP
           tube–confined steel-reinforced concrete composite columns
    • Authors: Weichang Pei, Daiyu Wang, Xuan Wang, Zhenyu Wang
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Fiber-reinforced polymer tube–confined steel fiber–reinforced concrete column is a novel composite column proposed recently, which consists of a traditional steel-reinforced concrete column and an external glass fiber–reinforced plastic tube for lateral confinement. In order to investigate the axial compression behavior of steel fiber–reinforced concrete columns, a total of 16 square specimens were fabricated and tested under axial monotonic and cyclic compressive loading. Three different configurations of inner shaped steels, including cross-shaped, box-shaped with wielding, and box-shaped without wielding were considered. Two thicknesses of glass fiber–reinforced concrete tubes were also considered as the main experimental parameters. On the basis of test results, a thorough analysis of the failure process based on strain analysis was discussed. The test results showed that steel fiber–reinforced concrete columns exhibited higher ductility and load capacity compared with fiber-reinforced plastic–confined plain concrete columns. Two quantitative indexes were proposed to measure the confinement of steel fiber–reinforced concretes. The axial cyclic mechanical behaviors were discussed through comparative analysis with monotonic behaviors. The remnant strains and modulus of the cyclic behaviors were also discussed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T10:51:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220934557
       
  • Smart self-sensing fiber-reinforced polymer sheet with woven carbon fiber
           line sensor for structural health monitoring
    • Authors: Nariman Fouad, Mohamed A Saifeldeen
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      With the development of technology to upgrade existing concrete structures using externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer composites, the properties that are inherent in fiber-reinforced polymer sheets, such as low bonding ductility between fiber-reinforced polymer and concrete, have been highlighted as presenting a challenge. This article presents a novel, smart, self-sensing fiber-reinforced polymer sheet, by hybridizing the fiber-reinforced polymer sheet with woven long-gauge carbon fiber line sensors, in order to monitor the macrostrain changes of the fiber-reinforced polymer sheet. To examine the behavior of the smart fiber-reinforced polymer sheet, a direct tensile test was carried out. The results clarified that the carbon fiber line sensor has a linear relationship with applied stress, and the woven carbon fiber line sensor can work homogeneously with the fiber-reinforced polymer sheet as one unit. A simply supported prestressed concrete beam, strengthened with the smart fiber-reinforced polymer sheet, was tested by means of a four points bending test. This test showed that the carbon fiber line sensor can distinctly detect the cracking load and the initial debonding between the fiber-reinforced polymer sheet and the concrete surface. This article demonstrated that the fabrication of smart fiber-reinforced polymer sheet-sensing structures for structural health monitoring would be beneficial.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T09:55:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220944507
       
  • Hailstone-induced dynamic responses of pretensioned umbrella membrane
           structure
    • Authors: Changjiang Liu, Fan Wang, Xiaowei Deng, Song Pang, Jian Liu, Yuyou Wu, Zhong Xu
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The membrane structure is a flexible structure, which is easy to vibrate or even relax under dynamic load. Engineering accident analysis shows that the relaxation of membrane structure is more likely to lead to structural failure. In this article, the impact load problem is combined with the flexible structure to analyze the impact of hailstone impact load on the dynamic response of membrane structure. First, the umbrella membrane stretching device was designed and manufactured, and the hailstone impact test was carried out on the umbrella membrane structure with polyvinyl chloride membrane material. Dynamic response data, tension relaxation of side cables and vibration deformation of umbrella membrane structures impacted by hailstones with different sizes and different characteristic points were obtained. In the numerical analysis, the form-finding analysis of umbrella membrane structure is carried out by finite element method, and the transient impact analysis is conducted in LS-DYNA. Finally, the reliability of the research results is verified by comparing the numerical and experimental results. The general laws and conclusions are drawn and the disaster-causing mechanism of membrane structure impacted by hailstone is revealed. On the whole, although the probability of hailstone destroying the membrane material directly is very small, it will relax the membrane structure and affect the safety of membrane structure. The conclusions of this article provide a theoretical basis for the design and maintenance of membrane structures.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T09:52:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220940149
       
  • Strengthening of steel decks for cable-stayed bridge using ultra-high
           performance concrete: A case study
    • Authors: Lei Wang, Xiaochao Su, Yafei Ma, Ming Deng, Jianren Zhang, CS Cai
      First page: 3373
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Fatigue cracking induced by vehicle load is a prevalent problem in orthotropic steel decks. In addition, pavement debonding in steel bridge decks is another familiar issue resulting from low slip resistance in the faying surface between the steel and asphalt concrete. The present study proposed a strengthening method that uses ultra-high performance concrete to stiffen a repeatedly maintained cable-stayed bridge in order to help address these two problems. The existing issues of the real bridge and the corresponding causes were investigated. Following this, an ultra-high performance concrete paving system was designed to improve the stiffness of the orthotropic steel decks. For this paving system, a 45-mm ultra-high performance concrete layer was connected to the deck by welded shear studs. The local stresses at the typical vulnerable fatigue cracking points were determined by means of a finite element model and of a field loading test to evaluate the strengthening effect. The results showed that this strengthening method can prevent the propagation of fatigue cracks. The local stresses of the U-ribs and diaphragms were reduced by 45.4% and 40.0%, respectively. The repaired bridge has sufficient resistance against fatigue cracking based on the in situ observations.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-09T11:32:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220939210
       
  • Numerical simulation of failure mechanism in screw anchors under static
           tension
    • Authors: Somayeh Nassiri, Zhao Chen, Anthony Lamanna, William Cofer
      First page: 3385
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Concrete screw anchors under tension commonly fail in a combined (pullout and concrete breakout) mode; however, currently, there is no mechanistic model to predict the load in this mode. Finite element models of screw anchors can help understand the mechanism of the combined mode and predict the ultimate strength in this mode (Ncomb). In this study, finite element models were developed and validated by 37 tests of screw anchors in three different diameters (d) and two effective embedment depths (hef) per diameter. The finite element models were used to identify the combined failure mode and to compare with the experimental load–displacement curves and Ncomb. An additional 119 simulations including variations of d, hef, and concrete compressive strength [math] were generated. Based on the results, Ncomb was found significantly related to [math], [math], and d0.35. A prediction model for Ncomb was developed which showed an overall good fit using a total of 93 experimental data.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-09T11:31:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220937143
       
  • Shear behavior of large stud shear connectors embedded in
           ultra-high-performance concrete
    • Authors: Yuqing Hu, Huiguang Yin, Xiaomeng Ding, Shuai Li, JQ Wang
      First page: 3401
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, the static shear behavior of large-headed studs embedded in ultra-high-performance concrete was investigated by push-out test and numerical analysis. A total of nine push-out specimens with single and grouped studs embedded in ultra-high-performance concrete and normal strength concrete slabs were tested. In the testing process, only shank failure appeared without cracks occurring on the surface of ultra-high-performance concrete slab when the steel–ultra-high-performance concrete specimens reached ultimate shear capacity. The shear capacity of specimens with large studs embedded in ultra-high-performance concrete slab increased by 10.6% compared those in normal concrete, and the current design codes such as Eurocode4, AASHTO LFRD 2014, and GB50017-2003 all underestimate the shear capacity of such kind of steel–ultra-high-performance concrete composite structures according to experimental results. Numerical models were established using ABAQUS with introducing damage plasticity material model. The influence of stud diameter, concrete strength, thickness of clear cover, and spacing of studs on the static shear behavior was thoroughly investigated via parametric analysis. Based on the experimental and numerical analysis, the existence of wedge block and the decrease of axis force are beneficial for improving the shear capacity of stud shear connectors.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-09T11:31:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220939208
       
  • Free vibration analysis of a single edge cracked symmetric functionally
           graded stepped beams
    • Authors: Yusuf Cunedioglu, Shkelzen Shabani
      First page: 3415
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Free vibration analysis of a single edge cracked multi-layered symmetric sandwich stepped Timoshenko beams, made of functionally graded materials, is studied using finite element method and linear elastic fracture mechanic theory. The cantilever functionally graded beam consists of 50 layers, assumed that the second stage of the beam (step part) is created by machining. Thus, providing the material continuity between the two beam stages. It is assumed that material properties vary continuously, along the thickness direction according to the exponential and power laws. A developed MATLAB code is used to find the natural frequencies of three types of the stepped beam, concluding a good agreement with the known data from the literature, supported also by ANSYS software in data verification. In the study, the effects of the crack location, crack depth, power law gradient index, different material distributions, different stepped length, different cross-sectional geometries on natural frequencies and mode shapes are analysed in detail.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-10T12:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220939214
       
  • Two-discrete-elements concrete shear deformation model: Formulation and
           application in the seismic evaluation of reinforced concrete shear walls
    • Authors: Fadi Oudah, Raafat El-Hacha
      First page: 3429
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Shear deformation in reinforced concrete structures is of a complex nature. A thorough understanding of the interaction between the shear strength, flexural strength, and flexural ductility is not yet achieved. A new shear-deformation-based theory is proposed and validated in this study. The so-called two-discrete-elements (TDE) shear deformation theory idealizes reinforced concrete members as series of two discrete types of elements: S-elements and C-elements. The S-elements are used to model the regions of concrete reinforced to resist flexural and shear deformation using longitudinal and transverse steel reinforcement, while the C-elements are used to model the reinforced concrete sections bounded by the stirrups. The compatibility between the two types of elements is enforced by controlling the crack angle. The formulation of the newly developed theory is discussed in terms of equilibrium of forces, compatibility within the elements, compatibility at the interface, and constitutive material modeling. The theory was applied to evaluate the deformability of reinforced concrete shear walls subjected to lateral loads for seismic design applications. It was also implemented to generate sample design charts referred to as axial–moment–shear interaction diagrams. These diagrams can be used to design shear walls subjected to combined action of axial load, moment, and shear as opposed to the conventional interaction diagrams in which only the axial load versus moment relationship is considered. Analysis results indicated the adequacy of the proposed theory in capturing the shear strength degradation and predicting structural failures controlled by the shear capacity.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-10T12:25:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220916938
       
  • Effect of adhesive interlayers on protective performance of bio-inspired
           building ceramic covering
    • Authors: Yuyan Sun, Sheng Wang, Ziguo Wang
      First page: 3446
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The brick-and-mortar microstructure of nacre is usually considered as a source of inspiration for the development of strong and tough artificial materials. In this article, a nacre-inspired layered-and-staggered structural building ceramic protective covering was fabricated, and the effect of four types of adhesive materials on the ballistic performance of the protective covering was investigated through the ballistic test. The experimental results showed that under the impact of the 7.62-mm ordinary rifle bullet at a speed of 790–820 m/s, the average crater diameter in the concrete targets with protective covering was reduced by 40%–72%, and the penetration depth in the concrete was reduced by 70%–100%, compared with those of unprotected concrete targets. For the concrete targets with protective covering, that adopting the silicone sealant interlayers exhibited a smaller crater area but a maximum penetration depth, while that adopting the epoxy adhesive interlayers showed a larger crater area but a minimum penetration depth. Since the targets with the low-cost polyurethane sealant interlayers presented the smallest crater area and the shallower penetration depth, it can be concluded that the concrete with the protective covering using polyurethane sealant interlayers showed the better projectile impact resistance.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-11T05:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220939212
       
  • Monotonic and cyclic response of hybrid fibre reinforced polymer
           reinforcing system for reinforced concrete columns under eccentric loading
           
    • Authors: Ramesh Gopal, S Krishnachandran, BH Bharatkumar
      First page: 3456
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Near-surface mounted reinforcement system using fibre reinforced polymer bars has been widely considered as an accepted system for strengthening of reinforced concrete columns, particularly with respect to increasing the flexural resistance. It involves cutting grooves into the concrete cover and bonding laminates inside the grooves with fillers (either epoxy resin or cement mortar) ensuring proper bond between fibre reinforced polymer laminate and concrete to prevent premature failure (debonding of laminate). Near-surface mounting does not require extensive surface preparation and takes minimum installation time than externally bonded fibre reinforced polymer. Unlike conventional fibre reinforced polymer jacketing technology, the efficiency of near-surface mounted bars does not depend on the geometry of the column cross-section as well. Previous experimental studies indicate that strengthening using near-surface mounting increases the lateral strength capacity and energy dissipation capacity of reinforced concrete columns. However, the scope of employing a strengthening system for structural retrofits is constrained by the limitations of the material used for strengthening. The lack of adequate confinement results in reduced ductility and energy dissipation capacity for columns strengthened using near-surface mounted technique, particularly under increased loading eccentricities. Jacketing of columns using fibre reinforced polymer increases confinement; however, the efficiency was observed to be reduced at increased loading eccentricities. Similarly, the flexural capacity and drift capacity under low levels of axial load were not observed to be significantly enhanced by the use of fibre reinforced polymer jacketing. Previous studies have indicated that a combination of these two systems could provide effective behaviour for reinforced concrete columns under eccentric loading. Therefore, this research focuses on utilizing a combination of these two methods in the form of a hybrid fibre reinforced polymer reinforcing system consisting of near-surface mounted bars and fibre reinforced polymer confinement to study the structural response of strengthened reinforced concrete columns under eccentric axial compression.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-11T05:46:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220939209
       
  • Reliability-based assessment of flexural timber components with ultimate
           deflection performance
    • Authors: Pan-Pan Tian, Hong-Xing Qiu, Zhou-Zhou Liang, Jian Sun
      First page: 3469
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Assessing the deflection performance of existing flexural timber components is of paramount importance for making better, reliable, and substantiated decisions. The main purpose of this article is to propose four-level reliability index β and deflection criteria for updating existing flexural timber components (main beam, joist, purlin, and rafter) based on long-term deflection probabilistic model, limit state functions, and load combinations. The long-term deflection probabilistic model was obtained through creep deflection and short-term deflection model. Limit state functions were considered to be ultimate limit states of load-bearing capacity. In addition, four-level reliability index β were calculated by three live loads (residential live load, office live load, and snow live load) and seven load ratios ρ (0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0). The results of proposed four-level criterion were illustrated with the reliable safety assessment for flexural timber components.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T09:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220940146
       
  • Design-oriented axial stress–strain model for partially
           fiber-reinforced-polymer-confined normal-strength concrete
    • Authors: Junlong Yang, Jizhong Wang, Ziru Wang
      First page: 3481
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the influence of “arching action” in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) partially confined concrete columns as a result of the unconfined regions, the confinement of the concrete columns wrapped with discrete FRP strips is less efficient when compared with full wrapping schemes. This study comprehensively investigates the difference of the the confinement mechanism between fully and partially FRP confined circular normal-strength concrete and thus presents a new design-oriented model to predict the stress–strain relationships of partially FRP confined normal-strength concrete. The formulas used to determine the strength and corresponding strain of several key points on the stress–strain curves are also proposed by the regression analysis according to a reliable test database from the relevant literature. Besides, another selected database including 100 FRP partially wrapped circular concrete columns is also collected for model verification. The results show that better performance can be achieved by the new model compared with the selected models in predicting the ultimate conditions of partially FRP confined concrete. Finally, some specimens are chosen to assess the performance of the new model in predicting the complete axial stress–strain curves. The comparisons reveal that satisfactory accuracy and good agreement can be achieved between the theoretical predictions and experimental observations.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T09:34:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220933461
       
  • Experimental and numerical studies on the deployment process of
           self-locking cuboid foldable structural units
    • Authors: Zhanwei Zhao, Weibing Hu, Lei Yu
      First page: 3496
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Structural units are the basic components of self-locking foldable grid structures, and their spatial configurations have a vital influence on the structural performance of the overall grid. Research on the deployment process of structural units can help effectively control their stress level and achieve a rational self-locking capability for the units. Therefore, this article describes experimental and modeling studies on the deployment process of structural units and provides a reference for the establishment of numerical models and the design of structural units. The experimental results revealed that the self-locking capability of a structural unit is mainly determined by the bending moments of its members in the planes of the scissor-like elements. The method for adjusting the locations of the pivot endpoints at the radial bars is effective for improving the self-locking capacity, but the degree of adjustment must be strictly controlled to prevent large rotation at the inner lower hub joint. In addition, the feasibility of the modeling method was verified by comparing the experimental curves with the curves obtained by theoretical models.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T09:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220940817
       
  • Experimental investigation on the cyclic performance of perfobond rib
           shear connectors
    • Authors: Zhixiang Li, Bin Wu, Man Liao, Xingwang Yang, Kailai Deng, Canhui Zhao
      First page: 3509
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The behavior of perfobond rib shear connectors (PBL shear connectors) under monotonic loading has been widely studied. However, the performance of these connectors under cyclic loading is poorly understood and has seldom been investigated. This work presents an experimental study focusing on the cyclic performance of representative PBL shear connectors with passing rebar. Optical fibers were introduced to measure the detailed strain distributions. Results showed that the bearing capacity of these connectors could reduce up to 55.04% when compared with that under monotonic loading. The performance of these connectors differed significantly between the pull and push directions in the cyclic loading process. The concrete cracks, relative slip, and strains were developed earlier and more completely under pull than under push. Furthermore, rapid stiffness degradation, severe cracking and deformation of the concrete dowels were revealed, indicating the rapid failure of the adhesive effect, reduction of both the shear-friction effect and the dowel action of the passing rebars. These factors all contributed to the observed significant cyclic deterioration of the peak load and the slip. Based on this, a modified formula was proposed to consider the reduction effect. Comparisons between the analytical solution and test results validated the formula.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-14T09:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220939211
       
  • Seismic retrofit of structures using rotational friction dampers with
           restoring force
    • Authors: Asad Naeem, Jinkoo Kim
      First page: 3525
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the seismic performance of a rotational friction damper with restoring force is presented. The torsional spring friction damper consists of rotational friction pads with the heavy duty torsional springs attached on both sides of the friction damper. An analytical model and a design procedure for the damper are developed using capacity spectrum method. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the influence of the torsional spring in the response of the structure when subjected to ground motions. The seismic performances of steel structures retrofitted with the torsional spring friction damper and conventional rotational friction dampers are evaluated using fragility analysis, which shows that the structure retrofitted with the torsional spring friction damper has the smallest probability of reaching the specific limit states.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T02:34:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220939213
       
  • Seismic and economic performance of a mid-rise cassette structure
    • Authors: Zhi-Peng Chen, De-Cheng Feng, Gang Wu, Ke-Jian Ma
      First page: 3541
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, a new structure called cassette structure is presented. A comparative analysis of seismic and economic performance of a cassette structure and a frame structure is conducted. An existing frame office building is selected and redesigned as a cassette structure to compare the performance of the two kinds of structures. Three-dimensional finite element models are built for the two prototype structures, where fiber elements are used to simulate plastic behavior. To assess the advantages fully, seismic analysis and economic analysis are performed. Eighteen Federal Emergency Management Agency recommended seismic records are used, and the roof displacement, story drift ratio, plastic hinges development, and Park–Ang damage index are compared. Furthermore, the material, template, transportation, and assembling costs are calculated based on Chinese quotas, and the overall economic impact is evaluated. In this case, all indexes show that the cassette structure has an obvious advantage over conventional frame structure.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T02:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220942871
       
  • Shear stiffness of inclined screws in timber–concrete composite beam
           with timber board interlayer
    • Authors: Hao Du, Xiamin Hu, Zhixiang Sun, Weijie Fu
      First page: 3555
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The timber board interlayer is applied as the formwork for the pouring of concrete slab in various practical applications of timber–concrete composite structures, with the rehabilitation of timber buildings, in particular. At present, there are few studies performed to study the shear stiffness of inclined screws in timber–concrete composite beams with timber board interlayer. In this article, eight groups of shear tests were carried out to study the shear stiffness of inclined screws in timber–concrete composite beams with timber board interlayer. The key parameters included the embedment depth of the screw connector into timber, screw diameter, the thickness of concrete slab, and concrete strength. As indicated by the test results, the shear stiffness of the inclined screws was improved as the embedment depth of screw into timber and screw diameter increased. When the embedded depth of screw into concrete remained unchanged, the thickness of concrete slab and concrete strength exhibited no significant impact on the shear stiffness of inclined crossing screws. On the basis of the theory of a beam on a two-dimensional elastic foundation, the calculation method for predicting the shear stiffness of inclined screw in timber–concrete composite beams with interlayer was proposed. The comparisons demonstrated that the shear stiffness of inclined screw can be well predicted using the calculation method.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T02:39:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220940814
       
  • The strong column–weak beam design philosophy in reinforced concrete
           frame structures: A literature review
    • Authors: Xuefei Nie, Shishun Zhang, Tao Jiang, Tao Yu
      First page: 3566
      Abstract: Advances in Structural Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a literature review of existing research on the strong column–weak beam design philosophy, which has been widely adopted in the seismic design of frame structures. A comprehensive review of this design philosophy, including its concept and research history, especially factors affecting the accurate calculation of the flexural capacity of beams [math] and the determination of the column-to-beam flexural strength ratio [math], is presented first. The development of design provisions of four representative countries for this design philosophy is also reviewed. The implementation of strong column–weak beam hierarchy in real structural design is then discussed, and existing problems are pointed out. Finally, different techniques for the seismic retrofit of existing reinforced concrete frames are reviewed.
      Citation: Advances in Structural Engineering
      PubDate: 2020-07-11T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1369433220933463
       
 
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