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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2515 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (210 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (219 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (120 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1320 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (403 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (57 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (84 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (219 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 219 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access  
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Construindo     Open Access  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 79)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Road and Traffic Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Lithosphere     Open Access  
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Media Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
REDER : Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos sobre Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres     Open Access  
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Investigación     Open Access  
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Sul-Americana de Engenharia Estrutural     Open Access  
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)

        1 2 | Last

Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.461
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2214-6571
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3157 journals]
  • Characterization of pearls by X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating
           interferometer

    • Authors: Vincent Revol; Carina Hanser; Michael Krzemnicki
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Vincent Revol, Carina Hanser, Michael Krzemnicki
      In this study, X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is applied on pearls for the first time in order to distinguish natural pearls from cultured pearls. Traditionally, this separation is mainly based on X-ray radiography. In order to visualize the internal structure of pearls we used a custom-made grating interferometer setup and performed measurements on three different pearl products, a natural pearl, a beaded cultured pearl and a beadless cultured pearl. To enhance the visibility of the internal pearl structures, we applied a high-pass filter in order to better conclude on the applicability of this technique to the separation of natural and cultured pearls. The study shows that it is possible to visualise internal pearl structures using distinctly shorter exposure times compared to traditional X-ray radiography and that X-ray phase contrast imaging is a promising complementary method for pearl analysis.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:34:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
  • Onboard detection of railway axle bearing defects using envelope analysis
           of high frequency acoustic emission signals

    • Authors: Arash Amini; Mani Entezami; Mayorkinos Papaelias
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Arash Amini, Mani Entezami, Mayorkinos Papaelias
      Railway wheelsets consist of three main components; the wheel, axle and axle bearing. Faults can develop on any of the aforementioned components, but the most common are related to wheel and axle bearing damages. The continuous increase in train operating speeds means that failure of an axle bearing can lead to very serious derailments, potentially causing human casualties, severe disruption in the operation of the network, damage to the tracks, unnecessary costs, and loss of confidence in rail transport by the general public. The rail industry has focused on the improvement of maintenance and online condition monitoring of rolling stock to reduce the probability of failure as much as possible. This paper discusses the results of onboard acoustic emission measurements carried out on freight wagons with artificially damaged axle bearings in Long Marston, UK. Acoustic emission signal envelope analysis has been applied as a means of effective tool to detect and evaluate the damage in the bearings considered in this study. From the results obtained it is safe to conclude that acoustic emission signal envelope analysis has the capability of detecting and evaluating faulty axle bearings along with their characteristic defect frequencies in the real-world conditions.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:34:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
  • Comparison of medical and industrial X-ray computed tomography for
           non-destructive testing

    • Authors: Anton du Plessis; Stephan Gerhard le Roux; Anina Guelpa
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Anton du Plessis, Stephan Gerhard le Roux, Anina Guelpa
      Industrial X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an emerging laboratory-based non-destructive testing technique used in a variety of applications for samples ranging from 1 mm to usually 300 mm in diameter. Usually, microCT scanners are used for industrial non-destructive testing due to the superior resolution possible compared to medical CT scanners, but it is not generally known that medical CT scanners can produce reasonable results when high resolution is not needed. As demonstrated in the case study of very dense objects, far shorter scan time is required, compared to conventional laboratory industrial CT systems, consequently being a better solution for applications such as quick scout-scans, high throughput applications and larger objects. This case study makes use of four typical industrial test objects, specifically chosen as candidates which would be expected to be too dense for relatively low-voltage medical scanners. The respective test objects were scanned with both medical and microCT scanners and the results compared for the purpose of industrial non-destructive analysis. The test objects are a steel turbine blade, a titanium casting, a concrete cylinder with aggregate stones and porosity, and a concrete block with metal fiber reinforcement.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T20:58:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
  • Robotic ultrasonic testing of AGR fuel cladding

    • Authors: Maxim Morozov; S. Gareth Pierce; Gordon Dobie; Gary T. Bolton; Thomas Bennett
      Pages: 26 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Maxim Morozov, S. Gareth Pierce, Gordon Dobie, Gary T. Bolton, Thomas Bennett
      The purpose of the presented work was to undertake experimental trials to demonstrate the potential capabilities of a novel in-situ robotic ultrasonic scanning technique for measuring and monitoring loss of the cladding wall thickness in fuel pins of Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors using non-radioactive samples. AGR fuel pins are stainless steel cylindrical ribbed pipes of inner diameter of the rod being about 15 mm and wall thickness of about 300 μm. Spent AGR fuel pins are stored in a water pond and thus may be prone to corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking under adverse conditions. An ultrasonic immersion transducer with central frequency of 25MHz was used to measure wall thickness of the AGR fuel cladding. The novelty of the approach consists in the usage of a frequency domain technique to measure the wall thickness combined with cylindrical ultrasonic scanning of the samples performed using an industrial robotic manipulator. The frequency domain approach could detect wall thicknesses in the range 96 μm to 700 μm with a resolution of about 10 μm. In addition to the frequency domain measurements, using conventional time domain techniques, it was possible to detect very short (2.5 mm long) and shallow (100 μm in depth) crack-like defects in the fuel cladding.

      PubDate: 2016-08-14T00:18:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
  • X-ray computed tomography for fast and non-destructive multiple pearl
           inspection

    • Authors: J. Rosc; V.M.F. Hammer; R. Brunner
      Pages: 32 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): J. Rosc, V.M.F. Hammer, R. Brunner
      X-ray computed tomography displays a highly valuable nondestructive testing tool in various fields. A major disadvantage of this method comprises its high operating costs. Therefore, the reduction of the scanning times would be highly beneficial. Here, we demonstrate exemplarily for the testing of pearls the possibility to decrease the scanning times. The great diversity of pearls on the market, often of unclear origin, especially used for jewelry, demands non-destructive test methods for the fast and reliable classification and validation. We discuss the use of a nano-focus X-ray computed tomography (nf-XCT) system for fast three-dimensional characterization to distinguish between natural and cultured pearls. We test the approach not on individual pearls but for a more demanding task namely for a pearl necklace, that is multiple pearls on a strand. We show that with just one scan the 3D image data of the individual pearls within the whole necklace, which is composed of about 200 pearls can be scanned and reconstructed in only about 24 minutes. That is, we illustrate that nf-XCT as a inspection method is highly competitive to conventional radiography or radioscopy. The presented work also reveals possibilities for other fields like microelectronics etc.

      PubDate: 2016-08-30T08:09:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
  • Investigation of ultrasonic backward energy from various edges as a
           function of their 2D/3D geometry and of the incidence angle, for
           application to ultrasonic thermometry at the outlet of a tube

    • Authors: Marie-Aude Ploix; Gilles Corneloup; Joseph Moysan; Jean-Philippe Jeannot
      Pages: 38 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, Volume 6, Part A
      Author(s): Marie-Aude Ploix, Gilles Corneloup, Joseph Moysan, Jean-Philippe Jeannot
      Innovative ultrasonic instrumentation to be used for future Generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors is currently being investigated. One potential option under study here is the monitoring of the sodium temperature at the outlet of the core by using ultrasound. The main advantage of ultrasonic setups is that they can be used far from the intended subassemblies. The idea is to send an ultrasonic beam at grazing incidence towards the (cylindrical) subassembly head, and to measure the ultrasonic time of flight between the two diametrically opposite edges, in order to estimate the mean temperature across the subassembly outlet diameter. Moreover, the grazing incidence could allow considering the simultaneous temperature monitoring of several aligned subassemblies. One of the main points to be considered is the interaction between the ultrasonic beam and the immersed target, which involves specular reflection and/or diffraction, both phenomena depending on the incidence angle and the target geometry. The present paper investigates this interaction, mainly from an experimental point of view. Different geometries of “2D” (plate) and “3D” (tube) edges are tested and compared under various incidence angles. The final aim is to identify an optimal ultrasonic configuration to perform thermometry at the outlet of an immersed tube.

      PubDate: 2016-10-07T01:50:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
  • High resolution pore size analysis in metallic powders by X-ray tomography

    • Authors: K. Heim; F. Bernier; R. Pelletier; L.-P. Lefebvre
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): K. Heim, F. Bernier, R. Pelletier, L.-P. Lefebvre
      The deployment of additive manufacturing processes relies on part quality, specifically the absence of internal defects. Some of those defects have been associated with porosities in the powder feedstock. Since the level of porosity in the powder is generally very low, standard characterization techniques such as pycnometry and metallography are not suitable for quantification. However, the quantification of such micro sized porosity in metallic powders is crucial to better understand the potential source of internal defects in final components and for quality control purposes. X-ray tomography with a 3 μ m resolution offers the possibility to visualize pores in large volume of powder and to quantify their geometrical features and volume fraction using image analysis routines. This combination is unique and demonstrates the power of the approach in comparison to standard powder characterization techniques. Results presented show the prospects and limits of this technique depending on the imaging device, material and image analysis procedure.

      PubDate: 2016-10-07T01:50:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
  • Incorporating transmitter–receiver offset to interpret pavement
           layer thicknesses by GPR

    • Authors: M.U. Ahmed; R.A. Tarefder; A.K. Maji
      Pages: 94 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, Volume 6, Part A
      Author(s): M.U. Ahmed, R.A. Tarefder, A.K. Maji
      This study evaluates the necessity of considering Transmitter–Receiver (T–R) offset distance for predicting pavement layer thicknesses from two-way travel time data captured by a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) antenna. For the purpose of this study, GPR testing was conducted at an instrumented pavement section at Milepost (MP) 141 on Interstate I-40 near Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The GPR system used for this study consists of 2.0 GHz air-launched, 900 MHz ground-coupled, and 400 MHz ground-coupled antennas. The entire instrumented test section was tested with different antenna configurations. The two-way travel time is used for calculating layer thicknesses using two approaches: one considering the T–R offset, which is a non-conventional approach and the other without considering the T–R offset, which is a conventional approach. Statistical analysis namely, t-test is performed on the predicted layer thicknesses from these two approaches. The analysis indicates that these two approaches are significantly different. The predicted thicknesses by these two approaches are compared to each other. It is observed that the approach considering the T–R offset predicts the layer thicknesses with better accuracy compared to the conventional approach. Therefore, it is recommended to use the T–R offset in predicting pavement layer thickness from GPR data.

      PubDate: 2016-12-03T17:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
       
  • Automatic non-destructive three-dimensional acoustic coring system for in
           situ detection of aquatic plant root under the water bottom

    • Authors: Katsunori Mizuno; Xiaofei Liu; Fuyuki Katase; Akira Asada; Makoto Murakoshi; Yasunobu Yagita; Yasufumi Fujimoto; Tetsuo Shimada; Yoshiaki Watanabe
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Katsunori Mizuno, Xiaofei Liu, Fuyuki Katase, Akira Asada, Makoto Murakoshi, Yasunobu Yagita, Yasufumi Fujimoto, Tetsuo Shimada, Yoshiaki Watanabe
      Digging is necessary to detect plant roots under the water bottom. However, such detection is affected by the transparency of water and the working skills of divers, usually requires considerable time for high-resolution sampling, and always damages the survey site. We developed a new automatic non-destructive acoustic measurement system that visualizes the space under the water bottom, and tested the system in the in situ detection of natural plant roots. The system mainly comprises a two-dimensional waterproof stage controlling unit and acoustic measurement unit. The stage unit was electrically controlled through a notebook personal computer, and the space under the water bottom was scanned in a two-dimensional plane with the stage unit moving in steps of 0.01 m (±0.0001 m). We confirmed a natural plant root with diameter of 0.025–0.030 m in the reconstructed three-dimensional acoustic image. The plant root was at a depth of about 0.54 m and the propagation speed of the wave between the bottom surface and plant root was estimated to be 1574 m/s. This measurement system for plant root detection will be useful for the non-destructive assessment of the status of the space under the water bottom.

      PubDate: 2016-01-21T23:00:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Fabrication of imitative cracks by 3D printing for electromagnetic
           nondestructive testing and evaluations

    • Authors: Noritaka Yusa; Weixi Chen; Jing Wang; Hidetoshi Hashizume
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Noritaka Yusa, Weixi Chen, Jing Wang, Hidetoshi Hashizume
      This study demonstrates that 3D printing technology offers a simple, easy, and cost-effective method to fabricate artificial flaws simulating real cracks from the viewpoint of eddy current testing. The method does not attempt to produce a flaw whose morphology mirrors that of a real crack but instead produces a relatively simple artificial flaw. The parameters of this flaw that have dominant effects on eddy current signals can be quantitatively controlled. Three artificial flaws in type 316L austenitic stainless steel plates were fabricated using a powderbed-based laser metal additive manufacturing machine. The three artificial flaws are designed to have the same length, depth, and opening but different branching and electrical contacts between flaw surfaces. The flaws were measured by eddy current testing using an absolute type pancake probe. The signals due to the three flaws clearly differed from each other although the flaws had the same length and depth. These results were supported by subsequent destructive tests and finite element analyses.

      PubDate: 2016-04-02T16:57:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Eddy current analysis of shipped stainless steel heat exchanger bundle

    • Authors: J.D. Angelo; A. Bennecer; P. Picton; S. Kaczmarczyk; A. Soares
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): J.D. Angelo, A. Bennecer, P. Picton, S. Kaczmarczyk, A. Soares
      In this paper, we present the results of a failure analysis done on new heat exchanger tubes, which shows loss of thickness during a EC inspection to stablish a prior loss of thickness base line aiming guarantee fitness for service during its working life. Our failure analysis The root cause analysis indicates that there is intergranular corrosion due a differential concentration caused by seawater evaporation inside the tubes during the ship transit from the port of origin in China to the destination port in Brazil. The intergranular corrosion depth showed by root cause failure analysis is smaller than that showed by EC inspection. We attribute the EC inspection results deviation to a tube magnetization due to mechanical stress and to a secondary phase due to an incomplete solubilisation after tube conforming and welding. Traditionally, these tubes are visually inspected and deemed acceptable but our conclusions reveal that eddy current testing is capable of detecting some corrosion anomalies which makes the tubes unfit for service.

      PubDate: 2016-11-19T01:09:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.11.003
       
  • Near field focusing for nondestructive microwave testing at 24 GHz –
           theory and experimental verification

    • Authors: Christian Ziehm; Sebastian Hantscher; Johann Hinken; Christian Ziep; Maik Richter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Christian Ziehm, Sebastian Hantscher, Johann Hinken, Christian Ziep, Maik Richter
      This paper describes the development of different novel antenna concepts for improving the spatial resolution of microwave based non-destructive testing (NDT) at 24 GHz. In a great number of applications the antenna of the sensor can be brought very close to the device under test. In these cases, the near field characteristics of the antennas are crucial for a high resolution. However, common sensor heads offer either a high image resolution or a high penetration depth. In order to combine both of the characteristics different antenna concepts have been developed. The objectives were to obtain a high return loss combined with a sufficient high dynamic range and a near field focusing of electromagnetic waves in order to yield a high resolution. Altogether, three antennas have been set up. Each antenna has been calculated analytically, followed by a FEM simulation, near field measurements and an experimental verification.

      PubDate: 2016-11-12T00:57:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.10.002
       
  • Experimental and analytical vibration serviceability assessment of an
           in-service footbridge

    • Authors: Amir Gheitasia; Osman E. Ozbulut; Salman Usmanib; Mohamad Alipour; Devin K. Harris
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Amir Gheitasia, Osman E. Ozbulut, Salman Usmanib, Mohamad Alipour, Devin K. Harris
      This paper discusses vibration serviceability assessment of a highly trafficked local footbridge based on the experimental tests and analytical studies. The selected bridge is an approximately 60 m (196 ft) long multi-span steel structure with a continuous reinforced concrete slab supported on two longitudinal steel girders. The experimental study consists of ambient vibration and pedestrian interaction tests to describe the dynamic characteristics of the selected bridge structure. The fundamental frequency of the bridge in the vertical direction obtained through ambient vibration tests was within the critical range described by available design guidelines. This required further analysis to assess the performance of the bridge relative to the maximum acceleration thresholds. In addition to the peak dynamic response obtained from the pedestrian interaction tests, peak acceleration values were calculated analytically based on current design guidelines and compared to the comfort limits. Results from both experimental and analytical studies suggest that the footbridge possesses satisfactory serviceability performance under low and dense traffic conditions, but the comfort level under very dense traffic loads was classified as minimum according to the results of the analytical calculations.

      PubDate: 2016-11-12T00:57:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.11.001
       
  • An innovative vehicle-mounted GPR technique for fast and efficient
           monitoring of tunnel lining structural conditions

    • Authors: Yuewen Zan; Zhilin Guofeng Xiyuan Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Yuewen Zan, Zhilin Li, Guofeng Su, Xiyuan Zhang
      The health status of a railway tunnel should be regularly inspected during its service period to ensure safe operation. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been used as a key technique for tunnel detection; however, so far, the measurements of GPR are only obtainable in contact mode. Such methods cannot meet the requirements of the operational tunnel disease census and regular inspections. Therefore, a new method—vehicle-mounted GPR with long-range detection—has been developed. It consists of six channels. The distance from its air-launched antenna to the tunnel lining is approximately 0.93 m–2.25 m. The scanning rate of each channel is 976 1/s. When the sampling point interval is 5 cm, the maximum speed can reach up to 175 km/h. With its speed and air-launched antenna, this system has a significant advantage over existing methods. That is, for an electrified railway, there is no need for power outages. Indeed, the proposed system will not interrupt normal railway operation. Running tests were carried out on the Baoji-Zhongwei and Xiangfan-Chongqing railway lines, and very good results were obtained.

      PubDate: 2016-10-15T07:27:37Z
       
  • Impact damages detection on composite materials by THz imaging

    • Authors: Fabien Destic; Christophe Bouvet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Fabien Destic, Christophe Bouvet
      This paper presents a Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) method based on the penetration properties of terahertz (THz) waves. A CW raster-scanning THz imaging setup, using a 3.8 THz Quantum Cascade Laser as a source, is used to perform NDT of polypropylene/polypropylene composite samples. Results from transmission and reflection THz imaging are compared to ultrasound C-scan. THz images in reflection give similar results to C-scan whereas THz transmission images provide more information about delaminations and cracks in the fiber fabrics.

      PubDate: 2016-10-15T07:27:37Z
       
  • Comparing cone beam laminographic system trajectories for composite NDT

    • Authors: Neil O'Brien; Mark Mavrogordato; Richard Boardman; Ian Sinclair; Sam Hawker; Thomas Blumensath
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Neil O'Brien, Mark Mavrogordato, Richard Boardman, Ian Sinclair, Sam Hawker, Thomas Blumensath
      We compare the quality of reconstruction obtainable using various laminographic system trajectories that have been described in the literature, with reference to detecting defects in composite materials in engineering. We start by describing a laminar phantom representing a simplified model of composite panel, which models certain defects that may arise in such materials, such as voids, resin rich areas, and delamination, and additionally features both blind and through holes along multiple axes. We simulate ideal cone-beam projections of this phantom with the different laminographic trajectories, applying both Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) and Conjugate Gradient Least Squares (CGLS) reconstruction algorithms. We compare the quality of the reconstructions with a view towards optimising the scan parameters for defect detectability in composite NDT applications.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:34:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.05.004
       
  • Special issue on the 6th conference on industrial computed tomography 2016
           (iCT2016)

    • Authors: Johann Kastner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Johann Kastner


      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:34:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.05.007
       
  • First special issue of case study in nondestructive testing and evaluation

    • Authors: Bernd
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Bernd Köhler


      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:34:09Z
       
  • Comparison of Different Additive Manufacturing Methods Using Computed
           Tomography

    • Authors: Paras Shah; Radu Racasan; Paul Bills
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Paras Shah, Radu Racasan, Paul Bills
      Additive manufacturing (AM) allows for fast fabrication of three dimensional objects with the use of considerably less resources, less energy consumption and shorter supply chain than would be the case in traditional manufacturing. AM has gained significance due to its cost effective method which boasts the ability to produce components with a previously unachievable level of geometric complexity in prototyping and end user industrial applications, such as aerospace, automotive and medical industries. However these processes currently lack reproducibility and repeatability with some ‘prints’ having a high probability of requiring rework or even scrapping due to out of specification or high porosity levels, leading to failure due to structural stresses. It is therefore imperative that robust quality systems be implemented such that the waste level of these processes can be significantly decreased. This study presents an artefact that is optimised for characterisation of form using computed tomography (CT) with representative geometric dimensioning and tolerancing features and internal channels and structures comparable to cooling channels in heat exchangers. Furthermore the optimisation of the CT acquisition conditions for this artefact are presented in light of feature dimensions and form analysis. This paper investigates the accuracy and capability of CT measurements compared with reference measurements from coordinate measuring machine (CMM), as well as focus on the evaluation of different AM methods.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:34:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.05.008
       
  • Visual classification of braided and woven fiber bundles in X-ray computed
           tomography scanned carbon fiber reinforced polymer specimens

    • Authors: Johannes Weissenböck; Arindam Bhattacharya; Bernhard Plank; Christoph Heinzl; Johann Kastner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Johannes Weissenböck, Arindam Bhattacharya, Bernhard Plank, Christoph Heinzl, Johann Kastner
      In recent years, advanced composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are used in many fields of application (e.g., automotive, aeronautic and leisure industry). These materials are characterized by their high stiffness and strength, while having low weight. Especially, woven carbon fiber reinforced materials have outstanding mechanical properties due to their fabric structure. To analyze and develop the fabrics, it is important to understand the course of the individual fiber bundles. Industrial 3D X-ray computed tomography (XCT) as a nondestructive testing method allows resolving these individual fiber bundles. In this paper, we show our findings when applying the method of Bhattacharya et al. [6] for extracting fiber bundles on two new types of CFRP specimens. One specimen contains triaxial braided plies in an RTM6 resin and another specimen woven bi-diagonal layers. Furthermore, we show the required steps to separate the individual bundles and the calculation of the individual fiber bundles characteristics which are essential for the posterior visual analysis and exploration. We further demonstrate the classification of the individual fiber bundles within the fabrics to support the domain experts in perceiving the weaving structure of XCT scanned specimens.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:34:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.05.006
       
  • Influence of surface roughness on X-ray computed tomography dimensional
           measurements of additive manufactured parts

    • Authors: Valentina Aloisi; Simone Carmignato
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Valentina Aloisi, Simone Carmignato
      In many industrial applications, components characterized by high surface roughness are measured by X-ray computed tomography (CT). This is the case, for example, of additive manufactured parts. Surface roughness has a strong influence on CT dimensional measurements, causing relevant measurement deviations with respect to tactile reference measurements by coordinate measuring machines (CMMs), especially for parts characterized by high surface roughness. It comes that roughness effects on CT dimensional measurements must be quantified. In this work, the influence of surface roughness on CT dimensional measurements, and the relation between tactile CMM and CT measurements are studied. Effects of larger as well as smaller surface roughness are taken into account, by means of three different additive manufactured samples characterized by different roughness. Experimental results prove the presence of a systematic error between tactile and CT measurements; the relation between this error and the Rz roughness parameter of the surface is analysed.

      PubDate: 2016-05-16T03:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.05.005
       
  • Comparison of Surface-based and Image-based Quality Metrics for the
           Analysis of Dimensional Computed Tomography Data

    • Authors: Francisco A. Arenhart; Vitor C. Nardelli; Gustavo D. Donatelli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Francisco A. Arenhart, Vitor C. Nardelli, Gustavo D. Donatelli
      This paper presents a comparison of surface-based and image-based quality metrics for dimensional X-ray computed tomography (CT) data. The chosen metrics are used to characterize two key aspects in acquiring signals with CT systems: the loss of information (blurring) and the adding of unwanted information (noise). A set of structured experiments was designed to test the response of the metrics to different influencing factors. It is demonstrated that, under certain circumstances, the results of both types of metrics become conflicting, emphasizing the importance of using surface information for evaluating the quality dimensional CT data. Specific findings using both types of metrics are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-05-16T03:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.05.002
       
  • Dual energy CT inspection of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite
           combined with metal components

    • Authors: Daniel Vavrik; Jan Jakubek; Ivana Kumpova; Martin Pichotka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Daniel Vavrik, Jan Jakůbek, Ivana Kumpova, Martin Pichotka
      This work is focused on the inspection of carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites (CFRP) combined with metal components. It is well known that the high absorption of metallic parts degrades the quality of radiographic measurements (contrast) and causes typical metal artefacts in X-ray computed tomography (CT) reconstruction. It will be shown that these problems can be successfully solved utilizing the dual energy CT method (DECT), which is typically used for the material decomposition of complex objects. In other words, DECT can help differentiate object components with a similar overall attenuation or visualise low attenuation components that are next to high attenuation ones. The application of DECT to analyse honeycomb sandwich panels and CFRP parts joined with metal fasteners will be presented in the article.

      PubDate: 2016-05-16T03:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.05.001
       
  • Reference object for evaluating the accuracy of porosity measurements by
           X-ray computed tomography

    • Authors: Petr Hermanek; Simone Carmignato
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Petr Hermanek, Simone Carmignato
      Internal defects such as voids and porosity directly influence mechanical properties, durability, service life and other characteristics of industrial parts. There are several non-destructive and destructive methods for defects detection and evaluation. Recently, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) has emerged as an effective tool for geometrical characterization of internal defects. 3D information about internal voids/porosity extracted from CT datasets can be utilized in many applications, such as production processes optimization and quality control. However, there are still challenges in using CT as a traceable method for internal voids dimensional measurements. In order to enhance the accuracy and reliability of CT porosity measurements, a metrological validation method is required. This study presents the application of a new reference object for accuracy evaluation of CT porosity measurements and discusses results obtained by using it. The reference object is made of aluminium and is composed of a cylindrical body and four cylindrical inserts with micro-milled hemispherical features of calibrated sizes resembling artificial flaws. The accuracy of porosity measurements is evaluated according to various characteristics (diameters and depths measurements errors) and repeatability of measurements. Design of experiments technique is used to investigate the influence of CT parameters settings on porosity measurement accuracy.

      PubDate: 2016-05-16T03:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.05.003
       
  • Experimental investigation of surface determination process on
           multi-material components for dimensional computed tomography

    • Authors: Fabrício Borges de Oliveira; Alessandro Stolfi; Markus Bartscher; Leonardo De Chiffre; Ulrich Neuschaefer-Rube
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Fabrício Borges de Oliveira, Alessandro Stolfi, Markus Bartscher, Leonardo De Chiffre, Ulrich Neuschaefer-Rube
      The possibility of measuring multi-material components, while assessing inner and outer features simultaneously makes X-ray computed tomography (CT) the latest evolution in the field of coordinate measurement systems (CMSs). However, the difficulty in selecting suitable scanning parameters and suitable surface determination settings, limits a better acceptance of CT as a CMS. Moreover, standard CT users are subject to the algorithms and boundary conditions implied by the use of commercial analysis software. In this context, this paper is concerned with the experimental evaluation of the influence of surface determination process on multi-material measurements, using functions available in the commercial CT data analysis software Volume Graphics VGStudio Max 2.2.6. Calibrated step gauges made of different materials, i.e. PEEK, PPS, and Al were used as reference standards. The step gauges were assembled in such a way as to have different multi-material X-ray absorption ratios. Comparative measurements of mono-material assemblies were performed as well. Different segmentation processes were considered (e.g. ISO-50%, local threshold, region growing, etc.), patch-based bidirectional length analyses were carried out to perform in-material measurements on the assemblies. This work discusses the different approaches based on real CT scans, and aims to provide advice on the segmentation process for multi-material measurements.

      PubDate: 2016-05-09T00:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.04.003
       
  • CT-based quality control of Laser Sintering of Polymers

    • Authors: Michele Pavan; Tom Craeghs; Raf Verhelst; Olivier Ducatteeuw; Jean-Pierre Kruth; Wim Dewulf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Michele Pavan, Tom Craeghs, Raf Verelst, Olivier Ducatteeuw, Jean-Pierre Kruth, Wim Dewulf
      Laser Sintering (LS) is an Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology for polymers processing which is increasingly being used to produce functional products with designs not achievable with traditional manufacturing technologies. Lightweight cellular structures are a good example of complex designs which are increasingly finding applications in AM parts. However, it is not yet clear how the LS process affects the porosity and geometrical characteristics of the cell structural elements. Getting these information allows to perform quality control of the LS process, gives insights into how to improve it, and might help to take into account manufacturing process variability during the design phase. In this work a test artifact containing cylindrical elements with diameters in the range typically used in lightweight cellular structures is used to investigate the influence of features' size and printing orientation on the porosity and shape deviation of each feature. In order to assess the reproducibility of the process, several replicas of the test object are produced in polyamide-12 (PA12) using the same LS process conditions. An X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)-based quality control approach, which uses both image processing of CT-slices and porosity analysis (porosity content, pores count and pores volume distributions) is used to gather the information.

      PubDate: 2016-05-09T00:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.04.004
       
  • ISO test survey on material influence in dimensional computed tomography

    • Authors: Markus Bartscher; Jens Illemann; Ulrich Neuschaefer-Rube
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Markus Bartscher, Jens Illemann, Ulrich Neuschaefer-Rube
      ISO/TC 213/WG 10 is responsible for creating international standards (series ISO 10360) for the acceptance testing of coordinate measuring systems (CMSs). A current topic is creating a future part of ISO 10360 for CMSs using dimensional computed tomography (CT). The discussion is focussed on how to include material thickness influence in acceptance testing. ISO/TC 213/WG 10 decided to perform an experimental survey to study this topic. This ISO test survey covers several national metrology institutes and manufacturers. Reference standards under study made of aluminium are two step cylinders provided by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), and two hole plates provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. To check for residual errors of CT-based CMSs, additional reference standards may be measured by participants. This report details results and experiences of the participant PTB. PTB applied scaling reference measurements of a multi-sphere standard and a printed circuit board as additional reference standards, i.e. in addition to hole plate and step cylinder measurements, respectively. Measurements were performed in mid 2015 using the PTB dimensional CT system (Nikon Metrology XT H 225 MCT). In this contribution, special focus is placed on the interpretation of the results and the consequences of a potential testing regime. This text does not directly describe an existing ISO standard nor a published or intended ISO standard draft. It is intended to contribute to the research of influence parameters which are relevant for a possible future part of ISO 10360 for the case of CT-based CMS (which is assumed to be part 11).

      PubDate: 2016-04-26T18:20:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.04.001
       
  • Visual Classification of Braided and Woven Fiber Bundles in X-Ray Computed
           Tomography scanned Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Specimens

    • Authors: Johannes Weissenböck; Arindam Bhattacharya; Bernhard Plank; Christoph Heinzl; Johann Kastner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Johannes Weissenböck, Arindam Bhattacharya, Bernhard Plank, Christoph Heinzl, Johann Kastner
      In recent years, advanced composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are used in many fields of application (e.g., automotive, aeronautic and leisure industry). These materials are characterized by their high stiffness and strength, while having low weight. Especially, woven carbon fiber reinforced materials have outstanding mechanical properties due to their fabric structure. To analyze and develop the fabrics, it is important to understand the course of the individual fiber bundles. Industrial 3D X-Ray computed tomography (XCT) as a nondestructive testing method allows resolving these individual fiber bundles. In this paper, we show our findings when applying the method of Bhattacharya et al. [6] for extracting fiber bundles on two new types of CFRP specimens. One specimen contains triaxial braided plies in an RTM6 resin and another specimen woven bi-diagonal layers. Furthermore, we show the required steps to separate the individual bundles and the calculation of the individual fiber bundles characteristics which are essential for the posterior visual analysis and exploration. We further demonstrate the classification of the individual fiber bundles within the fabrics to support the domain experts in perceiving the weaving structure of XCT scanned specimens.

      PubDate: 2016-04-26T18:20:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.05.006
       
  • Fast inline inspection by neural network based filtered backprojection:
           Application to apple inspection

    • Authors: Eline Janssens; Luis F. Alves Pereira; Jan De Beenhouwer; Ing Ren Tsang; Mattias Van Dael; Pieter Verboven; Bart Nicolaï; Jan Sijbers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Eline Janssens, Luis F. Alves Pereira, Jan De Beenhouwer, Ing Ren Tsang, Mattias Van Dael, Pieter Verboven, Bart Nicolaï, Jan Sijbers
      Speed is an important parameter of an inspection system. Inline computed tomography systems exist but are generally expensive. Moreover, their throughput is limited by the speed of the reconstruction algorithm. In this work, we propose a Neural Network-based Hilbert transform Filtered Backprojection (NN-hFBP) method to reconstruct objects in an inline scanning environment in a fast and accurate way. Experiments based on apple X-ray scans show that the NN-hFBP method allows to reconstruct images with a substantially better tradeoff between image quality and reconstruction time.

      PubDate: 2016-04-02T16:57:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.03.003
       
  • Evaluation of relationships between particle orientation and thermal
           conductivity in bark insulation board by means of CT and discrete modeling
           

    • Authors: Günther Kain; Bernhard Lienbacher; Marius-Catalin Barbu; Bernhard Plank; Klaus Richter; Alexander Petutschnigg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Günther Kain, Bernhard Lienbacher, Marius-Catalin Barbu, Bernhard Plank, Klaus Richter, Alexander Petutschnigg
      Insulation boards made out of larch bark were pressed and scanned with an industrial X-ray computed tomograph (CT) in order to study the structure of the boards and to allow structure-based thermal modeling. The CT images were segmented using a categorization algorithm based on ANOVA. Apart from gaining knowledge about panel porosity, understanding of the inhomogeneous bark boards was enhanced by finding that two main components are prevalent. That knowledge of the board's inner microstructure enabled the application of a numerical model for thermal conductivity based on the finite difference method (FDM). Contrary to simple cut-ups, the application of CT and subsequent modeling enables the evaluation of the effects of particle orientation on a panel's thermal conductivity. Panels with horizontal particles (oriented parallel to the panel plane) proved to have a significantly lower thermal conductivity than panels with vertical particles (oriented orthogonal to the panel plane). This trend could be confirmed by means of the presented modeling approach, which allows further theoretical ex ante optimization in the production process. These findings give the direction for developments of efficient bark insulation panels with well-defined microstructure.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-03-28T15:03:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.03.002
       
  • Micro-CT image calibration to improve fracture aperture measurement

    • Authors: Hamed Lamei Ramandi; Ryan T. Armstrong; Peyman Mostaghimi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Hamed Lamei Ramandi, Ryan T. Armstrong, Peyman Mostaghimi
      A novel technique for the accurate measurement and adjustment of fracture apertures in digital images of fractured media is presented. We utilize X-ray micro-computed tomography to image a highly fractured coal sample and collect high-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the samples surface to facilitate segmentation of coal fractures. The gray-scale micro-CT values at the mid-point of fractures are obtained and correlated to aperture sizes measured with the higher resolution SEM data. Afterwards, the micro-CT images are upsampled to enable assignment of aperture sizes smaller than the image resolution. We initially segment the coal image, upsample the segmented image, and then re-calibrate the fracture aperture sizes. The final calibrated segmented image contains the fracture network acquired from the micro-CT data with precise aperture sizes assigned based on the high-resolution SEM data. To illustrate the importance of accurate aperture measurement, two coal subsets are tested. The permeabilities before and after applying the calibration method are measured. The results show a significant change in numerical permeabilities after applying the calibration method. This indicates that a large amount of information is potentially omitted when utilizing standard image segmentation tools to segment fractured media.

      PubDate: 2016-03-18T10:50:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.03.001
       
  • Characterization of medical and biological samples with a Talbot-Lau
           grating interferometer μXCT in comparison to reference methods

    • Authors: Christian Gusenbauer; Elisabeth Leiss-Holzinger; Sascha Senck; Katrin Mathmann; Johann Kastner; Stefan Hunger; Wolfgang Birkfellner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2016
      Source:Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation
      Author(s): Christian Gusenbauer, Elisabeth Leiss-Holzinger, Sascha Senck, Katrin Mathmann, Johann Kastner, Stefan Hunger, Wolfgang Birkfellner
      Talbot-Lau grating interferometry is a new innovative X-ray technology in the field of radiography and computed tomography that extends the imaging capabilities of absorption contrast (AC) in medicine and material science by the introduction of differential phase contrast (DPC) and dark-field contrast (DFC). This paper discusses the benefits of the additional imaging modality of DFC provided by a new desktop Talbot-Lau μXCT system (SkyScan 1294). With this system, selected medical and biological samples such as medical foam, cortical bone, molar tooth, and barley corn seed samples have been imaged and compared to reference methods such as high-resolution μXCT and optical coherence tomography (OCT) regarding information gain and contrast.

      PubDate: 2016-02-14T13:11:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.csndt.2016.02.001
       
 
 
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