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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2272 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (102 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1204 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (381 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (68 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 183 of 183 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover Journal of Building Engineering
  [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2352-7102
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • A practical solution for HVAC prognostics: Failure mode and effects
           analysis in building maintenance
    • Authors: Chunsheng Yang; Weiming Shen; Qiangqiang Chen; Burak Gunay
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Chunsheng Yang, Weiming Shen, Qiangqiang Chen, Burak Gunay
      Fault detection, diagnostics, and prognostics (FDD&P) is attracting an amount of attention from building operators and researchers because it can help greatly improve the performance of building operations by reducing energy consumption for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) while improving occupant comfort at the same time. However, FDD&P, particularly HVAC prognostics, for building operations remains with many challenges due to special operation environments of HVAC systems. These challenges include “tolerance or ignorance” of failures in long-haul operations, lack of operation regulations, and even lack of documents for HVAC failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), which is a systematic method of identifying and preventing system, product and process problems. To address some of these challenges, the authors propose an FMEA method for common building HVAC equipment by exploring work-orders generated by building energy management systems (BEMS) using a data mining approach. With this FMEA approach, it is possible for building operators to isolate and prognose faults practically. The FMEA approach also helps us tackle high impact failures, for which operation data can be acquired and machine learning-based predictive models can be developed. This paper reports some preliminary results in conducting an HVAC FMEA from a large number of work-orders obtained from a BEMS in routine operations. The HVAC FMEA will be used as a guidance tool for data gathering and developing data-driven models for HVAC FDD&P and as a practical solution for HVAC prognostics in case that predictive models are difficult to develop.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Multifunctional electrically conductive concrete using different fillers
    • Authors: Amr S. El-Dieb; Mahmoud A. El-Ghareeb; Mohamed A.H. Abdel-Rahman; El Sayed A. Nasr
      Pages: 61 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Amr S. El-Dieb, Mahmoud A. El-Ghareeb, Mohamed A.H. Abdel-Rahman, El Sayed A. Nasr
      This study presents an experimental investigation on the effect of using different conductive fillers; steel shavings, carbon powder and graphite powder as partial replacement of fine aggregate (1%, 3%, 5% and 7% by volume) on the electrical, physical, mechanical and durability properties of structural concrete. The effect of including different conductive fillers on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete was evaluated (i.e. slump, air content, unit weight, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and water absorption). Results showed that structural concrete with good electrical conductivity could be produced for various applications by incorporating appropriate conductive filler type and content. The produced electrically conductive concrete (ECC) showed different performance characteristics and could be used as a multifunctional material for different structural applications. A performance index (PI) approach was used to evaluate and select the most suitable concrete mixture of required performance(s) criteria for multifunctional structural applications.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • A study on environmental and economic impacts of using waste marble powder
           in concrete
    • Authors: Manpreet Singh; Kailash Choudhary; Anshuman Srivastava; Kuldip Singh Sangwan; Dipendu Bhunia
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): Manpreet Singh, Kailash Choudhary, Anshuman Srivastava, Kuldip Singh Sangwan, Dipendu Bhunia
      Gainful utilization of waste marble powder in various construction practices has become a topic of interest in research areas. An overview of works reported regarding the use as partial replacement of sand and cement by marble powder in concrete is presented in the paper. Gaps in the studies to date have been pointed out. An environmental impact comparison of normal concrete with the use of marble powder as partial replacement of cement and sand is carried out using the UMBERTO NXT life cycle analysis software with ReCipe midpoint and endpoint methods. Finally, a detailed cost analysis study has been performed to justify the use of marble powder in concrete which has exhibited encouraging results in terms of strength and quality. It has also been found that the use of marble slurry in concrete reduces its environmental impact and is economically beneficial.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Visualized strategy for predicting buildings energy consumption during
           early design stage using parametric analysis
    • Authors: Emad Elbeltagi; Hossam Wefki; Saad Abdrabou; Mahmoud Dawood; Ahmed Ramzy
      Pages: 127 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): Emad Elbeltagi, Hossam Wefki, Saad Abdrabou, Mahmoud Dawood, Ahmed Ramzy
      Recently, there has been a high level of demand for sustainable design of buildings construction. The catalysts for such demand are rising energy costs and increasing environmental concerns. Therefore, it is important to evaluate building energy consumption, which is the key problem of building energy saving. There is a need for a reliable energy simulation model to predict buildings energy consumption. In addition, designers suffer from the limitations of energy simulation tools during the early design stage that addresses buildings envelope and orientation. This study proposes a strategy for visualized parametric energy analysis of buildings during the conceptual design phase. It presents an energy-oriented workflow that accommodates the Egyptian context. A residential building model is developed by coupling parametric analysis and building energy modeling tools as a means of developing an energy consumption database. The parallel coordinate plot is used to visualize the database to allow decision makers to flexibly evaluate energy performance. The advantages of this paper stem from: 1) providing a new strategy for visualizing the predicting building energy consumption data; 2) facilitating the process of decision making for energy design alternatives during early stages; 3) integrating parametric modeling and energy simulation engine in one platform to come over the problem of interoperability; 4) developing a generic model with variant energy simulation parameters; and 5) presenting an automated and simplified approach to enable modelers to simulate and analyze building energy performance with a more timely, accurate and efficient process.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.012
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Comparative study on open air burnt low- and high-carbon rice husk ash as
           partial cement replacement in cement block production
    • Authors: Selvaraja Mayooran; Singarajah Ragavan; Navaratnarajah Sathiparan
      Pages: 137 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): Selvaraja Mayooran, Singarajah Ragavan, Navaratnarajah Sathiparan
      This study analyzes the feasibility of using high-carbon content rice husk ash waste generated from open air burning of rice husk, as secondary raw materials in the manufacture of cement blocks. Solid masonry blocks having the size of 215mm × 105mm × 65mm, were cast with the mix proportion of 1:5 cement and sand. Blocks were manufactured with two types of rice husk ash (RHA); low-carbon content RHA and high-carbon content RHA. Cement blocks, at four different RHA replacement levels of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared for low and high-carbon RHA as partial cement replacement. Testing was included for workability (water/binder ratio and setting time), strength (compressive, flexural bending and splitting tensile) and durability (water absorption, sorption, acid attack resistance and alkaline attack resistance). Results from this test results indicate that the workability, mechanical and durability characteristics of low-carbon RHA cement blocks slightly better than that of high-carbon RHA cement blocks. However, both RHA replacement cement blocks satisfy the limit recommended by standards. Even, high-carbon RHA replacement cement block does not vastly improve the strength or durability properties, the economic and environmental benefits encourage to use high-carbon RHA in cement block production.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Measured and simulated thermal behaviour in rammed earth houses in a
           hot-arid climate. Part B: Comfort
    • Authors: C.T.S. Beckett; R. Cardell-Oliver; D. Ciancio; C. Huebner
      Pages: 146 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): C.T.S. Beckett, R. Cardell-Oliver, D. Ciancio, C. Huebner
      Heating and cooling of residential buildings consumes around ten percent of the world's energy. One approach for reducing these costs is solar passive design using building materials with high thermal mass such as Rammed Earth (RE). Several studies have examined the performance of small RE structures or individual rooms within RE dwellings and have demonstrated the material's capacity to provide comfortable internal conditions passively. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence about the performance of full RE houses in real-world settings spanning several seasons. This research investigated the thermal performance of RE structures prior to occupancy and over the course of an occupied year. Two custom-designed houses were built in the hot-arid city of Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Western Australia: one with traditional solid RE walls and the other with walls with an insulating polystyrene core (iRE). Otherwise the houses were identical in orientation and design. This study is presented in two Parts. Part A examined the houses' performance without occupants: This Part examines their occupied behaviour in terms of the occupants' thermal comfort. Comfort was examined using qualitative and quantitative data from sensor measurements as well as occupant surveys and simulated results using state-of-the-art assessment software BERS Pro. Comfort scores for measured and simulated data were determined using rules built into BERS Pro's engine Chenath and a modified version of the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 SET* method. Real-world thermal comfort of both houses outperformed their simulated behaviours: occupants reported comfortable conditions throughout Summer (outdoor maxima 45°C) and Winter (minima 1°C) with no artificial cooling and with minimal heating. The Chenath and SET* methods agreed with comfort performance in Summer but scored Winter performance poorly. Similarly, simulations predicted poor performance in Winter. Consequently, predicted energy demands due to heating were likely far higher than those needed in reality. This paper therefore argues from measured evidence of RE and iRE houses for the suitability of RE as a sustainable building material able to curb domestic energy demands. Collected data has been made publicly available for future analyses.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Effect of vertical reinforcing bars on formwork pressure of SCC containing
           recycled aggregates
    • Authors: Pierre Matar; Joseph J. Assaad
      Pages: 159 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): Pierre Matar, Joseph J. Assaad
      The feasibility of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) was demonstrated in structural civil engineering applications. Yet, limited information exists regarding the effect of RCA additions, especially in presence of steel reinforcement, on lateral pressure exerted on formworks. This paper reports experimental data obtained from twenty-one SCC mixtures cast in 200 × 400 × 1600-mm formwork containing up to 4.71% vertical steel (the spacing between transverse steel was set to 450mm). Test results have shown that mixtures incorporating RCA exhibited reduced initial pressure, which was mostly attributed to higher aggregate surface roughness that increases internal friction. The decrease in pressure was accentuated with the increase in vertical steel density, suggesting that the reinforcement cage confines the plastic concrete and carries part of its load. Special emphasis was placed to develop conservative reinforcement indices for appropriate prediction of SCC pressure, as well as propose modifications for existing models to account for the effect of RCA additions and presence of vertical steel bars.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Does window-to-wall ratio have a significant effect on the energy
           consumption of buildings' A parametric analysis in Italian climate
           conditions
    • Authors: C. Marino; A. Nucara; M. Pietrafesa
      Pages: 169 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): C. Marino, A. Nucara, M. Pietrafesa
      Building envelope structures play a pivotal role in the energy behavior of edifices. They influence the heat exchanges between indoor and outdoor environment and might allow a proper exploitation of solar energy. Therefore, when properly designed, they can contribute to minimizing the overall energy demand of buildings, allowing achievement of the high energy performance that is the basis of the Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB) concept. In this context, window systems are generally considered as the crucial element to be correctly designed for energy efficiency purposes in view of the role they play in heat exchange processes and solar gain management. This paper outlines the methodology and the correspondent results of an analysis which aims to search for the optimal size of the window surface, which is the size allowing minimum overall energy consumption, in an office building whose structure and configuration represent a typical reference case for the Italian building stock. Several configurations were considered, varying the climate, the thermal features of the building envelope and the installed lighting electric power. Furthermore, the influence of a switchable shading device was assessed and the correlated comfort consideration reported. The analyses were performed using Energy Plus simulation code and the window dimensions were evaluated in terms of the ratio between the glazed surface and the gross façade area, which is referred to as window to wall ratio (WWR).

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • An innovative anchoring system for old masonry buildings
    • Authors: J. Guerreiro; A.S. Gago; J. Ferreira; J. Proença
      Pages: 184 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): J. Guerreiro, A.S. Gago, J. Ferreira, J. Proença
      The following paper presents the most recent results of a research programme carried out to, among other purposes, develop an innovative anchoring system for old masonry buildings. Despite the recognized importance of connections and anchoring systems, there is little experimental information about their strength and stiffness when installed in the masonry walls of old buildings. Therefore, one of the important goals of the research programme mentioned was the experimental characterization of the proposed anchoring system. The main characteristic of the proposed system, which makes it different from others, is an internal spherical steel element where the rod is connected. This steel eleme nt, called hinge, allows no orthogonality between the steel anchor plate and the tie rod, which makes it suitable for uneven connections between orthogonal walls and/or walls and floors. Besides this particular characteristic, the proposed system demonstrates all the capabilities of the traditional anchoring systems, namely, it can be used to strengthen the connection between orthogonal masonry walls or to ensure the connection of constructive elements (floors, roofs, stairs, etc.) to masonry walls. Moreover, numerical simulations with non-linear finite elements models were performed, aimed at reproducing the experimental tests for other load conditions or different wall thicknesses. The prime objective of the experimental and numerical studies was to assess the actual behaviour of the anchoring system and to establish appropriate design rules, which are also presented in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Thermal comfort and comparison of some parameters coming from hospitals
           and shopping centers under natural ventilation: The case of Madagascar
           Island
    • Authors: Modeste Kameni Nematchoua; Paola Ricciardi; Sigrid Reiter; Somayeh Asadi; Claude MH Demers
      Pages: 196 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): Modeste Kameni Nematchoua, Paola Ricciardi, Sigrid Reiter, Somayeh Asadi, Claude MH Demers
      Nowadays, in several countries in the tropical islands of the Indian Ocean, including Madagascar island, Comores island, Seychelles island and Mayotte, no adopted and regulated building standards exist. Human health essentially depends on the quality of indoor air, and so several actions should be taken to solve this problem. The purpose of this study is to develop a database of thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings in order to improve indoor air quality, mainly in hospitals and shopping centers in the largest island of the Indian Ocean. To achieve this objective, and due to a lack of data regarding comfort in built environments in this region, experimental and subjective studies were carried out in 5 big hospitals and 50 small and large shopping centers, distributed in 25 districts of urban areas in Northern Madagascar. The adaptive approach was used for this purpose. A specific questionnaire based on the ISO7730 and 10551 was designed to collect these data. A total of 400 people participated in this study, and the survey was conducted during rainy and dry seasons. This study discusses the influence of gender, clothing, activities, voters’ mind state and occupants’ control strategies on adaptive comfort assessment. In addition, various comfort parameters were calculated for these buildings. Results show that, in both studied places, the lower and upper acceptable temperatures for 80% of the voters were 23.2°C and 26.8°C, while 90% of the customers and patients reported a comfortable temperature range of 24.5–26.2°C. This will help to define proper guidelines to build more comfortable buildings in Madagascar and other countries of the Indian Ocean.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Moisture performance and durability of wooden façades and decking during
           six years of outdoor exposure
    • Authors: C. Brischke; L. Meyer-Veltrup; T. Bornemann
      Pages: 207 - 215
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): C. Brischke, L. Meyer-Veltrup, T. Bornemann
      Wood is frequently used for claddings and decking where it is exposed to moisture and various biotic agents limiting its serviceability. In-situ moisture monitoring can help to determine the moisture-induced risk for decay and might therefore serve as faster alternative to traditional durability testing, which usually requires exposure for many years. This study aimed on determining the moisture-induced risk for decay of differently severe exposed wooden components, i.e. combined façade-decking elements and horizontal double layer set ups mimicking poorly designed terrace decks made from twelve different wood species and thermally modified wood. The huge variation of moisture-induced risk for decay of timber used above ground became evident. Dosage as well as service life estimates differed in dependence of wood species, design detailing, and decay type to be expected. An exposure dose was utilized for alternative durability classification of timber in less severe exposure conditions such as for cladding applications and compared with common durability classification based on decay assessment. Differences in durability between the various wood species and materials became apparent in the horizontal double layer and met fairly well the expectations based on durability classification according to the European standard EN 350 and previous findings from above ground field tests. Combined façade-decking elements were found to be useful for moisture content (MC) monitoring of wood in less severe exposure situations such as façades and freely ventilated decking, but not for correlation between moisture induced risk and fungal decay, since the latter occurred exclusively at water trapping contact faces. Nevertheless, the use of MC and temperature recordings combined with a dosimeter-based decay model might allow for an alternative time-saving way to estimate and classify wood durability.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • The Methods of Using Low Cost Housing Techniques in India
    • Authors: Manjesh Srivastava; Vikas Kumar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Manjesh Srivastava, Vikas Kumar
      Low cost housing refers to those housing units which are affordable by that section of society whose income is below than median household income. This depends on three key parameters—income level, size of dwelling unit and affordability. This paper aims to point out the various aspects of predestined building methodologies by highlighting the different available techniques, and the economical advantages achieved by its adoption. In a building the walls, floors and roofs are the most important sections, which can be analyzed distinctively based on the needs, thus, improving the speed of construction and reducing the construction cost. This paper also aims to cover the use of local materials in the different components of building to make them as low cost available solutions for low income groups. To own a house by middle and lower income groups in today's economic trends is very difficult. Therefore, it has now became a necessity to adopt cost effective, innovative and environment-friendly housing technologies for the construction of houses and buildings and availing them at low cost comparatively. In order to come up with viable solutions this paper compares the construction cost for the traditional and low cost housing technologies and it was observed that with the use of technology and reuse of waste material as building material the cost of construction can be minimized to an extent. It was observed that with if the filler slab can be used as an alternative to conventional slab the cost of construction can reduce upto 25%. With the time more studies are going to identify the reuse of waste material like fly ash, rice husk, etc as building material. After realizing the true potential of these waste materials as building material in construction industry the cost can be minimized to a greater extent. In addition the building up of cooperative to supply those alternative raw materials rather than importing from somewhere else would help in reducing the cost by 20 to 30%.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.001
       
  • Comparative result between standard requirements and finite element
           analysis of wood-frame panels
    • Authors: Shandy Alexandra Morassi; Júlia Lopes Ribeiro da Silva; Altibano Ortenzi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Shandy Alexandra Morassi, Júlia Lopes Ribeiro da Silva, Altibano Ortenzi
      This study uses finite element analysis to compare the performance of load-bearing wooden-frame panels in terms of connection displacements caused by lateral loads resulting from soft-body impacts and wall's parallel load resulting from suspended objects. The panels were designed based on the project concepts of the Design for Sustainability and the Design for Reuse. Connections play an important role in the design of the panels as they support and transmit loads to contiguous panels without collapsing. We designed two panels and connected them using an aluminum alloy (H-shaped cross-section, 2.0-mm thickness). An instantaneous impact energy load was replaced by an instantaneous equivalent load. Afterwards, the simulation was repeated for long-term loading during 24-h to verify the creep effect. The results obtained showed that all the simulations performed herein meet the standard prerequisites and the wall thickness could be less than used in this analysis. Yet, for constructive facilities and thermal and acoustic behavior, the thickness remained unaltered to improve these properties, regarding other studies previously developed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.002
       
  • Wind RESPONSE Control of Tall Buildings With Single Tuned Mass Damper
    • Authors: Said Elias; Vasant Matsagar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Said Elias, Vasant Matsagar
      Wind response control of tall buildings installed with a tuned mass damper (TMD) is investigated. The performance of a TMD installed at the topmost floor of a 76-storey benchmark building is compared with the TMD installed at different floors (locations) of the building. The TMD is placed where particular mode shape amplitude of the building is largest or larger. At each location, the performance of the TMD is examined by tuning it to the first few modal frequencies. The coupled differential equations of motion for the building without/with the TMD are derived and solved by employing Newmark's integration method. Variations in the normalized response of the controlled building under wind forces are computed to study the effectiveness of using different TMD schemes. Placement, tuning frequencies, mass and damping ratios of the devices are the parameters investigated to compare the effectiveness of these different TMD schemes. It is concluded that placement of the TMD shows a significant influence in improvement of the performance of the TMD, especially if it is tuned to the corresponding modal frequency. In addition, the optimally determined damping ratio reduces for the TMD tuned to the higher modal frequencies.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.005
       
  • EFFECTS OF GROUND MOTION MODIFICATION METHODS AND GROUND MOTION DURATION
           ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF A 15-STORIED BUILDING
    • Authors: Avik Samanta; Pranjul Pandey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Avik Samanta, Pranjul Pandey
      Present day seismic analysis of structures use non-linear time-history analysis to reproduce the actual behavior of a structure under the action of ground motions. Adequate ground motion records are important to perform time-history analysis properly and real recorded ground motions are generally modified or scaled for such analysis. The need to modify and scale the ground motion time histories to the target hazard of a site of interest calls for an assessment of available scaling and matching techniques. Moreover seismic codes and guidelines in India or other countries do not consider the effect of duration on the seismic response of structure. A fifteen storied building is considered in this study. The modeling and nonlinear time history analysis is performed using SAP2000. Four ground motion modification methods are used: Geometric mean, Sa(T1) scaling, RSPMATCH and Seismosoft matching method. Structural responses are studied both for short and long duration earthquake ground motions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.003
       
  • Numerical assessment of vibration control systems for multi-hazard design
           and mitigation of glass curtain walls
    • Authors: Chiara Bedon; Claudio Amadio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Chiara Bedon, Claudio Amadio
      Glass systems and facades are widely used in building structures, due to a multitude of aspects. Beside these motivations, from a pure structural point of view, glazing envelopes represent one of the most critical components for multi-storey buildings under the action of exceptional loads as impacts, explosions, seismic events or hazards in general. Such systems represent in fact the first line of defense from outside. Given the current lack of specific design regulations for the mitigation and enhancement of glass curtains under extreme loads, as well as the typically brittle behaviour and limited tensile resistance of glass as material for constructions, the same facades require specific, fail-safe design concepts. In this paper, the feasibility and potential of special mechanical connectors interposed at the interface between a multi-storey primary building structure and the enclosing glazing facade are investigated via accurate Finite-Element (FE) numerical models, under various impact scenarios. At the current stage of research, careful consideration is given both to the observed global performances as well as to local mechanisms, based on computationally efficient FE models inclusive of damage models to account for failure mechanisms in each system component. Compared to earlier research efforts, the attention is focused on the multi-hazard performance of a given case study building, subjected to extreme loadings such as seismic loads or blast events. As shown, even the typically different features of the examined loading conditions, when the proposed vibration control devices are properly designed and the curtain wall is considered as part of a full 3D building, the final result is an overall assembled structural system in which the glazing facade can work as a passive control system for the building system, in the form of a distributed Tuned-Mass Damper (TMD), with marked benefits in terms of protection level as well as design optimization.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.004
       
  • An environment friendly new insulation material involving waste newsprint
           papers reinforced by cane stalks
    • Authors: Orhan Aksogan; Rifat Resatoglu; Hanifi Binici
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Orhan Aksogan, Rifat Resatoglu, Hanifi Binici
      Insulation is vital to most building design and aims to decrease the need for heating and cooling. This paper presents a procedure to obtain an alternative insulation material made with waste newsprint papers, cane stalks, vermiculite, perlite, zinc borax and plaster. Towards this end, waste newsprint papers were kept in water for one day until they formed dough. Then, different rates of vermiculite, perlite, and zinc borax were added to the dough. This mortar was placed in moulds of 4×16×16cm dimensions with its own weight. In the production of the samples plaster was used as the binder. For increasing the fire resistance vermiculite and zinc borax were added to the mix. In the production of some samples 5 mm cane stalks were placed in grid forms of single and double rows and pressure was applied. After the production of the samples their unit weights, water absorption ratios, thermal and ultra sound transmission coefficients, and flexural and compressive strengths were determined. The samples produced with an additional double row of canes had the lowest thermal conductivity and ultra-sound permeability coefficients. The requirements of the standards were satisfied by the flexural and compressive strengths of all samples. Samples with both types of grids had rather low thermal conductivity coefficients. The flexural strengths of these samples were found to be higher than those of the others. These results indicate that the investigated materials can be used for thermal and ultrasonic sound insulation purposes. Furthermore, ASTM Standards’ fire resistance requirements are also satisfied. Hence, the proposed product has potential as a candidate to be commercialized with further improvements in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T05:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.011
       
  • An Analytical Method to Estimate the Total Installed Cost of Structural
           Steel Building Frames during Early Design
    • Authors: Steve Barg; Forest Flager; Martin Fischer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Steve Barg, Forest Flager, Martin Fischer
      This paper presents a new method to quickly and accurately estimate the material, fabrication, and erection cost of steel frames based on early-design information. To use the proposed Integrated Steel Design (ISD) method, engineers first upload a structural model consisting of a frame layout with preliminary member sizes and connection types specified. The frame connections are then automatically detailed to produce a bill of quantities suitable for fabrication. Next, the total installed cost is estimated based on unit rates maintained by suppliers on a secure web portal. Finally, the cost feedback is provided in the context of the 3-D model in near real-time. We apply the proposed analytical method to several moment frames to illustrate its advantages compared to more approximate approaches. These initial results demonstrate the potential of the ISD method to improve early stage design decision-making through better vertical integration of project information in the AEC industry.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T05:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.010
       
  • Mechanical and Physical Properties of Natural Additive Dispersed Lime
    • Authors: R. Ravi; M. Rajesh; S. Thirumalini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): R. Ravi, M. Rajesh, S. Thirumalini
      Influence of natural additives on mechanical and physical properties of hydraulic lime mortar has been investigated experimentally. Results revealed that organically modified lime mortar enhances the compressive strength significantly as it improved the bond between two consecutive lime particles in the matrix. Results also reflected that organically modified lime mortar with longer curing periods increased the compressive strength compared to reference mortar made of lime without organic addition. It is due to the presence of proteins and carbohydrates in the organic additives that influences the carbonation and hydraulic reaction in the lime matrix which helps to enhance the compressive strength of modified mortar. Addition of organic additives in lime mortar also reduces the porosity in the matrix and increases the hydrophobic nature and reduces water affinity of the hydraulic lime mortar.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T05:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.009
       
  • Numerical analysis of a micro-encapsulated PCM wallboard: Fluxmeter
           applications
    • Authors: T. El Rhafiki; T. Kousksou; A. Allouhi; W. Benomar; H. Zennouhi; A. Jamil; Y. Zeraouli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): T. El Rhafiki, T. Kousksou, A. Allouhi, W. Benomar, H. Zennouhi, A. Jamil, Y. Zeraouli
      In this paper, the thermal behavior of a micro-encapsulated phase change material wallboard is numerically investigated. A physical model coupling the heat transfer inside the wallboard with the heat transfer and the phase change process within micro-encapsulated phase change material (PCM) is introduced. The effect of different parameters such as the heating/cooling rate and the mass fraction of the PCM on the thermal behavior of the wallboard is evidenced. Simulation results are used to determine the variation of temperature and liquid fraction of the PCM and quantify heat fluxes exchanged between the two lateral sides of the wallboard. The physical model presents a methodology to determine the thermophysical properties of materials containing phase change materials (PCM).

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T04:10:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.008
       
  • Self-compacting geopolymer concrete with spend garnet as sand replacement
    • Authors: Habeeb Lateef Muttashar; Mohd Azreen Mohd Ariffin; Mohammed Noori Hussein; Mohd Warid Hussin; Shafiq Bin Ishaq
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Habeeb Lateef Muttashar, Mohd Azreen Mohd Ariffin, Mohammed Noori Hussein, Mohd Warid Hussin, Shafiq Bin Ishaq
      Garnets being the waste spin-off of surface treatment operations remain a major environmental concern worldwide. Robust engineering properties of these waste garnets offer the opportunity to get efficient construction materials via their appropriate recycling. In this spirit, we evaluate the capacity of spent garnets as sand replacement for achieving self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGPC). Such SCGPC specimens are prepared using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) wherein the river sand is replaced by spent garnet at varying contents (0 to 100%) under constant Liquid/Binder (L/B) mass ratio of 0.4. Performance evaluations of the developed SCGPC samples are made using several tests including durability, workability, flexural, compressive, splitting tensile strength conforming the EFNARC standard. Test results revealed an enhancement in the workability of the proposed SCGPC specimen with the increase of spent garnet contents. Furthermore, other strengths are discerned to be lower compared to the control sample at all stages of replacement. It is established that the spent garnet is prospective candidate for sand replacement up to 25% in terms of environmental amiability, cost effectiveness and conservation of natural resources.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T04:10:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.007
       
  • Multifunctional TiO2-based hybrid coatings on limestone: initial
           performances and durability over time
    • Authors: Giovanni Battista Goffredo; Vanessa Terlizzi; Placido Munafò
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Giovanni Battista Goffredo, Vanessa Terlizzi, Placido Munafò
      In the present work, the photocatalytic activity of different coatings containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles, both pure and in conjunction with metallic nanoparticles (silver and copper) to improve their photocatalysis and biocidal efficiency, was monitored over time. The nanoproducts were applied on travertine – a porous limestone – through spray-coating. An artificial accelerated ageing test – based on the prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light and the repeated application of stains – was used to simulate the extended use of the coatings on outdoor surfaces. Microscopical, aesthetical and physical macroscopic features, as well as self-cleaning and biocidal efficiencies of the coating-substrate system, were analysed assessing possible changes over time. The outcome of the research pointed out a good aesthetic compatibility with stone substrate (showing limited visual alteration) and high photocatalytic efficiency before ageing. Durability of self-cleaning and biocidal effects was also very clear while wettability of treated surfaces – especially without metallic nanoparticles – was the most altered characteristic of the coatings at the end of the ageing.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T04:10:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.006
       
  • Comparative study of the simplified methods of Eurocode 2 for second order
           analysis of slender reinforced concrete columns
    • Authors: Milton
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 14
      Author(s): José Milton de Araújo
      Usually, reinforced concrete design codes indicate only one simplified method for second order analysis of slender columns. The Eurocode 2 (EC2), on the other hand, adopts two simplified methods: one based on nominal stiffness and other based on nominal curvature. It would be desirable that both methods could provide similar solutions. However, this is not the case, as shown in this paper. On the contrary, the two EC2 simplified methods can provide very different results, leaving the engineer uncertain about which method he should use. The objective of this work is to compare these two simplified methods presenting the contradictions between them. Several experimental results available in the literature have been analysed and compared. The method based on the nominal curvature showed to be the most accurate; therefore, it is suggested to be used.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T01:54:22Z
       
  • Integration of BIM and LCA: evaluating the environmental impacts of
           building materials at an early stage of designing a typical office
           building
    • Authors: Mohammad Najjar; Karoline Figueiredo; Mariana Palumbo; Assed Haddad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Mohammad Najjar, Karoline Figueiredo, Mariana Palumbo, Assed Haddad
      This work integrates Building Information Modeling (BIM) with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and presents the outcome of this integration in evaluating environmental impacts of building materials in the construction sector. A case study of a multi-story office building is applied to validate the development of design concepts and discuss the results generated by BIM and LCA tools. This research evaluates the LCA methodology of the case study based on ISO 14040 and 14044 guidelines within the available database, using Autodesk Revit as a BIM program and Green Building Studio and Tally applications in Revit as tools to achieve the objectives. This study indicates that BIM-LCA integration is an optimal procedure towards achieving sustainable development and environmental protection, and empowers the decision-making process in the construction sector. It sheds light on the current limitations that are facing the integration process. Moreover, this work outlines that most of the negative environmental impacts are occurring during the manufacturing and operation phases. Thus, it encourages reviewing the application of building materials in order to reduce the passive contribution to the environment.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T01:54:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.005
       
  • Influence of Mineral Admixtures and Aggregates on Properties of Different
           Concretes under high Temperature Conditions I: Experimental Study
    • Authors: D. Harinadha Reddy; Ananth Ramaswamy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): D. Harinadha Reddy, Ananth Ramaswamy
      Fire in concrete structures deteriorates mechanical properties of the material and leads to structural collapse under loads. Two types of spalling occurs in concrete when exposed to high temperature, namely explosive and thermal spalling. Explosive spalling occurs once the hydrostatic stress (developed in the pores) exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete. Where as thermal spalling of concrete happens due to degradation of material properties (elastic modulus, compressive and tensile strength) when exposed to high temperature. The present study comprises of an experimental (this manuscript) and analytical program (part II) to assess deformations due to high temperature in different concretes. Seven different concrete mixes have been made for this purpose and among the seven mixes, three mixes are self compacted concrete mixes (35MPa, 55MPa and 70MPa), a high volume fly ash concrete mix (45MPa), a normally vibrated OPC concrete mix (45MPa) and a heavy density concrete mix (25MPa). Two ages were selected to test these concretes to study the age effects, one at 28 days and other at 365 days. All these mixes were tested in three different test approaches, which are stressed (ST), unstressed (UST) and unstressed residual strength (URST) approach. Each approach has its specific purpose of extracting residual properties of concrete when exposed to high temperature. The findings indicate that both concrete with supplementary cementitious material (fly ash) and heavy density concrete (Haemetite) were gound to be structurally robust when exposed to high temperature.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T01:54:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.013
       
  • Benchmarking water efficiency of architectural finishing materials based
           on a “cradle-to-gate” approach
    • Authors: Ahmed Abd; El-Hameed Yasser Mansour Ahmed Faggal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Ahmed K. Abd El-Hameed, Yasser M. Mansour, Ahmed A. Faggal
      The global construction industry utilizes massive quantities of highly water-consuming materials. Choosing finishing materials of high embodied water results in a high initial level of water consumption in building construction. This paper summarizes the results of a comparative analysis for "Cradle-to-Gate" water demands of common finishing materials. The aim is to deepen the knowledge of water footprint for finishing materials, analysing possible alternatives and providing recommendations for selection decisions during either the rehabilitation or design of buildings. The study proves that the water footprint of finishing materials can be significantly reduced by promoting the use of the best water-efficient alternatives, concluding guidelines for manufacturers and architects. This would stimulate competition between manufacturers to adopt more standards to enhance the water footprints of their products, introducing water-efficient alternatives declared using either Eco-labels or Environmental Product Declarations.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T21:34:29Z
       
  • Experimental study of inhalable particle concentration distribution in
           typical university canteens
    • Authors: Daichao Zhang; Xinming Jin Lijun Yang Xiaoze Yongping Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Daichao Zhang, Xinming Jin, Lijun Yang, Xiaoze Du, Yongping Yang
      Canteens are important places in our daily life, so it is of great significance for human health to investigate the inhalable particle concentration distributions inside them. In this work, the cooking particle concentrations in a typical university canteen with both enclosed and open style cooking units are measured by GRIMM1109, a particle measuring instrument. The results show that the enclosed or open-style cooking plays an important role in the concentration of particles. The particle number concentration is mainly contributed by the particles smaller than 1μm. For the mass concentration at the same place however, PM10 is the top contributor, while PM1 can be negligible. The particle number and mass concentrations decrease with increasing the distance from the cooking source. The mass concentration of PM10 in the open-style cafeteria can arrive at even 0.45mg/m3, which is 8.5 times as many as that in the traditional student canteen, and exceeds the maximum allowable concentration of 0.15mg/m3. In contrast, the traditional student canteen with the enclosed cooking units is superior to the open-style cafeteria. It is recommended to enhance the ventilation to reduce the harmful effect of particulate matters on human health in the open-style dining hall.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T21:34:29Z
       
  • BIM in Off-site Manufacturing for Buildings
    • Authors: F.H. Abanda; J.H.M. Tah F.K.T. Cheung
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): F.H. Abanda, J.H.M. Tah, F.K.T. Cheung
      The need to overcome challenges faced by construction industry has been at the core of many government reports. Most of the reports suggest the adoption of innovations including off-site manufacture and emerging Building Information Modelling (BIM) to overcome the challenges facing the industry. Current research has largely focused on the impacts of off-site manufacture and BIM independently applied on traditional construction methods. Due to the factory-based nature of off-site manufacture, the benefits of BIM on off-site manufacture have been widely argued to be far greater than those of traditional construction. However, studies about impacts of BIM on off-site manufacture are scarce with far too many on traditional construction. This study investigates the implications of BIM systems on off-site manufacture and traditional construction methods, with emphasis on the technological potential of BIM for off-site manufacture. The specific objectives of the study are threefold. Firstly, it examines how BIM can support off-site manufacture. Secondly, the paper discusses the benefits of BIM and explains how BIM can overcome barriers hindering the uptake of off-site manufacturing. Thirdly, due to the importance to measure the benefits to support wider adoption, an examination of the published quantitative benefits of BIM on off-site manufacture and traditional construction is undertaken. A critical appraisal of the literature was undertaken to achieve the aim of this study. The main findings are the identification of qualitative and quantitative benefits of: BIM on off-site manufacture, off-site manufacture and BIM on traditional construction. The findings reinforce the argument that BIM adoption on off-site manufacturing projects is a rapid, efficient and one of the best ways to improve on the long standing challenges that have plagued the construction industry for generations.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T21:34:29Z
       
  • Experimental study on fire safety of chimneys in real use and actual site
           conditions
    • Authors: Perttu Leppänen; Mikko Malaska; Timo Inha; Matti Pentti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Perttu Leppänen, Mikko Malaska, Timo Inha, Matti Pentti
      In recent years, numerous building fires have occurred in Finland where the fire has started due to the ignition of flammable materials in the vicinity of metal chimney penetrations through floors, roofs and walls. Based on onsite observations and experimental studies, one possible reason for the ignition is that the actual flue gas temperatures in real use in buildings are higher than those assumed for chimney design. An experimental study has been conducted in the TUT Fire Laboratory at Tampere University of Technology to determine the actual site conditions, identify the difference between the actual site conditions and the EN standard test conditions and assess whether the differences affect the fire safety of chimney penetrations. This paper describes the results of five site tests conducted in four different residential buildings and a sauna. The results revealed that the actual use of fireplaces and site conditions may differ significantly from the test conditions of EN standards. The site tests demonstrated higher flue gas temperatures and stronger draughts than what specified for the EN standard tests. The flue gas temperatures measured onsite were 134° to 278°C higher than the mean temperature indicated in the CE marking of the tested fireplaces. The results indicate that the flue gas temperatures given in the CE markings of fireplaces may be too low for the designing of chimneys. This may cause a fire hazard at chimney penetrations.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:22:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.014
       
  • DAYLIGHTING ‘ENERGY AND COMFORT’ PERFORMANCE IN OFFICE BUILDINGS:
           SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, METAMODEL AND PARETO FRONT
    • Authors: Louis-Gabriel Maltais; Louis Gosselin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Louis-Gabriel Maltais, Louis Gosselin
      Daylighting performance is an integral feature of sustainable building design. In this paper, two performance criteria were defined, namely an annual glaring index (AGI) and an annual energy requirement for lighting (AEL). Based on 1900 daylight simulations of an office building located in Montreal (Canada), a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential building design variables among a list of 15. Two sensitivity analysis techniques were employed. Window-to-wall ratios and the overhang dimension were among the most influential parameters for both AEL and AGI, whereas building orientation and aspect ratio, as well as visible transmittance, were found to have a relatively weak influence. A Pareto front demonstrating the optimal tradeoffs between AEL and AGI was approximated from the simulation sample. Finally, a metamodel is developed to calculate rapidly the daylight performance indices for a given set of the 15 design variables.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:22:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.012
       
  • Effects of microstructure on acoustical insulation of gypsum boards
    • Authors: Yassine Elkhessaimi; Nicolas Tessier-Doyen; Agnès Smith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Yassine Elkhessaimi, Nicolas Tessier-Doyen, Agnès Smith
      This paper focusses on the understanding of microstructural effects related to sound transmission loss and critical frequency of gypsum boards. The determination of the critical frequency, through measurements of the mass per unit area, thickness and Young's modulus, indicates that a microstructure exhibiting large gypsum crystals with prismatic shapes obtained by addition of citric acid, yields a value (for example: ≅ 3700 ± 360Hz for 1.5 mass% of citric acid additive, board thickness: 14 mm) well beyond the sensitive frequency range of human hearing (350–1500Hz). Concerning the sound transmission loss, acoustic insulation can be significantly improved by both increasing (i) the mass per unit area of the gypsum board, (ii) the thickness and (iii) the loss factor. A sandwich panel consisting of an assembly of two individual gypsum boards prepared with citric acid combined with a glass wool core of 50 mm in thickness shows very promising insulating performances. This result has been predicted theoretically with a transfer matrix method.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:40:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.011
       
  • Strength Characteristics of Fly Ash Stabilized with Lime and modified with
           Phosphogypsum
    • Authors: Rakesh Kumar Dutta; VishwasNandkishor Khatri; Varun Panwar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Rakesh Kumar Dutta, VishwasNandkishor Khatri, Varun Panwar
      The paper presents the strength characteristics of fly ash stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum. A series of unconfined compression strength test and unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests were conducted on the reference mix composed of fly ash, 8% lime and 2% phosphogypsum. The specimens for these tests were prepared and cured for 7, 28, 56 and 90 days with three different curing methods termed as method M1, M2 and M3. The results of this study indicated that the unconfined compressive strength, deviator stress, cohesion, friction angle, initial tangent modulus and secant modulus increased with the increase in curing period. The increase in these parameters was highest for M3 method of curing followed by M1 and M2 respectively. Further to predict these parameters an empirical relationship is proposed which was found to predict the given parameters within acceptable error. It is anticipated that the results of present study will be useful in utilizing the waste materials (fly ash, phosphogypsum) for various geotechnical applications.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:40:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.010
       
  • Flexural Behaviour of Geopolymer Concrete Beams Exposed to Elevated
           Temperatures
    • Authors: George Mathew; Benny Joseph
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): George Mathew, Benny Joseph
      Flexural behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer concrete beams exposed to elevated temperatures (200°C ,400°C, 600°C and 800°C) has been discussed in this paper. Beams of size 150 mm (W) × 200 mm (D) × 1100 mm (L) were cast with 0.52% reinforcing steel. Cover to the reinforcement has been varied (20 mm, 30 mm and 40 mm) and the geopolymer concrete used had a cube compressive strength of 57MPa. The deformation characteristics, moment–curvature relationship and cracking behaviour were observed. It could be concluded that, the deformation characteristics of reinforced geopolymer concrete beams at ambient temperature is similar to that of the reinforced cement concrete beams and could be predicted using strain compatibility approach. However, when they are exposed to elevated temperatures, the strain compatibility approach underestimates the deformation behaviour of reinforced geopolymer concrete beams. Further, ductility of the geopolymer concrete beams reduces rapidly with the increase in exposure temperature. Approximate equation has been proposed to predict the service load crack width of geopolymer concrete beams after exposure to elevated temperatures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:40:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.009
       
  • Production of Sustainable Clay Bricks using Waste Fly Ash: Mechanical and
           Durability Properties
    • Authors: Safeer Abbas; Muhammad A. Saleem; Syed M.S. Kazmi; Muhammad J. Munir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Safeer Abbas, Muhammad A. Saleem, Syed M.S. Kazmi, Muhammad J. Munir
      Burnt clay brick is one of the ancient building material. The use of waste materials in bricks can lessen the consumption of clay material and reduce the environmental burden due to accumulation of waste materials. Furthermore, addition of recycled materials can decrease the high carbon footprint. In the current study, bricks were manufactured using fly ash (by-product of coal) and conventional earthen materials. Fly ash was acquired from the coal power plant. Manufacturing of brick specimens was done in a local brick industry. The main variable in this study was the percentage of fly ash (i.e. 0 to 25% of clay). Results indicate that the compressive strength of bricks incorporating fly ash was lower as compared to that of clay bricks without fly ash. However, compressive strength of bricks incorporating up to 20% of fly ash satisfied the minimum requirements of the Pakistan Building Code. Reduction in weight was also observed in the fly ash bricks which would lead to overall weight reduction of the structures. Furthermore, less efflorescence was observed in bricks incorporating fly ash. Therefore, it can be concluded that clay bricks incorporating fly ash can be helpful in producing more sustainable bricks leading to economical solution.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:40:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.008
       
  • Experimental determination of thermal properties of brick wall for
           existing construction in the north of France
    • Authors: E. Sassine; Z. Younsi; Y. Cherif; A. Chauchois; E. Antczak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): E. Sassine, Z. Younsi, Y. Cherif, A. Chauchois, E. Antczak
      Old houses (before 1948) in Northern Europe have a lot of architectural similarities and one of the most common relates to thick brick walls. The study of thermal transfer in old massive walls provides a better understanding of their thermal behavior and to quantify the savings of energy following a possible thermal insulation. The specificity of these walls resides in the fact that their materials were manufactured in a period when the thermal standards were non-existent and therefore their thermal properties are not precisely known. This paper presents two experimental approaches for determining the thermal properties of masonry walls. In the first method, the materials composing the wall were characterized separately and then equivalent thermal resistance and thermal capacity were deduced; in the second one thermal transfer in an experimental wall was studied by imposing thermal conditions from one side of the wall through a heating box, the other side remaining exposed to ambient lab thermal conditions. The experimental wall is exposed to two different types of boundary conditions through a wooden insulated box which contains a radiator: the constant temperature (steady state mode) to determine the thermal resistances of the system and the sinusoidal temperature (harmonic mode) to determine the thermal capacity of the wall.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T05:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.007
       
  • Fired ceramics 100% from lignite fly ash and waste glass cullet mixtures
    • Authors: V. Karayannis; A. Moutsatsou; A. Domopoulou; E. Katsika; C. Drossou; A. Baklavaridis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): V. Karayannis, A. Moutsatsou, A. Domopoulou, E. Katsika, C. Drossou, A. Baklavaridis
      In the present study, the development of new building ceramics is investigated, using 100% lignite fly ash (FA) and waste glass cullet (WGC) mixtures as secondary industrial raw materials towards circular economy. Thus, compacted and sintered (at 700 and 900°C) ceramic bodies based on binary WGC/FA mixtures, with WGC loadings up to 15%, were fabricated. The utilization of WGC (amorphous) aimed at lowering the sintering temperature of the mixture, for energy reduction purposes, via a better heat flux regulation in the material. The successful consolidation/densification of the ceramic microstructures, mainly composed of different silica phases, was achieved upon synergistic sintering at 900°C for 2h. Moreover, the successful consolidation/densification was confirmed by the SEM micrograph observation and the porosity evaluation from the SEM micrographs. The addition of WGC yielded to a drastic decrease in the porosity values (down to 12%) for the samples sintered at 900°C for 2h. This porosity decrease favored, in turn, the substantial microhardness increase (up to 3833 HV) due to the pore sealing by the glassy phase of WGC. Moreover, an exponential relationship between microhardness and porosity was revealed. Finally, further investigation of the processing conditions is currently underway towards the optimization of the attained ceramic microstructures in order to meet the requirements of specific applications.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T05:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.006
       
  • On-site strength assessment of limestone based concrete slabs by combining
           non-destructive techniques
    • Authors: B. Craeye; H. van de Laar; J. van der Eijk; W. Gijbels; L. Lauriks
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): B. Craeye, H. van de Laar, J. van der Eijk, W. Gijbels, L. Lauriks
      For rehabilitation of existing concrete structures, knowing the strength of the different elements is mandatory. Assessment of the compressive strength of ‘old’ structures can be performed by (i) destructive testing of drilled cores in varying amounts and (ii) calibrated indirect methods by combining destructive core drilling with non- or semi-destructive techniques. The use of core-drilling is a time-consuming and labor-intensive method that weakens the existing concrete structure, leaving a lasting impression on it. As an alternative, many different non- and semi-destructive techniques are available for the in-situ determination of compressive strength. An experimental program is conducted on concrete slabs of different strength classes intended for various exposure classes, based on a limestone aggregate matrix, which is typically used for Belgian applications. Besides destructive core drilling and testing, the following non-destructive techniques were selected for this study: the rebound hammer, the ultrasonic pulse velocity tester, the Wenner probe for concrete resistivity and the Windsor probe (semi-destructive). Best fit correlations between the output of these different techniques and the destructively determined compressive strength were established. By means of multiple linear regression analysis, different non-destructive techniques were combined for assessment of strength of limestone based concrete.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.006
       
  • Effectiveness and viability of residential building energy retrofits in
           Dubai
    • Authors: Kambiz Rakhshan; Wilhelm A. Friess
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Kambiz Rakhshan, Wilhelm A. Friess
      The rapid economic growth of Dubai over the past three decades has triggered the construction of a large number of residential villas. Most of these were built before the first energy efficiency regulation came into effect in 2003 and, while new energy efficiency regulations are applied in buildings of new construction, the existing building stock remains energetically inefficient. The viability of different retrofit measures is examined here using two calibrated energy models of villas typical of different urban development periods. The retrofit measures considered focus on both envelope and air conditioning system, with energy targets selected at two efficiency levels: first, the level required by the current Dubai Green Building Regulations, and second, required efficiency levels to the stricter demands of the German Building Regulation. Results indicate that improving wall insulation to a U value of 0.3W/m2K, and upgrading the Air Conditioning system to a COP of 2.78, is financially viable and has a significant effect on energy consumption and CO2 equivalent emissions. Considering the existing building stock, the effect of applying these measures at an Emirate-wide scale can reduce summer peak demand by 40% and CO2 emissions for the villas by nearly 32%.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T16:45:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.010
       
  • Structural Assessment of the Roman Wall and Vaults of the Cloister of
           Tarragona Cathedral
    • Authors: Amparo Núñez-Andrés; Felipe Buill; Agusti Costa; Josep Maria Puche
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Amparo Núñez-Andrés, Felipe Buill, Agusti Costa, Josep Maria Puche
      The Mediterranean city of Tarragona was a capital city in Roman times. Nowadays, the remains of the ancient constructions coexist with many subsequent buildings. This is the case of the Gothic Cathedral cloister, whose walls partially take advantage of the remains of the temenos's wall. This paper focuses on the assessment of that unique overlapping of construction phases. The investigation is performed through an unprecedented topographical survey by means of massive data capture techniques. This information is the basis for the mechanical assessment of the equilibrium conditions of the northern corner of the gallery, which is performed on the well-known theoretical framework of limit analysis by means of thrust lines. The study allowed to enhance the understanding about the equilibrium conditions and the deformation processes of the gallery masonry elements, where the mechanical relation between the Roman and Gothic walls is essential.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T16:45:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.007
       
  • The influence of soil content on the mechanical properties, drying
           shrinkage and autogenous shrinkage of earth concrete
    • Authors: Jean Marc Kanema
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Jean Marc Kanema
      Earth concrete is increasingly used for the construction of buildings and other civil engineering structures, yet little data are available to date describing the shrinkage of this building material. The present experimental study evaluates the behaviour of four concrete mixtures containing different quantities of soil and presenting various water/cement ratios. Earth concrete samples were cast then stocked at normal room temperature and humidity levels. Tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, one directional shrinkage and X-ray diffraction were measured in all samples. The results indicate that the storage conditions and soil content of earth concrete influence the mechanical behavior and shrinkage of this building material.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.006
       
  • FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF FANPALM REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS
    • Authors: M.T. Audu; A.A Raheem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): M.T. Audu, A.A Raheem
      The importance of cracks, crack width and load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete member subjected to flexural load is so vital and is considered as a very important parameter under serviceability limit state design of concrete elements. The post-crack behavior of a structural member is a measure of its toughness, a vital parameter often used in evaluating the durability of structural element. Steel have been in used as reinforcements in structural members because of its good properties on high tensile stress, ability to improve the toughness of structural members and its durability in concrete environment. However, steel is now very expensive, hence the need for substantive alternative material. Fanpalm is one of the locally available and has been studied as a suitable alternative to steel reinforcements. The study of the cracks and cracks’ patterns with the respect to the sustained loads for concrete slabs reinforced with fanpalm is the concern of this study. Fanpalm specimens were cut, shaped to desired flexural reinforcements sizes. Then used as reinforcements for concrete slabs of 1:2:4 mix and cured in water for 28 days. Flexural strength tests were carried out to evaluate the load causing the first visible crack and the load causing full development of yield lines of fanpalm reinforcement concrete slabs were observed. The theoretical yield loads were lower compared with the observed experimental yielding loads. The results reveal that the cracks increase with increased in load. As the load systematically increases there is another sudden change in deflection at yield points. The highest percentage reinforcement 72%and 65% on y and x plane respectively occurred on slab SLF2 with corresponding value of 16.20kN and 29.35kN at first crack and yield point respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.005
       
  • The effect of laminate stacking sequence and fiber orientation on the
           dynamic response of FRP composite slabs
    • Authors: Leila Soufeiani; Ghasem Ghadyani; Ahmad Beng Hong Kueh; Kate T.Q. Nguyen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Leila Soufeiani, Ghasem Ghadyani, Ahmad Beng Hong Kueh, Kate T.Q. Nguyen
      In this paper, different stacking sequences (0/±45/90°) of laminated FRP slab under human-induced loads using finite element techniques are investigated to assess the dynamic characteristics of a composite floor and corresponding human comfort problems. Four layers of FRP, with different angles comprising 256 cases, are modeled using ANSYS software. Load models with variable parameters are applied as pattern loads. Material properties and damping ratio are calculated separately for each case with the aid of MATLAB software and considered as input to ANSYS for obtaining the maximum responses in terms of deflection and acceleration from the walking load of people. Then the results are compared with the limiting values proposed by the design standards. A comparison of the two results reveals that 54 cases of investigated FRP laminate seem to be ideal for practical use in satisfying both the acceleration and displacement requirements. This study was carried out to provide a more realistic evaluation of this type of structure when subjected to vibration due to human walking.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.004
       
  • Utilization potential of low temperature hydronic space heating systems in
           Russia
    • Authors: Petr Ovchinnikov; Anatolijs Borodiņecs; Renārs Millers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Petr Ovchinnikov, Anatolijs Borodiņecs, Renārs Millers
      Due to drastically tightened building regulations in Europe in recent years, there has been gradual transfer to low-exergy heating systems in housing stock. Practices that take place in northern countries with similar to Russia weather conditions such as Denmark, Sweden and Finland showed apparent potential in applying such systems in Russia. The latest changes and tendencies in building legislation system here although try to introduce low-exergy systems in local market still confront it indirectly. The current study aims at evaluating practical application of low temperature hydronic space heating systems in residential buildings in Russia with a view to current recommendations on thermal performance of a building. Study object was placed in different locations of the country with corresponding to these locations envelope properties. Mathematical model was calculated using the energy simulation tool IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (ICE) 4.7. Parameters of comfort and energy performance were evaluated for every studied configuration. Results show partial applicability of low-temperature hydronic space heating systems with correspondence to current regulations on building's U-values. Possible measures of improvement were proposed in order to achieve good thermal comfort in every studied configuration.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.003
       
  • Effects of humidity on thermal performance of aerogel insulation blankets
    • Authors: Atiyeh Hoseini; Majid Bahrami
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Atiyeh Hoseini, Majid Bahrami
      Actual thermal conductivity of insulation materials is subject to change over time under various environmental conditions. Particularly, insulations may degrade due to moisture absorption or condensation when they are exposed to humidity. This work presents a comprehensive investigation of aerogel blankets thermal conductivity (k-value) in humid conditions at transient and steady state regimes. Transient plane source (TPS) tests revealed that the k-value of aerogel blankets can increase by up to approximately 15% as the ambient relative humidity (RH) increases from 0% to 90% at 25°C. In addition, a relatively long time is required, at constant T (temperature) and RH, for such enhancement. Therefore, mechanisms affecting the k-value of aerogel blankets as a function of RH and T are investigated. Also, theoretical approaches for predicting the moisture content and k-value over time are discussed, and parametric analyses are performed to identify the most affecting variables.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.001
       
  • Manufacturing of High-strength Lightweight Aggregate Concrete using
           Blended Coarse Lightweight Aggregates
    • Authors: Muhammad Aslam; Payam Shafigh; Mohammad Alizadeh Nomeli; Mohd Zamin Jumaat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Muhammad Aslam, Payam Shafigh, Mohammad Alizadeh Nomeli, Mohd Zamin Jumaat
      Structural lightweight concrete plays an important role in the construction industry, especially for the high-rise buildings. It can only be produced using lightweight aggregates. Oil-palm-boiler clinker (OPBC) is a solid waste from the oil palm industry and could be used as lightweight aggregate in concrete mixture. However, the density of this lightweight aggregate is more than the density of the other types of natural and artificial lightweight aggregate. Therefore, the density of concrete was made of this lightweight aggregate is relatively high and is in the range of semi-lightweight concrete. In the current study, OPBC was partially substituted with a lighter lightweight aggregate namely oil palm shell (OPS) in a OPBC semi-lightweight concrete with high strength to further reduce the density of the concrete. To this end, OPBC was replaced by OPS with 0, 20, 40 and 60% by volume. Test results show that contribution of OPS in OPBC concrete reduces the density, while all the mechanical properties were also reduced. This occurs due to smooth surface texture of OPC and its lower density compared to OPBC. It was, however, found that OPBC semi-lightweight concrete containing more than 20% OPS turns to be structural lightweight concrete with high strength. Based on the mechanical properties and water absorption test results it is recommended that the optimum substitution of OPBC with OPS stays between 20 to 40%.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.002
       
  • SHEAR STRENGTH REDUCTION DUE TO INTRODUCED OPENING IN LOADED RC BEAMS
    • Authors: Ata El-kareim Shoeib; Ahmed El-sayed Sedawy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Ata El-kareim Shoeib, Ahmed El-sayed Sedawy
      The reduction of shear strength due to the introduction of an opening is an ongoing problem for reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Fifteen rectangular section (150 mm×300 mm×1650 mm) specimens were tested and divided into six groups under three considerations: 1) opening dimensions and shape, 2) time needed to create an opening for a new or an existing building; 3) external and internal strength of the opening in RC beams. The results demonstrate that a reduction in stiffness occurs due to the presence of an opening. The stiffness reduces further when the opening is placed under loading because of the reduction in the effective moment of inertia due to formation cracks around the opening as a result of the opening process. The stirrups besides the opening resisted shear force with ratios between 35% and 65% from the yield strength of steel bars and must be considered for shear resistance. Finally, the initial proposal equation that calculates the resistance shear force taken by the vertical stirrups around the opening can serve as a guideline for the introduction of an opening in RC beams.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T14:46:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.04.004
       
 
 
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