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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2298 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (104 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1209 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (69 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (92 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 192 of 192 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Agregat     Open Access  
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Building & Management     Open Access  
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access  
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access  
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover Journal of Building Engineering
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2352-7102
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3118 journals]
  • Influence of curing on the mechanical performance of FRP laminates
    • Authors: S.B. Singh; Sudhir Vummadisetti; Himanshu Chawla
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 16
      Author(s): S.B. Singh, Sudhir Vummadisetti, Himanshu Chawla
      Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates are used in different structural elements of buildings such as beams, columns, floor slabs, hand railings and for the strengthening of structures. Strength and stiffness of CFRP and GFRP laminates are highly dependent on curing temperature and time. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of temperature and duration of curing on the strength and stiffness of laminates. This study deals with the influence of curing duration and temperature of CFRP and GFRP laminates on the tensile, compressive and flexural characteristics. Laminates were cured at temperatures of 80°C, 120°C and 160°C for different time periods such as 1, 2 and 3h in a hot air oven and another laminate cured at room temperature for 15 days as a reference. It is observed that the mechanical properties of the CFRP and GFRP specimens have better performance when cured under oven heating than being fabricated at room temperature. Conclusions have been drawn that longitudinal tensile strength of CFRP and GFRP laminates is better at 80°C temperature curing for three hours and the maximum Young's modulus of CFRP and GFRP laminates was achieved at 80°C and 120°C temperature for 3-h curing, respectively. Similarly, peak longitudinal compressive strength for CFRP specimens was obtained at 80°C temperature cured for three hours and GFRP specimens cured at 80°C temperature for 1-h. The flexural strength of CFRP and GFRP specimens was highest at 160°C temperature cured for 1-h. However, the flexural stiffness of CFRP and GFRP specimens was dominant at a temperature of 120°C cured for 1-h and 3-h, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
       
  • Risks affecting the delivery of HVAC systems: Identifying and analysis
    • Authors: S.A.A. Mosaad; U.H. Issa; M. Salah Hassan
      Pages: 20 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 16
      Author(s): S.A.A. Mosaad, U.H. Issa, M. Salah Hassan
      The time and costs associated with HVAC system installation are significant percentages of the total time and cost of construction projects. Furthermore, these systems affect many of the other construction activities. They are complicated, and their installations face many risks, which may lead to time and cost overruns for the project. Therefore, more attention should be paid to how these systems are installed in construction projects. The main objective of this study was to identify the main activities associated with HVAC system installation in construction projects, as well as the risk factors that affect them. Other objectives included conducting an analysis and assessment of the effects of these risk factors on time and cost objectives. Multi-stage field surveys were used in this study. The major risk sources were qualified in terms of their severity, probability of occurrences, and impacts on time and cost objectives. Three activities associated with HVAC system installation were identified: (a) air distribution duct work, (b) chilled water distribution pipe work, and (c) HVAC equipment installation. Fifty-five risk factors that affect each specific activity and that are common to all activities were also identified and categorized into four groups. Two agreement analysis tests and a full statistical analysis were conducted. A high degree of agreement between all partners was obtained. The time and cost percentages of the three activities were determined. A detailed discussion and analysis indicated that approximately 50% of the key risks belonged to common risks that affected all activities, while the most important risky activity was chilled water distribution pipe work. Furthermore, the analysis emphasized that the number of risk factors increased as the expected duration of the activity increased; however, this relationship did not exist in the case of cost. Ultimately, the obtained results indicate that the expected time and cost overruns caused by the effects of risk factors on HVAC system delivery are approximately 10–20% and 5–10%, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
       
  • Micro-structural behavior of interfacial transition zone of the porous
           sintered fly ash aggregate
    • Authors: Manu S. Nadesan; Pasla Dinakar
      Pages: 31 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 16
      Author(s): Manu S. Nadesan, Pasla Dinakar
      The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) has a significant influence on the hardened concrete behavior. The behavior of ITZ is not well established in the case of sintered fly ash aggregate (SFA) concrete compared to normal aggregate concrete. The present study emphasizes to quantify the characteristics of ITZ of the SFA concrete. To understand the influence of water-cement ratio on the ITZ behavior, various water-cement ratios ranging from 0.25 to 0.75 were employed and the ITZ characteristics were assessed both at 28 and 90 days through various experimental methods such as microhardness test, SEM-EDX and impedance spectroscopy. Also, a comparison is made with the ITZ of the normal granite aggregate concrete. The results indicate that the ITZ formed in the SFA aggregate concrete is denser than the normal aggregate concrete.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
       
  • Estimation of geopolymer concrete strength from ultrasonic pulse velocity
           (UPV) using high power pulser
    • Authors: Rachit Ghosh; S. Palit Sagar; Anil Kumar; Sunil Kumar Gupta; Sanjay Kumar
      Pages: 39 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 16
      Author(s): Rachit Ghosh, S. Palit Sagar, Anil Kumar, Sunil Kumar Gupta, Sanjay Kumar
      The objective of this paper is to establish the relationship between the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete. The specimens used in the studies were geopolymer concrete synthesized at ambient temperature with alkali activators of different concentrations. A high power pulser based equipment Ultra-β™ designed at CSIR-NML, Jamshedpur was used for the UPV measurement and the compressive strength tests were carried out at the concrete age of 1, 7, 28, and 90 days. The result shows that the relationship between UPV and the compressive strength of concrete is significantly influenced by age and alkali activator concentration. The UPV and the compressive strength of concrete increase with age, but the rate of increase varies with alkali activator. The study of hardened concrete at an age of 90 days was considered as the reference. It is found that with the same content of alkali activator, a clear relationship curve can be drawn to describe the UPV and compressive strength of hardened concrete. The standard error in estimating compressive strength from the UPV varies from 1.6MPa to 2.34MPa. This paper highlights the UPV and strength relationship for geopolymer concrete prepared with different concentration of alkali activator.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
       
  • Structural response of modular buildings – An overview
    • Authors: Andrew William Lacey; Wensu Chen; Hong Hao; Kaiming Bi
      Pages: 45 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 16
      Author(s): Andrew William Lacey, Wensu Chen, Hong Hao, Kaiming Bi
      Prefabrication by off-site manufacturing leads to a reduced overall construction schedule, improved quality, and reduced resource wastage. Modular building is therefore increasingly popular and promoted. With the recent promotion a number of relevant studies have been completed, however, a review of the design, construction, and performance of modular buildings under different loading conditions is lacking. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of modular building structures. First, structural forms and construction materials are presented as a brief introduction to the modular structures. Modular building is shown to refer not to a single structure type, but a variety of structural systems and materials. These modular structures might perform differently to similar traditional structures and the structural performance is highly dependent on inter- and intra-module connections. The structural response of modules to different hazards is then considered, followed by the current design practice and methodology. As a currently developing area there is great potential for innovation in modular structures and several key research areas are identified for further work.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
       
  • Multi-objective optimization methodology for net zero energy buildings
    • Authors: Fatima Harkouss; Farouk Fardoun; Pascal Henry Biwole
      Pages: 57 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 16
      Author(s): Fatima Harkouss, Farouk Fardoun, Pascal Henry Biwole
      The challenge in Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) design is to find the best combination of design strategies that will face the energy performance problems of a particular building. This paper presents a methodology for the simulation-based multi-criteria optimization of NZEBs. Its main features include four steps: building simulation, optimization process, multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) and testing solution's robustness. The methodology is applied to investigate the cost-effectiveness potential for optimizing the design of NZEBs in different case studies taken as diverse climatic zones in Lebanon and France. The investigated design parameters include: external walls and roof insulation thickness, windows glazing type, cooling and heating set points, and window to wall ratio. Furthermore, the inspected RE systems include: solar domestic hot water (SDHW) and photovoltaic (PV) array. The proposed methodology is a useful tool to enhance NZEBs design and to facilitate decision making in early phases of building design. Specifically, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is chosen in order to minimize thermal, electrical demands and life cycle cost (LCC) while reaching the net zero energy balance; thus getting the Pareto-front. A ranking decision making technique Elimination and Choice Expressing the Reality (ELECTRE III) is applied to the Pareto-front so as to obtain one optimal solution.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
       
  • Need to repair moisture- and mould damage in different structures in
           finnish public buildings
    • Authors: Petri J. Annila; Jukka Lahdensivu; Jommi Suonketo; Matti Pentti; Juha Vinha
      Pages: 72 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 16
      Author(s): Petri J. Annila, Jukka Lahdensivu, Jommi Suonketo, Matti Pentti, Juha Vinha
      Moisture- and mould damage and resulting impurities are related to complex indoor air quality problems. This study focuses on the need to repair moisture- and mould damage in different structures. The research material consists of 168 Finnish public buildings. Based on research material, the highest need for repair is in timber-framed ground floor with crawl-in space, slab-on-ground structures, external walls in concrete-framed buildings and walls in contact with soil. A need to repair these structures exists in 56–85% of the examined buildings. The study reveals that buildings are multi-problematic: on average 3.1 main category structures were damaged in every studied building.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
       
  • A practical solution for HVAC prognostics: Failure mode and effects
           analysis in building maintenance
    • Authors: Chunsheng Yang; Weiming Shen; Qiangqiang Chen; Burak Gunay
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Chunsheng Yang, Weiming Shen, Qiangqiang Chen, Burak Gunay
      Fault detection, diagnostics, and prognostics (FDD&P) is attracting an amount of attention from building operators and researchers because it can help greatly improve the performance of building operations by reducing energy consumption for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) while improving occupant comfort at the same time. However, FDD&P, particularly HVAC prognostics, for building operations remains with many challenges due to special operation environments of HVAC systems. These challenges include “tolerance or ignorance” of failures in long-haul operations, lack of operation regulations, and even lack of documents for HVAC failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), which is a systematic method of identifying and preventing system, product and process problems. To address some of these challenges, the authors propose an FMEA method for common building HVAC equipment by exploring work-orders generated by building energy management systems (BEMS) using a data mining approach. With this FMEA approach, it is possible for building operators to isolate and prognose faults practically. The FMEA approach also helps us tackle high impact failures, for which operation data can be acquired and machine learning-based predictive models can be developed. This paper reports some preliminary results in conducting an HVAC FMEA from a large number of work-orders obtained from a BEMS in routine operations. The HVAC FMEA will be used as a guidance tool for data gathering and developing data-driven models for HVAC FDD&P and as a practical solution for HVAC prognostics in case that predictive models are difficult to develop.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Multifunctional electrically conductive concrete using different fillers
    • Authors: Amr S. El-Dieb; Mahmoud A. El-Ghareeb; Mohamed A.H. Abdel-Rahman; El Sayed A. Nasr
      Pages: 61 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Amr S. El-Dieb, Mahmoud A. El-Ghareeb, Mohamed A.H. Abdel-Rahman, El Sayed A. Nasr
      This study presents an experimental investigation on the effect of using different conductive fillers; steel shavings, carbon powder and graphite powder as partial replacement of fine aggregate (1%, 3%, 5% and 7% by volume) on the electrical, physical, mechanical and durability properties of structural concrete. The effect of including different conductive fillers on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete was evaluated (i.e. slump, air content, unit weight, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and water absorption). Results showed that structural concrete with good electrical conductivity could be produced for various applications by incorporating appropriate conductive filler type and content. The produced electrically conductive concrete (ECC) showed different performance characteristics and could be used as a multifunctional material for different structural applications. A performance index (PI) approach was used to evaluate and select the most suitable concrete mixture of required performance(s) criteria for multifunctional structural applications.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Numerical comparative analysis of second order effects of recycled
           aggregate concrete columns
    • Authors: João M.C. Estêvão; Vítor Barreto
      Pages: 95 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): João M.C. Estêvão, Vítor Barreto
      The use of recycled aggregate concrete (from construction and demolition wastes) in buildings has the advantage of being more environmentally-friendly. However, this type of concrete has lower mechanical performance, namely in terms of modulus of elasticity. This lower value has influence on columns second order effects. For this reason, a numerical sensitivity analysis was carried out to study the influence of second order effects on safety of recycled aggregate concrete columns. Two different Eurocode 2 methods were used for this comparison: a method based on nominal curvature and a method based on nominal stiffness. The results were obtained for different slenderness values and axial force levels, for the same initial percentage of reinforcing steel area, which was determined to guarantee the structural safety due to first order effects only. The obtained results show an increase of reinforcement area in columns built with recycled aggregate concrete, when compared to natural aggregate concrete, due to second order effects.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Exposure of RC building structures to the marine environment of the
           Valencia coast
    • Authors: Jose D. Moreno; Teresa M. Pellicer; Jose M. Adam; Mercedes Bonilla
      Pages: 109 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Jose D. Moreno, Teresa M. Pellicer, Jose M. Adam, Mercedes Bonilla
      As the marine atmosphere is very harmful to reinforced concrete (RC) structures, buildings situated close to the sea are at a high risk of suffering damage. Such is the case for many of the buildings near the coast in Valencia (Spain). Most of these buildings were built between 1968 and 2007, and nowadays their RC structures are seriously damaged. This paper describes the condition of 1816 buildings that were inspected in 14 towns along the Valencia coast. From these inspections, there have been identified the main factors which are the most significant in the damage of these RC structures by the aggressive marine conditions. These factors include environmental characteristics, urban parameters, and the construction system of the buildings.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • The use of Wire Mesh-Polyurethane Cement (WM-PUC) composite to strengthen
           RC T-beams under flexure
    • Authors: Kexin Zhang; Quansheng Sun
      Pages: 122 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Kexin Zhang, Quansheng Sun
      This paper presents the experimental behaviours of reinforced concrete (RC) T-beams strengthened using an innovative technique, namely, wire mesh-polyurethane cement (WM-PUC) composite. The flexural behaviour of WM-PUC-strengthened beams was investigated. This investigation considered three parameters: the amount of wire mesh used, the material into which the wire mesh was embedded, and the loading method. All beams were tested in a four-point bending setup. The test results indicated that relative to ferrocement-strengthened beams, the WM-PUC-strengthened beams exhibited significantly greater yield loads, ultimate loads and stiffnesses, and these enhancements increased with an increasing number of layers of wire mesh. Relative to ferrocement strengthening, WM-PUC strengthening was found to more effectively hinder crack expansion, mainly because no cracks appeared on the PUC surface after the concrete cracked until its failure. After strengthening with WM-PUC laminate, the decreased stiffness of a pre-cracked beam was not as easily detectable in the early stage relative to that of a non-preloaded beam. The good bonding performance of the PUC in the WM-PUC laminate indicated that no additional bonding aid is needed in WM-PUC-strengthened beams. These results demonstrate that WM-PUC strengthening shows potential as an external strengthening technique for concrete structures.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • A new process for the evaluation of the net-benefit of flexible
           ground-floor ceiling in the face of use transition uncertainty
    • Authors: Claudio Martani; Laurent Cattarinussi; Bryan T. Adey
      Pages: 156 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Claudio Martani, Laurent Cattarinussi, Bryan T. Adey
      In metropolitan areas, real estate investments, such as buildings, can be highly profitable. The profitability, however, can be uncertain, as adaptations might be required in the long-term to enable the modification of the building to adapt it to new uses. In building adaptation for use transitions, an important aspect is the modification of the ceiling height of the ground floor to meet the floor height requirements of different uses. Designs that include flexible ceilings instead of rigid ceilings have relatively low future adaptation costs, but are relatively expensive. Such designs are, therefore, only beneficial when the use transition costs over the life of the building are higher than the cost difference between the flexible and the rigid design. Because of the difficulties in predicting the number and types of adaptations that will occur over the life of a building, and the fact that flexible designs are more expensive, investors, to their own detriment, often build rigidly for current needs only. In the work presented in this article, a new process was developed and tested that uses Monte Carlo simulations to estimate costs and benefits of alternative ceiling designs, considering uncertainty on use transitions. The process is shown by using it to estimate the net-benefit over 70 years for an investor related to a fictive building in London with flexible ceilings and the same building with rigid ceilings. It was considered that multiple use transitions among five use categories (residential, retail, industrial, office, and other) were possible. It is shown that the process can be used to gain more insight into how buildings should be designed to maximize investor net-benefit, taking into consideration uncertain variables, such as use-change rate, construction costs and durations, discount factors and rents. A discussion of possible improvements to the process is given.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Efficiency of Ground Glass Fiber as a cementitious material, in mitigation
           of alkali-silica reaction of glass aggregates in mortars and concrete
    • Authors: Hassan Rashidian-Dezfouli; Kaveh Afshinnia; Prasada Rao Rangaraju
      Pages: 171 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Hassan Rashidian-Dezfouli, Kaveh Afshinnia, Prasada Rao Rangaraju
      Millions of tons of waste glass are produced annually around the world. In the absence of an effective recycling method, much of the waste glass is disposed in landfills. Utilization of this material as an aggregate source in concrete mixtures has been widely explored in the past in reducing the burden of the waste glass on landfills. However, the susceptibility of this material to Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) in concrete has been the main barrier against its widespread use. Alternatively, waste glass in a finely ground form can be used as a pozzolanic additive in concrete that can potentially counter the negative effects of crushed glass aggregate. Waste glass fiber is one of the materials that can be used as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM), if it is milled in to a fine powder. Results from earlier studies have shown the promising performance of this material as an SCM in improving mechanical properties of concrete. In this study the effectiveness of Ground Glass Fiber (GGF) in mitigation of ASR in mixtures containing crushed glass aggregates is investigated. In this study, the accelerated mortar bar tests (ASTM C1260-ASTM C1567) and the miniature concrete prism tests (AASHTO TP110) were conducted on mixtures containing crushed glass aggregate as a reactive aggregate in combination with GGF at different cement replacement levels. Simultaneously, a finely ground glass powder derived from soda-lime glass (GLP) and metakaolin were also investigated in this study. The findings from this investigation showed the superior performance of GGF in mitigating ASR compared to GLP and MK. The beneficial effects of GGF were attributed to its high aluminum content and high specific surface area. While MK was found to be similarly effective as GGF at lower dosage levels, difficulty associated with workability of mixtures containing MK at higher dosage levels was found to be a limiting factor. Mixtures containing GLP were found to be not as effective as either MK or GGF in mitigating ASR at equivalent dosage levels.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Sensitivity analysis of building energy performance: A simulation-based
           approach using OFAT and variance-based sensitivity analysis methods
    • Authors: Navid Delgarm; Behrang Sajadi; Khadijeh Azarbad; Saeed Delgarm
      Pages: 181 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Navid Delgarm, Behrang Sajadi, Khadijeh Azarbad, Saeed Delgarm
      In this research, one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and variance-based sensitivity analysis methods integrate with EnergyPlus through MATLAB to define predominant variables affecting the energy efficiency of buildings in the early phase of building design. To explore the capabilities of the developed method, it is tested on a typical room model; and the impacts of the design variables, including building orientation, window size, overhang system, and the glazing and walls specifications on the building energy demands are studied in four main weather conditions of Iran. The local and global sensitivity analysis of the annual cooling, heating, lighting and total building electricity are carried out. The results show that for our typical case study, the window size is the prevailing parameter on the annual cooling, heating and total building energy electricity while the glazing visible transmittance has the greatest influence on the annual lighting one in all weather conditions. The developed simulation-based sensitivity analysis method demonstrates a useful tool that aids building energy engineers and decision-makers to concentrate on the most important parameters in the initial stages of planning and promote the building energy efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Use of a plant based polymeric material as a low cost chemical admixture
           in cement mortar and concrete preparations
    • Authors: Amrita Hazarika; Indranuj Hazarika; Mumee Gogoi; Shilpi Shaya Bora; Rashmi Rekha Borah; Prasanta Jyoti Goutam; Nabajyoti Saikia
      Pages: 194 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Amrita Hazarika, Indranuj Hazarika, Mumee Gogoi, Shilpi Shaya Bora, Rashmi Rekha Borah, Prasanta Jyoti Goutam, Nabajyoti Saikia
      Aqueous extract of okra called here as bio-admixture was characterized and tested for using as a sustainable chemical admixture in the production of cement mortar and concrete. Several fresh and hardened states properties of cement mortars and concrete with and without the presence of bio-admixture were evaluated. Interactions of bio-admixture with cement particles during hydrations were also investigated by using conductometric and FTIR spectroscopic methods. Moreover, an improved method was developed to determine water retention capacity of cement pastes. Results indicate that the investigated bio-admixture exhibits viscosity enhancing property. In comparison to the reference cement paste, bio-admixture containing cement pastes have shorter setting times due to increasing hydration rate of cement particles. Solution chemistry and FTIR spectroscopic investigation indicate that the addition of bio-admixture enhances cement hydration rate. Increase hydration rate can be related with the interactions of pectin type heteropolysaccharides present in bio-admixture with Ca2+ ions of cement paste. Compressive strengths of bio-admixture containing mortar and concrete are higher than that of the reference specimens at the investigated curing period. Deterioration of strength of bio-admixture based mortars cured in MgSO4-NaCl solution is distinctly less in comparison to reference, depicting higher durability under such conditions. Most of the properties of cement mortar and concrete are also dependent on the concentrations of bio-admixture in aqueous solution. Therefore, investigated bio-admixture can be considered as a low-cost, environmentally benign viscosity enhancing admixture for producing sustainable cement composites having improved mechanical and durability properties.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Plane and vaulted masonry elements strengthened by different techniques
           – Testing, numerical modeling and nonlinear analysis
    • Authors: Gehan Hamdy; Osama Kamal; Osama Al-Hariri; Tarik El-Salakawy
      Pages: 203 - 217
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Gehan Hamdy, Osama Kamal, Osama Al-Hariri, Tarik El-Salakawy
      This paper presents numerical modeling and nonlinear analysis of unreinforced masonry walls and vaults externally strengthened by different techniques. The aim of the research is to provide a simple and reliable calculation method to enable the design and structural evaluation of strengthening measures for masonry plane and arched structures. Numerical modeling by finite elements and nonlinear analysis are carried out using commercial software ANSYS12.0. In order to validate the adopted approach, an experimental program was conducted where unreinforced brick masonry walls and vaults were strengthened by several techniques and loaded until failure. Comparison of experimental and numerical results showed acceptable agreement. Furthermore, a parametric study is conducted to investigate and compare several strengthening configurations for unreinforced masonry vault in order to select the optimum solution. The numerical results are discussed and the deduced conclusions illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach as a practical and valid tool for design of strengthening interventions for contemporary or historic masonry elements and assemblages.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Promoting variable refrigerant flow system with a simple design and
           analysis tool
    • Authors: Zhiqiang (John) Zhai; Jessica Rivas
      Pages: 218 - 228
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Zhiqiang (John) Zhai, Jessica Rivas
      Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) or variable refrigerant volume (VRV) air-conditioning systems provide some appealing benefits over conventional air conditioning systems. This paper provides a quick overview on VRF technologies and a brief analysis on technical barriers to their wide spread adoption in the North America. One of the major challenges was found to be lack of fast modeling tool that can be used at very early stage of building design for system decision. This paper discusses the current simulation and design tools for sizing VRF systems and predicting energy benefits of VRF systems, paying particular interest to which can be used during the earliest stages of the design process. The paper introduces the development of a new program that can quickly size a VRF system and estimate the energy consumption of the system relative to a traditional variable air volume (VAV) system without requiring detailed building data. The tool is validated both experimentally and numerically using published experimental and simulation results. Finally, this tool is compared qualitatively to four currently available VRF design and analysis tools that require more intensive inputs and are often used for system design at design development stage. This research, the tool development and validation cases suggest that VRF systems have the potential to save energy. It is clear however, that the percentage of savings depends on the climate and local energy costs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Energy efficiency of an air conditioning system coupled with a
           pipe-embedded wall and mechanical ventilation
    • Authors: Weihua Lv; Chong Shen; Xianting Li
      Pages: 229 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Weihua Lv, Chong Shen, Xianting Li
      Recently, impressive progress has been made in the utilization of natural sources for free cooling. However, few studies have investigated the effects of the combination of a pipe-embedded envelope with ventilation. In this study, the dynamic simulation platform TRNSYS were used to calculated the free-running temperature and cooling load of a typical office room in four typical cooling climate regions. The rooms were equipped with mechanical ventilation and/or pipe-embedded cooling systems. The pipe-embedded cooling system refers to the pipe-embedded envelope integrated with ground source heat exchangers (GSHX). The energy consumptions of the air conditioning system and the free cooling system in different coupling systems were calculated. The results show that pipe-embedded cooling systems have great potential for decreasing energy consumption. The non-air conditioning ratio is increased significantly by utilizing pipe-embedded cooling systems for free cooling, and the energy savings ratio is over 80% in Beijing. Mechanical ventilation is quite effective in mild climate regions, and the energy savings ratio in Kunming is approximately 48%. The combination of the mechanical ventilation system and the pipe-embedded cooling system can further lead to an increase in an additional 13% of the energy savings ratio in hot summer and warm winter climate regions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Feasibility of waste marble powder in concrete as partial substitution of
           cement and sand amalgam for sustainable growth
    • Authors: Deepankar Kumar Ashish
      Pages: 236 - 242
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Deepankar Kumar Ashish
      The process of cement manufacturing contributes to greenhouse gas emission which is responsible for producing global warming. The use of industrial by-products like coal ash, waste plastics, rubber tire scrap, waste glass, foundry sand, marble powder and so forth in place of cement, sand can lead to sustainable development. Out of different wastes studied yet waste marble powder is a substance that has not been investigated for sand and cement amalgam in concrete. Disposal of marble waste from construction industry exhibits a substantial economic wastage and environmental burden. The aim of the study is to investigate the feasibility of waste marble powder as partial replacement of sand and cement amalgam. The seven variant concrete mixtures were made by partially replacing marble powder (up to 15%) in place of sand; cement and amalgam were evaluated for the mechanical strength, ultrasonic velocity (UPV), carbonation and microstructure analysis. Marble powder exhibited no function in hydration process; moreover, it acts as a filler. Optimal replacement was noticed with 10% sand and 10% cement amalgam by 20% marble powder.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.024
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Measured and simulated thermal behaviour in rammed earth houses in a
           hot-arid climate. Part A: Structural behaviour
    • Authors: C.T.S. Beckett; R. Cardell-Oliver; D. Ciancio; C. Huebner
      Pages: 243 - 251
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): C.T.S. Beckett, R. Cardell-Oliver, D. Ciancio, C. Huebner
      Heating and cooling of residential buildings consumes around ten percent of the world's energy. One approach for reducing these costs is to exploit the high thermal mass of sustainable building materials, for example rammed earth (RE), for intelligent solar passive design. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence about the thermal performance of RE houses in real-world settings. This research investigated to what extent thermal performance in unconditioned RE structures in rural Australia can be captured by current accreditation software. Two custom-designed houses were built in the hot-arid city of Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Western Australia: one comprising traditional solid cement-stabilised rammed earth walls (RE) and the other walls with an insulating polystyrene core (iRE). Otherwise the houses were identical in orientation and design. The houses were instrumented to monitor indoor temperature and humidity conditions prior to and during occupancy. Results were compared to those simulated using cutting-edge assessment software BERS Pro (v4.3) as an example of that used for energy efficiency accreditation in Australia. This first paper in this series discusses the houses' construction and instrumentation and results obtained during the unoccupied period, i.e. those purely demonstrative of the structure's thermal performance. A second paper in the series presents data gathered during occupancy, to contrast occupant thermal comfort with that predicted numerically. Measured data showed that both houses performed nominally-identically: the houses did not receive any relative benefit from including iRE. Simulated data was also similar per house. However, measured performance did not match that simulated: simulated rooms had poorer thermal stability and lag and, consequently, exaggerated internal temperature variations. Collected data has been made publicly available for future analyses.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • A comparison study of the fresh and hardened properties of normal weight
           and lightweight aggregate concretes
    • Authors: Payam Shafigh; Lee Jin Chai; Hilmi Bin Mahmud; Mohammad A. Nomeli
      Pages: 252 - 260
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Payam Shafigh, Lee Jin Chai, Hilmi Bin Mahmud, Mohammad A. Nomeli
      This study compares the engineering properties of normal weight concrete with those of concrete with two types of lightweight aggregates, namely, oil-palm-boiler-clinker (OPBC) concrete and lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) concrete. OPBC is a porous solid waste from the palm oil industry, while LECA is an artificial and impenetrable material. The conventional coarse aggregates in a high-strength normal weight concrete were replaced by each of these lightweight aggregates, and the effect of such substitution on the fresh and hardened properties of the concrete was studied. The test results revealed that the OPBC concrete outperforms the LECA concrete in terms of workability, mechanical properties, and specific strength. The LECA concrete achieved its ceiling strength in 7 days, while the OPBC concrete still had strength gain by time. The LECA concrete demonstrated a greater drying shrinkage than both the normal weight and OPBC lightweight concretes between 14 days and 90 days. The use of OPBC must therefore be promoted to produce a cleaner and greener concrete that can benefit the construction and agricultural industries.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.025
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Building typology classification and earthquake vulnerability scale of
           Central and South Asian building stock
    • Authors: Dominik H. Lang; Amit Kumar; Sulaymon Sulaymanov; Abdelghani Meslem
      Pages: 261 - 277
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Dominik H. Lang, Amit Kumar, Sulaymon Sulaymanov, Abdelghani Meslem
      The typology classification of any building is essential to understand its structural and architectural configuration, to empirically evaluate its vulnerability, or to provide the basis for creating a structural model and to analytically study its dynamic performance. A typology classification may help structural engineers, architects and urban planners to understand a building's behavior and response to any type of natural or man-made hazard as well as further assists in defining improvement techniques and long-term sustainable regional planning. The division of a building stock into distinct classes of building typologies and hence the definition of a thorough building classification scheme is a major prerequisite for any vulnerability or loss assessment study. A building's typology largely depends upon the local geology and geography, climatic conditions, socio-economic status of the occupants or owners, and to a large extent the locally available construction skills as well as natural resources (with respect to construction materials). The type of natural hazards a region has experienced in the past may also influence its prevalent construction typologies, at least if these hazards frequently occur in a certain period of time. The introduction of new construction technologies, design codes and/or building byelaws have further implications on the question of which building typologies are prevalent in a certain region, given that these legal provisions are implemented in daily construction practice. Focusing on Central and South Asian conditions, large variations exist in above stated factors. The region the Disaster Risk Management Initiative programme (DRMI), led by the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN), is focused on here comprises of the Central Asian countries Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan as well as the South Asian countries Afghanistan, India and Pakistan. As strong variations in the characteristics of a certain building typology may exist between different regions or even countries, the definition of building typology classes at a regional scale is a daunting task. The present article attempts to categorize the Central and South Asian building stock into a manageable number of regional building typologies based on extensive field studies in the different regions. It further includes a thorough review of the relevant building classification schemes, discusses empirical data collection, and defines the criteria for building classification. By reviewing the buildings’ dynamic performances, a final building classification for the region and a customized visual screening-based vulnerability scale is presented.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.022
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Influence of architectural building envelope characteristics on energy
           performance in Central European climatic conditions
    • Authors: Mitja Košir; Tamara Gostiša; Živa Kristl
      Pages: 278 - 288
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Mitja Košir, Tamara Gostiša, Živa Kristl
      During early building design stages, decisions are made regarding building's form, orientation, distribution, and size of glazing. Although these features are crucial for building energy performance, designers rarely base their decisions on elaborate energy simulations. The paper presents a study of the interconnectedness of building form, orientation and window area in regard to energy consumption for heating and cooling of a generic building in Central European climate. The study showed that for the considered climate, an elongated building form is more suitable than the compact one, because it allows larger window areas and thus more efficient solar energy harvesting. Even though this may be advantageous for the heating period, it represents a potential problem during the cooling season. Therefore, appropriate shading must be applied and thus the optimum solution is achieved in regard to the building's cumulative yearly energy consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.023
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Special issue of the “Journal of Building Engineering: Climate
           responsive solutions to heating and cooling of buildings”
    • Authors: C. Alan Short; Baizhan Li; Mehdi Shahrestani
      First page: 289
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): C. Alan Short, Baizhan Li, Mehdi Shahrestani


      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Experimental and numerical study on the bearing capacity of soils
           reinforced using geobags
    • Authors: Nader Hataf; Mehdi Sayadi
      Pages: 290 - 297
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Nader Hataf, Mehdi Sayadi
      In this study, the soil bearing capacity improvement using geobags is investigated. The bearing capacities of shallow foundations on reinforced and unreinforced soil under vertical loads are determined experimentally and numerically. Different sizes of geobags, as well as number and arrangement of geobags, were used in physical models and the load-settlement curves have been obtained. In the next step, laboratory conditions were simulated employing a 3D finite element computer code. Having validated the numerical modeling, the influence of other factors such as the scale effect on soil improvement and failure mode under a footing are investigated. Results of this study show that using geobags under footings significantly increases the bearing capacity of foundation. It was also found that the number and arrangement of geobags are the most important factors in the increase of bearing capacity and decrease of settlements of foundations.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • The effect of passive measures on thermal comfort and energy conservation.
           A case study of the hot summer and cold winter climate in the Yangtze
           River region
    • Authors: Runming Yao; Vincenzo Costanzo; Xinyi Li; Qiulei Zhang; Baizhan Li
      Pages: 298 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Runming Yao, Vincenzo Costanzo, Xinyi Li, Qiulei Zhang, Baizhan Li
      The energy consumption for heating and cooling of buildings in the cities located within the boundaries of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter (HSCW) zone in China is rapidly increasing due to the increased comfort expectations from well-resourced occupants. Guidance on how and to what extent it is possible to improve energy efficiency of buildings is thus required by policy makers as well as designers and building managers. The aim of this study is to demonstrate how the use of climate-sensitive passive design solutions can help the improvement of indoor thermal conditions while reducing the energy needs and ultimately carbon emissions. An extensive parametric analysis of several passive strategies such as building orientation, thermal insulation, glazing area, shading devices, air tightness and natural ventilation, is carried out for a typical apartment block located in the cities of Chongqing, Changsha and Shanghai, which lay respectively in the upper, middle and downstream of the Yangtze River. Detailed hourly dynamic simulations show how it is possible to extend the non-heating/cooling period and reduce the peak loads, highlighting the potentialities of each strategy according to different climate constraints. The recommended strategies provides quantitative guidance to either design of new or retrofitting of existing buildings. This research contributes to the building energy conservation knowledge for policy-makers, developers and building designers with insight on the feasibilities of the application of passive measures for residential buildings located in the Yangtze River region with hot summer and cold winter climates.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Reducing cooling load of buildings in the tropical climate through window
           glazing: A model to model comparison
    • Authors: Arindam Dutta; Akash Samanta
      Pages: 318 - 327
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Arindam Dutta, Akash Samanta
      The comparison studies among various building simulation models are always the research interest for various researchers though most of them are based on a general overview. Here we compared two popular building simulation models TRNSYS & eQUEST for a multizone building to judge the relative accuracy of the models. The base case building having 1465.8m2 area is situated in a tropical climate zone of India. Both the models were validated with actual and simulated annual energy consumption data of the case building and a model to model comparison has also been performed. The RMSE values for both TRNSYS & eQUEST were found varying between 2.1–12.5% and the Relative Error was found varying −19.6% to 18.0% respectively. It was also found that TRNSYS predict more accurately the total energy consumption of building than eQUEST in this case study. However the main aim of this paper is to quantify the energy saving potential of five different type of single and double glazing glasses especially in case of tropical climate condition through two types of simulation models. Five different types of commercially available window glasses were designed using LBNL-Window7 simulation tool and validated with lab tested results. The percentage reduction of electrical energy consumption due to retrofitting of five types window glasses have also been presented separately for both the simulation models. Both the models revealed that SHGC is more dominating factor than U-value to reduce cooling load of building energy.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • The recovery of natural environments in architecture: Delivering the
           recovery
    • Authors: C. Alan Short
      Pages: 328 - 333
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): C. Alan Short
      A radical return to natural environments in public architecture is proposed. This requires a reasonably sophisticated understanding of building physics on the part of designers but there is a marked reluctance historically in the design community to acquire such expertise for fear of destroying free artistic expression. This anti-scientific social practice may be the principle barrier to a sustainable future for the built world. The key to unravelling this prejudice may lie in understanding how modern perceptions of safe and comfortable environments evolved through early understanding of disease propogation through the air. The paper presents innovative later nineteenth century hospital designs as proto-modern buildings and suggests that aggressive mid-Twentieth Century advertising of air conditioning killed a highly productive stream of architectural design, overdue for vigorous re-examination to shift the prevailing 'will to form'.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Vernacular schist farm walls: materials, construction techniques and
           sustainable rebuilding solutions
    • Authors: Carlos E. Barroso; Daniel V. Oliveira; Luís F. Ramos
      Pages: 334 - 352
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 15
      Author(s): Carlos E. Barroso, Daniel V. Oliveira, Luís F. Ramos
      To make the territory more usable for farming, rural populations used and perfected masonry walls for centuries to help organize the landscape, to establish boundaries between different landowners and to protect crops and property from animals and other external threats. In recent decades, the rural territory of Northwest Portugal undertook an irreversible transformation from a purely rural into a low-density urban land. In this process, traditional farm walls were faced with contemporary needs and population demands, which in most cases ended with demolition of the walls and their replacement by new ones. In this context, the landscape heritage value and rural identity preservation depend to a large extent on the rebuilding solutions chosen to replace the demolished wall heritage. This paper addresses the analysis of traditional schist farm walls from Northwest Portugal. The study starts by focusing on their authenticity and by identifying characteristic features, as well as analysing the existing wall typologies, morphologies and main constructive features. The schist stone used for centuries as a building raw material is characterized from the physical and mechanical points of view. A rebuilding methodology was then applied to a case study, for which different local contemporary rebuilding solutions were identified and characterized. A decision-making process was established according to specific intervention guidelines, with implementation of the chosen solution presented in detail. Finally, this paper aims also to enlighten researchers, technicians and builders to the importance and need of protecting the endangered vernacular masonry walls’ heritage, and to contribute to the development of suitable rehabilitation and rebuilding solutions for similar types of interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
       
  • Towards the establishment of formulation laws for sediment-based mortars
    • Authors: Mouhamadou Amar; Mahfoud Benzerzour; Nor-Edine Abriak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Mouhamadou Amar, Mahfoud Benzerzour, Nor-Edine Abriak
      The 21st century marks a remarkable stage of a widespread awareness for environmental protection and the preservation of natural resources. In this context, the beneficial use of dredged sediments as building materials really fits with this aim. There is currently no objective method for the formulation and strength prediction of sediment-based mortars. The consequence is that the results can be very variable and the test conditions are difficult to reproduce. The monitoring method involves formulating mortars with water/binder (w/b) ratios defined by: w/b = 0.4, w/b = 0.5, w/b = 0.6, w/b = 0.7 and w/b = 0.8. For each given w/b ratio, mortars contain increasing amounts of sediment in partial substitution to cement (p = 0%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%). By investigating the compressive strength of these mortars after 7, 28 and 60 days maturation, predictive and comprehensive models for the prediction of compressive strength of sediment-based mortars is proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.011
       
  • Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Normal strength and High
           Strength Self-Curing Self-Compacting Concrete
    • Authors: M.M. Kamal; M.A. Safan; A.A. Bashandy; A.M. Khalil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): M.M. Kamal, M.A. Safan, A.A. Bashandy, A.M. Khalil
      Self-compacting concrete is used when compaction of concrete is difficult to execute. To use a type of concrete, which does not need conventional curing, self-curing concrete can be used. The combination of those two types together provides a suitable solution for the curing and compacting processes. This research aims to study the feasibility of obtaining normal and high self-curing self-compacting concrete using different curing agents. The effects of curing agents on the behavior of normal and high-strength self-curing self-compacting concrete were studied. This research consists of two stages. The first stage conducted to investigate the effect of curing agent on the main properties of normal-strength and high-strength self-compacted concrete to obtain self-curing self-compacting concrete. The main variables are; concrete grade, curing agent type, and dosage. The second stage was conducted to investigate the behavior of reinforced concrete beams cast using the suggested two concrete types. The results were driven in terms of initial cracking loads, ultimate loads, and crack patterns of testing beams. Results indicate that the both types used, normal-strength and high-strength self-curing self-compacting concrete are efficient in structural elements, which the curing and compacting processes are missing. Curing agents reduce the water evaporation from self-compacting concrete, and hence increase the water retention capacity of self-compacting concretes with sufficient hardened concrete properties.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.012
       
  • Absorption and compression heat pump systems for space heating and DHW in
           European buildings: energy, environmental and economic analysis
    • Authors: Rossano Scoccia; Tommaso Toppi; Marcello Aprile; Mario Motta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Rossano Scoccia, Tommaso Toppi, Marcello Aprile, Mario Motta
      The selection of the proper device for space heating and domestic hot water for a building is crucial to achieve good energy and economic performances. For a single-family house, the most common heating device is the condensing boiler. Solar systems, electric heat pumps and gas driven sorption heat pumps represent suitable alternatives for improving the efficiency. Although the performances of each technology are well known, their ability to operate efficiently in bivalent heating plants depends on several variables and the choice of the most suitable heating system for a specific building is not straight-forward. The aim of this paper is to compare, under conditions typical of the European region, the seasonal performances of six system configurations that are obtained by combining the most commonly used heating technologies. The comparison is carried out in terms of primary energy consumption for three climatic conditions, changing the quality of the building envelope and the emission system typology. Although the results are sensitive to the primary energy factor for electricity, electric heat pumps generally result the most promising technology for conditions with low thermal lift, while gas heat pumps have the higher performances at high lift. Additionally, the systems are compared in terms of yearly CO2 emissions and economic feasibility, finding scattered results among countries, due to large differences in the local energy mix and energy prices.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.12.006
       
  • The Methods of Using Low Cost Housing Techniques in India
    • Authors: Manjesh Srivastava; Vikas Kumar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Manjesh Srivastava, Vikas Kumar
      Low cost housing refers to those housing units which are affordable by that section of society whose income is below than median household income. This depends on three key parameters—income level, size of dwelling unit and affordability. This paper aims to point out the various aspects of predestined building methodologies by highlighting the different available techniques, and the economical advantages achieved by its adoption. In a building the walls, floors and roofs are the most important sections, which can be analyzed distinctively based on the needs, thus, improving the speed of construction and reducing the construction cost. This paper also aims to cover the use of local materials in the different components of building to make them as low cost available solutions for low income groups. To own a house by middle and lower income groups in today's economic trends is very difficult. Therefore, it has now became a necessity to adopt cost effective, innovative and environment-friendly housing technologies for the construction of houses and buildings and availing them at low cost comparatively. In order to come up with viable solutions this paper compares the construction cost for the traditional and low cost housing technologies and it was observed that with the use of technology and reuse of waste material as building material the cost of construction can be minimized to an extent. It was observed that with if the filler slab can be used as an alternative to conventional slab the cost of construction can reduce upto 25%. With the time more studies are going to identify the reuse of waste material like fly ash, rice husk, etc as building material. After realizing the true potential of these waste materials as building material in construction industry the cost can be minimized to a greater extent. In addition the building up of cooperative to supply those alternative raw materials rather than importing from somewhere else would help in reducing the cost by 20 to 30%.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.001
       
  • Comparative result between standard requirements and finite element
           analysis of wood-frame panels
    • Authors: Shandy Alexandra Morassi; Júlia Lopes Ribeiro da Silva; Altibano Ortenzi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Shandy Alexandra Morassi, Júlia Lopes Ribeiro da Silva, Altibano Ortenzi
      This study uses finite element analysis to compare the performance of load-bearing wooden-frame panels in terms of connection displacements caused by lateral loads resulting from soft-body impacts and wall's parallel load resulting from suspended objects. The panels were designed based on the project concepts of the Design for Sustainability and the Design for Reuse. Connections play an important role in the design of the panels as they support and transmit loads to contiguous panels without collapsing. We designed two panels and connected them using an aluminum alloy (H-shaped cross-section, 2.0-mm thickness). An instantaneous impact energy load was replaced by an instantaneous equivalent load. Afterwards, the simulation was repeated for long-term loading during 24-h to verify the creep effect. The results obtained showed that all the simulations performed herein meet the standard prerequisites and the wall thickness could be less than used in this analysis. Yet, for constructive facilities and thermal and acoustic behavior, the thickness remained unaltered to improve these properties, regarding other studies previously developed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:00:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.002
       
  • Wind RESPONSE Control of Tall Buildings With Single Tuned Mass Damper
    • Authors: Said Elias; Vasant Matsagar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Said Elias, Vasant Matsagar
      Wind response control of tall buildings installed with a tuned mass damper (TMD) is investigated. The performance of a TMD installed at the topmost floor of a 76-storey benchmark building is compared with the TMD installed at different floors (locations) of the building. The TMD is placed where particular mode shape amplitude of the building is largest or larger. At each location, the performance of the TMD is examined by tuning it to the first few modal frequencies. The coupled differential equations of motion for the building without/with the TMD are derived and solved by employing Newmark's integration method. Variations in the normalized response of the controlled building under wind forces are computed to study the effectiveness of using different TMD schemes. Placement, tuning frequencies, mass and damping ratios of the devices are the parameters investigated to compare the effectiveness of these different TMD schemes. It is concluded that placement of the TMD shows a significant influence in improvement of the performance of the TMD, especially if it is tuned to the corresponding modal frequency. In addition, the optimally determined damping ratio reduces for the TMD tuned to the higher modal frequencies.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.005
       
  • EFFECTS OF GROUND MOTION MODIFICATION METHODS AND GROUND MOTION DURATION
           ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF A 15-STORIED BUILDING
    • Authors: Avik Samanta; Pranjul Pandey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Avik Samanta, Pranjul Pandey
      Present day seismic analysis of structures use non-linear time-history analysis to reproduce the actual behavior of a structure under the action of ground motions. Adequate ground motion records are important to perform time-history analysis properly and real recorded ground motions are generally modified or scaled for such analysis. The need to modify and scale the ground motion time histories to the target hazard of a site of interest calls for an assessment of available scaling and matching techniques. Moreover seismic codes and guidelines in India or other countries do not consider the effect of duration on the seismic response of structure. A fifteen storied building is considered in this study. The modeling and nonlinear time history analysis is performed using SAP2000. Four ground motion modification methods are used: Geometric mean, Sa(T1) scaling, RSPMATCH and Seismosoft matching method. Structural responses are studied both for short and long duration earthquake ground motions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.003
       
  • Numerical assessment of vibration control systems for multi-hazard design
           and mitigation of glass curtain walls
    • Authors: Chiara Bedon; Claudio Amadio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Chiara Bedon, Claudio Amadio
      Glass systems and facades are widely used in building structures, due to a multitude of aspects. Beside these motivations, from a pure structural point of view, glazing envelopes represent one of the most critical components for multi-storey buildings under the action of exceptional loads as impacts, explosions, seismic events or hazards in general. Such systems represent in fact the first line of defense from outside. Given the current lack of specific design regulations for the mitigation and enhancement of glass curtains under extreme loads, as well as the typically brittle behaviour and limited tensile resistance of glass as material for constructions, the same facades require specific, fail-safe design concepts. In this paper, the feasibility and potential of special mechanical connectors interposed at the interface between a multi-storey primary building structure and the enclosing glazing facade are investigated via accurate Finite-Element (FE) numerical models, under various impact scenarios. At the current stage of research, careful consideration is given both to the observed global performances as well as to local mechanisms, based on computationally efficient FE models inclusive of damage models to account for failure mechanisms in each system component. Compared to earlier research efforts, the attention is focused on the multi-hazard performance of a given case study building, subjected to extreme loadings such as seismic loads or blast events. As shown, even the typically different features of the examined loading conditions, when the proposed vibration control devices are properly designed and the curtain wall is considered as part of a full 3D building, the final result is an overall assembled structural system in which the glazing facade can work as a passive control system for the building system, in the form of a distributed Tuned-Mass Damper (TMD), with marked benefits in terms of protection level as well as design optimization.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T07:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.11.004
       
  • An environment friendly new insulation material involving waste newsprint
           papers reinforced by cane stalks
    • Authors: Orhan Aksogan; Rifat Resatoglu; Hanifi Binici
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Orhan Aksogan, Rifat Resatoglu, Hanifi Binici
      Insulation is vital to most building design and aims to decrease the need for heating and cooling. This paper presents a procedure to obtain an alternative insulation material made with waste newsprint papers, cane stalks, vermiculite, perlite, zinc borax and plaster. Towards this end, waste newsprint papers were kept in water for one day until they formed dough. Then, different rates of vermiculite, perlite, and zinc borax were added to the dough. This mortar was placed in moulds of 4×16×16cm dimensions with its own weight. In the production of the samples plaster was used as the binder. For increasing the fire resistance vermiculite and zinc borax were added to the mix. In the production of some samples 5 mm cane stalks were placed in grid forms of single and double rows and pressure was applied. After the production of the samples their unit weights, water absorption ratios, thermal and ultra sound transmission coefficients, and flexural and compressive strengths were determined. The samples produced with an additional double row of canes had the lowest thermal conductivity and ultra-sound permeability coefficients. The requirements of the standards were satisfied by the flexural and compressive strengths of all samples. Samples with both types of grids had rather low thermal conductivity coefficients. The flexural strengths of these samples were found to be higher than those of the others. These results indicate that the investigated materials can be used for thermal and ultrasonic sound insulation purposes. Furthermore, ASTM Standards’ fire resistance requirements are also satisfied. Hence, the proposed product has potential as a candidate to be commercialized with further improvements in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T05:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.011
       
  • An Analytical Method to Estimate the Total Installed Cost of Structural
           Steel Building Frames during Early Design
    • Authors: Steve Barg; Forest Flager; Martin Fischer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Steve Barg, Forest Flager, Martin Fischer
      This paper presents a new method to quickly and accurately estimate the material, fabrication, and erection cost of steel frames based on early-design information. To use the proposed Integrated Steel Design (ISD) method, engineers first upload a structural model consisting of a frame layout with preliminary member sizes and connection types specified. The frame connections are then automatically detailed to produce a bill of quantities suitable for fabrication. Next, the total installed cost is estimated based on unit rates maintained by suppliers on a secure web portal. Finally, the cost feedback is provided in the context of the 3-D model in near real-time. We apply the proposed analytical method to several moment frames to illustrate its advantages compared to more approximate approaches. These initial results demonstrate the potential of the ISD method to improve early stage design decision-making through better vertical integration of project information in the AEC industry.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T05:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.010
       
  • Mechanical and Physical Properties of Natural Additive Dispersed Lime
    • Authors: R. Ravi; M. Rajesh; S. Thirumalini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): R. Ravi, M. Rajesh, S. Thirumalini
      Influence of natural additives on mechanical and physical properties of hydraulic lime mortar has been investigated experimentally. Results revealed that organically modified lime mortar enhances the compressive strength significantly as it improved the bond between two consecutive lime particles in the matrix. Results also reflected that organically modified lime mortar with longer curing periods increased the compressive strength compared to reference mortar made of lime without organic addition. It is due to the presence of proteins and carbohydrates in the organic additives that influences the carbonation and hydraulic reaction in the lime matrix which helps to enhance the compressive strength of modified mortar. Addition of organic additives in lime mortar also reduces the porosity in the matrix and increases the hydrophobic nature and reduces water affinity of the hydraulic lime mortar.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T05:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.009
       
  • Self-compacting geopolymer concrete with spend garnet as sand replacement
    • Authors: Habeeb Lateef Muttashar; Mohd Azreen Mohd Ariffin; Mohammed Noori Hussein; Mohd Warid Hussin; Shafiq Bin Ishaq
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Habeeb Lateef Muttashar, Mohd Azreen Mohd Ariffin, Mohammed Noori Hussein, Mohd Warid Hussin, Shafiq Bin Ishaq
      Garnets being the waste spin-off of surface treatment operations remain a major environmental concern worldwide. Robust engineering properties of these waste garnets offer the opportunity to get efficient construction materials via their appropriate recycling. In this spirit, we evaluate the capacity of spent garnets as sand replacement for achieving self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGPC). Such SCGPC specimens are prepared using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) wherein the river sand is replaced by spent garnet at varying contents (0 to 100%) under constant Liquid/Binder (L/B) mass ratio of 0.4. Performance evaluations of the developed SCGPC samples are made using several tests including durability, workability, flexural, compressive, splitting tensile strength conforming the EFNARC standard. Test results revealed an enhancement in the workability of the proposed SCGPC specimen with the increase of spent garnet contents. Furthermore, other strengths are discerned to be lower compared to the control sample at all stages of replacement. It is established that the spent garnet is prospective candidate for sand replacement up to 25% in terms of environmental amiability, cost effectiveness and conservation of natural resources.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T04:10:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.10.007
       
  • Effects of microstructure on acoustical insulation of gypsum boards
    • Authors: Yassine Elkhessaimi; Nicolas Tessier-Doyen; Agnès Smith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Yassine Elkhessaimi, Nicolas Tessier-Doyen, Agnès Smith
      This paper focusses on the understanding of microstructural effects related to sound transmission loss and critical frequency of gypsum boards. The determination of the critical frequency, through measurements of the mass per unit area, thickness and Young's modulus, indicates that a microstructure exhibiting large gypsum crystals with prismatic shapes obtained by addition of citric acid, yields a value (for example: ≅ 3700 ± 360Hz for 1.5 mass% of citric acid additive, board thickness: 14 mm) well beyond the sensitive frequency range of human hearing (350–1500Hz). Concerning the sound transmission loss, acoustic insulation can be significantly improved by both increasing (i) the mass per unit area of the gypsum board, (ii) the thickness and (iii) the loss factor. A sandwich panel consisting of an assembly of two individual gypsum boards prepared with citric acid combined with a glass wool core of 50 mm in thickness shows very promising insulating performances. This result has been predicted theoretically with a transfer matrix method.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:40:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.011
       
  • Flexural Behaviour of Geopolymer Concrete Beams Exposed to Elevated
           Temperatures
    • Authors: George Mathew; Benny Joseph
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): George Mathew, Benny Joseph
      Flexural behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer concrete beams exposed to elevated temperatures (200°C ,400°C, 600°C and 800°C) has been discussed in this paper. Beams of size 150 mm (W) × 200 mm (D) × 1100 mm (L) were cast with 0.52% reinforcing steel. Cover to the reinforcement has been varied (20 mm, 30 mm and 40 mm) and the geopolymer concrete used had a cube compressive strength of 57MPa. The deformation characteristics, moment–curvature relationship and cracking behaviour were observed. It could be concluded that, the deformation characteristics of reinforced geopolymer concrete beams at ambient temperature is similar to that of the reinforced cement concrete beams and could be predicted using strain compatibility approach. However, when they are exposed to elevated temperatures, the strain compatibility approach underestimates the deformation behaviour of reinforced geopolymer concrete beams. Further, ductility of the geopolymer concrete beams reduces rapidly with the increase in exposure temperature. Approximate equation has been proposed to predict the service load crack width of geopolymer concrete beams after exposure to elevated temperatures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:40:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.009
       
  • Production of Sustainable Clay Bricks using Waste Fly Ash: Mechanical and
           Durability Properties
    • Authors: Safeer Abbas; Muhammad A. Saleem; Syed M.S. Kazmi; Muhammad J. Munir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Safeer Abbas, Muhammad A. Saleem, Syed M.S. Kazmi, Muhammad J. Munir
      Burnt clay brick is one of the ancient building material. The use of waste materials in bricks can lessen the consumption of clay material and reduce the environmental burden due to accumulation of waste materials. Furthermore, addition of recycled materials can decrease the high carbon footprint. In the current study, bricks were manufactured using fly ash (by-product of coal) and conventional earthen materials. Fly ash was acquired from the coal power plant. Manufacturing of brick specimens was done in a local brick industry. The main variable in this study was the percentage of fly ash (i.e. 0 to 25% of clay). Results indicate that the compressive strength of bricks incorporating fly ash was lower as compared to that of clay bricks without fly ash. However, compressive strength of bricks incorporating up to 20% of fly ash satisfied the minimum requirements of the Pakistan Building Code. Reduction in weight was also observed in the fly ash bricks which would lead to overall weight reduction of the structures. Furthermore, less efflorescence was observed in bricks incorporating fly ash. Therefore, it can be concluded that clay bricks incorporating fly ash can be helpful in producing more sustainable bricks leading to economical solution.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:40:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.008
       
  • Experimental determination of thermal properties of brick wall for
           existing construction in the north of France
    • Authors: E. Sassine; Z. Younsi; Y. Cherif; A. Chauchois; E. Antczak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): E. Sassine, Z. Younsi, Y. Cherif, A. Chauchois, E. Antczak
      Old houses (before 1948) in Northern Europe have a lot of architectural similarities and one of the most common relates to thick brick walls. The study of thermal transfer in old massive walls provides a better understanding of their thermal behavior and to quantify the savings of energy following a possible thermal insulation. The specificity of these walls resides in the fact that their materials were manufactured in a period when the thermal standards were non-existent and therefore their thermal properties are not precisely known. This paper presents two experimental approaches for determining the thermal properties of masonry walls. In the first method, the materials composing the wall were characterized separately and then equivalent thermal resistance and thermal capacity were deduced; in the second one thermal transfer in an experimental wall was studied by imposing thermal conditions from one side of the wall through a heating box, the other side remaining exposed to ambient lab thermal conditions. The experimental wall is exposed to two different types of boundary conditions through a wooden insulated box which contains a radiator: the constant temperature (steady state mode) to determine the thermal resistances of the system and the sinusoidal temperature (harmonic mode) to determine the thermal capacity of the wall.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T05:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.007
       
  • Fired ceramics 100% from lignite fly ash and waste glass cullet mixtures
    • Authors: V. Karayannis; A. Moutsatsou; A. Domopoulou; E. Katsika; C. Drossou; A. Baklavaridis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): V. Karayannis, A. Moutsatsou, A. Domopoulou, E. Katsika, C. Drossou, A. Baklavaridis
      In the present study, the development of new building ceramics is investigated, using 100% lignite fly ash (FA) and waste glass cullet (WGC) mixtures as secondary industrial raw materials towards circular economy. Thus, compacted and sintered (at 700 and 900°C) ceramic bodies based on binary WGC/FA mixtures, with WGC loadings up to 15%, were fabricated. The utilization of WGC (amorphous) aimed at lowering the sintering temperature of the mixture, for energy reduction purposes, via a better heat flux regulation in the material. The successful consolidation/densification of the ceramic microstructures, mainly composed of different silica phases, was achieved upon synergistic sintering at 900°C for 2h. Moreover, the successful consolidation/densification was confirmed by the SEM micrograph observation and the porosity evaluation from the SEM micrographs. The addition of WGC yielded to a drastic decrease in the porosity values (down to 12%) for the samples sintered at 900°C for 2h. This porosity decrease favored, in turn, the substantial microhardness increase (up to 3833 HV) due to the pore sealing by the glassy phase of WGC. Moreover, an exponential relationship between microhardness and porosity was revealed. Finally, further investigation of the processing conditions is currently underway towards the optimization of the attained ceramic microstructures in order to meet the requirements of specific applications.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T05:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.006
       
 
 
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