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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2282 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (102 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1204 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (68 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (90 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 186 of 186 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover Journal of Building Engineering
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2352-7102
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • A study on environmental and economic impacts of using waste marble powder
           in concrete
    • Authors: Manpreet Singh; Kailash Choudhary; Anshuman Srivastava; Kuldip Singh Sangwan; Dipendu Bhunia
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): Manpreet Singh, Kailash Choudhary, Anshuman Srivastava, Kuldip Singh Sangwan, Dipendu Bhunia
      Gainful utilization of waste marble powder in various construction practices has become a topic of interest in research areas. An overview of works reported regarding the use as partial replacement of sand and cement by marble powder in concrete is presented in the paper. Gaps in the studies to date have been pointed out. An environmental impact comparison of normal concrete with the use of marble powder as partial replacement of cement and sand is carried out using the UMBERTO NXT life cycle analysis software with ReCipe midpoint and endpoint methods. Finally, a detailed cost analysis study has been performed to justify the use of marble powder in concrete which has exhibited encouraging results in terms of strength and quality. It has also been found that the use of marble slurry in concrete reduces its environmental impact and is economically beneficial.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Visualized strategy for predicting buildings energy consumption during
           early design stage using parametric analysis
    • Authors: Emad Elbeltagi; Hossam Wefki; Saad Abdrabou; Mahmoud Dawood; Ahmed Ramzy
      Pages: 127 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): Emad Elbeltagi, Hossam Wefki, Saad Abdrabou, Mahmoud Dawood, Ahmed Ramzy
      Recently, there has been a high level of demand for sustainable design of buildings construction. The catalysts for such demand are rising energy costs and increasing environmental concerns. Therefore, it is important to evaluate building energy consumption, which is the key problem of building energy saving. There is a need for a reliable energy simulation model to predict buildings energy consumption. In addition, designers suffer from the limitations of energy simulation tools during the early design stage that addresses buildings envelope and orientation. This study proposes a strategy for visualized parametric energy analysis of buildings during the conceptual design phase. It presents an energy-oriented workflow that accommodates the Egyptian context. A residential building model is developed by coupling parametric analysis and building energy modeling tools as a means of developing an energy consumption database. The parallel coordinate plot is used to visualize the database to allow decision makers to flexibly evaluate energy performance. The advantages of this paper stem from: 1) providing a new strategy for visualizing the predicting building energy consumption data; 2) facilitating the process of decision making for energy design alternatives during early stages; 3) integrating parametric modeling and energy simulation engine in one platform to come over the problem of interoperability; 4) developing a generic model with variant energy simulation parameters; and 5) presenting an automated and simplified approach to enable modelers to simulate and analyze building energy performance with a more timely, accurate and efficient process.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.012
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Comparative study on open air burnt low- and high-carbon rice husk ash as
           partial cement replacement in cement block production
    • Authors: Selvaraja Mayooran; Singarajah Ragavan; Navaratnarajah Sathiparan
      Pages: 137 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): Selvaraja Mayooran, Singarajah Ragavan, Navaratnarajah Sathiparan
      This study analyzes the feasibility of using high-carbon content rice husk ash waste generated from open air burning of rice husk, as secondary raw materials in the manufacture of cement blocks. Solid masonry blocks having the size of 215mm × 105mm × 65mm, were cast with the mix proportion of 1:5 cement and sand. Blocks were manufactured with two types of rice husk ash (RHA); low-carbon content RHA and high-carbon content RHA. Cement blocks, at four different RHA replacement levels of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared for low and high-carbon RHA as partial cement replacement. Testing was included for workability (water/binder ratio and setting time), strength (compressive, flexural bending and splitting tensile) and durability (water absorption, sorption, acid attack resistance and alkaline attack resistance). Results from this test results indicate that the workability, mechanical and durability characteristics of low-carbon RHA cement blocks slightly better than that of high-carbon RHA cement blocks. However, both RHA replacement cement blocks satisfy the limit recommended by standards. Even, high-carbon RHA replacement cement block does not vastly improve the strength or durability properties, the economic and environmental benefits encourage to use high-carbon RHA in cement block production.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Measured and simulated thermal behaviour in rammed earth houses in a
           hot-arid climate. Part B: Comfort
    • Authors: C.T.S. Beckett; R. Cardell-Oliver; D. Ciancio; C. Huebner
      Pages: 146 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): C.T.S. Beckett, R. Cardell-Oliver, D. Ciancio, C. Huebner
      Heating and cooling of residential buildings consumes around ten percent of the world's energy. One approach for reducing these costs is solar passive design using building materials with high thermal mass such as Rammed Earth (RE). Several studies have examined the performance of small RE structures or individual rooms within RE dwellings and have demonstrated the material's capacity to provide comfortable internal conditions passively. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence about the performance of full RE houses in real-world settings spanning several seasons. This research investigated the thermal performance of RE structures prior to occupancy and over the course of an occupied year. Two custom-designed houses were built in the hot-arid city of Kalgoorlie-Boulder, Western Australia: one with traditional solid RE walls and the other with walls with an insulating polystyrene core (iRE). Otherwise the houses were identical in orientation and design. This study is presented in two Parts. Part A examined the houses' performance without occupants: This Part examines their occupied behaviour in terms of the occupants' thermal comfort. Comfort was examined using qualitative and quantitative data from sensor measurements as well as occupant surveys and simulated results using state-of-the-art assessment software BERS Pro. Comfort scores for measured and simulated data were determined using rules built into BERS Pro's engine Chenath and a modified version of the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 SET* method. Real-world thermal comfort of both houses outperformed their simulated behaviours: occupants reported comfortable conditions throughout Summer (outdoor maxima 45°C) and Winter (minima 1°C) with no artificial cooling and with minimal heating. The Chenath and SET* methods agreed with comfort performance in Summer but scored Winter performance poorly. Similarly, simulations predicted poor performance in Winter. Consequently, predicted energy demands due to heating were likely far higher than those needed in reality. This paper therefore argues from measured evidence of RE and iRE houses for the suitability of RE as a sustainable building material able to curb domestic energy demands. Collected data has been made publicly available for future analyses.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Effect of vertical reinforcing bars on formwork pressure of SCC containing
           recycled aggregates
    • Authors: Pierre Matar; Joseph J. Assaad
      Pages: 159 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): Pierre Matar, Joseph J. Assaad
      The feasibility of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) was demonstrated in structural civil engineering applications. Yet, limited information exists regarding the effect of RCA additions, especially in presence of steel reinforcement, on lateral pressure exerted on formworks. This paper reports experimental data obtained from twenty-one SCC mixtures cast in 200 × 400 × 1600-mm formwork containing up to 4.71% vertical steel (the spacing between transverse steel was set to 450mm). Test results have shown that mixtures incorporating RCA exhibited reduced initial pressure, which was mostly attributed to higher aggregate surface roughness that increases internal friction. The decrease in pressure was accentuated with the increase in vertical steel density, suggesting that the reinforcement cage confines the plastic concrete and carries part of its load. Special emphasis was placed to develop conservative reinforcement indices for appropriate prediction of SCC pressure, as well as propose modifications for existing models to account for the effect of RCA additions and presence of vertical steel bars.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Does window-to-wall ratio have a significant effect on the energy
           consumption of buildings' A parametric analysis in Italian climate
           conditions
    • Authors: C. Marino; A. Nucara; M. Pietrafesa
      Pages: 169 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): C. Marino, A. Nucara, M. Pietrafesa
      Building envelope structures play a pivotal role in the energy behavior of edifices. They influence the heat exchanges between indoor and outdoor environment and might allow a proper exploitation of solar energy. Therefore, when properly designed, they can contribute to minimizing the overall energy demand of buildings, allowing achievement of the high energy performance that is the basis of the Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB) concept. In this context, window systems are generally considered as the crucial element to be correctly designed for energy efficiency purposes in view of the role they play in heat exchange processes and solar gain management. This paper outlines the methodology and the correspondent results of an analysis which aims to search for the optimal size of the window surface, which is the size allowing minimum overall energy consumption, in an office building whose structure and configuration represent a typical reference case for the Italian building stock. Several configurations were considered, varying the climate, the thermal features of the building envelope and the installed lighting electric power. Furthermore, the influence of a switchable shading device was assessed and the correlated comfort consideration reported. The analyses were performed using Energy Plus simulation code and the window dimensions were evaluated in terms of the ratio between the glazed surface and the gross façade area, which is referred to as window to wall ratio (WWR).

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • An innovative anchoring system for old masonry buildings
    • Authors: J. Guerreiro; A.S. Gago; J. Ferreira; J. Proença
      Pages: 184 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): J. Guerreiro, A.S. Gago, J. Ferreira, J. Proença
      The following paper presents the most recent results of a research programme carried out to, among other purposes, develop an innovative anchoring system for old masonry buildings. Despite the recognized importance of connections and anchoring systems, there is little experimental information about their strength and stiffness when installed in the masonry walls of old buildings. Therefore, one of the important goals of the research programme mentioned was the experimental characterization of the proposed anchoring system. The main characteristic of the proposed system, which makes it different from others, is an internal spherical steel element where the rod is connected. This steel eleme nt, called hinge, allows no orthogonality between the steel anchor plate and the tie rod, which makes it suitable for uneven connections between orthogonal walls and/or walls and floors. Besides this particular characteristic, the proposed system demonstrates all the capabilities of the traditional anchoring systems, namely, it can be used to strengthen the connection between orthogonal masonry walls or to ensure the connection of constructive elements (floors, roofs, stairs, etc.) to masonry walls. Moreover, numerical simulations with non-linear finite elements models were performed, aimed at reproducing the experimental tests for other load conditions or different wall thicknesses. The prime objective of the experimental and numerical studies was to assess the actual behaviour of the anchoring system and to establish appropriate design rules, which are also presented in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Thermal comfort and comparison of some parameters coming from hospitals
           and shopping centers under natural ventilation: The case of Madagascar
           Island
    • Authors: Modeste Kameni Nematchoua; Paola Ricciardi; Sigrid Reiter; Somayeh Asadi; Claude MH Demers
      Pages: 196 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): Modeste Kameni Nematchoua, Paola Ricciardi, Sigrid Reiter, Somayeh Asadi, Claude MH Demers
      Nowadays, in several countries in the tropical islands of the Indian Ocean, including Madagascar island, Comores island, Seychelles island and Mayotte, no adopted and regulated building standards exist. Human health essentially depends on the quality of indoor air, and so several actions should be taken to solve this problem. The purpose of this study is to develop a database of thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings in order to improve indoor air quality, mainly in hospitals and shopping centers in the largest island of the Indian Ocean. To achieve this objective, and due to a lack of data regarding comfort in built environments in this region, experimental and subjective studies were carried out in 5 big hospitals and 50 small and large shopping centers, distributed in 25 districts of urban areas in Northern Madagascar. The adaptive approach was used for this purpose. A specific questionnaire based on the ISO7730 and 10551 was designed to collect these data. A total of 400 people participated in this study, and the survey was conducted during rainy and dry seasons. This study discusses the influence of gender, clothing, activities, voters’ mind state and occupants’ control strategies on adaptive comfort assessment. In addition, various comfort parameters were calculated for these buildings. Results show that, in both studied places, the lower and upper acceptable temperatures for 80% of the voters were 23.2°C and 26.8°C, while 90% of the customers and patients reported a comfortable temperature range of 24.5–26.2°C. This will help to define proper guidelines to build more comfortable buildings in Madagascar and other countries of the Indian Ocean.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Moisture performance and durability of wooden façades and decking during
           six years of outdoor exposure
    • Authors: C. Brischke; L. Meyer-Veltrup; T. Bornemann
      Pages: 207 - 215
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 13
      Author(s): C. Brischke, L. Meyer-Veltrup, T. Bornemann
      Wood is frequently used for claddings and decking where it is exposed to moisture and various biotic agents limiting its serviceability. In-situ moisture monitoring can help to determine the moisture-induced risk for decay and might therefore serve as faster alternative to traditional durability testing, which usually requires exposure for many years. This study aimed on determining the moisture-induced risk for decay of differently severe exposed wooden components, i.e. combined façade-decking elements and horizontal double layer set ups mimicking poorly designed terrace decks made from twelve different wood species and thermally modified wood. The huge variation of moisture-induced risk for decay of timber used above ground became evident. Dosage as well as service life estimates differed in dependence of wood species, design detailing, and decay type to be expected. An exposure dose was utilized for alternative durability classification of timber in less severe exposure conditions such as for cladding applications and compared with common durability classification based on decay assessment. Differences in durability between the various wood species and materials became apparent in the horizontal double layer and met fairly well the expectations based on durability classification according to the European standard EN 350 and previous findings from above ground field tests. Combined façade-decking elements were found to be useful for moisture content (MC) monitoring of wood in less severe exposure situations such as façades and freely ventilated decking, but not for correlation between moisture induced risk and fungal decay, since the latter occurred exclusively at water trapping contact faces. Nevertheless, the use of MC and temperature recordings combined with a dosimeter-based decay model might allow for an alternative time-saving way to estimate and classify wood durability.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • MECHANICAL AND HYGROTHERMAL PROPERTIES OF COMPRESSED STABILIZED EARTH
           BRICKS (CSEB)
    • Authors: Pape Moussa Touré; Vincent Sambou; Mactar Faye; Ababacar Thiam; Mamadou Adj; Dorothé Azilinon
      Pages: 266 - 271
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Pape Moussa Toure, Vincent Sambou, Mactar Faye, Ababacar Thiam, Mamadou Adj, Dorothé Azilinon
      In Africa, compressed stabilized earth bricks are used increasingly in construction. The mechanical, thermal and hygroscopic properties of earth-based building materials available in the African market are not known with accuracy. For this reason, it is often difficult to predict the thermal behavior and the sustainability of buildings made from earth bricks. The work presented in this paper aims at measuring the mechanical, thermal and hygroscopic properties of compressed stabilized earth bricks (CSEB) produced by eight brickworks in Senegal. These properties include compressive strength, thermal conductivity, thermal capacity, and water vapor permeability. The mechanical characterization showed that the compressive strength of CSEB made by these brickworks is insufficient for CSEB to be used in a load-bearing wall according to the African standard ARS 674. The thermal characterization gives an average thermal conductivity of 0.75 Wm−1K−1 and an average specific heat of 1040J.kg−1.K−1, with a Variation Coefficient of 8% and 7%, respectively. The hygroscopic characterizations show a low resistance to water vapor of these bricks. These values are close to the few data existing in the literature on CSEB.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T03:34:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
       
  • Parametric study of double-skin facades performance in mild climate
           countries
    • Authors: André Alberto; Nuno M.M. Ramos; Ricardo M.S.F. Almeida
      Pages: 87 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): André Alberto, Nuno M.M. Ramos, Ricardo M.S.F. Almeida
      The application of double-skin facades is an interesting technical solution but, at the same time, highly affected by the climatic conditions of the building location. Southern European countries are characterized by relevant solar gains that play a major role in the performance of double-skin facades. In this work, a parametric study is carried out to systematically assess the impact, in the building performance, of geometry, airflow path, cavity depth, openings area and type of glazing. The study is based in numerical simulations using DesignBuilder/EnergyPlus, taking advantage of the available CFD module for a better insight on the relevant energy transfer phenomena. It was found that the most important aspect for the efficiency of a double-skin facade is the airflow path and the most efficient geometry was the multi-storey double-skin facade, presenting, in average, 30% less HVAC related energy demands. Internal gains proved to be one of the key factors for the building's energy performance and facade orientation can represent a difference of up to 40% in energy demand between north and southern oriented facades.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T10:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2017)
       
  • Use of static tests for predicting damage to cladding panels caused by
           storm debris
    • Authors: Shihara Perera; Nelson Lam; Mahil Pathirana; Lihai Zhang; Dong Ruan; Emad Gad
      Pages: 109 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Shihara Perera, Nelson Lam, Mahil Pathirana, Lihai Zhang, Dong Ruan, Emad Gad
      The impact by debris can result in extensive damage to building facades and roof coverings in extreme climate conditions such as windstorms and hailstorms. Damage can be in the form of denting on the surface of a metal cladding panel, which is controlled by the amount of force developed at the point of contact between the debris object and the surface of the panel. Amid the lack of guidelines for assessing damage to the building envelope, it is common to conduct impact tests on a cladding specimen. Such tests often involve the use of a gas gun to fire projectiles; however, there are shortcomings with this approach as it is mostly undertaken to check compliance and to observe permanent damage to the specimen. This paper presents the use of quasi-static tests to simulate the impact induced damage to metal cladding in storm scenarios. The contact force value generated during the impact action is predicted using the two-degree-of-freedom system model so that the impact action can be applied in a quasi-static manner on an MTS machine to predict damage in the form of indentation or perforation. This experimental technique for predicting damage is illustrated and verified in this paper by conducting confirmatory impact experiments. The risk of damage to metal cladding caused by impact in storm scenarios could then be assessed with confidence without having to conduct repetitive impact testing involving accelerating projectiles onto specimens of metal cladding. This research provides designers with an accurate and cost effective means of quantifying impact induced damage on building facades, and allows system developers to adapt and utilise existing and new materials to develop innovative solutions for withstanding impact.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T10:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2017)
       
  • Experimental determination of thermal properties of brick wall for
           existing construction in the north of France
    • Authors: E. Sassine; Z. Younsi; Y. Cherif; A. Chauchois; E. Antczak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): E. Sassine, Z. Younsi, Y. Cherif, A. Chauchois, E. Antczak
      Old houses (before 1948) in Northern Europe have a lot of architectural similarities and one of the most common relates to thick brick walls. The study of thermal transfer in old massive walls provides a better understanding of their thermal behavior and to quantify the savings of energy following a possible thermal insulation. The specificity of these walls resides in the fact that their materials were manufactured in a period when the thermal standards were non-existent and therefore their thermal properties are not precisely known. This paper presents two experimental approaches for determining the thermal properties of masonry walls. In the first method, the materials composing the wall were characterized separately and then equivalent thermal resistance and thermal capacity were deduced; in the second one thermal transfer in an experimental wall was studied by imposing thermal conditions from one side of the wall through a heating box, the other side remaining exposed to ambient lab thermal conditions. The experimental wall is exposed to two different types of boundary conditions through a wooden insulated box which contains a radiator: the constant temperature (steady state mode) to determine the thermal resistances of the system and the sinusoidal temperature (harmonic mode) to determine the thermal capacity of the wall.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T05:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.007
       
  • Fired ceramics 100% from lignite fly ash and waste glass cullet mixtures
    • Authors: V. Karayannis; A. Moutsatsou; A. Domopoulou; E. Katsika; C. Drossou; A. Baklavaridis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): V. Karayannis, A. Moutsatsou, A. Domopoulou, E. Katsika, C. Drossou, A. Baklavaridis
      In the present study, the development of new building ceramics is investigated, using 100% lignite fly ash (FA) and waste glass cullet (WGC) mixtures as secondary industrial raw materials towards circular economy. Thus, compacted and sintered (at 700 and 900°C) ceramic bodies based on binary WGC/FA mixtures, with WGC loadings up to 15%, were fabricated. The utilization of WGC (amorphous) aimed at lowering the sintering temperature of the mixture, for energy reduction purposes, via a better heat flux regulation in the material. The successful consolidation/densification of the ceramic microstructures, mainly composed of different silica phases, was achieved upon synergistic sintering at 900°C for 2h. Moreover, the successful consolidation/densification was confirmed by the SEM micrograph observation and the porosity evaluation from the SEM micrographs. The addition of WGC yielded to a drastic decrease in the porosity values (down to 12%) for the samples sintered at 900°C for 2h. This porosity decrease favored, in turn, the substantial microhardness increase (up to 3833 HV) due to the pore sealing by the glassy phase of WGC. Moreover, an exponential relationship between microhardness and porosity was revealed. Finally, further investigation of the processing conditions is currently underway towards the optimization of the attained ceramic microstructures in order to meet the requirements of specific applications.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T05:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.006
       
  • Determination of Thermal Characteristics of Standard and Improved Hollow
           Concrete Blocks using Different Measurement Techniques
    • Authors: C. Caruana; C. Yousif; P. Bacher; S. Buhagiar; C. Grima
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): C. Caruana, C. Yousif, P. Bacher, S. Buhagiar, C. Grima
      The lighter weight, improved thermal properties and better acoustic insulation of hollow-core concrete blocks are few of the characteristics that one encounters when comparing them to traditional Maltese globigerina limestone solid blocks. As a result, hollow concrete blocks have recently been in greater demand. However, their transmittance, or U-value, is still quite high and does not meet the minimum energy requirements for constructing new buildings. This paper is focused on the investigation of the thermal properties of a new building block, developed as part of a nationally-funded research project ThermHCB, with the aim of improving the U-value of such blocks without changing their compressive strength, physical dimensions or manufacturing process. Measurement techniques were applied to obtain comparative values of the thermal transmittance for standard and improved HCBs, using different EN and draft standards. Compressive testing was carried out concurrently in order to ensure that the minimum benchmark compressive strength was reached. The comparison between these results provides information on the reliability of the methodologies used to determine the thermal properties of building elements in-situ, without having to conduct such tests in a laboratory hot box setup.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T05:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.005
       
  • Experimental characterization of a Madeira Island basalt traditionally
           applied in a regional decorative mortar
    • Authors: Raul Alves; Paulina Faria; Joaquim Simão
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Raul Alves, Paulina Faria, Joaquim Simão
      This study aims to understand the relationship between local materials and building techniques by characterizing a Madeira Island's basalt currently used as an aggregate in a regional mortar's coating technique named brita lavada. Laboratory tests have been carried out to characterize the basalt, extracted from a stone quarry, regarding porosity, density and mechanical strength. Results attained showed high density, compressive and flexural strength, as well as lower water absorption in comparison to other stones. Therefore, the trials justify the regional use of this basalt as an aggregate material; its characteristics justify the durability of the brita lavada coating technique, showing a good example of adequacy of an eco-efficient application of a local material.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T05:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.004
       
  • Fabrication of superhydrophobic nano sol: waterproofing of coated brick
    • Authors: S. Sehati; M. Kouhi; J. Mosayebi; T. Rezaei; V. Mosayebi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): S. Sehati, M. Kouhi, J. Mosayebi, T. Rezaei, V. Mosayebi
      Low adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces possess water contact angle higher than 150° and sliding angle lower than 10°. This property can lead to water and contamination rejection from surface. For creation of this characteristic on brick surface, first the sol, containing particles with average size of 243.48nm was synthesized using simple route. The contents of mentioned sol were sodium silicate, hexadecyltrimethoxysilane and oxalic acid. The prepared sol was brushed on to brick surfaces. After drying of coated brick surfaces, the water contact angle soared considerably to 153.91° and sliding angle was lower than 10°. The resulted superhydrophobic brick was further assessed using abrasion test, water immersion test and resistance against acidic and basic environments. The results represented that the superhydrophobic brick was very durable under harsh condition. The water contact angle nearly remained constant after stability tests which can assurance the application of this method in industrial scale.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T04:12:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.003
       
  • Probabilistic Two-Hazard Risk Assessment of Near-Fault and Far-Fault
           Earthquakes in a Structure Subjected to Earthquake-Induced Gas Explosion
    • Authors: Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh; Hadi Faghihmaleki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh, Hadi Faghihmaleki
      Over the past decades, several studies have compared damage induced by near-fault and far-fault earthquakes in a deterministic approach. Following a probabilistic approach and generating several scenarios, the present study was aimed at assessing the probabilistic two-hazard risk of a structure concurrently subjected to earthquake and earthquake-induced blast. The two critical events (earthquake and blast explosion) were considered as compatible and dependent events, such that the blast would occur simultaneously with the earthquake and as the result of it. The probabilistic two-hazard risk was evaluated in two separate phases: one was characterized by near-fault earthquakes with blast; and the other phase was defined by far-fault earthquakes with blast. Comparing the probabilistic risk for the two phases revealed that the probabilistic risk of the near-field earthquake, though with a long return period, is substantially greater than that of the far-fault earthquake.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T04:12:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.002
       
  • Predicting the annual escalator energy consumption based on short-term
           measurements
    • Authors: Semen Uimonen; Toni Tukia; Marja-Liisa Siikonen; Matti Lehtonen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Semen Uimonen, Toni Tukia, Marja-Liisa Siikonen, Matti Lehtonen
      This article presents a novel approach for the annual energy consumption estimation in escalator technology. The method is based on short-term energy measurements of several day types within a week. It is best suitable for appliances where the passenger flow is weekly recurring. This article explores the implication of the method with seasonal changes, as well as stresses the impact of various day types and holidays on annual energy consumption estimation. The performance of the proposed method was compared with the existing approaches of energy consumption estimation in the standard ISO 25745-3 and annual energy measurement results. The approach is favorable among other existing approaches because it does not require additional passenger measurements, while providing more accurate results.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T04:12:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.09.001
       
  • Effect of Continuity on Reduction Factors of Bending Moments and Shear
           Forces in Grid Slabs
    • Authors: Ali Alraie; Manoranjan Barik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Ali Alraie, Manoranjan Barik
      Grid slab is a type of floor system consisting of beams running in both directions monolithic with the slab. It is usually employed for architectural reasons in large halls such as auditoriums, restaurants, theatres and other halls where column-free space is often the main requirement. The literature is silent on dealing with such type of slabs. Some international codes like the Syrian code focus on this type of slab and provide a table of reduction factors, but which is for simply supported slab only. These values are no longer valid for the case where continuity exists. Hence this paper attempts to study the effect of continuity on the reduction factors of bending moments and shear forces of grid beams in grid-slab and obtain the reduction factors for different cases of continuity. For validation of the results, SAP 2000 software is used to obtain those values for different cases of continuous slabs. For this, a number of models having different sizes of slabs are considered. A number of analyses are performed taking all probable cases into account for three different percentages of continuity: one-third, two-third and full-length. The investigation of the effect of continuity is carried out by considering a slab having five beams and the reduction factors of bending moments and shear forces are presented in tabular forms. The study shows that it is beneficial when continuity is taken into account ultimately resulting in an economical design.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T03:34:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.010
       
  • Early age behaviour of recycled concrete aggregates under normal and
           severe drying conditions
    • Authors: Jean-Claude Souche; Ahmed Z. Bendimerad; Emmanuel Roziere; Marie Salgues; Philippe Devillers; Eric Garcia-Diaz; Ahmed Loukili
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Jean-Claude Souche, Ahmed Z. Bendimerad, Emmanuel Roziere, Marie Salgues, Philippe Devillers, Eric Garcia-Diaz, Ahmed Loukili
      The use of recycled aggregates in concrete mixtures is a part of waste recovery strategy. The French national project RECYBETON aims at developing scientific knowledge to facilitate the use of recycled aggregates into concrete. In this experimental study, two exposure conditions were combined to analyse the behaviour of fresh and hardening concrete in standard and severe drying conditions (8m.s−1 wind speed). High evaporation rate promotes the development of plastic shrinkage and cracking of fresh concrete. The influence of recycled concrete aggregates proportion and initial water saturation rate were investigated. Two series of concrete mixtures were designed to reach two strength classes. The strains and weight loss of concrete samples were monitored until the stabilization of plastic shrinkage. The increase in evaporation rate accelerated the development and increased the maximum value of plastic shrinkage but did not significantly influence the shrinkage-to-weight loss ratios. In severe conditions plastic shrinkage developed before initial setting thus reached higher magnitudes. The main mix-design parameter affecting the shrinkage-to-weight loss ratio and cracking was the total water-to-binder ratio. The total water content includes the water added and the water used to pre-saturate the aggregates. High evaporation rate triggered the release of water initially absorbed by recycled concrete aggregates.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.007
       
  • SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES VULNERABLE TO STRONG
           VERTICAL EXCITATIONS
    • Authors: M.A. Elfeki; M.A. Youssef
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): M.A. Elfeki, M.A. Youssef
      Reinforced concrete (RC) framed buildings dissipate the seismic energy through yielding of the reinforcing bars. This yielding jeopardizes the serviceability of these buildings as it results in residual lateral deformations. Superelastic shape memory alloys (SMAs) can recover inelastic strains by stress removal. This paper extends previous research by the authors that optimized the use of SMA bars in RC frames considering the horizontal seismic excitation by addressing the effect of the vertical seismic excitation. A steel RC six-storey building designed according to current seismic standards is considered as case study. Five different earthquake records with strong vertical components are selected for the nonlinear dynamic analysis. The results were used to evaluate the effect of the vertical excitation on the optimum locations of SMA bars.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.011
       
  • Proposing a New Type of Structural Slurry Infiltrated Concrete (SSICON)
    • Authors: Khattab Saleem Abdul-Razzaq
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Khattab Saleem Abdul-Razzaq
      This paper presents the results of a laboratory research work suggesting a new technique (ST) for casting concrete that simplifies the well–known conventional casting technique (CT). This simplicity can be done by avoiding the step of mixing cement, sand, gravel and water together (as it is in CT) through preparing cement paste (P) or cement mortar (M) then pouring this mixture over the mold that is filled with gravel. This work consisted of two parts; no sand infiltrated concrete (ST-P) and infiltrated concrete that contained sand (ST-M). In case of using the same amounts of mixing materials, the decrements in compressive and tensile strength caused by changing mixing technique from CT to ST were about (7-9)%. ST was also used to compare reinforced concrete beam, slab and column specimens with those that cast by CT. This work has come to conclude that using ST was easier and faster with less cost and noise when compared with CT although the decrement in the ultimate capacities in cases of beam, slab and column were about (10-15)%.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.009
       
  • A novel enhanced exergy method in analysing HVAC system using soft
           computing approaches: a case study on mushroom growing hall
    • Authors: Sina Faizollahzadeh Ardabili; Bahman Najafi; Hadi Ghaebi; Shahaboddin Shamshirband; Ali Mostafaeipour
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Sina Faizollahzadeh Ardabili, Bahman Najafi, Hadi Ghaebi, Shahaboddin Shamshirband, Ali Mostafaeipour
      Energy crisis concentrates attentions in the field of building energy consumption through optimization of HVAC control systems. Studying the HVAC systems and optimizing them will help to save energy. Exergy is defined as a new energy function that can maximize accessible work by the second law of thermodynamics. The present study, discusses about HVAC system that is in operation for mushroom growing hall. The Exergy destruction is calculated for HVAC and the whole system and is linked to effective parameters as independent variables. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multi layered perceptron (MLP) methods are used to model the studied system. Accordingly, after training by different number of neurons in the hidden layer for MLP network and by different types of membership function for ANFIS method, 10 numbers of neurons were selected as the best number of neurons for MLP network and Gaussian type of membership function for ANFIS method. The results indicate that MLP by consumption of 11.556 kj/s more energy compared to ANFIS, imposes 1.343×10−5 $/s more cost and 2.687×10−4 m3/s more consumption of natural gas. Therefore, applying ANFIS model prevents energy, time, cost losses and more GHG emission, so it can be the best and suitable model to adopt in real system.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.008
       
  • On-site strength assessment of limestone based concrete slabs by combining
           non-destructive techniques
    • Authors: B. Craeye; H. van de Laar; J. van der Eijk; W. Gijbels; L. Lauriks
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): B. Craeye, H. van de Laar, J. van der Eijk, W. Gijbels, L. Lauriks
      For rehabilitation of existing concrete structures, knowing the strength of the different elements is mandatory. Assessment of the compressive strength of ‘old’ structures can be performed by (i) destructive testing of drilled cores in varying amounts and (ii) calibrated indirect methods by combining destructive core drilling with non- or semi-destructive techniques. The use of core-drilling is a time-consuming and labor-intensive method that weakens the existing concrete structure, leaving a lasting impression on it. As an alternative, many different non- and semi-destructive techniques are available for the in-situ determination of compressive strength. An experimental program is conducted on concrete slabs of different strength classes intended for various exposure classes, based on a limestone aggregate matrix, which is typically used for Belgian applications. Besides destructive core drilling and testing, the following non-destructive techniques were selected for this study: the rebound hammer, the ultrasonic pulse velocity tester, the Wenner probe for concrete resistivity and the Windsor probe (semi-destructive). Best fit correlations between the output of these different techniques and the destructively determined compressive strength were established. By means of multiple linear regression analysis, different non-destructive techniques were combined for assessment of strength of limestone based concrete.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.006
       
  • Seismic-induced damage in historical masonry vaults: a case-study in the
           2012 Emilia earthquake-stricken area
    • Authors: Antonio Maria D'Altri; Giovanni Castellazzi; Stefano de Miranda; Antonio Tralli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Antonio Maria D'Altri, Giovanni Castellazzi, Stefano de Miranda, Antonio Tralli
      The seismic analysis of historical masonry vaults is a challenging task for contemporary engineers, as vault behavior depends on a large number of factors. Among them, the vault's response is influenced by the seismic behavior of their bearing structures. This paper aims at investigating the capabilities and limitations of current finite element-based computational tools to analyze the seismic-induced damage in masonry vaulted structures. The case under study is the Giulio II vault, located in the main tower of the San Felice sul Panaro fortress (Italy), which has been severely damaged by the 2012 Emilia earthquake. Attention is focused on the interaction between the vault and its bearing tower. The developed finite element model includes the 3D geometry of the vault within the geometry of the tower, based on a before-quake survey. Nonlinear static and dynamic analyses are carried out by using a damage-plasticity constitutive law for masonry. Numerical results are compared to the vault's actual crack pattern, as well as to its actual-deformed geometry based on a post-quake laser scanning survey.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T02:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.08.005
       
  • Effectiveness and viability of residential building energy retrofits in
           Dubai
    • Authors: Kambiz Rakhshan; Wilhelm A. Friess
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Kambiz Rakhshan, Wilhelm A. Friess
      The rapid economic growth of Dubai over the past three decades has triggered the construction of a large number of residential villas. Most of these were built before the first energy efficiency regulation came into effect in 2003 and, while new energy efficiency regulations are applied in buildings of new construction, the existing building stock remains energetically inefficient. The viability of different retrofit measures is examined here using two calibrated energy models of villas typical of different urban development periods. The retrofit measures considered focus on both envelope and air conditioning system, with energy targets selected at two efficiency levels: first, the level required by the current Dubai Green Building Regulations, and second, required efficiency levels to the stricter demands of the German Building Regulation. Results indicate that improving wall insulation to a U value of 0.3W/m2K, and upgrading the Air Conditioning system to a COP of 2.78, is financially viable and has a significant effect on energy consumption and CO2 equivalent emissions. Considering the existing building stock, the effect of applying these measures at an Emirate-wide scale can reduce summer peak demand by 40% and CO2 emissions for the villas by nearly 32%.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T16:45:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.010
       
  • Structural Assessment of the Roman Wall and Vaults of the Cloister of
           Tarragona Cathedral
    • Authors: Amparo Núñez-Andrés; Felipe Buill; Agusti Costa; Josep Maria Puche
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Amparo Núñez-Andrés, Felipe Buill, Agusti Costa, Josep Maria Puche
      The Mediterranean city of Tarragona was a capital city in Roman times. Nowadays, the remains of the ancient constructions coexist with many subsequent buildings. This is the case of the Gothic Cathedral cloister, whose walls partially take advantage of the remains of the temenos's wall. This paper focuses on the assessment of that unique overlapping of construction phases. The investigation is performed through an unprecedented topographical survey by means of massive data capture techniques. This information is the basis for the mechanical assessment of the equilibrium conditions of the northern corner of the gallery, which is performed on the well-known theoretical framework of limit analysis by means of thrust lines. The study allowed to enhance the understanding about the equilibrium conditions and the deformation processes of the gallery masonry elements, where the mechanical relation between the Roman and Gothic walls is essential.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T16:45:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.007
       
  • The influence of soil content on the mechanical properties, drying
           shrinkage and autogenous shrinkage of earth concrete
    • Authors: Jean Marc Kanema
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Jean Marc Kanema
      Earth concrete is increasingly used for the construction of buildings and other civil engineering structures, yet little data are available to date describing the shrinkage of this building material. The present experimental study evaluates the behaviour of four concrete mixtures containing different quantities of soil and presenting various water/cement ratios. Earth concrete samples were cast then stocked at normal room temperature and humidity levels. Tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, one directional shrinkage and X-ray diffraction were measured in all samples. The results indicate that the storage conditions and soil content of earth concrete influence the mechanical behavior and shrinkage of this building material.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.006
       
  • FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF FANPALM REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS
    • Authors: M.T. Audu; A.A Raheem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): M.T. Audu, A.A Raheem
      The importance of cracks, crack width and load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete member subjected to flexural load is so vital and is considered as a very important parameter under serviceability limit state design of concrete elements. The post-crack behavior of a structural member is a measure of its toughness, a vital parameter often used in evaluating the durability of structural element. Steel have been in used as reinforcements in structural members because of its good properties on high tensile stress, ability to improve the toughness of structural members and its durability in concrete environment. However, steel is now very expensive, hence the need for substantive alternative material. Fanpalm is one of the locally available and has been studied as a suitable alternative to steel reinforcements. The study of the cracks and cracks’ patterns with the respect to the sustained loads for concrete slabs reinforced with fanpalm is the concern of this study. Fanpalm specimens were cut, shaped to desired flexural reinforcements sizes. Then used as reinforcements for concrete slabs of 1:2:4 mix and cured in water for 28 days. Flexural strength tests were carried out to evaluate the load causing the first visible crack and the load causing full development of yield lines of fanpalm reinforcement concrete slabs were observed. The theoretical yield loads were lower compared with the observed experimental yielding loads. The results reveal that the cracks increase with increased in load. As the load systematically increases there is another sudden change in deflection at yield points. The highest percentage reinforcement 72%and 65% on y and x plane respectively occurred on slab SLF2 with corresponding value of 16.20kN and 29.35kN at first crack and yield point respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.005
       
  • The effect of laminate stacking sequence and fiber orientation on the
           dynamic response of FRP composite slabs
    • Authors: Leila Soufeiani; Ghasem Ghadyani; Ahmad Beng Hong Kueh; Kate T.Q. Nguyen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Leila Soufeiani, Ghasem Ghadyani, Ahmad Beng Hong Kueh, Kate T.Q. Nguyen
      In this paper, different stacking sequences (0/±45/90°) of laminated FRP slab under human-induced loads using finite element techniques are investigated to assess the dynamic characteristics of a composite floor and corresponding human comfort problems. Four layers of FRP, with different angles comprising 256 cases, are modeled using ANSYS software. Load models with variable parameters are applied as pattern loads. Material properties and damping ratio are calculated separately for each case with the aid of MATLAB software and considered as input to ANSYS for obtaining the maximum responses in terms of deflection and acceleration from the walking load of people. Then the results are compared with the limiting values proposed by the design standards. A comparison of the two results reveals that 54 cases of investigated FRP laminate seem to be ideal for practical use in satisfying both the acceleration and displacement requirements. This study was carried out to provide a more realistic evaluation of this type of structure when subjected to vibration due to human walking.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.004
       
  • Utilization potential of low temperature hydronic space heating systems in
           Russia
    • Authors: Petr Ovchinnikov; Anatolijs Borodiņecs; Renārs Millers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Petr Ovchinnikov, Anatolijs Borodiņecs, Renārs Millers
      Due to drastically tightened building regulations in Europe in recent years, there has been gradual transfer to low-exergy heating systems in housing stock. Practices that take place in northern countries with similar to Russia weather conditions such as Denmark, Sweden and Finland showed apparent potential in applying such systems in Russia. The latest changes and tendencies in building legislation system here although try to introduce low-exergy systems in local market still confront it indirectly. The current study aims at evaluating practical application of low temperature hydronic space heating systems in residential buildings in Russia with a view to current recommendations on thermal performance of a building. Study object was placed in different locations of the country with corresponding to these locations envelope properties. Mathematical model was calculated using the energy simulation tool IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (ICE) 4.7. Parameters of comfort and energy performance were evaluated for every studied configuration. Results show partial applicability of low-temperature hydronic space heating systems with correspondence to current regulations on building's U-values. Possible measures of improvement were proposed in order to achieve good thermal comfort in every studied configuration.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.003
       
  • Effects of humidity on thermal performance of aerogel insulation blankets
    • Authors: Atiyeh Hoseini; Majid Bahrami
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Atiyeh Hoseini, Majid Bahrami
      Actual thermal conductivity of insulation materials is subject to change over time under various environmental conditions. Particularly, insulations may degrade due to moisture absorption or condensation when they are exposed to humidity. This work presents a comprehensive investigation of aerogel blankets thermal conductivity (k-value) in humid conditions at transient and steady state regimes. Transient plane source (TPS) tests revealed that the k-value of aerogel blankets can increase by up to approximately 15% as the ambient relative humidity (RH) increases from 0% to 90% at 25°C. In addition, a relatively long time is required, at constant T (temperature) and RH, for such enhancement. Therefore, mechanisms affecting the k-value of aerogel blankets as a function of RH and T are investigated. Also, theoretical approaches for predicting the moisture content and k-value over time are discussed, and parametric analyses are performed to identify the most affecting variables.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.001
       
  • Manufacturing of High-strength Lightweight Aggregate Concrete using
           Blended Coarse Lightweight Aggregates
    • Authors: Muhammad Aslam; Payam Shafigh; Mohammad Alizadeh Nomeli; Mohd Zamin Jumaat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Muhammad Aslam, Payam Shafigh, Mohammad Alizadeh Nomeli, Mohd Zamin Jumaat
      Structural lightweight concrete plays an important role in the construction industry, especially for the high-rise buildings. It can only be produced using lightweight aggregates. Oil-palm-boiler clinker (OPBC) is a solid waste from the oil palm industry and could be used as lightweight aggregate in concrete mixture. However, the density of this lightweight aggregate is more than the density of the other types of natural and artificial lightweight aggregate. Therefore, the density of concrete was made of this lightweight aggregate is relatively high and is in the range of semi-lightweight concrete. In the current study, OPBC was partially substituted with a lighter lightweight aggregate namely oil palm shell (OPS) in a OPBC semi-lightweight concrete with high strength to further reduce the density of the concrete. To this end, OPBC was replaced by OPS with 0, 20, 40 and 60% by volume. Test results show that contribution of OPS in OPBC concrete reduces the density, while all the mechanical properties were also reduced. This occurs due to smooth surface texture of OPC and its lower density compared to OPBC. It was, however, found that OPBC semi-lightweight concrete containing more than 20% OPS turns to be structural lightweight concrete with high strength. Based on the mechanical properties and water absorption test results it is recommended that the optimum substitution of OPBC with OPS stays between 20 to 40%.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T15:38:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.002
       
  • SHEAR STRENGTH REDUCTION DUE TO INTRODUCED OPENING IN LOADED RC BEAMS
    • Authors: Ata El-kareim Shoeib; Ahmed El-sayed Sedawy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Ata El-kareim Shoeib, Ahmed El-sayed Sedawy
      The reduction of shear strength due to the introduction of an opening is an ongoing problem for reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Fifteen rectangular section (150 mm×300 mm×1650 mm) specimens were tested and divided into six groups under three considerations: 1) opening dimensions and shape, 2) time needed to create an opening for a new or an existing building; 3) external and internal strength of the opening in RC beams. The results demonstrate that a reduction in stiffness occurs due to the presence of an opening. The stiffness reduces further when the opening is placed under loading because of the reduction in the effective moment of inertia due to formation cracks around the opening as a result of the opening process. The stirrups besides the opening resisted shear force with ratios between 35% and 65% from the yield strength of steel bars and must be considered for shear resistance. Finally, the initial proposal equation that calculates the resistance shear force taken by the vertical stirrups around the opening can serve as a guideline for the introduction of an opening in RC beams.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T14:46:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.04.004
       
  • Development of an Integrated Model for Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of
           Residential Buildings: Application to Mahabad City, Iran
    • Authors: Hadi Bahadori; Araz Hasheminezhad; Amjad Karimi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Hadi Bahadori, Araz Hasheminezhad, Amjad Karimi
      There is incomplete knowledge about seismic vulnerability assessment of residential buildings due to the complexity and multiplicity of effective parameters. The lack of an integrated model with all effective parameters for such assessment limits the possibility of policy-making and decision-making toward earthquake risk mitigation and disaster risk reduction. This paper is a response to this need and proposes an integrated model for the seismic vulnerability assessment of residential buildings based on the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in geographic information system (GIS). The methodology integrates five main group-parameters-- geotechnical and seismological, social, distance to dangerous facilities, and access to vital facilities -- with their related sub-parameters. To evaluate the practicability and applicability of the newly developed model, it was used for Mahabad city, Iran. The obtained vulnerabilities for the city were mapped in GIS and the same were visualized in the 3D city model for residential buildings. The developed model can be considered as a significant tool to confront crises resulting from future earthquakes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T10:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.05.014
       
  • Hygric buffer and acoustic absorption of new building insulation materials
           based on date palm fibers
    • Authors: R. Belakroum; A. Gherfi; K. Bouchema; A. Gharbi; Y. Kerboua; M. Kadja; C. Maalouf; T.H. Mai; N. El Wakil; M. Lachi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): R. Belakroum, A. Gherfi, K. Bouchema, A. Gharbi, Y. Kerboua, M. Kadja, C. Maalouf, T.H. Mai, N. El Wakil, M. Lachi
      In this work, we focus on new insulation materials based on date palm fiber. The developed lightweight composites are eco-friendly building materials from a renewable source and are less polluting than synthetic materials having harmful impacts on the environment. For manufacturing the composites, we used two different binders which are: lime and corn starch. The parts of date palm that are used for producing fibers are trunk and petioles (rachis). The proposed biobased materials could provide both thermal insulation and acoustic absorption; they could also act as a moisture buffering material to regulate indoor relative humidity variations. The sound absorption coefficients recorded show that these materials are good sound absorber, especially in medium and high frequencies. The acoustic absorption depends on the type of binder and the fiber content. The best value observed is around 0.7 when testing samples containing 20% trunk fiber and 80% starch. From the measurements of the Moisture Buffer Value (MBV), the composite made from 50% of trunk fiber and lime has an average MBV of 3.73g/(m2%RH). For samples based on petioles fiber and lime, the greatest MBV measured is 2.58g/(m2%RH) for samples of 50% of fibers. Using starch as a binder, we recorded a moisture buffer value of 4.05 (g/m2%RH) with only 20% of trunk fibers. The results obviously show that the use of date palm fiber-based materials for noise reduction presents a smart choice and on the other hand all MBV measured classify these new materials as an excellent hygric regulator.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T10:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.05.011
       
  • Carbon dioxide permeability of building materials and their impact on
           bedroom ventilation need
    • Authors: Timo Niemelä; Juha Vinha; Ralf Lindberg; Tiina Ruuska; Anssi Laukkarinen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Timo Niemelä, Juha Vinha, Ralf Lindberg, Tiina Ruuska, Anssi Laukkarinen
      This research determined the carbon dioxide permeabilities of different materials and cellulose-insulated wall structures without a vapour barrier as well as the CO2 balance of bedroom air. Material tests have indicated that the CO2 permeabilities of building materials correlate closely with their water vapour permeabilities. Thus, the more permeable the external wall structures are, the bigger their impact on the CO2 content of indoor air. Yet, higher permeability allows more water vapour to pass through the structures, which make them more at-risk for condensation and mould growth. Some calculations on the CO2 balance of bedroom air were also made which indicated that the need of ventilation is not reduced by the use of gas permeable structures.

      PubDate: 2017-05-16T09:19:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.05.009
       
  • Numerical Investigation of Energetic Effects of Flow-through Wall Elements
    • Authors: Andreas Hantsch; Christian Friebe; Sabine Döge
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Andreas Hantsch, Christian Friebe, Sabine Döge
      The energy efficiency of buildings is of interest for both science and industry. In order to reduce the energy demand for heating and cooling, a new flow-through wall element is proposed allowing to switch the effective properties of the wall. By means of numerical modelling and simulation, the energetic effects of the wall element are studied for different cities (i.e. climatic conditions), flow speeds through the wall element, and volumetric heat capacities of the wall. Simulations at sufficiently small time steps for an entire year allow to determine the maximum heating and cooling loads, and the respective annual energies by integration. This reveals that the flow-through wall element is beneficial for most of the conditions and cities. For instance, it can be observed that the annual heating energy can be reduced to approximately half of those of a simple wall almost irrespective of the city. Contrary, the annual cooling energy reduction strongly depends upon the city and the flow speed. The primary energy analysis revealed a distinct minimum which is assigned to flow speeds of approximately 1 m s − 1 .

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:20:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.05.008
       
  • Air Distribution System Design Optimization in Non-Residential Buildings:
           Problem Formulation and Generation of Test Networks
    • Authors: Sandy Jorens; Kenneth Sörensen; Ivan Verhaert; Annelies De Corte
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Sandy Jorens, Kenneth Sörensen, Ivan Verhaert, Annelies De Corte
      In most heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, the ductwork layout, i.e., the network structure of the ducts, as well as the number and locations of the fans, is an important determinant of the installation's cost and performance. Nevertheless, the layout is not explicitly taken into account in existing duct design methods. Most methods assume the layout of the air distribution system to be predetermined and focus solely on the sizing of each fan and duct in the network. This paper aims to outline the current state-of-the-art in air distribution system design and highlights the main shortcomings. Additionally, previous research is extended by presenting a novel problem formulation that integrates the layout decisions into the optimization problem. In this problem, called the air distribution network design optimization problem, the optimal air distribution system configuration, i.e., the optimal ductwork layout, is determined jointly with the duct and fan sizes, thereby minimizing the total cost of the system. This novel combinatorial optimization problem is characterized by discrete decision variables, and non-linear constraints. This paper also motivates the need for benchmark instances to evaluate the performance of existing or new developed optimization methods and advance future research in the field of air distribution system design optimization. A test network generator is developed in this research to generate such a set of instances.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:20:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.05.006
       
  • Phase assemblage in ettringite-forming cement pastes: A X-ray diffraction
           and thermal analysis characterization
    • Authors: Elsa Qoku; Thomas A. Bier; Torsten Westphal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Elsa Qoku, Thomas A. Bier, Torsten Westphal
      The study attempts to describe the evolution of the solid phase composition with ongoing hydration in three different calcium aluminate rich cement paste mixtures by means of XRD and thermal analysis. The phase assemblage was followed quantitatively at discrete ages of 1, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. Ettringite was the main crystalline hydration product. Quantification of amorphous fractions using the external standard method was performed and relatively high amounts of amorphous fractions were reported in all the cases. Thermal analysis revealed that the X-ray amorphous hydrate fraction was mainly composed of monosulphate, AH3 and C-S-H. The presence of strätlingite, was not clearly manifested in any of the DTG curves. A mass balance calculation based on stoichiometric reactions was performed in order to estimate the amounts of monosulphate, AH3, and C-S-H. The quantities of the amorphous portions obtained from QXRD were observed to be higher as those estimated from mass balance calculations. Additional calculations from oxide balance suggested that besides AH3 monosulphate and C-S-H, an X-ray amorphous AFm or/and C-S-H type like phase might form in the early age of hydration. During Rietveld refinement, the impact of the number of Chebyshev background polynomials in the determination of amorphous content was investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:20:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.05.005
       
  • Quantitative data analytic interpretation of indoor-outdoor temperatures
           in a high thermal mass structure
    • Authors: Wael A. Yousef Mousa; Werner Lang; Waleed A. Yousef
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Wael A. Yousef Mousa, Werner Lang, Waleed A. Yousef
      The present paper investigates the impact of thermal mass on indoor temperature and reduction of cooling loads in summer. The major contribution of this paper is providing an objective assessment and a quantitative data analytic interpretation from the pattern recognition literature for the reported findings. The experimental study adopted one of the traditional stone structures of medieval Cairo. The house was monitored during summer days for Indoor and outdoor temperatures. Further data for local climate were obtained and given to TRNSYS 17 in which simulations were generated and validated against measured data. The absolute deviance error between simulated and measured indoor temperatures was 0.3°C for a couple of monitored spaces. Data visualization and regression analysis of indoor temperature on two values of outdoor temperature show a relative stability of the indoor temperature, a direct result of the heat storage capacity of the stone walls. A quantitative interpretation of the regression equation tells that the indoor temperature increases by merely 1°C if the outdoor temperature increased by 11.5°C. Upon ambient-temperature-responsive natural ventilation, the maximum indoor temperatures were reduced, in average of 5.5°C and 4.2°C below ambient for two different spaces. A comparative analysis took place then between the base case and a modified model were the walls’ material was substituted with hollow red bricks. For the two rooms, the energy demand for cooling was found to be as less as 72% and 56% in the base case than the brick-walls model.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:20:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.05.007
       
  • Evaluation of buildings in real conditions of use: Current situation
    • Authors: Alejandro Vásquez-Hernández; Mario Fernando Restrepo Álvarez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Alejandro Vásquez-Hernández, Mario Fernando Restrepo Álvarez
      Nowadays, the construction industry does not have any feedback regarding the operation of buildings. The evaluation of buildings in real conditions of use or post occupancy evaluation is the systematic study of buildings with the objective of determining the performance once they are inhabited. It is a process of revision and identification of the strengths and weaknesses in order to improve the condition of existing buildings and provide feedback for future designs. With the purpose of having an approach to studies and proposals related to the topic, this article presents a review of the literature on methodologies and cases of applications of evaluations of buildings in real conditions of use, identifying the referred study factors, gathering information on tools used and the existing types of post occupancy evaluation, as well as the integrated study factors of evaluation and certification of environmental performance in buildings, whose time of application is phase one. Finally, the benefits and application barriers associated to post occupancy evaluation and issues for further investigation will be presented.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:20:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.04.019
       
  • Statistical model for predicting the maximum lateral pressure exerted by
           Self-Consolidating Concrete on vertical formwork
    • Authors: S. Teixeira; I. Puente; A. Santilli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): S. Teixeira, I. Puente, A. Santilli
      In order to design vertical formwork on a construction site, it is necessary to have a model that predicts the lateral pressure exerted by self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and does not require the determination of rheological or tribological parameters through a laboratory test or with a specific device. Due to the mix design, this type of concrete does not require any vibration method and can be filled continuously without presenting segregation. Therefore, high placement rates (over 10m/hr) are common practice today. The aim of this work is to develop a statistical model that predicts the maximum lateral pressure exerted by SCC on vertical formwork. However, considering the conditions of placement, for this type of concrete on real constructions, another principal objective of the model is to obtain an accurate prediction of the maximum lateral pressure when SCC is poured at placement rates of over 10m/hr. The model takes into account seven of the variables that affect the lateral pressure of fresh concrete: placement rate, slump flow, height of the concrete piece, concrete temperature, cement type, minimum dimension and size of the cross section. 131 experimental data were collected from the literature and were considered for the formulation of the model. In addition, a survey was conducted with 105 construction managers from different companies in over 20 countries. The results show that the model presents a very good approximation to the experimental data, especially for high placement rates.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T05:40:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.05.004
       
  • Effectiveness Factor of the Strut-and-Tie Model for Reinforced Concrete
           Deep Beams Strengthened with CFRP Sheet
    • Authors: Ammar N. Hanoon; M.S. Jaafar; Salah R. Al Zaidee; Farzad Hejazi; F.N.A. Abd Aziz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Ammar N. Hanoon, M.S. Jaafar, Salah R. Al Zaidee, Farzad Hejazi, F.N.A. Abd Aziz
      In the current study, a new strut effectiveness factor based on Strut-and-Tie Model (STM) was proposed to assess the ultimate shear strength of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strengthened concrete deep beam. Derivation of new effectiveness factor of concrete struts is based on the failure principles of Mohr–Coulomb. Two types of concrete failure mode, namely diagonal splitting and concrete crushing are proposed and investigated. Experimental results obtained from the literature results were evaluated using the proposed effectiveness factor and compared with other existing models. The proposed effectiveness factor is validated by utilizing the experimental results which shows good accuracy for predicting the shear strength of CFRP-strengthened concrete deep beams.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T05:40:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.05.001
       
  • Dead-band vs. machine-learning control systems: Analysis of control
           benefits and energy efficiency
    • Authors: Jonghoon Ahn; Soolyeon Cho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Journal of Building Engineering
      Author(s): Jonghoon Ahn, Soolyeon Cho
      In residential and commercial buildings, thermostat controllers have been typically utilized to maintain room temperature near desired set-point. Recently, advanced computing and statistical technologies, such as Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms, were introduced to complement the control performance for optimal energy use in building thermal systems. However, most schemes were developed to control fuel use or fan motor speed in a plant or a system, and showed some disadvantages to immediately respond to sensitive changes in thermal demands for a zone scaled level. This paper introduces heating energy models capable of controlling the amount of supply air and its temperature simultaneously, and the FIS and ANN algorithms are developed to control the optimal supply air conditions for a heating season. Both the FIS and ANN models are compared to thermostat controllers with 4-step dead-band setups from normal to sensitive levels. The sum of errors, caused by the difference between desired set-point and controlled room temperatures, and the amount of energy supply are used to define control precision and energy efficiency of the control models. From the simulation results, the machine-learning based ANN controller averagely reduces control errors by 88% and mitigates increases in energy consumption by 2% in comparison with thermostat on/off controllers. The control system can be effective when various sensitive settings are required as a type of buildings and rooms without an excessive increase in energy use.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T03:07:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2017.04.014
       
 
 
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