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 International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering   [4 followers]  Follow        Subscription journal    ISSN (Print) 2199-9260 - ISSN (Online) 2199-9279    Published by Springer-Verlag  [2353 journals]
• Use of ANN and Neuro Fuzzy Model to Predict Bearing Capacity Factor of

• Authors: R. Sahu; C. R. Patra; N. Sivakugan; B. M. Das
Abstract: Abstract Laboratory model tests have been conducted on a strip foundation resting over multi-layered geogrid-reinforced dense and loose sand subjected to inclined load. In this study, two different approaches are proposed, namely, artificial neural network (ANN) and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference system (ANFIS) to determine the reduction factor for ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations on reinforced soil. Firstly, ANN model is proposed to determine the reduction factor which can be used to estimate the ultimate bearing capacity of an inclined loaded foundation from the ultimate bearing capacity of a vertically loaded foundation. A thorough sensitivity analysis was carried out to find out the important parameters affecting the reduction factor. The results from ANN were compared with the laboratory model test results and these results are in good agreement. Secondly, ANFIS is proposed to determine the reduction factor. A neuro fuzzy system is a fuzzy system that uses a learning algorithm derived from neural network theory to determine its parameters by processing data samples. Performance of neurofuzzy model was comprehensively evaluated with that of independent ANN model developed using the same data. The values of the performance evaluation measures such as coefficient of correlation, root mean square error, coefficient of efficiency, mean bias error obtained through the neurofuzzy model are found to be good, which reveals that the neurofuzzy model can be effectively used for the bearing capacity prediction.
PubDate: 2017-09-13
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0102-x
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)

• Ultimate Capacity of Battered Pile Groups Subjected to Oblique Pullout
• Authors: Tanvi Singh; Mahesh Pal; V. K. Arora
Abstract: Abstract A testing program comprising 250 oblique pullout tests was conducted to study the effect of variable parameter on pullout capacity of batter pile groups in sand. Test was conducted in laboratory on five pile groups. Model piles consist of aluminium having three length 0.40, 0.60, 0.90 m at two unit weights 16.28 and 15.79 kN/m3. Two pile surfaces were tested and angle of oblique load was kept at 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°,45º. Analysis of results indicates that increasing value of pile length, sand unit weight, and surface roughness increases the the pullout capacity of oblique piles. Increasing angle of oblique load from horizontal also increases the oblique pullout capacity for batter pile group but have no significant difference at lower angle of oblique load. Difference in oblique load caring capacity for each pile length, unit weight and surface roughness became significant at higher angle of oblique load. ANOVA single factor test indicate except pile surface other parameter viz length, unit weight and angle of oblique load significantly affect oblique load caring capacity.
PubDate: 2017-08-20
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0103-9
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)

• Comparative Study of Measured Suction in Fine-Grained Soil Using Different
In-Situ and Laboratory Techniques
• Authors: Danial Esmaili; Kianoosh Hatami
Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a comparison between soil suction test results for a lean clay (CL) using four different measurement techniques, which included thermal conductivity sensors, in-situ psychrometers, a dew-point potentiometer and filter paper. The primary objective of these tests was to evaluate and compare the performance of these techniques and to demonstrate the sensitivity of the measured suction data to the quality of contact between the soil and the sensor, and measurement time and procedure, which could lead to orders of magnitude difference between the anticipated and measured results. The tests using a dew-point potentiometer and thermal conductivity sensors were carried out at different gravimetric water content values (referred to as moisture content in this paper) within the ranges of 10–23% and 8–24%, respectively, which were significantly above and below the optimum moisture content (OMC) of 18%. However, those using in-situ psychrometers and filter paper were carried out for moisture contents between OMC − 2% and OMC + 2%, as part of model embankment tests that were constructed at those moisture contents. Results of the study indicate that the in-situ psychrometer data were consistent with the soil water characteristic curve established using the dew-point potentiometer. However, thermal conductivity sensors and filter paper test data showed significant sensitivity to the quality of contact with the surrounding soil and measurement time and procedure, respectively, resulting in orders of magnitude deviations from the otherwise consistent in-situ psychrometer and dew-point potentiometer readings for the lean clay examined in this study. Findings of this study highlight the challenges involved, and level of care and due attention required in sensor installation and the testing procedure in order to obtain satisfactory suction data in unsaturated soils.
PubDate: 2017-08-17
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0104-8
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)

• Numerical Analyses of Loaded Strip Footing Resting on Cellular Mattress
and Strips: Reinforced Fly Ash Slope
• Authors: Maheboobsab B. Nadaf; J. N. Mandal
Abstract: Abstract In this paper, unreinforced and cellular reinforced fly ash slopes were analyzed using numerical modelling to simulate the laboratory model studies by applying similar geometry and reinforcement parameters to understand its deformation behavior on rigid foundation. Small scale laboratory experimental models were performed on fly ash slopes by applying strip loading at a 60° inclination. In the current study an approach was made to use cellular reinforcement (CR) material which is made up of from post-consumer waste plastic water bottles along with steel grid-jute geotextile composite reinforcement at slope facia. A numerical analyses using finite-element analysis (FEA) PLAXIS 3D was conducted to validate the experimental laboratory model test results. In FEA, fly ash as backfill material and reinforcing materials like steel grid-jute geotextile and cellular/geocell reinforcement were modeled systematically. Here, fly ash modeled with Mohr–Coulomb failure criteria as linear elastic plastic material and, for cellular/geocell reinforcement it was modeled as elastoplastic material. The numerical model analyses were consistently substantiated with experimental results. Parametric analysis were conducted by using validated numerical model to evaluate the influence of various cellular properties along with steel grid-jute geotextile composite reinforcement on the performance of reinforced fly ash slopes. The numerical finite element simulation (FES) results are in good agreement with the model test results.
PubDate: 2017-08-16
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0106-6
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)

• Pull-Out Behaviour of Square Anchor Plates in Reinforced Soft Clay
Abstract: Abstract Anchor plates are generally used for structures like transmission towers, mooring systems, etc. where the uplift and lateral forces are expected to be predominant. The capacity of anchor plate can be increased by increasing the size of the plate, depth of embedment and grouping of anchors. However due to space constraints, it was found that use of geosynthetic can be beneficial in increasing the uplift capacity without altering size of plates. Most of the past research in this area focused on the response of plate anchors in cohesionless type of soil. In the present study it was aimed to determine the uplift capacity of the anchor plates in cohesive type of soils with geosynthetic reinforcement. Numerical simulations were carried out on three different sizes of square anchor plates using general-purpose finite element software ABAQUS. Material non-linearity was considered in the analysis using hypoelastic model. For reinforcement, a single layer geosynthetic was placed at three different positions from the plate. The effects of various parameters such as, embedment ratio, position of reinforcement and width of reinforcement has been studied. Results obtained from the numerical analysis were compared with the previously published experimental results for various conditions. It was also observed that the inclusion of reinforcement results in a shift in overall failure behaviour of plate anchors. Parametric study involving the embedment depth, position of reinforcement in embedded soil indicates the significant role in the behaviour of anchor plates in reinforced soil in terms of ultimate pull-out capacity. The uplift capacity was expressed in terms of dimensionless breakout factor. A formulation for breakout factor has been proposed for different embedment ratio of anchors in reinforced soils.
PubDate: 2017-08-14
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0101-y
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)

• Behaviour of Bamboo–Geogrid Reinforced Fly Ash Wall Under Applied
• Authors: A. W. Mekonnen; J. N. Mandal
Abstract: Abstract This technical note presents results of model tests performed on bamboo geogrid reinforced fly ash walls under applied strip load. The effect of vertical spacing and length of bamboo geogrid mattresses and strips on the deformation behavior of the model walls was studied and discussed. The results demonstrated the effect of increase in length and coverage ratios and decrease in vertical spacing of reinforcements on the improved performance of the model walls, including increased failure surcharge pressure, reduced facing displacement and backfill settlement. The failure surcharge pressure compared with the unreinforced model wall was improved by 185.76 and 311.84% for bamboo geogrid strips and mattresses respectively when vertical spacing and length of reinforcement used were 20 and 65% of the wall height respectively.
PubDate: 2017-08-14
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0105-7
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)

• Geotextile Tube Assessment Using Hanging Bag Test Results of Dairy Sludge
• Authors: Pooja Deepak Pawar; Ankita Kumar; S. K. Ahirwar; J. N. Mandal
Abstract: Abstract Geotextile tube is an innovative product developed by sewing permeable high strength geotextiles to form large tubes. The main application of geotextile tube is dewatering of dredged materials sediments and industrial waste slurry. The present study describes the performance of dairy sludge dewatering using hanging bag test. The effect of the addition of coagulant has been studied. Alum was used as a coagulant. Dewatering was carried out for dairy sludge without the addition of alum and dairy sludge mixed with alum. The environmental analysis was carried out of the sludge before and after hanging bag test to study the quality of filtrate. Also, analysis of filter cake was done to check its suitability for reuse thus proving zero waste condition. It was found that geotextile tube was efficient in dewatering the sludge and its efficiency increases with the addition of a coagulant. Dairy sludge dewatering without the addition of alum showed the maximum flow rate of 4.95 cm3/sec and dewatering time of 2280 min as compared to dairy sludge dewatering with the addition of alum which showed the maximum flow rate of 7.66 cm3/sec and dewatering time of 2160 min.
PubDate: 2017-08-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0100-z
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)

• Empirical Correlations with Standard Penetration Test (SPT)-N for
Estimating Shear Wave Velocity Applicable to Any Region
• Authors: Arjun Sil; Jyotirmoy Haloi
Abstract: Abstract Shear wave velocity is one of the most important parameters for determining dynamic soil properties as well as for site characterization. Though there are several field tests to measure the shear wave velocity (V s ) but these are not always feasible. Hence, it is preferable to measure V s indirectly through empirical equations correlating V s with SPT-N value. Although, there are a number of empirical equations developed but these are region specific and cannot be used for all regions. In this paper, an effort has been made to develop new common empirical equations (considering different types of soil) correlating V s and SPT-N value, based on the existing correlations available for different continents collected almost from all regions which will be applicable to any region of the world. Empirical equations have been selected for analysis purpose from 41 different authors published worldwide, where, 26 equations are proposed for all soil types, 25 for sand and 14 are for clay type soil. These equations are selected separately and statistical regression analyses have been carried out to develop new common correlations for each type of soil. The newly developed equations have shown best fit curves with a very high R 2 values, along with minimum variance. As a result, it could be concluded that these newly developed correlations would be very much useful for determining shear wave velocity from known SPT-N value applicable to any region.
PubDate: 2017-08-02
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0099-1
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)

• Geosynthetic Liner as Foundation Isolation for Seismic Protection
• Authors: R. P. Nanda; S. Dutta; A. Das; H. A. Khan
Abstract: Abstract The effectiveness of a nonwoven geotextile–geomembrane liner as a foundation isolation system for RC buildings is studied analytically by considering artificial as well as recorded accelerogram as earthquake ground input motion. The concept of foundation isolation is applied by separating the foundation from the soil by a sliding friction interface in the form of geotextile–UHMWPE. A 3D finite element simulation and parametric study in ABAQUS have been carried out to estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that through slip deformation, the interface reduces seismic energy transferred, reducing the dynamic response of the building. On an average, the proposed scheme can reduce the horizontal ground acceleration by 40%.
PubDate: 2017-07-14
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0098-2
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)

• Effect of Geocell Geometry and Multi-layer System on the Performance of
Geocell Reinforced Sand Under a Square Footing
• Authors: K. S. Sherin; S. Chandrakaran; N. Sankar
Abstract: Abstract A series of the experimental testing program was carried out to determine the influence of cell geometry and multi-layer system on the behaviour of a square footing resting on geocell reinforced sand. Geocells made of three different PVC polymers of varying thickness and strength were used for testing purpose. Laboratory plate load tests were conducted to determine the pressure–settlement response of reinforced soil for different geometric parameters like diameter, height, depth of placement, and shape of the geocell. The effect of geocell material strength on load carrying capacity is also included in this paper. Performance comparison of single layer and multi-layer geocell reinforced sand with different spacing is also presented in this paper. The test results confirm that the reinforced sand layer shows an excellent improvement in bearing capacity in comparison with the unreinforced sand. The optimum geocell geometry to get maximum benefit in terms of bearing capacity were determined and presented in this paper. Optimum spacing for a two layer geocell system was also determined experimentally and presented in this paper.
PubDate: 2017-07-04
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0097-3
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)

• Influence of Critical Parameters on the Peak Pullout Resistance of Soil
Nails Under Different Testing Conditions
• Authors: Cheng-Yu Hong; Zi-Xiong Liu; Yi-Fan Zhang; Meng-Xi Zhang; Lalit Borana
Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the correlation between influencing parameters and peak pullout resistance (PPR) of soil nails installed in typical completely decomposed granite (CDG) or sand. A total of eight soil nail pullout tests were conducted in a field to examine the influence of overburden pressure (OP) and grouting pressure (GP) on the PPR of soil nails. Comparative analysis indicates PPR values of soil nails pulled out in soils with low degrees of saturation (30%) are almost twice of that in almost fully saturated soils. Apparent coefficient of friction (ACF) increases linearly as the increase of GP, but decreases linearly as the increase of OP when GP is constant in both laboratory and field tests. Extensive studies also show that the magnitude of normalized ACF is more sensitive to OP compared with GP and degree of saturation (Sr). Diameter increase in percentage of soil nails pulled out from field are almost twice of the soil nail diameters in laboratory tests, indicating that due to complex geological condition in field (such as possible high void ratio of field soils), failure surface of soil nails presents substantial shift into surrounding soils.
PubDate: 2017-06-07
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0095-5
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)

• Predicting Compaction Characteristics of Fine-Grained Soils in Terms of
Atterberg Limits
• Authors: Ankurjyoti Saikia; Debankur Baruah; Kaushik Das; Hirak Jyoti Rabha; Anirjit Dutta; Anupjyoti Saharia
Abstract: Abstract This study presents a set of regression models for predicting maximum dry unit weight $$({\gamma _{{\text{dmax}}}})$$ and optimum moisture content (OMC) of fine-grained soils in terms of their consistency limits. The empirical models were developed by performing experimental investigation on forty (40) natural fine-grained soils, encompassing a wide range of liquid limit (LL) and plastic limit (PL). The compaction characteristics were determined by conducting IS light compaction test (standard Proctor equivalent in Indian standards). Observation shows that $${\gamma _{{\text{dmax}}}}$$ linearly decreases and in contrast, OMC increases in the same fashion with increase in LL or PL. However, in terms of regression coefficient, LL exhibits a superior correlation with $${\gamma _{{\text{dmax}}}}$$ and OMC than PL does. The observed variation trend of compaction characteristics with LL and PL is affirmed by a few previous studies in the domain. A set of two independent models are finally developed for predicting $${\gamma _{{\text{dmax}}}}$$ and OMC of soils taking both LL and PL into account. Reasonably good regression coefficients are obtained in case of both the models (R 2 = 0.90 in case of $${\gamma _{{\text{dmax}}}}$$ and R 2 = 0.86 in case of OMC model). The models are validated by predicting $${\gamma _{{\text{dmax}}}}$$ and OMC and comparing with actually measured values in a published study as well as present study. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) in case of $${\gamma _{{\text{dmax}}}}$$ prediction is 2.1% against the measured values of present study and 7.4–7.5% against measured values in literature. The RMSE involved in case of OMC prediction model is 7% against present values and 17.5–28.2% against measured values in literature.
PubDate: 2017-06-02
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0096-4
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)

• Geocell-Reinforced Foundation Systems: A Critical Review
• Authors: Arghadeep Biswas; A. Murali Krishna
Abstract: Abstract The ever increasing infrastructure development requires adequate and competent ground, which is becoming scarce at present. Thus, developing techniques for improving the weak soil (having low bearing capacity and/or likely to undergo excessive settlement) into a competent acceptable condition is a major task for geotechnical engineering practice. In this perspective, the concept of ‘reinforcing the soil’ is being widely appreciated and extensively practiced. For last few decades, the soil-reinforcement in various forms, such as planar and/or three-dimensional, has been vividly applied in several fields of civil engineering. As compared to the planar form, the three-dimensional ‘Geocell’ is comparatively new invention in soil-reinforcement. It is a honeycombing interconnected cellular confinement system, made of geosynthetics, such as geotextiles and/or geogrids. It has been observed that ‘Geocells’ significantly enhances the load-bearing capacity of soils and reduces settlement of the concern geotechnical structure. Apart from load-bearing (especially in pavements and foundations), it has also been extensively used in various slope stabilization, embankment construction and railway track applications. With increasing trend and demand, the performance of geocell-reinforcement has rigorously been studied for its betterment and optimum parametric configurations. Studies have revealed a large numbers of parameters, such as reinforcement geometry, interaction with filled soil, etc., largely influencing the performance of geocell-reinforced systems. In view of that, this paper aims to present a critical review of the parametric behavior of geocell-reinforced systems which would be a very useful document for various applications and further research.
PubDate: 2017-05-12
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0093-7
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)

• Performance Evaluation and Geo-Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste
Incineration Ash Material Amended with Cement and Fibre
• Authors: Davinder Singh; Arvind Kumar
Abstract: Abstract This paper is focused on geotechnical behavior of municipal solid waste incineration ash stabilized with cement and fibre. In order to evaluate the effect of addition of cement and fibre on the compaction and strength behavior of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash, a series of tests were conducted. The polypropylene fibre of length 6, 12 and 18 mm were used in different proportions as 0.5, 0.75 and 1% by dry weight of whole mix specimens, whereas cement contents were taken as 2, 4, 6 and 8%. The mix specimens cured for 7, 14 and 28 days after which they were tested for unconfined compressive strength tests and split tensile strength tests. Additionally, the SEM and XRD tests were carried out during study in order to evaluate the surface morphological characteristics, and hydraulic compounds formed during the process. The test results showed decreased maximum dry unit weight and increased optimum moisture content when the MSWI ash incorporated with cement and fibre. The results also revealed that the fibre inclusion increased the strength of the MSWI ash specimens as well as that of the cement stabilized specimens due to change in behavior from brittle to ductile.
PubDate: 2017-05-10
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0094-6
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)

• Finite Element Analysis of Vacuum Consolidation With Modified
Compressibility and Permeability Parameters
• Authors: Yuebao Deng; Mojtaba E. Kan; Buddhima Indraratna; Rui Zhong
PubDate: 2017-05-10
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0092-8
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)

• A Simplified Method for Prediction of Ultimate Bearing Capacity of
Eccentrically Loaded Foundation on Geogrid Reinforced Sand Bed
Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to develop reduction factors for eccentrical ultimate bearing capacity of circular and square footings resting on geogrid-reinforced sand. The process has been simplified with presenting non-dimensional charts for the various load eccentricities, the number of reinforcement layers and footing shape, which can be used by practicing engineers directly. To establish and evaluate this approach a series experimental tests for circular and square shallow footings was considered. Regarding square footing, different ratios of load eccentricity were considered; one-way and two-way. The proposed approach for eccentrical loading in unreinforced and reinforced condition has been validated with Meyerhof’s Effective Width Concept, laboratory model tests and numerical reported data in the literature review. Also, this solution is verified using the results of field tests on actual full scale reinforced soil foundations to study scale effects. New method provides reasonable agreement of the ultimate bearing capacity. Also, the results of laboratory tests conducted by the authors show that the ultimate bearing capacity of circular footing decreases less with increment of load eccentricity in comparison with square footing in reinforced condition. Improvement Index investigated that contribution of reinforcement layers in enhancing the ultimate bearing capacity increases with the load eccentricity. This behaviour followed with the proposed model. Also, finite element method (FEM) in a three-dimensional space is performed for verifying the laboratory tests and studying the stress–strain behaviour of reinforcement layers.
PubDate: 2017-05-10
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0091-9
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)

• Experimental Investigation on the Behaviour of Glass Fibre-Reinforced
Cohesive Soil for Application as Pavement Subgrade Material
• Authors: Suchit Kumar Patel; Baleshwar Singh
Abstract: Abstract Proctor compaction and California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were performed on glass fibre-reinforced cohesive soil to investigate its suitability as a subgrade material. The effects of varying fibre content, fibre length, compacted moisture content and soaking period on CBR and secant modulus were investigated. The test results indicate marginal variation of MDU and OMC with glass fibre reinforcement. Unsoaked CBR test was conducted on specimens compacted at optimum moisture content (OMC) and at 2% wet and dry sides of OMC, whereas soaked CBR test was conducted only on specimens compacted at OMC. CBR value increases with penetration depth up to 5.08 and 7.62 mm under unsoaked and soaked conditions, respectively. Both CBR and secant modulus increase with fiber content and fiber length at any compacted state. They decrease on either side of OMC, and also with increasing soaking period. The reinforcement benefit increases with increasing fiber content up to 0.75% for any fiber length and testing condition. The maximum enhancement in CBR are 2.77 and 2.85 times with 0.75% fibre reinforcement of 20 mm length, under unsoaked and soaked conditions, respectively. Using the glass fibre-reinforced soil in the subgrade may cause reduction of pavement thickness up to 25% even for a traffic value of 150 msa.
PubDate: 2017-04-26
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0090-x
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)

• The Effect of Olivine Content and Curing Time on the Strength of Treated
Soil in Presence of Potassium Hydroxide
• Authors: Mohammad Hamed Fasihnikoutalab; Shahram Pourakbar; Richard J. Ball; Bujang Kim Huat
Abstract: Abstract When olivine (Mg2SiO4) is activated with potassium hydroxide (KOH), it acquires the ability to improve the unconfined compressive strength of soil. This paper investigates the use of olivine for soil stabilisation through alkaline activation by focusing on the role of different alkali activated olivine contents (5–20 wt%) in stabilising native soil at different curing durations. The strength results were supported by a detailed microstructural and compositional analysis including scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Use of olivine in the presence of KOH increased the shear strength of soil up to 7.4 MPa in 90 days as a result of the formation of brucite, quartz and mullite in the structure of treated soil. This achievement implies a tremendous effect of olivine on the strength behaviour of treated soil. These results provide essential information which is significant from an environmental perspective as it offers a low energy alternative to existing technologies, for soil stabilisation.
PubDate: 2017-04-24
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0089-3
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)

• Earth Pressure Distribution on a Rigid Box Covered with U-Shaped Geofoam
Wrap
• Authors: M. A. Meguid; M. R. Ahmed; M. G. Hussein; Z. Omeman
Abstract: Abstract Earth loads acting on buried structures are known to be influenced by the characteristics of the soil, and the stiffness and geometry of the structure. To reduce earth pressure acting on buried structures, the induced trench installation technique has been recommended and applied in practice for several decades. It involves the installation of a soft zone immediately above the buried structure to mobilize shear strength in the backfill material. In this study an experimental investigation is conducted to measure the changes in contact pressure on the walls of a rigid structure buried in granular backfill with a U-shaped geofoam wrap. The results are compared with the conventional induced trench method as well as the positive projection installation with no geofoam. Contact pressures on the walls of the structure are measured using the tactile sensing technology. The experimental results are used to validate a finite element model that has been developed to analyze this soil–geosynthetic–structure interaction problem. The numerical model is then used to study the soil arching and the stresses developing in the backfill material for three different EPS densities. In addition, the role of geofoam density and the maximum fill height that can be carried safely without exceeding the design strain levels are examined. Conclusions are made regarding the effectiveness of this type of EPS inclusion on the earth pressure distribution around the buried structure.
PubDate: 2017-04-22
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0088-4
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)

• Influence of Tyre Buffings and Cement on Strength Behaviour of Soil-Fly
Ash Mixes
• Authors: Pranjal Barman; Baleshwar Singh
Abstract: Abstract The strength behaviour of a fine-grained residual lateritic soil modified with a Class F fly ash and tyre buffings was investigated. Specimens were statically compacted at corresponding optimum moisture content and then subjected to strength tests. For each mix, unconfined compression and triaxial compression tests were carried out on the as-compacted specimens after curing period of 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The soil was mixed with 20, 35 and 50% of fly ash. The tyre buffing contents used in the mix were 0, 5 and 10%. Addition of fly ash to soil decreases the unconfined compressive strength but increases the peak strength obtained from triaxial compression test. For soil-fly ash mixes with tyre buffing, the strength is found to be lower than the strength values of soil-fly ash mixes. Triaxial results showed that peak strength of mixes containing more than 20% fly ash and 5% tyre buffing is comparable to or greater than that of the soil alone mixes. Addition of 2% cement to soil-fly ash-tyre buffing mixes increases the peak strength as compared to soil-fly ash mixes. It is observed that inclusion of tyre buffings reduces the stiffness of the soil-fly ash mixes. Test results also reveal that the strength of different soil mixes is influenced by curing period. Soil-fly ash mixes containing 35 or 50% fly ash along with 5% tyre buffing and 2% cement content have been found to show some potential for use in the subgrade layer of road pavements or in the construction of embankment for road and dam.
PubDate: 2017-03-17
DOI: 10.1007/s40891-017-0087-5
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)

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