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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2482 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (209 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (214 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (118 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1301 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (402 journals)
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    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (82 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (214 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 216 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access  
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 78)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Road and Traffic Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Media Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
REDER : Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos sobre Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres     Open Access  
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Investigación     Open Access  
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Sul-Americana de Engenharia Estrutural     Open Access  
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Civil Engineering and Architecture
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2332-1091 - ISSN (Online) 2332-1121
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Evaluation of Risk of Fluctuation Claim on Cost of Construction Projects
           in the South-South Zone of Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  5  Anjiba D. Lamptey-Puddicombe   and Adu T. Emmanuel   Establishment and achievement of accurate project estimate is a major challenge facing the construction industry across the nations especially in the developing countries. Projects generally are one-off activities with very unique characteristics. Their acyclic nature further makes them practically difficult to repeat any section if that is completed, thereby subjecting their original schedule, budget and performance baselines to the prevailing project environment shaped by both known and unknown financial, technical and managerial risk factors. The study established the relationship between fluctuation cost and cost overrun of building construction projects in the South-South zone of Nigeria. The cost data on 20 completed public building construction projects in the study area were purposively sampled and adopted for the study. Data obtained were analysed using linear regression. The result revealed that fluctuation in the prices of construction materials and labour accounts for 97% on the cost overrun of building projects in the South-South zone of Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that practitioners in the construction sector should adequately provide for likely fluctuation of material and labour prices during project planning for successful implementation.
      PubDate: Sep 2018
       
  • Analysis and Solution for Fallout Repair and Tunneling in Sandy Soil
           Conditions for a Wine Cave in Southern California

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  5  Scott Ureel   Ron Skaggs   and Kerry Cato   The design and construction of wine caves can be difficult due to low ground cover, weak rock or soil, presence of sand and complicated by the elaborate curves and labyrinth-style floor plans. This paper will focus on southern California’s first wine cave in the Temecula wine region that was constructed by mining techniques. An excavation procedure was needed to reinstate tunneling excavation at the Oak Mountain Winery in Temecula, CA USA after a fallout with an estimated 6.1 meter diameter and 6.71 meters overburden. Sandy soils with low cohesive properties and low saturation have created difficult tunneling and safety conditions. The proposed excavation sequence was divided into four stages using spilling if needed until less sandy or stronger material was encountered The following analyses were performed to provide supporting calculations and information to provide safe tunnel excavation conditions as required by mining regulatory oversight. Analyses using cellular concrete for fallout conditions were also modeled. Results, recommendations and conclusions are presented.
      PubDate: Sep 2018
       
  • Elementary School Planning in Japan: A Historical Study for Regulations

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  5  Norie Kawano   Shin Muramaki   and Kyoko Kawaguchi   This article surveys the history, laws, and social background of elementary school facility planning in Japan and proposes a planning method for elementary school facilities in a society with an aging, decreasing population and lower birthrate. The mass construction of schools began before the 1980s and many of the current elementary school facilities were constructed around this period. The study is based on the surveys regarding history and laws related to the planning of elementary school facilities in Japan. The history was divided into six periods and the planning characteristics of each period were discussed. The first period was the initial development of laws and standards and the second period was the emergency steps after World War II. In the third and fourth periods many subsidy systems were established for the mass development of schools. The fifth period was for qualitative development, where various subsidies began to support school quality improvement. The sixth period was a stage where schools were closed and surplus spaces occurred due to the recent low birthrate. The elementary school planning theory before 2000 was for new construction of schools, but in recent years a planning theory for the renewal of school buildings such as renovation or conversion of the buildings has become necessary.
      PubDate: Sep 2018
       
  • Optimization of Green Building for Low-income People at Pondicherry

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  6  M. N. Uddin   A. Muthu Selvam   J. Shahoonda   and R. Prasanth   Green building is the way of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle from construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction. This practice enlarges and complements the conventional building design concerns of energy, water, materials, carbon emission, economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Hence, these practices have the sole role in sustainable as well as high-performance building. Outdated methods of building or renovation a home uses a huge amount of resources, which contain a significant amount of carbon emission and many of them nonrenewable and toxic—and pay little attention to the impact the home’s site have on the landscape. Herein, we elucidate a green building optimization for low-income people with the help of Autodesk Revit as well as EDGE green building analyzer. We designed a sustainable building model by using these tools based on energy efficiency, water efficiency, locally available and low carbon content materials, generate less waste and afford improved spaces for inhabitants, as compared to a traditional building. Embodied energy analysis, material flow analysis, carbon emission analysis and cost optimization are carried out to produce an optimum result.
      PubDate: Nov 2018
       
  • Evaluating Neighborhoods Developed Open Spaces in Khartoum-Sudan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  6  Zuhal Eltayeb Awad   The research reported in this paper, evaluated development of open areas in neighborhoods. The research was performed in the new neighborhoods in Khartoum town (Al Riyadh (1972), Nasr Extension (1972) and Al Mujahedeen (1988), compared to older neighborhoods (Khartoum -2 (1950), Al Diyum (1953), and Alamarat (1958)). The research aimed to study open spaces in these neighborhoods. Compared with characteristics of the selected neighborhoods, classified developed open spaces and evaluated the performance of each typology, the research promoted measurable development indicators such as availability, accessibility, safety and management. Then apply these indicators to analyze developed open spaces. The results confirmed a lack of a comprehensive development programs. The developed open spaces are 35 with total area of 154,050 m2 which represent only 27.6 % of the total number of open spaces. The research found that old neighborhoods have higher index of sufficiency value than new neighborhoods e.g. Khartoum (2) (8.9) compared to Al-Mujahdeen (5.2). Also, first class residential areas have higher index value than third class areas e.g. Khartoum -2 (8.9) compared to Al-Diyum (7.7). The successful types of developed open spaces of the surveyed neighborhoods are Recreational open spaces and Community centers. Most of them are managed by community groups (public participation).
      PubDate: Nov 2018
       
  • Lessons Learnt from the 2012 Flood Disaster: Implications for Post-flood
           Building Design and Construction in Yenagoa, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  3  Warebi Gabriel Brisibe   and Tonye Dagogo Pepple   Studies have shown that most parts of Yenagoa, the Bayelsa State capital fall within the high-risk flood zone of Nigeria and are susceptible to annual flooding. However, the 2012 flood was unusual in magnitude and led to the inundation of entire communities, the destruction of buildings and infrastructure. About five years have elapsed since the floods and new construction projects have resumed in some of the hardest hit areas of Yenagoa. This paper draws on data from a survey of 400 new residential dwellings around areas hardest hit by the flood in Yenagoa. The survey involved interviews with home owners and developers in selected areas, to investigate possible lessons learnt in building design, material use and construction in the region. The results of the survey show the percentage of developers who took precautionary measures in increasing flood resilience and those who did not; the factors that have influenced these decisions and level of professional involvement.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • Integrated Public Grievance Redressal System (iPGRS) A Next-Gen Solution
           for a Next-Gen Railway

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  3  Kandukuri Raju   and Shivam Gupta   Railways receive millions of service related complaints and grievances from the passengers annually through various channels (web-based, mobile app, social media, phone or paper based etc.). However, these channels are usually disparate, siloed, and heavy with manual processes. For many rail companies, there is no uniform business process or single platform visibility to address these grievances. The result is a high level complexity (multiple channels, differing processes and so on) that increases response times in addressing them. Railway companies in the Asian continent started to semi-automate their complaints processes but the process is not sufficiently robust to survive the large volumes expected in the future. Today, most railways employ a small 'grievance department' with people working in shifts 24x7 and manually handling thousands of complaints daily. Moreover, the penetration of smartphones is leading to a drastic increase in the volume of complaints, resulting in railways having to consider hiring more people. The result of this is two-fold – i) added cost pressures due to increase in staffing and ii) reduction in revenues due to loss of passenger satisfaction. iPGRS is an omni-channel solution that helps railways overcome these challenges. iPGRS integrates grievances from multiple channels onto a single platform, and creates a Service Request (SR)-based workflow that enables monitoring of grievances resolutions. Concerned stakeholders in the grievance department receive these Service Requests as an action item in their workflow and it becomes their responsibility to properly address and close each request. Feedback related to a grievance resolution is integral to ensuring transparency and accountability in a system that handles large volumes of grievances. The iPGRS system also includes many automation techniques, like rule-based engine, text analytics and more, to speed up the whole process. iPGRS offers a 360-degree integrated dashboard for further analysis and service improvements. We developed a prototype and demonstrated this solution to a large passenger rail organization in Asia for their consideration.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • Building-integrated Carbon Capture: Development of an Appropriate and
           Applicable Building-integrated System for Carbon Capture and Shade

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  3  Harvey Bryan   and Fahad Ben Salamah   Building-integrated carbon capturing (BICC) represents a new approach to existing carbon capture technology called Moisture Swing Air Capture Technology, by attempting to integrate this carbon-capturing technology onto building facades. This approach treats building facades as giant artificial leaves that absorb carbon dioxide from the air and convert it into useful carbon-based materials without negatively impacting the environment. In this paper, we will explore how this technology can be modified to be installed on a building's façade in the form of fabric shading devices that absorb carbon dioxide. A cleaning chamber moves along tracks (similar to a window-cleaning system) to moisten the fabric shades and dissolve the bicarbonate on the fibers. This process results in a carbonate and CO2 liquid can be compressed and stored for use in a variety of industrial applications. We will use performance data from several non-building devices that have been previously developed and tested to generate the magnitude of the CO2 that can be captured with this type of technology.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • Experimental Investigation of Concrete with Glass Powder as Partial
           Replacement of Cement

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  3  S. Rahman   and M.N. Uddin   The effects of partially replacing of cement with glass powder in concrete were studied and therefore found that some extent could be replaced which contributes in strength development. Cement was partially replaced with glass powder at varying percentages such as 10%, 20% and 30% and several concrete cylinders were casted along with plain concrete specimen. The cylinders were tested for compressive strength and split tensile strength at the age of 7, 14 and 28 days and were compared with the results of plain concrete. The overall test results indicated that the waste glass powder could be utilized in concrete as a good substitute of cement up to particle size less than 75μm. In replacement of cement with glass powder of 10%, the compressive strength and split tensile strength were reduced in 7th days for all samples. The 20% replacement of cement by glass powder met maximum compressive strength as compared to that of plain concrete. At 28 days, 30% replacement of cement by glass powder met maximum split tensile strength as compared to that of plain concrete.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • Visitors' Perception of High-rise Building Effect on the Scenery of
           Traditional Gardens: A Case Study in Hama-rikyu Gardens, Tokyo

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  3  Buket Senoglu   H. Ekin Oktay   and Isami Kinoshita   This study was carried out in a traditional Japanese garden namely Hama-rikyu Gardens which is one of the important heritage sites in Tokyo city. Hama-rikyu Gardens is a stroll type garden (kaiyu-shiki teien) which was originally designed to have borrowed sceneries (Shakkei) of nature elements in its surroundings. However, with the urbanization phenomena in the last decades, modern high-rise buildings have surrounded the garden and entered the garden's scenery which became a problem from the viewpoint of heritage garden preservation. Thereby, this study aimed to investigate the visual effect of external high-rise building views on the garden's scenery in visitors' perception. To achieve this aim, an in-situ survey was conducted among the visitors of Hama-rikyu Gardens by using a questionnaire with a range of questions to assess the external building sceneries. The results indicated that evaluation of the garden scenery as a whole was highly positive while the buildings in the garden sceneries were not liked, and they were perceived as disturbing. Furthermore, the negative effect of the buildings increased in the observation points where Shakkei (borrowed scenery) experience could be expected.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • The Life Center Unit's Design for Inclusive Schools in Turkey: A Case of
           Gokkusagi Primary School

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  3  Simge Gülbahar   and Özge Cordan   Human rights assured whole population of equal education opportunity across the world by means of inclusive education, which provides non-discriminated and non-stigmatizing educational environment for the disabled students and their peers. Inclusive education proposes to increase participation and integration of disabled students in educational environments through support spaces. In Turkey, SERÇEV (Children with Cerebral Palsy Association) has encouraged ‘life center unit' as a support space at primary level inclusive education school, which is called Gokkusagi Primary School in Ankara. The aim is to support disabled students' relationships with other students and users in the school environment. Establishment of life center unit brings out a fact that there is a spatial necessity for social integration in inclusive education schools, which is open to all population to respond their daily needs, especially for disabled students. According to this purpose, interviews were conducted with parents of students to find out the needs related with the usage of life center unit. In this paper, Gokkusagi Primary School will be taken as an example to find out user's expectations and needs for defining a base related to design criteria of the life center unit. Site visits and, interviews at site visits help define user type, type of use, period of use and spatial requirements of life center unit in inclusive education environments. This study aims to create a base for design criteria of the life center unit in order to utilize for further implementations through universal design principles.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • Project Financing Models for Toll Road Investments: A State-of-the-Art
           Literature Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  3  Lukas B. Sihombing   Yusuf Latief   Ayomi D. Rarasati   and Andreas Wibowo   In greenfield toll-road projects, financial sustainability has been a major issue. Many toll roads cannot be operated. Although most of Indonesia's 24 toll road concessions have already been signed by the Toll Road Authority, most of them were caused by financing problems. Three problems have been identified as potential sources of this unsustainability, such as the uncertainty of long-term project revenues, budget constraints provided by the government, and inadequate government support for land acquisitions. This paper aims to investigate the state-of-the-art innovative financing models recently introduced to address financial problems by using a desk study and meta-analysis. The findings are an earmarked tax revenue system, deep discount bonds, take-out financing, tax increment financing, land leases, deferred debts, and private donations.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • Environmental Change Detection Study in the Wider Area of Lignite Mines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  2  Ioannis Kotaridis   and Maria Lazaridou   Environmental monitoring of mine areas offers critical information about how they affect both natural and man-made environment. The Ptolemaida-Amyntaio lignite center plays a very important role in electrical industry of Greece, since it is the main energy fuel. The spatial growth of the lignite mine causes land cover change in the wider area. This paper aims to detect land cover changes in the wider area of the mines, in northwestern Greece, between two time periods using Remote Sensing and Geoinformation system (RS and GIS) methods. For this purpose multispectral images for both times were acquired, from Landsat data and a supervised classification was applied. Finally, qualitative and quantitative results obtained through visual interpretation and digital change detection study indicate that there has been a great increase in mine areas, affecting both agricultural land and man-made environment.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • The Design Characteristics of Nature-inspired Buildings

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  2  Jin Kim   and Kanggeun Park   The systems, processes, and organisms optimized for the evolution of nature over several hundred million years have helped designers and architects seeking improved and innovative solutions. Inspired by the shape and function of nature, some architects have created great architectures by finding and applying new design sources from nature's elements. The beautiful and mysterious nature landscape surrounding us not only gives us a new appearance for the four seasons, but also provides the source of new ideas for human. When looking at nature elements such as trees, flowers, animals, and ocean organisms, architects can find unusual perspectives, visually interesting ideas, special structures, creative details and innovative mechanisms. Most modern cities are full of buildings like the shape of supermarkets and boxes, if possible, architects should try to satisfy human emotions with beautiful scenery and natural closeness through environmental architecture. When planning for future cities and constructing new buildings, how to satisfy our yearning for a harmonious interaction with nature, and how the historic characteristics of buildings are shown to be presence. All of these are related to our fundamental human feelings and emotions, can improve holistic interrelationships between buildings and nature for human life. Nature-inspired biomimicry is a way of observing the natural world to find design solutions that may enable us to create the concepts of new building design with sustainable and healthy. This study is to analyze what are nature inspirations for the visual and conception building designs and what are the characteristic of innovative designs and technologies inspired by nature.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • The Design of Flexible Furniture for the New Generation Offices

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  2  Didem Bedük Tuncel   and Hande Zeynep Kayan   The technological developments in every extent cause the office interiors to change, the furniture to be updated. This situation brings along new concepts in working spaces and furniture design. Because the changing activities require different technologies in the offices that consist of individuals coming together for the same purposes, especially the Y generation born between 1981-2000, raised in the 4th Industrial Revolution era has an important effect on workplace designs. In this era where modern information and mobile technologies come into prominence; the family and social life culture is changing rapidly and man power is slowly getting behind robotic-smart systems. The Y generation has different choices from their clothes to working hours, from their thinking to the way they work; so they demand flexibility in every aspect in their offices. This situation affects the use of technology, and working systems more and more each day causing us to rethink the working areas and how we use the office furniture.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Waste Phosphate Coating Sludge Using
           Kiln Dust as Portland Cement Substitute

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  2  G. Eker   and V. Pinarli   In the present study, stabilization and solidification (S/S) of the waste phosphate sludge (WPS) using Portland cement (PC) and cement kiln dust (CKD) was investigated. In the first place, only PC was used to stabilize 5, 10 and 15% WPS. At a later stage, 10 and 15% CKD were used as PC substitute to stabilize 15%WPS. WPS contained initially 130.2 mg/L Zn and 22.6 mg/L Ni. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) landfilling limits for Zn and Ni are 4.3 mg/L and 11 mg/L, respectively. Setting times and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values were measured and permeability of selected samples was determined. TCLP (Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure) and SPLP (Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure) were applied to determine the concentrations of Zn and Ni leached from the mortar samples and leachate pH values were measured. Use of the CKD as a cement substitute delayed setting times, decreased UCS and increased leached heavy metal concentrations. Leached Zn and Ni concentrations of the WPS stabilized with PC and CKD following SPLP were lower than the EPA landfilling limits. However, leached Zn concentrations following TCLP were not compatible with the EPA limit. Leached Ni concentrations remained lower than the EPA limit. It was concluded that relatively low levels of alkalies, CaO and SiO2 content of CKD negatively affected the setting, compressive strength and leaching characteristics.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • Application of Scheffe's Theory to Develop Mathematical Prediction Model
           to Predict UCS for Hybrid Containing Organic Soil and POFA-OPC Additives

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  2  Yaser Gamil   Kemas Ahmed Zamahri   and Ismail Bakar   Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) is very significant parameters to evaluate the strength property of soil. In laboratory, it requires machinery and effort to determine UCS. Therefore, to predict UCS of organic soil stabilized by Palm Oil Fuel Ash-Ordinary Portland Cement (POFA-OPC) at less time and less cost for additive selection percentage the prediction model can simplify the selection of additives percentage by reducing the random selection of additives percentage and its disadvantageous results. As a result of that, the use of the prediction model eliminates the arbitrary selection of design mixes and its associated disadvantages. This paper is a continuous to previous publication by authors on the application of Scheffe's theory to predict resilient modulus however, this paper focused on the implementation of Scheffe's regression theory to develop mathematical model to predict UCS based on proposed mix proportions. The mixes were developed analytically from previous adopted rations of additives. The materials were characterized and investigated for the primary properties then the samples of POFA -OPC additives were prepared for the size of 70mm diameter and 140 height. 25 samples were designed and characterized for each mix proportion based on the UCS in 28 days curing. The Results of observed values from laboratory analysis are used to develop the mathematical model. In addition to that, the model was statistically scrutinized and confirmed for the adequacy and validity using f-test. The results showed that, the model is verified and adequate to predict UCS for any random POFA-OPC additives percentage.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • Seismic Analysis of Low and High Rise Building Frames Incorporating
           Metallic Yielding Dampers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  2  U. D. D. Liyanage   T. N. Perera   and H. Maneetes   There are many passive energy dissipating devices designed to dissipate earthquake energy in a structure. Metallic yielding dampers is one of these devices which are very efficient as they dissipate seismic input energy through hysteretic behavior. This research used ETABS software to analyze the performance of three metallic yielding dampers; X-shaped damper, Double X-Shaped and Comb Teeth Damper. The storey response data obtained from the analysis is storey shear. Each damper has three types of material; A992 steel, A36 steel and Aluminium. Concentrically braced steel frames with Chevron bracing were used and the dampers were placed in brace to beam orientation in each frame. The two types of frames analyzed were; low rise building with five storeys and a high rise building with twenty storeys. The site locations for both structures were in the region of California in the United States of America. The structures were analyzed by subjecting them to two earthquakes Loma Prieta and San Fernando as they were two of the major earthquakes that struck California in the nineties.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • Public Places from Past to Future, Berlin: Pariser Platz & Potsdamer Platz
           Istanbul Taksim Republican Square Examples

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  4  Can Turan   and Ebru Erdonmez Dincer   As a result of the global cultural, economic and social events of recent years, the definition and utilization of public spaces have again become a matter of debate. Public spaces are basically places where people living in the city come together and meet. Additionally, they also have always been playing an important role in reorganization and development process of societies and cities. For centuries, city squares have been the most important public spaces of the cities. As well as being urban spaces, city squares are significant architectural elements in terms of representation of their surrounding structures. To the present day, city squares have been transformed by the ruling authorities and their different ideologies. In this study, two major squares in Berlin, Pariser Platz and Potsdamer Platz; and one square in Istanbul were selected for the case study. Located in the centre of Berlin, between Brandenburg Gate and Unter den Linden, Pariser Platz was the largest square of the city before World War II. But after the war, following the construction of the Wall, the square turned into an idle space. The Potsdamer Platz is also located in the centre of the city and in only 1 km south of the Pariser Platz. But these two squares different from each other strongly in terms of their structures and features. For instance, Pariser Platz is a dominant and closed square, whereas Potsdamer Platz is a point streets are directed towards. Since the days the city was being developed, these two squares preserved their identities with their different typologies over the course of history presenting World War II, the era of National Socialism and the erection of the Wall, to the present day. In regard to significance, the last square to be examined, located in Istanbul Taksim, can be considered as important as the city of Istanbul itself. With its long history dating back to the end of 1800s, it is a major square in Istanbul. Focusing on the utilization of Pariser Platz, Potsdamer Platz and Taksim Square, this study aims to examine how spatial quality and its criteria in open public spaces are defined, under the light of new trends in architecture using the methods of comparative analysis, literature research, observation and questionnaires.
      PubDate: Jul 2018
       
  • Effects of Crude Oil Imparted Sand on the Durability of Concrete

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  4  Ajagbe W. O   and Rabiu W. A   A large percentage of soils in crude oil producing areas in Nigeria were contaminated to a varying degree. Past research showed reduction in the compressive strength of concrete made with crude oil impacted sand (COIS). The current effort aimed at assessing the durability of COIS concrete. Soil samples were contaminated with crude oil concentrated levels of 0, 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight of sand to produce COIS. Concrete design mix of 1:1.8:2.7 were made with COIS at the different concentrations from which concrete specimen – 100 mm cubes; 100 x 200 mm, and 75 x 150 mm cylinders, were made. COIS concrete were then tested for chloride and sulphate resistance using Electrical Resistivity(ER) test on 100mm x 200mm concrete cylinders and Water absorption (WA) test on 75 x 150 mm cylinders, respectively The COIS concrete was tested for Fire Resistance(FR) by testing the compressive strengths of heated 100 mm cubes. The results showed that COIS concrete exhibited an increased in durability properties as the contamination level increases. The control sample has the lowest value of ER of 119 kohm-cm which indicates low resistance to chloride ion penetration. It also has the highest value of WA of 3.9% indicating low resistance to sulphate attack. However, COIS concrete experienced reduction in strength when exposed to fire as the concentration of crude oil increases. The better durability property of the COIS concrete compliments the strength reduction.
      PubDate: Jul 2018
       
  • Elements of Architectural Design and Interpretation of Buildings and
           Monuments in Kaduna State

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  4  Isa Sani Mohammed   Anas Muhammad   and Aisha Wali Aminu-Umar   Understanding and interpretation of some features of buildings and monuments at public buildings and utilities is one of the challenges facing end-users and general public particularly the end-users and commuters across the globe. These features shape the final outlook of the buildings and monuments. Therefore, the end-users and commuters understanding on these buildings and monuments should not be ignored at both inception and completion. This is because occupants ought to know how buildings and monuments should look at completion since they will be the end-users. This study assesses elements of architectural design and interpretation of buildings and monuments at public buildings and utilities within Kaduna metropolis which was achieved through; the identification and examination of the principles of architectural intellectual appeal, determination of the current level of understanding and interpretation of buildings and monuments by end-users and general public. A total number of 150 questionnaires were distributed to public buildings and utilities users, commuters and general public within Kaduna metropolis. They were asked to demonstrate their level of understanding in interpreting of buildings and monuments at public places and utilities within Kaduna metropolis. A total of 81 questionnaires were retrieved representing 54% of valid response rate which were subsequently analyzed using descriptive statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study found that the level of respondents understanding on the interpretation of buildings and monuments as average. That is attributed to the following reasons: difficulty in understanding and interpretation of some building features and some principles of architectural designs and intellectual appeal as well as lack of using strategies that will enhance the understanding of building features at project inception by designers. Again, partial and complete neglect of end-users by professionals in some projects has made it difficult for them to understanding and interpret buildings and other structures when completed. Lastly, low level of education of some end-users, commuters and general public on elements of architectural design is responsible for their inability to understanding and interpret buildings and other structures.
      PubDate: Jul 2018
       
  • A Comparative Study on Clay and Red Soil Based Geopolymer Mortar

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  1  M.N. Uddin   and V. Saraswathy   Geopolymer mortar is cement less which is gaining popularity globally towards the sustainable development. It can be produced from mineral admixtures such as fly ash, clay, red soil with user-friendly alkaline-reagents. Production of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) requires large amount of energy as well as carbon footprint. It is shown that OPC emits approximately 5% of global CO2 emissions annually, which works out to nearly more than ½ ton of CO2 emission for every one ton production of OPC. So it is badly needed to reduce the global CO2 which has encouraged the researchers to search alternative sustainable building materials those are available in locality with lower embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions. Clay and red soil are the best selection for that and both are usable as an eco-friendly building materials also available in locality. So an attempt has been made to explore the possibility of using clay and red soil based mortar in construction industry. The composition and microstructure were characterized by x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) &particle size analyzer. Studies were carried out for both materials with respect to compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, effective porosity and co-efficient of absorption. The results indicated that geopolymer mortar with clay and red soil can be used as an alternate construction material in the construction industry.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Rehabilitation of an Edified Building in a Seismic Zone in Algeria
           According to the Eurocode 8-3

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  1  Amar Kassoul   Abdelkader Zerrouk   and Imane Djafar Henni   The objective of this paper is to perform a study on rehabilitation of a vital seven-story administrative building located in a low seismic area according to the old Algerian earthquake regulations (RPA88). Modifications were brought to the old code, including the seismic zoning which passed from moderate to high seismicity. The applied rehabilitation standards are based on the recommendations of the Eurocode 8-3 (EC8-3). The assessment of the vulnerability of the existing construction showed that the seismic forces at the base are lower than those required by the Algerian seismic code RPA99/V2003. As a retrofitting measure to strengthen this construction, the addition of new shears walls in both directions of the building was proposed. The dynamic study of the structure with the suggested structural intervention fulfilled all the required dynamic characteristics. For setting evidence of the performance of the proposed strengthening solution for the existing construction, a non-linear static analysis or pushover was accomplished. The obtained results using the SAP 2000 software enable us to make a comparison between the nonlinear behavior of the modified structure and the initial one. Compared to the original structure, from the point of view of the performance status, the strengthened structure showed a marked improvement in the strength and damping exceeding 80% while the overall capacity for resistance is enhanced more than three times.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Urban Strategies for a Renewal of Algerian Cities: Constantine of Tomorrow

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  1  Naouel Hanane Boudjabi   Foued Bouzahzah   and Abdelouhab Bouchareb   The town is not 'fixed', it is constantly developing, transforming, extending, renewing... These developments are made according to inhabitants needs, the evolution of lifestyles, opportunities or territory projects, policies, wills ... etc.; But also according to the capacities for the evolution of urban fabrics and social acceptability of this evolution. Today, urban intervention takes place in a context of 're-urbanization' marked by territorial and socio-economic complexity and by uncertainty. While new fabrics become increasingly important and concern the notion of 'project' instead of that of 'plan'. In Algeria, since independence in 1962, the town plan had been promoted as a 'plan' which had worked to extend the city beyond its fringes in order to respond to ever-increasing demands for housing. After years of drastic cuts in public spending, a turning point seems to be taking place. Indeed, the last two decades have been marked by many political, economic and social modifications at the same time. Through a financial upturn, the government committed itself to a series of reforms aimed at boosting the economy, increasing housing and employment, and undertaking extensive urban restructuring work. This new socio-economic context has led, in an unprecedented way, actions and interventions on the existing urban fabrics, to prefigure Algerian city modification and bringing out new and complex problems. Thus, in parallel with an Algerian city that continues to spread, the existing city is moved by a profusion of structuring public projects but also different operations of transformations; So many actions that can be assimilated to the beginnings of urban renewal for the Algerian city. The capital of Algerian east 'Constantine', is a city that could be described as an 'incomplete metropolis', it is highly renowned for many specificities, yet it has a specific crisis in relation to its context and its Urbanization, its upgrading is imminent and adapts itself to the international economy within the framework of a sustainable development in relation with the quality of life and the future of future generations. It seems to know, as Algerian cities do, many actions and projects that are transforming. The main objective of this work is first, to examine the effectiveness and relevance of the degree of involvement and involvement of local actors, in particular the users, and finally to consider the consistency of the programs.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Development Control Regulations Compliance: Paradigm Change to Reinvent
           

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Civil Engineering and Architecture  Volume  6  Number  1  Olufemi, Ojo-Fajuru   and Ambrose, Adebayo   Public spaces in the human society predate the built environment. Settlements expanding unto open spaces necessitate statutory control to ensure orderly development and mutual existence of various land uses. In developing countries like Nigeria, public spaces are subjected to encroachment and depletion. These result from rapid urbanization, population increase and space demand for human activities. Extant development control regulations seem ineffective in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State capital. Illegal development into public spaces is alarming, subtracting vital greenery and environmental quality from the city. This paper assesses the state of the environment to determine the extent of encroachment, and examines causal factors. Methods includes the review of existing planning laws pertaining to the establishment and maintenance of setbacks, open spaces and parks; and other related issues from literature sources. Questionnaire administration, interviews, focus group discussions and direct observation in selected city districts generated primary data. Findings reveal deplorable state of the environment occasioned by audacious encroachment of public spaces mainly by informal commercial activities. Ignorance of good quality environment, lack of effective governmental control, and people's desire for economic benefits are among factors responsible for these public spaces disruption. The research establishes that the city is devoid of greenery, while aesthetics, environmental quality, mobility, health, and livability are adversely affected. It is recommended that the State Government and municipal authority should strictly enforce extant statutory development control laws to reclaim lost socio-cultural spaces and revitalize urban green places. Functional 'trading/market' places should be incorporated into some of these spaces as development solution for informal sector economic activities, and thereby cater for the needs of itinerant traders and the urban populace. These measures, guided by a well-structured green city master plan, guarantee the return of the greens and biodiversity into the cityscape, and also provide avenues for making future sense of a great place in Ado-Ekiti, the fledging capital city of Ekiti State, Nigeria.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
 
 
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