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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2358 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (201 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (107 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1240 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (394 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 194 of 194 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
  [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2212-6090
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Urban planning and design in unauthorized neighborhoods using case studies

    • Authors: Abdol Aziz Shahraki
      Pages: 273 - 284
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Abdol Aziz Shahraki
      This paper is to study the unauthorized urban neighborhoods, which cause critical multifaceted difficulties. It explores the reasons that have resulted in the unauthorized urban neighborhoods generally and in Chabahar city particularly. This paper has performed a case study to analyze the socioeconomic, spatial, skeletal, and functional effects of the illegal neighborhoods in the Chabahar city with the help of academic methods and field observations. It reviews various theoretical ideas and experiences could assist the rehabilitation and reconstructing of the unauthorized urban districts. It discusses optimal strategic regional/urban revitalization planning procedures to solve the problems in Chabahar. Finally, this paper suggests a renewal/rebuilding possible development program, including eight mother projects. The results of the renewal program will be substituted with the present informal and eroded neighborhoods in the city. The renewal program made progress in both physical features of the city and urban life quality indicators simultaneously. The model suggested by this paper will be feasible in similar regions everywhere.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2016.09.005
       
  • Flood hazard assessment under climate change scenarios in the Yang River
           Basin, Thailand

    • Authors: Sangam Shrestha; Worapong Lohpaisankrit
      Pages: 285 - 298
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sangam Shrestha, Worapong Lohpaisankrit
      Climate change is expected to increase both the magnitude and frequency of extreme precipitation events, which may lead to more intense and frequent river flooding. This study aims to assess the flood hazard potential under climate change scenarios in Yang River Basin of Thailand. A physically-based distributed hydrological model, Block-wise use of TOPMODEL using Muskingum-Cunge flow routing (BTOPMC) and hydraulic model, HEC-RAS was used to simulate the floods under future climate scenarios. Future climate scenarios were constructed from the bias corrected outputs of three General Circulation Models (GCMs) for 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. Results show that basin will get warmer and wetter in future. Both the minimum and maximum temperature of the basin is projected to increase in future. Similarly average annual rainfall is also projected to increase in future, higher in near future and lower in far future. The extreme runoff pattern and synthetic inflow hydrographs for 25, 50 and 100year return flood were derived from an extreme flood of 2007 which were then fed into HEC-RAS model to generate the flood inundation maps in the basin. The intensity of annual floods is expected increase for both RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. Compared to the baseline period, an additional 60km2 area of basin is projected to be flooded with the return period of 100years. The results of this study will be helpful to formulate adaptation strategies to offset the negative impacts of flooding on different land use activities in Yang River Basin.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2016.09.006
       
  • Fresh properties of self-compacting concrete with plastic waste as partial
           replacement of sand

    • Authors: Sheelan M. Hama; Nahla N. Hilal
      Pages: 299 - 308
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sheelan M. Hama, Nahla N. Hilal
      This work aimed to investigate effecting of using plastic waste as partial replacement of fine aggregate, on the fresh characteristics of self-compacting concrete (SSC). For this purpose, different self-compacting concrete mixes were designed at constant water-to-binder ratio of 0.32 and 520kg/m3 of binder content. Class F fly ash was used as partial replacement of cement (30% by weight of cement). The six designated plastic waste contents of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 12.5% and three different sized Plastic wastes (fine plastic wastes, coarse plastic wastes, and mixed plastic waste) were considered as experimental parameters. The workability properties of self-compacting concrete mixtures were performed regarding to slump flow diameter, T50 slump flow time, V-funnel flow time, L-box height ratio, and L-box T20 and T40 flow times. The 28-day compressive strengths of self-compacting concretes were also measured. The experimental results of this work are showed that the plastic waste with the sizes and contents that used in this work can be used successfully as a fine aggregate in self-compacting concrete.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.01.001
       
  • Spatial analysis of housing quality in Nigeria

    • Authors: Wole Morenikeji; Emmanuel Umaru; Halilu Pai; Solomon Jiya; Owoeye Idowu; B.M. Adeleye
      Pages: 309 - 316
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wole Morenikeji, Emmanuel Umaru, Halilu Pai, Solomon Jiya, Owoeye Idowu, B.M. Adeleye
      The study examined the factors responsible for the spatial variation in housing quality across the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria using 33 housing characteristics. The data used are the 2006 Housing Characteristics and Amenities tables which were sourced from Nigeria’s National Population Commission (National Population Commission, 2006). Principal Component Analysis extracted three components. Component 1 accounting for 38% has electricity, water closet toilet, hygienic sources of water and high quality roofing, walling and flooring materials highly loaded on it. Component 2 (31%) comprised inferior walling, roofing and flooring materials, pit toilet, traditional and semi-detached house types, while component 3 (7%) had mainly zinc wall and public toilet highly loaded on it. Using these factor loadings as variables in discriminant analysis, three distinct regions of differing housing quality emerged corresponding to the western, eastern and northern geographical regions of the country with 97.3% of the states correctly classified and with the western (high) and northern (low) states at the opposite ends of the quality scale. It is recommended that non-conforming buildings, particularly, residential, and insanitary environment should be put in check through very strict and proactive enforcement of development control edicts and sanitary laws.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.03.008
       
  • Results of intention-behaviour gap for solar energy in regular residential
           buildings in Finland

    • Authors: Md. Abdul Hai; Md. Munjur E. Moula; Ullamaija Seppälä
      Pages: 317 - 329
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Md. Abdul Hai, Md. Munjur E. Moula, Ullamaija Seppälä
      With a purpose to comprehend intention-behaviour gap about acceptance of solar energy and solar community concept (houses and/or block of flats under specific solar power plant) among Finnish respondents, this qualitative study found respondents’ positive responses towards solar energy and their rationality and honesty in admitting their real behaviour. It focuses on the qualitative interpretation of individual’s intention that corresponds to specific behaviour. In terms of their ‘impression in principle’ by thinking solar energy as a non-polluting, inexhaustible and renewable energy source although all respondents were positive, the highest numbers were non-adopters. However, they were optimists. They mentally accepted (acceptance in principle) solar energy. They would adopt it later on after being satisfied with their most contextual conditions (‘impression in practical’). This study provides recommendations that indicate more future adoption and future research direction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.04.002
       
  • Sustainability focused decision-making in building renovation

    • Authors: Aliakbar Kamari; Rossella Corrao; Poul Henning Kirkegaard
      Pages: 330 - 350
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Aliakbar Kamari, Rossella Corrao, Poul Henning Kirkegaard
      An overview of recent research related to building renovation has revealed that efforts to date do not address sustainability issues comprehensively. The question then arises in regard to the holistic sustainability objectives within building renovation context. In order to deal with this question, the research adopts a multi-dimensional approach involving literature review, exploration of existing assessment methods and methodologies, individual and focus group interviews, and application of Soft Systems Methodologies (SSM) with Value Focused Thinking (VFT). In doing so, appropriate data about sustainability objectives have been collected and structured, and subsequently verified using a Delphi study. A sustainability framework was developed in cooperation with University of Palermo and Aarhus University to audit, develop and assess building renovation performance, and support decision-making during the project’s lifecycle. The paper represents the results of research aiming at addressing sustainability of the entire renovation effort including new categories, criteria, and indicators. The developed framework can be applied during different project stages and to assist in the consideration of the sustainability issues through support of decision-making and communication with relevant stakeholders. Early in a project, it can be used to identify key performance criteria, and later to evaluate/compare the pros and cons of alternative retrofitting solutions either during the design stage or upon the project completion. According to the procedure of the consensus-based process for the development of an effective sustainability decision-making framework which was employed in this study, the outcome can also be considered as an outset step intended for the establishment of a Decision Support Systems (DSS) and assessment tool suited to building renovation context.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.05.001
       
  • Enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater through
           increased total efficiency in sewage treatment (ITEST) pilot plant in cold
           climatic regions of Baltic Sea

    • Authors: Y.V. Krishna Reddy; Sirisha Adamala; Erik K. Levlin; K.S. Reddy
      Pages: 351 - 358
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Y.V. Krishna Reddy, Sirisha Adamala, Erik K. Levlin, K.S. Reddy
      The temperatures of sewage water were too low in cold climatic regions of Baltic Sea, which resulted in inefficiency of denitrification in sewage treatment process (STP). This is not prescribed to meet the effluent nitrogen levels (<10mg/l) as per Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive 98/15/EC. In order to improve the denitrification efficiency and the subsequent removal of nitrogen from the municipal wastewater as per the above European Commission guidelines, modified process was formulated with pre-anaerobic and post-aerobic activated sewage treatment processes. The modified process includes the rise in ambient temperature up to 20±2°C by using heat exchangers in Increased Technology and Efficiency in Sewage Treatment (ITEST) pilot plant at the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) laboratory. The experiments were conducted with the modified process of sewage water in one line (treatment line (TL)) and the existing process in another line (reference line (RL)) of the pilot plant. The physical (such as Temperature, Suspended solids and Sludge volume) and chemical (ammonium-nitrate (NH4 +-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 −-N) and total-nitrogen (TN)) parameters were analyzed. The results concluded that the NH4 +-N, NO3 −-N and TN concentrations of treated waste water were satisfactory with a concentration of <10mg/l as per the European Directives 98/15/EEC at treatment line as compared to influent and reference lines. The average nitrogenous-compounds’ removal efficiencies were 84% and 76% of NH4 +, 80% and 65% of NO3 −, 78% and 62% of TN for TL and RL, respectively.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.05.002
       
  • Energy consumption analysis of school buildings in Manitoba, Canada

    • Authors: Mohamed M. Ouf; Mohamed H. Issa
      Pages: 359 - 371
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mohamed M. Ouf, Mohamed H. Issa
      Buildings contribute 20–40% of the world’s energy consumption, making the need to investigate their energy performance a necessity. Given the lack of empirical evidence on the energy performance of school buildings in cold climates, this study aimed to benchmark historical energy consumption over a ten-year period in a sample of 30 school buildings in Manitoba, Canada. Results showed the median total energy consumption of these schools was higher than other Canadian benchmarks. School building age had a statistically significant effect on their energy consumption, with newer schools consuming less gas but more electricity than older and middle-aged ones. The retrofits implemented in some schools did not for the most part have a statistically significant effect on their energy consumption, although a decrease in energy consumption was observed. The results also showed that middle-aged schools were the largest energy consumers, with the results changing depending on the metric used to report on schools’ energy consumption, reinforcing the need to standardize those metrics. There is also a need to investigate how occupancy may be contributing to the increase in electricity consumption in newer schools. This study is the first to provide empirical evidence on existing school buildings’ energy consumption in Manitoba, establishing benchmarks that practitioners can make use of in similar cold climates.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.05.003
       
  • Indoor heat stress and cooling energy comparison between green roof (GR)
           and non-green roof (n-GR) by simulations for labor intensive factories in
           the tropics

    • Authors: Sajal Chowdhury; Yasuhiro Hamada; Khandaker Shabbir Ahmed
      Pages: 449 - 462
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sajal Chowdhury, Yasuhiro Hamada, Khandaker Shabbir Ahmed
      This study is based on labor intensive factory, located in Dhaka, Bangladesh which was adversely impacted due to extreme hot conditions. The analysis started with the implementation of green roof (GR) as one of the passive design strategies to reduce indoor heat stress. Impact of indoor heat stress indicated by wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and prediction of heat strain (PHS) model for green roof have been evaluated through numerical studies and indoor environmental data of local factory was measured by portable weather station. A factory energy model (by Energyplus and Open Studio) based on one of the surveyed factory’s production space including different activity zones and lab test material’s properties was developed and different roof variables were evaluated. The result indicated that GR has significant contributions on indoor heat stress reduction and substrate indoor temperature decreases (2.5–3.5°C) with increasing vegetal coverage. It has been also examined the ratio of indoor temperature fluctuation and relatively higher standard deviation (SD) observed for non-green roof (n-GR) condition. For summer, it was also quantified that indoor WBGT and PHS criteria for the workers became 2–2.5 times lower from the high risk level due to the effectiveness of GR.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.09.001
       
  • Design of concrete buildings for disassembly: An explorative review

    • Authors: Wasim Salama
      Pages: 617 - 635
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wasim Salama
      Due to various kinds of obsolescence, a large number of concrete buildings around the world are removed to give space for new buildings, however, the elements of these buildings in most cases have the ability to serve longer time, but the dominant demolition end-of-life scenario prevents from the reuse of these elements. It has been demonstrated that reuse of elements and materials is an environmentally responsible option that turns the current linear model of building materials and elements into a cyclic one, which pushes toward reconsidering the construction design of concrete buildings to support future disassembly, that facilitate reuse and adaptation. This study tends to explore and review the current issues related to concrete technologies and their role in building assembly and disassembly, as well as DfD “design for disassembly” aspects and theories that clarify and pave the way for future innovations, which move the construction design of concrete buildings to a higher degree of environmental responsibility. The study found out that despite the continuous developments in the field of concrete technologies, the link of these developments to the end-of-life phase is still missing. The study concluded that it is possible through the application of DfD criteria on precast concrete systems and elements to change the liner life-cycle model to a cyclic one.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.03.005
       
  • Applications of geosynthetic membranes in soil stabilization and coastal
           defence structures

    • Authors: Brian O. Oyegbile; Benjamin A. Oyegbile
      Pages: 636 - 662
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Brian O. Oyegbile, Benjamin A. Oyegbile
      The use of geosynthetic in soil and coastal engineering is increasing and improving due to improvements in its engineering properties and fabrication techniques. While some geosynthetic coastal structures have attained advanced stage in terms of applications and efficiency, others still lack well-structured design formulas and specifications on a sound scientific basis, hence continued experimental works for the better understanding of the hydraulic performance, stability and modes of failure of these structures. Coastal areas are dynamic with unique geomechanical feature such as soil instability, which in any case, may affect the overall performance of coastal defence structures constructed on soft soil or weak foundation. This paper reviews the developments and applications of geosynthetics in soil stabilization and protection of coastal areas with emphasis on shoreline protection. Relevant empirical research data are presented as well as the present and likely future challenges in the use of geosynthetics in soil stabilization and coastal defence structures.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.04.001
       
  • Exploring sustainability of smart development initiatives in India

    • Authors: Aman Randhawa; Ashwani Kumar
      Pages: 701 - 710
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Aman Randhawa, Ashwani Kumar
      Urban cities of developing countries are witnessing rapid urbanization that has elevated issues in the field of urban planning like a gap in demand and supply of infrastructure services and utilities, traffic congestions, pollution, reduction in natural green cover, peri-urban settlement typology etc, thus affecting the natural and built environment adversely. These prevailing issues will worsen over the coming decades as the urban population is increasing at a phenomenal rate, thus highlighting the urgency to take appropriate actions. Smart development has been identified as a sustainable world-wide solution to the existing urban planning issues, whose principles aims at providing a better quality of life and advertises livable communities; though the concept is vague to define, as no universal definition exists. The soul reason for the concept to be vague is the number of dimensions in which it is represented and therefore, the concept needs to be standardized in order to scale development worldwide. India has undergone rapid urbanization over the last few decades and the witnessing cities are mostly of Class-I & II tiers. To cater the issues developed by this phenomenon, the governing authorities have taken up initiatives over the years, in the form of programmes that have mainly focused on providing basic infrastructure services and utilities to the cities and have not paid much attention in achieving sustainability in the approach. Recently, India has introduced the smart city mission, which is somewhat on the similar lines of smart development. Since the development is been interpreted differently among the nations due to no standardization of the concept, it’s important to understand how the concept has been represented in the Indian context. The paper intended to analyse the concept of smart development and explore the sustainability quotient in the smart city mission introduced by the Government of India. And, concluding that whether the initiative taken up, achieves sustainability in the field of urban planning. To achieve the above-mentioned goals, an in-depth analysis was conducted of the various concepts associated with smart development.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.08.002
       
  • The development of a novel process for the production of calcium
           sulfoaluminate

    • Authors: Yousef Al Horr; Ammar Elhoweris; Esam Elsarrag
      Pages: 734 - 741
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yousef Al Horr, Ammar Elhoweris, Esam Elsarrag
      In an industrial climate where the reduction of carbon emissions is paramount to meeting industry standards for a sustainable future, the cement industry is looking for alternative and creative solutions to reducing its carbon footprint and energy consumption. The title review develops a novel process for the production of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement, a material produced in the Chinese construction industry for use as a rapid hardening binder for 5 decades; but now undergoing rapid change. The novelty of the proposed process lies partly in its source of sulfur. Typically provided by gypsum in conventional raw feeds, the novel process instead sequesters sulfur into the cement solids through the combustion of elemental sulfur. This combustion event, in turn, contributes towards the calorific value required to heat and maintain kiln temperatures by burning fossil fuel, e.g. natural gas. The combustion of sulfur also provides various added benefits. The resultant sulfur-containing atmosphere in the reaction system provides a protective environment which represses S volatilisation at the operating temperatures used for CSA production, ca 1200–1300 °C. The novel process was developed with the intention for eventual commercial production in Doha, Qatar. The combustion of sulfur would be additionally beneficial due to the nation’s production of vast quantities of natural gas; elemental sulfur is a by-product of the Claus process, used for the desulfurisation of natural gas or sour crude. The proposed novel process would thereby utilise a waste product, i.e. sulfur, for the production of a low carbon cement product.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.12.009
       
  • The livability of spaces: Performance and/or resilience? Reflections on
           the effects of spatial heterogeneity in transport and energy systems and
           the implications on urban environmental quality

    • Authors: Laura Estévez-Mauriz; Jimeno A. Fonseca; Claudiu Forgaci; Nils Björling
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Laura Estévez-Mauriz, Jimeno A. Fonseca, Claudiu Forgaci, Nils Björling
      Cities can be seen as systems of organized complexity formed by interrelated and highly dynamic sub-systems. This paper reflects on the interactions and tensions between socio-ecological and/or socio-technical sub-systems in cities and their capacity to either improve or block urban processes. In this context, spatial heterogeneity could enhance or hinder the performance and resilience of critical urban sub-systems such as transport and energy. The consequence of this interaction might be detrimental to environmental quality (air and acoustic) and the livability of urban areas. This rationale may improve political and expert decision-making processes toward sustainable, resilient and livable cities.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T15:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2016.10.001
       
  • Setting time and standard consistency of quaternary binders: The influence
           of cementitious material addition and mixing

    • Authors: Niragi Dave; Anil Kumar Misra; Amit Srivastava; S.K. Kaushik
      Pages: 30 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Niragi Dave, Anil Kumar Misra, Amit Srivastava, S.K. Kaushik
      This paper presents three pozzolanic materials that were used to make quaternary binders, Granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash (PFA), metakaolin, and silica fume as partial replacement in quaternary binders with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) to investigate the effect of standard consistency, initial and final setting times of quaternary paste. Experiments demonstrate that SF has greater influence on the standard consistency of the OPC–FA–SF–GGBS paste, as compare to FA and GGBs. Water requirement in the paste escalates, with increase in SF percentage level within the paste, owing to the high surface area. In case of GGBS, around 3–5% of reduction in water/binder ratio was recorded, whereas for SF, it was 10–12%. In quaternary OPC–FA–SF–GGBS pastes, increases in initial and final setting times at 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15% replacement of SF and GGBS were observed, whereas OPC–FA–SF–MK paste setting time shows an increase at 5% replacement of SF and MK with 20% and 70% replacement of FA and OPC, however, it starts decreasing between 7.5% and 15% replacement of SF and MK. The consistency of the quaternary binders increases with an increase in percentage of SF and MK. In general the effect of FA, SF, GGBS and MK reflects in the behavior of quaternary binders even though the performance of all three pozzolans behaves completely independent of each other.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T15:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2016.10.004
       
  • Waste glass powder as partial replacement of cement for sustainable
           concrete practice

    • Authors: G.M. Sadiqul Islam; M.H. Rahman; Nayem Kazi
      Pages: 37 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): G.M. Sadiqul Islam, M.H. Rahman, Nayem Kazi
      Million tons of waste glass is being generated annually all over the world. Once the glass becomes a waste it is disposed as landfills, which is unsustainable as this does not decompose in the environment. Glass is principally composed of silica. Use of milled (ground) waste glass in concrete as partial replacement of cement could be an important step toward development of sustainable (environmentally friendly, energy-efficient and economical) infrastructure systems. When waste glass is milled down to micro size particles, it is expected to undergo pozzolanic reactions with cement hydrates, forming secondary Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C–S–H). In this research chemical properties of both clear and colored glass were evaluated. Chemical analysis of glass and cement samples was determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique and found minor differences in composition between clear and colored glasses. Flow and compressive strength tests on mortar and concrete were carried out by adding 0–25% ground glass in which water to binder (cement+glass) ratio is kept the same for all replacement levels. With increase in glass addition mortar flow was slightly increased while a minor effect on concrete workability was noted. To evaluate the packing and pozzolanic effects, further tests were also conducted with same mix details and 1% super plasticizing admixture dose (by weight of cement) and generally found an increase in compressive strength of mortars with admixture. As with mortar, concrete cube samples were prepared and tested for strength (until 1year curing). The compressive strength test results indicated that recycled glass mortar and concrete gave better strength compared to control samples. A 20% replacement of cement with waste glass was found convincing considering cost and the environment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T15:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2016.10.005
       
  • Driving lean and green project outcomes using BIM: A qualitative
           comparative analysis

    • Authors: Ritu Ahuja; Anil Sawhney; Mohammed Arif
      Pages: 69 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ritu Ahuja, Anil Sawhney, Mohammed Arif
      Driven by a plethora of external and internal influences, the construction industry has independently embraced lean principles and green initiatives. Prima facie significant synergies have been reported between these two paradigms. It is foreseen that when tapped and adopted in unison, these paradigms may yield additional benefits for the construction projects. This synergy is investigated in this research. Further this study identifies and proposes Building Information Modelling (BIM) as an enabler for gaining lean and green project outcomes. The study uses crisp set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA) method for exploring the causal combinations of different BIM capabilities and asserts that causal combinations of four BIM capabilities: MEP system modelling, energy and environment analysis, constructability analysis and structural analysis, when implemented on construction projects can lead to lean and green outcomes. With the help of sixteen cases it is shown that adoption of BIM leads to improved project outcomes especially ones targeting lean and green aspects.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T15:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2016.10.006
       
  • Investigating the Spatio-temporal Changes in Major Activity Centres in the
           Sydney Metropolitan Area

    • Authors: Alireza Salahi Moghadam; Ali Soltani; Bruno Parolin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Alireza Salahi Moghadam, Ali Soltani, Bruno Parolin
      Every assessment of urban spatial structure requires determining the importance of activity centres. This paper gives an attempt to analyse the spatial and temporal changes experienced by major activity centres in the Sydney metropolitan area. The objectives of the research were first, to explore the role of main activity centres on the distribution of job opportunity across the metropolitan area, second to find out whether or not these key activity centres were influential in making the Sydney’s urban structure more poly-centric rather than being a mono-centric. It also estimates how accessible these activity centres are for the workforce and what their corresponding labour catchment areas are. Eleven activity centres were chosen based on the preliminary analysis of Sydney’s planning and development documents and exist evidences on living and working spots. A number of analysing techniques such as mapping of journeys to work in these centres, influence circles of centres, employment preference functions, and tabular data on the levels of employment were applied. The results of the analysis show that apart from the CBD, North Sydney, Parramatta and Inner City the remaining activity centres appear to exert slight impact on employment distribution across the metropolitan area. There does not seem to be evidence for a significant polycentric structure in Sydney metropolitan area in regarding with employment recruitment, seeking and retention.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.12.004
       
  • Macro-economic benefit analysis of large scale building energy efficiency
           programs in Qatar

    • Authors: Moncef Krarti; Fedaa Ali; Alaa Alaidroos; Mahdi Houchati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Moncef Krarti, Fedaa Ali, Alaa Alaidroos, Mahdi Houchati
      This paper evaluates the economic, environmental, and social benefits of large-scale energy efficiency programs for new and existing buildings in Qatar. Using data obtained from detailed energy audits, several proven energy efficiency measures have been analyzed through optimized based analysis to assess their impact on the energy performance for both new and existing buildings in Qatar. Moreover, a bottom-up analysis approach is considered to quantify the multiple benefits for implementing large-scale building energy efficiency programs for the building stock in Qatar. In particular, a more stringent energy efficiency code for the new constructions and three energy retrofit levels for the existing buildings are considered in the analysis. A novel macro-economic analysis using the concept of energy productivity is used to assess the cost-benefit of large-scale energy efficiency programs in Qatar. It is determined that the implementation of a government funded large-scale energy retrofit program for the existing building stock is highly cost-effective in Qatar. In particular, it is found that a large-scale energy efficiency retrofit program of existing buildings can provide a reduction of 11,000 GWh in annual electricity consumption and 2500 MW in peak demand as well as over 5400 kilo-ton per year in carbon emissions. In addition, over 4000 jobs per year can be created when this large-scale energy retrofit program is implemented over 10-year period.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.12.006
       
  • Understanding sustainable development in Finnish water supply and
           sanitation services

    • Authors: Annina Takala
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Annina Takala
      Water supply and sanitation services are essential to human and environmental well-being. Globally one of the biggest challenges to sustainable development is lack of access to improved water supply and sanitation services. Yet it is less obvious what sustainable development means in countries with high coverage of these services. In this article sustainable development is explored from the perspective of Finnish water supply and sanitation services. The study consists of eight semi-structured interviews with water sector experts and their views are analysed in relation to literature. In this article sustainable development is understood as a learning process and dialogue of values. The interviewed water sector experts primarily perceive sustainable development from an environmental point of view, and treat it in a rationalistic and mechanistic manner. Challenges are tackled by technological fixes, such as improving energy and material efficiency. It is argued in this paper that this kind of approach undermines the complexity and dynamicity of sustainable development and can suppress learning. Sustainable development is mostly explored only from the perspective of water services, although some of the interviewees recognise their role for wider societal development. Interaction and dialogue between water sector experts and the community regarding sustainable development is lacking or skills to accomplish this interaction are inadequate.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.10.002
       
  • Occupant productivity and indoor environment quality: A case of GSAS

    • Authors: Yousef Al Horr; Mohammed Arif; Amit Kaushik; Ahmed Mazroei; Esam Elsarrag; Shashwat Mishra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Yousef Al Horr, Mohammed Arif, Amit Kaushik, Ahmed Mazroei, Esam Elsarrag, Shashwat Mishra
      Purpose The purpose of the paper is to establish links between Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) factors that affect occupant productivity and Global Sustainability Assessment System (GSAS) building rating system. The paper analyses the current state of GSAS using a desktop study, survey and brainstorming session organised in a workshop with GSAS Certified Green Professionals (CGP). Methodology/design/approach The study was conducted in three steps. First, a comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify IEQ factors that influence occupant productivity in offices. The second step was a desktop analysis of current GSAS building rating system to identify criteria and submittals that may help to increase occupant productivity. It was followed by a facilitated workshop of GSAS CGPs that included a survey and a brainstorming session to highlight the current state of GSAS rated building performances on occupant productivity. The workshop was attended by 41 CGPs in Doha, Qatar. Findings The paper highlighted that GSAS needs to be updated to increase occupant productivity in GSAS rated buildings. A periodic post-occupancy survey in GSAS buildings should be mandated to ensure better occupant productivity. The paper also presented various methods to make GSAS rated buildings more occupant-friendly. Originality/value This study is the first study to analyse green building guidelines in the context of occupant productivity, especially in Qatar.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.11.001
       
  • Mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete containing ternary
           blended cementitious materials

    • Authors: Faiz Uddin Ahmed Shaikh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Faiz Uddin Ahmed Shaikh
      This paper presents the effect of silica fume (SF) on early-age and long-term mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete containing slag. In this study six series of mixes are considered. The first series is control concrete containing 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 100% natural aggregates. The second series is similar to the first series in every aspect except the natural coarse aggregate (NCA) which was partially replaced by 50% (by wt.) recycled coarse aggregate (RCA). The third series is also similar to the second series except the OPC which is partially replaced by 50% slag. The effects of 5, 10 and 15% (by wt.) SF on mechanical properties of concrete is evaluated in fourth, fifth and sixth series, respectively. Compressive strength, indirect tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of above concretes are measured at 3, 7, 28, 56 and 91 days. Results show that the addition of 50% slag significantly reduced the above mechanical properties of concrete containing 50% RCA at early age. Among three SF contents, the 10% SF improved the above mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete containing slag at early ages (3 and 7 days) as well as at 28 days. The addition of 10% SF also improved the 56 and 91 days compressive and tensile strengths of recycled aggregate concrete containing slag. It is also found that the long-term (56 and 91 days) compressive and tensile strengths of recycled aggregate concrete containing slag and 10% SF are even higher than the OPC concrete containing 50% RCA and control concrete, respectively. It is also observed that the slow pozzolanic reaction of slag contributed to the long-term compressive and tensile strengths of recycled aggregate concrete containing slag and 10% SF. Strong correlations of measured compressive strength with indirect tensile strength and elastic modulus of above environmentally friendly concretes are also established.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.10.005
       
  • The mechanical and physical properties of unfired earth bricks stabilized
           with gypsum and Elazığ Ferrochrome slag

    • Authors: İbrahim Türkmen; Enes Ekinci; Fatih Kantarcı; Talha Sarıcı
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): İbrahim Türkmen, Enes Ekinci, Fatih Kantarcı, Talha Sarıcı
      During the last few years, an increasing interest has been appeared for earth as a building material. Earth-based materials have been studied because of energy efficiency and ecologically sustainability. The chromite deposits, 10% of the world reserves, are processed in Elazığ Ferrochrome Factory in Eastern of Turkey. Elazığ Ferrochrome slag (EFS) as a by-product of the factory is produced roughly 50,000 tons in a year. The disposal, removal and storage of this by-product is a serious problem. Therefore, the utilization of this waste material in building applications is very important. The aim of this work is to investigate effects of gypsum and EFS additives on mechanical and physical properties of unfired earth brick (UEB) materials in order to assess their potential advantages in building applications. The earth material was characterized by laboratory tests. Four different UEB samples were produced by using different compositions of earth, gypsum, EFS and straw fibers. Compressive strength, water absorption coefficient, drying shrinkage, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and density of the prepared UEB samples were determined. The experimental findings have showed that the usage of gypsum and EFS in stabilizing process of UEBs was advantageous.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.12.003
       
  • Reliance of building energy in various climatic regions using multi
           criteria

    • Authors: M. Alwetaishi; M. Gadi; U.H. Issa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): M. Alwetaishi, M. Gadi, U.H. Issa
      Selecting a ventilation system for a certain building has always been considered as one of the critical problems for designers. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is characterized by a large area of significant climatic changes. In this research, five criteria are identified to compare and select one of the most popular ventilation systems, mechanical or natural. The identified criteria include Energy efficiency in buildings, Building function, Thermal comfort, the Maintenance cost of building, and Microclimatic conditions. The use of a mechanical system may be useful for achieving the building function and thermal comfort, while it seems to be more expensive. On the other hand, the natural ventilation system saves energy in the long run but it may not meet a comfort level for many users. Three regions which cover most of the climatic variations in the country are selected as a case study. A Ventilation Decision Making Model (VDMM), depends on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a multi-criteria analysis technique, is proposed and developed. For feeding data to the VDMM, field measures for indoor air temperature and relative humidity are conducted as well as applying an energy simulation model to predict indoor energy performance in the selected regions. Based on the results of VDMM application on the investigated case study, a decision to KSA construction market is introduced. The results absolutely support using the mechanical system in both Riyadh and Jeddah regions while utilizing the natural system in Abha region is more preferable. The VDMM is characterized by its flexibility, accepting more alternatives or criteria and its validity to be applied to other regions inside or outside KSA.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.12.002
       
  • An analysis of the cost-effectiveness of arsenic mitigation technologies:
           Implications for public policy

    • Authors: Sushant K. Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Sushant K. Singh
      This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis and mapping requirements for three arsenic mitigation technologies sponsored by the government of India in the state of Bihar, offering recommendations for the technologies most likely to benefit 12 million at-risk people. The three arsenic mitigation technologies investigated in this paper are arsenic treatment (ATU) units, new hand pump (NHP) units, and new tube wells with stand post (NTWSP) units. For 100% coverage of arsenic mitigation in the arsenic-affected districts of Bihar, 314–5111 ATU and NHP and 16–256 NTWSP in Buxar and Jehanabad, respectively, are required. NHP and NTWSP units were found to be the most cost-effective arsenic mitigation interventions in the state, whereas ATU was found to be the dominant intervention. Installation of NHP could be the most efficient arsenic mitigation intervention in areas where the population is scarce and illiterate. NTWSP could be the most cost-effective arsenic mitigation intervention in regions having higher rates of literacy and of arsenic awareness among their communities. The cost-effectiveness of arsenic mitigation technologies should be carefully evaluated before designing and implementing arsenic mitigation policies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.10.004
       
  • Sense of place in the coastal town of Tipaza in Algeria:
           Local-community’s socio-cognitive representations

    • Authors: S. Khettab; N. Chabbi-Chemrouk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): S. Khettab, N. Chabbi-Chemrouk
      This study explores the sense of place in the small coastal Algerian town of Tipaza. The town is famous for its world archaeological sites, but its inhabitants and the local community in general seem to appreciate more its exceptional landscape than the universal archaeological values conferred to it by UNESCO. The particular townscape clearly delimited by the Mediterranean Sea and the Chenoua Mountain seems to have strongly influenced people’s mental images and attachments to their town. Based on the concepts of environmental representation and place attachment, local-community’s sense of place is investigated at three territorial scales: the town centre, the town as a whole and the region. Since the sense of place is defined as a multidimensional attitude including cognitive, conative and affective aspects, the proposed paper examines the socio-cognitive dimension through the structural approach of social representations where shared socio-cognitive meanings are assumed to constitute the central core of environmental representations. On the other hand, the conative component has been investigated through the analysis of expected activities in favourite places. Moreover, place attachment, an affective bond between people and environmental setting, is explored through two sub-concepts: place identity which refers to the cognitive level and place dependence which refers to the conative level. By exploring shared local community’s meanings and their impact on place preferences and appropriation, the research aims at showing the value of townscapes and particularly coastal ones in urban development projects. Natural features such as the sea are powerful landmarks and have strong impact on people’s perceptions of environmental settings.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.12.001
       
  • Green premium as a driver of green-labelled commercial buildings in the
           developing countries: Lessons from the UK and US

    • Authors: Tunbosun B. Oyedokun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Tunbosun B. Oyedokun
      Evidence continues to emerge that green-labelled buildings achieve a higher financial return than conventional buildings, both in terms of rent and sale price (referred to as the green premium in the literature). Consequently, the green premium is considered as a potential driver of investment in labelled buildings. However, it is not clear to what extent investors’ expectation of a green premium can help to stimulate the development of green buildings in the developing countries. This study, therefore, assesses the available evidence, as well as trends of property development in the UK and US, as countries with significant concentrations of green-labelled office buildings. The study raises issues that should be considered in adopting the existing empirical findings and presents recommendations for the development of a viable green property market in developing countries.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.12.007
       
  • China’s water situation; the supply of water and the pattern of its
           usage

    • Authors: Thomas Bilaliib Udimal; Zhuang Jincai; Emmanuel Caesar Ayamba; Samuel Mensah Owusu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Thomas Bilaliib Udimal, Zhuang Jincai, Emmanuel Caesar Ayamba, Samuel Mensah Owusu
      This study specifically looked at total water supply in China, water withdrawal from various sources and various usage of water. From the analysis, it was realized that water supply from the underground source contributes greatly to the total water supply in China, a cubic unit withdrawal in underground water results in about 45% increase in the total water supply. Water from other sources also contributes to the total water supply in China. Water from other sources includes supplies from wastewater treatment, rain collection, seawater desalinization and other water projects. The result shows that a cubic unit increase in withdrawals from other sources results in about 3% change in gross water supply in China. A cubic unit withdrawal of water for industrial use results in about 29% increase in water use in China. For the agriculture sector, the result shows that a cubic unit increase in agriculture usage leads to approximately 67% increase in total water use in China. Water for household consumption, saw a 15% increase in total water usage in China for every cubic unit withdrawal.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.10.001
       
  • Ultimate failure resistance of concrete with partial replacements of sand
           by waste plastic of vehicles under impact load

    • Authors: Mustafa M. Al-Tayeb; Hanafi Ismail; Osama Dawoud; Sulaiman R. Wafi; Ismail Al Daoor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Mustafa M. Al-Tayeb, Hanafi Ismail, Osama Dawoud, Sulaiman R. Wafi, Ismail Al Daoor
      The worldwide demand for new concrete buildings is increasing at a rapid pace to keep up with urban development. On the other hand, plastic waste of vehicle causes serious health and environmental problems all over the world. The reuse of wastes is important from different points of view. It helps to save and sustain resources that are not replenished. As a possible solution to the problem of plastic waste of vehicle, an experimental study was conducted to examine the potential of using it as sand replacement in the concrete buildings. This paper examines ultimate failure resistance of concrete with 5%, 10% and 15% of sand replacements by waste plastic of vehicles under impact. For each amount, six cubes of 100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm were subjected to 4.5 kg hammer from 480 mm height. The number of blows of the hammer required to induce the ultimate failure of the cubes were recorded. The results are presented in terms of impact energy required for the ultimate failure. The concrete mixtures exhibited ability to absorb a large amount of impact energy. The plastic waste of vehicle increased the impact energy for the ultimate failure with sand replacement by plastic waste of vehicle.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.12.008
       
  • The role of building information modeling (BIM) in delivering the
           sustainable building value

    • Authors: Moshood Olawale Fadeyi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Moshood Olawale Fadeyi
      The value of a sustainable building is the quality of building performance delivered to solve problems of consumers – developers, owners, and building users – within the constraints of time and cost of resources used to deliver the quality. The delivery of functional, environmentally responsible and liveable, maintainable and easy to operate, safe and secure building will solve consumers’ problems. The difficulty of delivering the required sustainable building value to consumers is due to several building delivery professionals working in silos – fragmentation. This paper discusses the role of building information modelling (BIM) in reducing the fragmentation among professionals at each and across building delivery stages using evidences from the literature. It is evident from the literature that BIM provides a virtual repository that allows easy access to and sharing of information and knowledge in real time. Thus, BIM provides a platform for professionals to work in an integrated environment at any stage of the building delivery process. However, the maximization of the benefits BIM provides through the virtual repository depends on the contracting method adopted for the building delivery. The identification of knowledge gained and gap from the literature led to suggestion of future research direction needed to improve the delivery of sustainable building value to the consumers.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T15:51:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.08.003
       
  • Evaluation of modified bituminous concrete mix developed using rubber and
           plastic waste materials

    • Authors: Shubham Bansal; Anil Kumar Misra; Purnima Bajpai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Shubham Bansal, Anil Kumar Misra, Purnima Bajpai
      Disposal of huge amount of discarded waste materials like plastic, polythene bags, bottles, rubber tyres etc, which are generated in huge quantity and causes environmental hazards after their disposal. Present study attempts to utilize these waste materials as partial replacement of bitumen to develop a modified binder, for making bituminous concrete mix. To simulate with the field conditions, ‘Marshall Stability Analysis’ was performed on the samples prepared by partially replacing ‘Optimum Bitumen Content’ with waste plastic (4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) and crumb rubber (5%, 10% and 15%). Experimental results demonstrate that partial substitution of bitumen with waste plastic results up to 16% increment in strength whereas with rubber material, about 50% increment in strength was observed as compared to the conventional mix (CM). Laboratory testing results indicate that by using waste materials, bituminous concrete of required strength and density can be obtained and an environment friendly green pavement can be prepared with less material cost.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T11:57:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.07.009
       
  • Public acceptance of biofuels in the transport sector in Finland

    • Authors: Md.Munjur E. Moula; Judit Nyári; Angela Bartel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Md.Munjur E. Moula, Judit Nyári, Angela Bartel
      The Finnish transportation sector is the second biggest greenhouse gas emitting sector in Finland. Despite large-scale investment and government commitments to promote biofuels for transport sectors in Finland, little is known about the public acceptance of this alternative transport fuels. Public’s opinion, awareness and knowledge can contribute to social acceptance of new renewable energy and to the overall improvement of consumers' energy behaviour. This study examines public acceptance in terms of public’s opinion and knowledge about biofuels and their consumer patterns of transportation fuels by designing a multiple-choice questionnaire with four groups of questions: background information, community perspective, social perspective, and market perspective. The analysis of 90 respondents’ survey shows that 50% of the respondents think that there is a direct effect of biofuel production on food prices and would not buy biofuels derived from food crops. Only 60% of them are willing to switch towards purchasing biofuels; however, the lack of information about biofuels prevents them to use biofuels for their transports. Finally, 63 respondents of the car owners, their ideal fuel would be hydrogen (20%), electricity (60%), and other (20%), which meant hybrid. Study findings have important policy implications related to the public acceptance of biofuels in the transport sector.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T18:23:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.07.008
       
  • Displacement determination of concrete reinforcement building using
           data-driven models

    • Authors: Faezehossadat Khademi; Mahmoud Akbari; Mehdi Nikoo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Faezehossadat Khademi, Mahmoud Akbari, Mehdi Nikoo
      Decision making on buildings after the earthquake have always been a great concern of scientists. Safety concerns, possibility of using the building, repairing the building, and the rate of damage are some of the most vital factors that needs to be paid attention in immediate decision makings of the buildings. In order to determine the level of damage in the buildings, the maximum displacement of stories is one of the most important parameter that needs to be investigated. In this paper, a concrete frame with shear wall containing 4-stories and 4-bays has been designed for acceleration records of 0.1g–1.5g and the rate of damage is determined. The total of 450 data with 6 input variables and one output variable is produced. The input parameters are defined as frequency, Vs, Richter, the distance from the earthquake epicentre (DEE), PGA, and acceleration, and the output parameter is defined as drift. With respect to this data set, three different data-driven models, i.e. Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), and Multiple Linear Regression Model (MLR) are used to predict the displacements. Results indicate that Both the ANN and ANFIS model show great accuracies in estimating the displacements in concrete frame with shear wall. On the other hand, MLR model did not show acceptable accuracy in the same estimation purposes. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was performed on the data set and it was observed that the accuracy of the predictions highly depends on the number of input parameters. In other words, increasing the number of input parameters would result in the increase in the accuracy of the final prediction results.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T17:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.07.002
       
  • Indoor air quality of non-residential urban buildings in Delhi, India

    • Authors: Arindam Datta; R. Suresh; Akansha Gupta; Damini Singh; Priyanka Kulshrestha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Arindam Datta, R. Suresh, Akansha Gupta, Damini Singh, Priyanka Kulshrestha
      Nearly 30% of total population and over 2million students of Delhi spent above 1/3rd of their daily time in different office buildings and educational institutions of Delhi, of which the ambient air quality is reportedly worst in the globe. However, studies on indoor air quality of non-residential buildings are scarce in India. Present study was conducted in two office buildings and one educational building in Delhi during pre-monsoon. CO2, PM2.5 and VOCs were measured inside each building at every 5min interval between 9:30AM and 5:30PM for 5days every week. The average CO2 concentration in both office buildings (1513ppm and 1338ppm) was recorded much higher than the ASHRAE standard. Ductless air-conditioning system couple with poor air-circulation and active air-filtration could be attributed to significantly higher concentration of PM2.5 in one of the office buildings (43.8μgm−3). However, there was significant variation in the concentration of different pollutants at different locations in a building. Among different non-residential buildings, significantly lower concentration of all pollutants was recorded in the educational building (CO2: 672ppm; PM2.5: 22.8μgm−3 and VOC: 0.08ppm). Total hazard ratio analysis ranks one of the office buildings as most hazardous to workers health compared to others.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T17:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.07.005
       
  • Structure and properties of mortar and concrete with rice husk ash as
           partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement – A review

    • Authors: Fapohunda Christopher; Akinbile Bolatito; Shittu Ahmed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Fapohunda Christopher, Akinbile Bolatito, Shittu Ahmed
      In order to arrest the incidence of global warming brought about by the emission of greenhouse gases notably CO2 into the atmosphere, the use of materials that can substitute the material responsible for greenhouse gases is being promoted world-wide. One of these is rice husk ash (RHA) which has been found suitable by researchers to partially replace Portland cement in the production of concrete. This paper presents a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the work of numerous researchers on structure and properties of concrete containing rice husk ash (RHA) as partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement. Some of the findings are: (i) controlled incineration is required to produce RHA with structure that can result in structural concrete, (ii) the use of RHA resulted in increased water demand, (iii) up to 10% cement replacement with RHA will result in strength development comparable to the control specimens, and (iv) the use of RHA in concrete result in impervious RHA-concrete microstructure to agent of degradation like, sulphate attacks, chloride ingress, etc., as well as good shrinkage properties, and thus produce durable concrete when used. However, some areas such as the bending and shear responses (and allied properties) of reinforced concrete slabs and beams with RHA are presently not yet covered by researchers; they are therefore recommended for future investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T17:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.07.004
       
  • Investigating the effect of urban configurations on the variation of air
           temperature

    • Authors: Elmira Jamei; Dilshan Remaz Ossen; Priyadarsini Rajagopalan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Elmira Jamei, Dilshan Remaz Ossen, Priyadarsini Rajagopalan


      PubDate: 2017-07-19T17:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.07.001
       
  • Nuclear energy: Sense or nonsense for environmental challenges

    • Authors: Rokhshad Hejazi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Rokhshad Hejazi
      Environment is subject to many pressures. Climate change and the global warming constitute an additional pressure. The “climate change” and its consequences are more important than other challenges in 21 century. The global temperature has risen by more than 2.5°C in recent years. Similarly, a global temperature rise of more than 2.5°C increases the absolute number of people at risk of hunger by 80 million. Recent estimates indicate that 25% of the world’s mammals and 12% of birds are at significant risk of global extinction. The main reason for global warming is CO2 increase that is obtained from burn reaction. According to California university, CO2 emissions result from emissions of: transportation 49%, electricity 30%, industrial 11%, residential 7% and commercial 3%. In the mean time, CO2 concentration is 360ppm even, if severity plan will be applied as per Kyoto protocol it will arrive at 450–650ppm in 2100. Thus, there is a global resolution for declining CO2 emission and one of the practical approaches is CO2 decreasing in electricity sector. Each of energies has strengths and weaknesses and we focus more on nuclear energy because its CO2 emission is zero. It should be added, in most of countries there is a tax for gas e.g. in the U.K. 3.4$/gallon and in Italy 2.53 $/gallon, so fossil fuel is an income for their governments but for nuclear energy government pays subsidies. Therefore it is not possible to debate about it before removing tax and subsidy. In recent years, it has been stated about tax on carbon production that it is a step forward to low carbon economy and finding the real cost of fossil fuel with attention to external costs in the environment.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T17:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.07.006
       
  • An attempt to identify and estimate the subsurface groundwater discharge
           in the south east coast of India

    • Authors: S. Chidambaram; M. Nepolian; A.L. Ramanathan; J. Sarathidasan; R. Thilagavathi; C. Thivya; M.V. Prasanna; K. Srinivasamoorthy; Noble Jacob; Hemant Mohokar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): S. Chidambaram, M. Nepolian, A.L. Ramanathan, J. Sarathidasan, R. Thilagavathi, C. Thivya, M.V. Prasanna, K. Srinivasamoorthy, Noble Jacob, Hemant Mohokar
      An attempt has been made to study the subsurface groundwater discharge (SGD) in the coastal Cuddalore region of south east India. Measurement for Radon, water level, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and pH in surface water for a total of twenty hours by hourly interval has been attempted and further correlated with tidal values calculated by WX Tide 32 software. The SGD measurements were made by using a modified seepage meter. The study reveals a match with water level variation and tide with minor variation due to influx of surface water. Saline discharges, fresh groundwater discharges and surface water mixing processes were identified along the coast. Lower SGD (37.24–79.16cm/day) was observed during fresh groundwater discharge.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T17:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.07.007
       
  • Role of binary cement in production of environmentally sustainable
           concrete: A critical review

    • Authors: S. Samad; A. Shah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): S. Samad, A. Shah
      Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Cement is the major manufactured material used in the production of concrete. It is an established fact that the manufacturing of one tonne of cement produces about one tonne of CO2, which is a major Green House Gas (GHG), contributing to Global Warming, Climate Change and Ozone layer depletion. In this paper, the environmental impact of cement manufacturing has been assessed on the basis of literature review. The use of Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) such as Pulverized Fly Ash (PFA) and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag GGBS), Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Silica Fumes (SF) have been used for reducing the weight of cement in the concrete mixes to achieve, the desired compressive strength of concrete for use in construction projects. Various trial mixes have been used tried with partial substitution of cement with PFA and GGBFS and SF to achieve the desired high strength concrete for structural uses. The addition of the SCM has reduced the cement proportion in concrete, thereby making it relatively sustainable. The results have been assessed on the basis of reduction in the embodied energy of the concrete. The paper presents a holistic review of concrete by using binary cement, incorporating Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS), Pulverized Fly Ash (PFA) and Silica Fumes (SF).

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T17:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.07.003
       
  • Biophysical Metrics for Detecting More Sustainable Urban Forms at the
           Global Scale

    • Authors: Ferdouz V. Cochran; Nathaniel A. Brunsell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Ferdouz V. Cochran, Nathaniel A. Brunsell
      To test metrics for rapid identification and global evaluation of more sustainable urban forms, we examine the configuration of the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR) in Brazil using satellite remote sensing data and landscape metrics. We adopt principles from landscape ecology and urban planning to evaluate urban heterogeneity and morphology that may constitute more sustainable urban forms, including connectivity, density, geometric complexity (mixed land use), diversity, and greening. Using 2-D wavelet multiresolution analysis and satellite-derived fractional vegetation cover (Fr), the variability of landscape metrics from Landsat (30 m) to MODIS (1 km) scales are investigated. According to our findings, metrics of Patch Density and Landscape Shape Index can be used at the 1-km scale to asses density and geometric complexity of urban form. With the addition of MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data, available at high temporal resolution, a move away from or toward more sustainable urban forms is defined in relation to mitigation of the urban heat island. As the geometric complexity and density of finer-scale urban characteristics are related to climatic impacts at the neighborhood scale, sustainability assessments may be more attainable across urban areas.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T15:08:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.05.004
       
  • Improving mechanical properties of lightweight Porcelanite aggregate
           concrete using different waste material

    • Authors: Sheelan M. Hama
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Sheelan M. Hama
      Improving the mechanical properties of lightweight concrete using waste material is the goal of this work to get both structural and environmental advantage besides cost saving. Porcelanite aggregate was used as lightweight aggregate. First plastic bottles were cut into slices and used as fibers with these percentages: 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25% and 1.5% by volume. The results of tests under compression and tensile stress showed that mix 1% plastic fiber (PF) gave the best results when compared to reference mix without PF. Eggshell (rich with CaO) and glass wastes (rich of silca) were crashed and powdered to desired size and used as partial replacement of cement with these percentage: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Compressive strength, flexural strength, density, absorption and modulus of elasticity were tested. Comparison was made with reference mix (without waste powder) to figure the efficiency of using these waste in lightweight Porcelanite concrete. The results of tests showed that mixes with 1% PF and 5% eggshell powder (ESP) gave results so close to reference mix. Using more than 5% ESP made no improvement in lightweight concrete, while the mix with 1% PF with any glass powder (GP) percentages used in this research gave good improvement in the tested properties especially at 20% GP.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T07:09:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.03.002
       
  • Framework for Prioritizing Infrastructure User Expectations Using Quality
           Function Deployment (QFD)

    • Authors: Aman A. Bolar; Solomon Tesfamariam; Rehan Sadiq
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Aman A. Bolar, Solomon Tesfamariam, Rehan Sadiq
      Customer involvement in infrastructure maintenance activities is a complex process due to various decision-making parameters surrounding maintenance. Compared to manufacturing and other disciplines where QFD is widely used, expectations of the infrastructure user as a customer are truly dynamic given the changing economic conditions, technologies, environmental regulations, etc. While such dynamic or changing customer expectations can be addressed by repeated surveys and constant communication, having indicators to predict customer response would be a valuable tool and aid the QFD decision-making process. In this study, a framework that utilizes hidden Markov model (HMM) is proposed for evaluating customer expectation by using probabilities of focus areas that are of interest to the infrastructure user as hidden parameters. The focus areas are based on sustainability parameters and include economic, social, technological, maintenance efficiency, safety and environmental conditions. Probabilities that represent the probability of transition from current state (of the focus area) to next possible state were generated based on expert opinion of the authors. Using the 2005 customer survey by California Transportation, a case study is presented in order to demonstrate the application which concludes that the proposed methodology can be successfully implemented for infrastructure maintenance. CE Database Subject Headings: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Markov, hidden, risk management, sustainability

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:51:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.02.002
       
  • Analysis of parameters for leachate treatment in a greenhouse system

    • Authors: Ana Laura Gómez Blasco; Constantino Gutiérrez; Andrés Armando Sánchez Hernández; Margarita Teutli León
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Ana Laura Gómez Blasco, Constantino Gutiérrez, Andrés Armando Sánchez Hernández, Margarita Teutli León
      In this paper is presented an approach for landfill leachate treatment using enhanced natural evaporation. Experimental set up considered using a greenhouse pilot prototype placed into the municipal landfill of Puebla city, México. The greenhouse was built with a basement surface enough to place 9 trays with leachate. Treatment follow up was done through the following parameters: air temperature inside and outside the greenhouse; leachate temperature at surface and middle liquid height. Results of the first set of experiments defined a minimal initial liquid height of 20% in respect to the tray height; the 2nd set allowed defining optimal evaporation rate conditions evaluated in respect of a tray placed outside, considered as reference of 100% efficiency (blank), obtained results showed that morning and night processes provided efficiencies up to 2 times the reference; otherwise, afternoon measurements showed similar temperature values inside and outside. In general collected data at winter season provided efficiencies between 82% and 147%, in periods of 24h, it was observed that higher liquid reductions took place at North, and lower ones at the South positions. Based on these results it was proposed a 20days experiment, using stagnant (E) and recharge (R) conditions referred to the blank (L), the R process showed greater efficiency (168%) than the stagnant one (158%). Leachate chemical characterization indicates that pH is highly stable; while total solids, chemical oxygen demand, sulfate and chloride exhibit an increase in concentration reaching values of 1.2–2.5times the initial concentration, phosphate was the only parameter exhibiting a decreasing trend ending with 40% of its initial concentration.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:51:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.02.008
       
  • Sustainable healthcare facilities: reconciling bed capacity and local
           needs

    • Authors: Efthimia Pantzartzis; Francis T. Edum-Fotwe; Andrew D.F. Price
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment
      Author(s): Efthimia Pantzartzis, Francis T. Edum-Fotwe, Andrew D.F. Price
      Healthcare facilities throughout Europe are constantly changing to support efforts to provide efficient healthcare services with decreasing resources. Recent changes include larger and more specialist hospitals to achieve economies of scale. This approach has yet to be proven to sustainably respond to the demands, and efficiently satisfy the users’ needs. The evidence that supports larger healthcare facilities as more cost effective is limited and contradictory as wider sustainability issues need to be given greater consideration. This information paper presents the findings of a comprehensive literature review that addresses aspects that can lead to sustainable small healthcare facilities. It also establishes sustainable-related factors, including economics and energy efficiency, which could be employed to evaluate the viability of healthcare facilities. A typical small-scale facility provides a case study that contextualises these factors, captures their interdependencies, and explores the viability and sustainability of small hospitals. The findings from the work suggest that small facilities can be viable and more comprehensive research that provides a balanced view of economies of scale is required to support future healthcare design policies, where large and more specialised hospitals may no longer be environmentally, technologically, socially and economically sustainable.

      PubDate: 2017-02-09T23:48:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.01.003
       
 
 
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