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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2268 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 183 of 183 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)


Journal Cover HBRC Journal
  [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-4048
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Investigating effects of boundary conditions on the evaluation of R-factor
           of un-braced steel frames

    • Authors: Masood M.M. Irheem; Walid A. Attia
      Pages: 123 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Masood M.M. Irheem, Walid A. Attia
      Design of Structures to resist seismic load depends on the theory of dissipation in elastic of energy that already exists in response modification factor “R-factor”. The main problem in codes gives a constant value for R-factor, since change in boundary conditions of building change in behavior of steel frame structures and that effect on R-factor. This study is an attempt to assess overstrength, ductility and response modification factor of un-braced steel frames under change in boundary conditions as change in the direction of strong axis of column and support type beside to variation in story and bay number to be 9 frame and each frame has 8 different boundary conditions as sum of 72 case for analysis. These frames were analyzed by using nonlinear static “pushover” analysis using SAP2000 program. As a result of this study R-factor does not has a constant value, when change in boundary conditions R-factor directly changes, minimum value of 8 boundary conditions is close to the code value that is mean the code is more conservative and give a large factor of safety. Ductility reduction factor increases with increasing number of story for all boundary conditions, but overstrength has different rule. Response modification factor, overstrength factor and ductility reduction factor decrease when fundamentals period increasing for the studied frames.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.06.006
  • Vibration control of buildings by using partial floor loads as multiple
           tuned mass dampers

    • Authors: Tharwat A. Sakr
      Pages: 133 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Tharwat A. Sakr
      Tuned mass dampers (TMDs) are considered as the most common control devices used for protecting high-rise buildings from vibrations. Because of their simplicity and efficiency, they have found wide practical applications in high-rise buildings around the world. This paper proposes an innovative technique for using partial floor loads as multiple TMDs at limited number of floors. This technique eliminates complications resulting from the addition of huge masses required for response control and maintains the mass of the original structure without any added loads. The effects of using partial loads of limited floors starting from the top as TMDs on the vibration response of buildings to wind and earthquakes are investigated. The effects of applying the proposed technique to buildings with different heights and characteristics are also investigated. A parametric study is carried out to illustrate how the behavior of a building is affected by the number of stories and the portion of the floor utilized as TMDs. Results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control technique in enhancing the drift, acceleration, and force response of buildings to wind and earthquakes. The response of buildings to wind and earthquakes was observed to be more enhanced by increasing the story-mass ratios and the number of floor utilized as TMDs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.04.004
  • Effect of discrete glass fibers on the behavior of R.C. Beams exposed to

    • Authors: Magdy Riad; M.M. Genidi; Ata El-kareim Shoeib; Sherif F.M. Abd Elnaby
      Pages: 145 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Magdy Riad, M.M. Genidi, Ata El-kareim Shoeib, Sherif F.M. Abd Elnaby
      The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding discrete glass fibers on the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams under different fire and cooling conditions. Eighteen beams with different concrete compressive strengths were tested to study the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams containing discrete glass fibers when exposed to different fire and cooling conditions. Nine beams were prepared from normal strength concrete (NSC) with compressive strength equal to 35MPa while the other beams were prepared from high strength concrete (HSC) with compressive strength equal to 60MPa. The beams contained different contents of discrete glass fibers. The modes of failure of tested specimens show that the crack patterns change according to fire condition and fiber content. Analysis of test results show that adding discrete glass fibers to NSC increased the residual stiffness of the tested specimens after firing and decreased the rate of the deflection gain during firing. Also adding fibers to concrete has a limited positive effect on the ultimate strength of the specimens compared to the control specimens. Its effect on deflection due to fire is more pronounced. Finally, the recommended optimum ratio of discrete glass fibers is not more than 0.5% of the total concrete weight.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2014.11.005
  • Structural analysis of a composite continuous girder with a single
           rectangular web opening

    • Authors: Mohamed A. ElShaer
      Pages: 152 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mohamed A. ElShaer
      In the design of most bridge girders with composite girders composed of steel–concrete composite plate girders, an opening in the steel girder is often used to provide passage for utility ducts and pipes. This results in significant savings in material and construction costs. So it is necessary to study the effect of an opening in the web steel on the behavior of the composite girders if the designer wishes to provide adequate opening in the structural elements without reducing its load carrying capacity. In this paper, a non-linear finite element analysis has been done to analyze the deflection in the steel section and internal stresses in the concrete slab for continuous composite girders with a single rectangular opening in the steel web. ANSYS computer program (version 15) has been used to analyze the three-dimensional model. The reliability of the model was demonstrated by comparison with experimental results of continuous composite beams without an opening in the steel web carried out by another author. The parametric analysis was executed to investigate the width, height, and position of the opening in one span on the behavior of a composite girder under vertical load. The results indicated that when the width of opening is less than 0.05 of length of a single span and the height is less than 0.15 of the steel web, the deflection and internal stresses increased less than 10% comparing to continuous composite girders without an opening.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.06.004
  • Effect of geometric imperfections on the ultimate moment capacity of
           cold-formed sigma-shape sections

    • Authors: Bassem L. Gendy; M.T. Hanna
      Pages: 163 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Bassem L. Gendy, M.T. Hanna
      In recent years, cold formed steel sections are used more and more as primary framing components and as a secondary structural system. They are used as purlins and side rails or floor joist, and after that in the building envelops. Beams are not perfectly straight and are usually associated with geometric imperfections. Initial geometric imperfections can significantly influence the stability response of cold-formed steel members. This paper reports a numerical investigation concerning the effect of these imperfections on the behavior of the simply supported beams subjected to a uniform bending moment. The beam profile is cold formed sigma sections. Group of beams with different overall member slenderness ratios were studied. Several approaches have been utilized to model the geometric imperfections. First, the elastic buckling modes were considered as the imperfect beam shape. In this approach, the elastic buckling analysis was done first to get the elastic buckling modes. In the second approach, the imperfections were considered by assuming the beam bent in a half sine wave along its length. Finally, combination of these two approaches was considered. Results reveal that, the ultimate bending moments of beams with short and intermediate overall slenderness ratios are sensitive to the imperfect shape that comprise compression flange local buckling.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.04.006
  • Seismic performance of existing R.C. framed buildings

    • Authors: Sameh A. El-Betar
      Pages: 171 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sameh A. El-Betar
      The earthquakes disasters basically occur due to buildings damage not because of the earth shaking. Therefore, the countries have being updated the seismic codes. The seismic loads for buildings design in Egyptian Code have been changed from (EC-1994) to (ECP-201, 2012). On the other hand, the need is raised to study the vulnerability of existing buildings, which can be divided into the buildings designed to resist the gravity loads only (GLD) and the buildings designed according to Egyptian code (EC-1994). Comparison between forces due to Egyptian code for loads (EC-1994) and (ECP-201, 2012) is carried out on the multi-stories R.C. framed buildings which are the most common type of existing buildings in Egypt. To investigate the vulnerability of existing buildings, nonlinear static pushover analysis is conducted to evaluate the real strength of the existing buildings. Moreover, it is considered a useful and effective tool for the performance of three framed buildings: 3, 6 and 10 stories due to expected future earthquakes. Finally, it is found that the vulnerability of existing GLD buildings occurs at expected ground accelerations (ag ) greater than 0.125g in Egyptian seismic map, while the EC-94 designed buildings behave elastically up to (ag ) equals to 0.2g and above that a slight damage may occur.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.06.001
  • Application of ultimate limit state design for axially loaded single piles
           in Egyptian geotechnical practice

    • Authors: Yasser M. El-Mossallamy; Mohamed M. Tawfik; M.A. Zayed
      Pages: 181 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yasser M. El-Mossallamy, Mohamed M. Tawfik, M.A. Zayed
      For a long time, the framework of geotechnical design in Egypt has been based mainly on Working Stress Design (WSD) philosophy with the global safety concept as presented in the current version of the Egyptian Code of Practice for Soil Mechanics and Foundations Design and Construction [1]. This design philosophy is supported by long-term experience, considering local experiences and is adopted to fulfill the required safety margin. Limit State Design (LSD) philosophy, on the other side, has already been applied for the design of reinforced concrete structures as introduced in the Egyptian Code of Practice for the Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete Structures [2]. Applying LSD for superstructure and WSD for foundations often results in design misleading because of the incompatibility between the two design philosophies. Accordingly, implementation of LSD philosophy for geotechnical designs in Egypt has become mandatory and the transition to this new design philosophy of LSD should be as smooth and gradual as possible to allow for a better acceptance by the Egyptian geotechnical community. LSD philosophy using partial safety factors has been applied worldwide using two different approaches; factored strength approach and factored resistance approach. During this study, resistance reduction factors are calibrated on the basis of calibration-by-fitting technique, to be used with factored resistance approach for axially loaded single piles. The calibrated resistance reduction factors from this study are found to be relatively consistent with those values adopted in other geotechnical design codes worldwide.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.02.004
  • A systems engineering approach for realizing sustainability in
           infrastructure projects

    • Authors: Mohamed Matar; Hesham Osman; Maged Georgy; Azza Abou-Zeid; Moheeb El-Said
      Pages: 190 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mohamed Matar, Hesham Osman, Maged Georgy, Azza Abou-Zeid, Moheeb El-Said
      Sustainability is very quickly becoming a fundamental requirement of the construction industry as it delivers its projects; whether buildings or infrastructures. Throughout more than two decades, a plethora of modeling schemes, evaluation tools and rating systems have been introduced en route to realizing sustainable construction. Many of these, however, lack consensus on evaluation criteria, a robust scientific model that captures the logic behind their sustainability performance evaluation, and therefore experience discrepancies between rated results and actual performance. Moreover, very few of the evaluation tools available satisfactorily address infrastructure projects. This paper introduces a systems model that abstracts the environment, the construction product, and its production system as three interacting systems that basically exchange materials, energy and information. The model utilizes this setup to capture and quantify essential flows exchanged between such three systems, with the objective of evaluating sustainability. The paper walks through the development of a generic case of the model, and then demonstrates its utility in evaluating the sustainability performance of civil infrastructure projects using a typical water pipeline installation project that uses horizontal directional drilling (HDD) technology as a trenchless installation method. The developed model addresses an identified gap within the current body of knowledge by considering infrastructure projects. Through the ability to simulate different scenarios, the model enables identifying which activities, products, and processes impact the environment more, and hence potential areas for optimization and improvement.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.04.005
  • Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction

    • Authors: Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim; Omar Aly Mosa El Nawawy; Ahmed Mohamed Abdel-Alim
      Pages: 202 - 216
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim, Omar Aly Mosa El Nawawy, Ahmed Mohamed Abdel-Alim
      Cost saving and time performance are usually essential to all parties who are involved in a construction project, that is owner, contractor, subcontractor. The main causes of disputes in construction projects involve delay and failure to complete the work in the specified cost and time frame. The delivery time of a project is a key factor to the owner in terms of cost as much as it is for the contractor. Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.05.001
  • Investigating the significance of landscape in designing library by
           emphasizing on the enhancement of learning

    • Authors: Parinaz Motealleh; Mojtaba Parsaee; Mehdi Sheybani
      Pages: 217 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Parinaz Motealleh, Mojtaba Parsaee, Mehdi Sheybani
      Numerous studies have been carried out related to landscape, landscape architecture and urban landscape and it indicates the significance of this issue among designers and scholars. These studies have been dealt with different aspects of landscape and investigated the reciprocal effects between landscape and human. In fact, landscape is recognized as a part of environment; thus as environment and human have a dynamic and reciprocal relationship, landscape has such an affordances. Indeed, landscape can create peace and cheerfulness for users due to its affordances. According to this view, the following research investigates the significance of landscape in designing library and clarifies the different aspects of its influence on the library space. Therefore, the outcomings of this research present a conceptual model from the integration of landscape and library space with the purpose of enhancing learning process. The research method is qualitative and it is based on descriptive–interpretative approach. This study investigates initially the concept of landscape and landscape architecture; then, it deals with the analysis of the relation between landscape and environment. After studying the affordances of environment and landscape from different perspectives, the environment of the library and the circumstances in which users study are analyzed. Finally, the findings of the research are presented based on the investigation and analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2014.12.007
  • Cost vs. safety: A novel design for tornado proof homes

    • Authors: Komali Kantamaneni; Ibrahim Alrashed; Micheal Phillips
      Pages: 223 - 232
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Komali Kantamaneni, Ibrahim Alrashed, Micheal Phillips
      Tornadoes are dangerous and destructive weather phenomena. The strongest category of tornadoes on the enhanced Fujita and TORRO scales is responsible for 75% of property destruction and deaths across the globe. These issues highlight the need for new design practices aimed at producing tornado proof homes in particular 3D CAD models in tornado prone zones at current climatic scenarios. Previous studies were entirely based on traditional slants and failed to offer a reliable tornado proof home, other than small rooms and trailers, while, none of the literature concentrated on multiple factors (cost, safety and high-wind proof). Therefore, a knowledge gap exists. In order to address the current research gap, this study attempts to develop an innovative 3D CAD model for tornado resistant homes by incorporating 2 PA (Two Path Analysis). Consequently, this study provides a new design using a 3D-CAD model for a tornado resistant home as in Path One and cost and safety scenarios in Path Two. However, this new design utilizes missile steel and shield technology. Preliminary results showed that, while this new design is safer and more technically sophisticated, it involves an increase of 25–30% in construction costs. However, this increased expense is low in comparison with rebuilding costs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.05.004
  • Evaluate the continuity of meeting items requirements when assessing
           buildings environmentally

    • Authors: Amal Kamal Mohamed Shamseldin
      Pages: 233 - 243
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2
      Author(s): Amal Kamal Mohamed Shamseldin
      Green architecture emerged as a way to address environmental problems related to buildings. Various methods have been developed to assess environmental performance, such as LEED in the United States, BREEAM in the United Kingdom, and GPRS in Egypt. The accuracy of these methods is highly important, especially considering the global trend toward requiring proof of environmental efficiency for construction permits. However, obtaining accurate results requires taking into account the variables that affect the environmental assessment. These variables include the impact of natural and human changes that occur periodically (the repetition of certain events according to day, month, and year), sequentially (changes over time), and suddenly (disasters and other unexpected events). These relationships are not addressed in current assessment methods. Since assessment has several targets, including developing a system to compare buildings according to a specific, unified scale, designers must compete to meet environmental standards based on a fair comparison; thus, the treatment of several variable effects must be obtained to reach those goals. This study, therefore, proposes an approach for considering the effects of variables when assessing item requirements. By measuring the continuity of meeting the item requirements across different time periods, this approach can achieve higher accuracy and justice in evaluation results than afforded by current methods.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.05.003
  • Effect of elevated temperature on the properties of silica fume and
           recycled rubber-filled high strength concretes (RHSC)

    • Authors: Magda I. Mousa
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Magda I. Mousa
      This paper presents the influence of temperature on the compressive strength of HSC with silica fume and containing different ratios and sizes of recycled tire rubber. The aims of including elastomeric material in a cementitious matrix are reducing the stiffness of HSC in order to make it compatible with other materials of the building, recycling of solid wastes and improving fire resistance. The inclusion of low mass fraction recycled rubber reduces the high risk of explosive spalling of HSC under high temperature because water vapour can exit through channels where the polymeric material gets burned. Two groups of concrete were employed to carry out this study. The first group consists of four mixes produced with a cement content of 500kg, 0.3 water–binder ratio, gravel as coarse aggregate and 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% silica fume (SF) replaced of cement weight. The concrete formulation of the second group (four mixes) was produced with the replacement of cement by 20% SF along with 0%, 3%, 5% recycled fine rubber (2mm) and 3% coarse rubber (5mm). Dolomite as a coarse aggregate was used in the second group in order to improve the performance of concrete mixtures containing rubber under high temperature. The results obtained show high resistance to fire with increasing SF content up to 20% replacement of cement. Additional improvement was obtained with using dolomite and 3% of recycled rubber (2mm, 5mm).

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.03.002
  • Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames

    • Authors: Essam H. El-Tayeb; Salah E. El-Metwally; Hamed S. Askar; Ahmed M. Yousef
      Pages: 8 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Essam H. El-Tayeb, Salah E. El-Metwally, Hamed S. Askar, Ahmed M. Yousef
      It is known that changes in temperature may produce stresses in concrete structures of mainly the same order of magnitude as the dead and live loads in some cases. However, the stresses due to temperature are produced only when the thermal expansion or contraction is restrained. In this paper, the behavior of reinforced concrete beams and frames is studied under thermal loads, with the presence of dead and live loads, in order to examine the effect of temperature variation. The beams and frames are modeled properly by accounting for material nonlinearity, particularly cracking. Different temperature gradients, uniform, linear and nonlinear, are considered. The finite element method is employed for conducting the analysis utilizing the computer code ABAQUS. The obtained results of the studied cases reveal that material modeling of reinforced concrete beams and frames plays a major role in how these structures react to temperature variation. Cracking contributes to the release of significant portion of temperature restrain and in some cases this restrain is almost eliminated. The response of beams and frames deviates significantly based on the temperature gradient, linear or nonlinear; hence, the nonlinear temperature gradient which is the realistic profile is important to implement in the analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.02.001
  • Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete deep beam
           reinforced with GFRP bars

    • Authors: Ibrahim M. Metwally
      Pages: 25 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ibrahim M. Metwally
      The efficient use of FRP reinforcement in deep members has been hindered due to a lack of knowledge on the behavior of such members. Till now, most of researches have mainly focused on the flexural or shear behavior of shallow members longitudinally reinforced with FRP and most of them used testing at small scales. This paper presents numerical investigation of twelve large-scale concrete deep beams internally reinforced with GFRP bars without web reinforcement failed in shear which were experimentally tested and collected from literature. The collected specimens cover several parameters which usually influenced strength and behavior of deep beams as shear span/depth ratio, the reinforcement ratio, the effective depth, and the concrete strength. Concrete deep beams are generally analyzed using conventional methods such as empirical equations or strut and tie models. These methods however do not take into account the redistribution of forces resulting from non-linear materials’ behaviors. To address this issue, non-linear finite element analysis that incorporates non-linear material behavior as ABAQUS package is used. It was found efficient in handling such analysis; the proposed simulation of the material in the present study is capable of predicting the real behavior of reinforced concrete deep beam reinforced with GFRP bars in terms of load–deflection behavior, failure load, failure mode, crack propagation, GFRP reinforcement strain, and concrete strain distribution, similar to the tested large scale deep beams.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.02.006
  • Calibrations for volume change measurements using osmotic suction control

    • Authors: Mohamed F. Abbas; Tamer Y. Elkady; Mosleh A. Al-Shamrani
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohamed F. Abbas, Tamer Y. Elkady, Mosleh A. Al-Shamrani
      Evaluation of the volume change behavior of expansive soils under controlled suction and boundary conditions is important for the proper design of different geotechnical systems. Osmotic technique was used by several researchers for suction controlled testing of expansive soil specimens. This technique involves circulating polyethylene glycol solution (PEG) over a semi-permeable membrane underlying a test specimen. Different suction controlled testing apparatuses incorporating osmotic techniques were developed included triaxial and oedometric testing conditions to simulate different boundary conditions. This paper describes a series of calibration performed on suction controlled modified oedometer and triaxial equipment used for testing expansive soil. The modified oedometer, developed by the authors, comprises of thin-wall oedometer ring instrumented with strain gauges to measure the lateral stresses evolving during the test. The first part of this paper introduces the errors that arise during osmotic suction testing, concerning the device flexibility and PEG solution losses. The second part of the paper highlights the calibration procedure for estimating lateral stresses in modified oedometer from instrumented strain gauges as well as introduces a correction for the temperature fluctuation. Finally, the effect of triaxial cell flexibility on the volume change measured during osmotic suction controlled testing as well as temperature effect on volume change measurements were evaluated and correction procedures were introduced.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.03.003
  • On the evaluation of pre-consolidation pressure of undisturbed saturated

    • Authors: Adel H. Hammam; Ashraf I. Abel-Salam; Mostafa A. Yousf
      Pages: 47 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Adel H. Hammam, Ashraf I. Abel-Salam, Mostafa A. Yousf
      The objective of this research was to show the effect of sample disturbance on the values of pre-consolidation pressure бc by using Schmertmann method. A prediction of бc form pocket penetrometer is also achieved. This was carried out by comparing the values of бc that were estimated from the results of consolidation tests, with the readings of pocket penetrometer for same samples. Pocket penetrometer is a simple tool that can be easily used in field and laboratory to initially predict unconfined compressive strength for clayey soils. Before carrying out the consolidation tests on undisturbed samples, pocket penetrometer readings were recorded. The correlation obtained between pocket reading and бc values that resulted from consolidation tests was found to be valid for a wide range of clay stiffness, ranging between medium stiff to very stiff clay. As for soft clay, this correlation was found not to be applicable where its behavior is believed to be greatly affected by the degree of disturbance occurring to samples during drilling.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.02.003
  • Budget allocation for water mains rehabilitation projects using
           Simos’ procedure

    • Authors: Mohamed Marzouk; Said Abdel Hamid
      Pages: 54 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohamed Marzouk, Said Abdel Hamid
      Water mains rehabilitation projects’ budget allocation is considered the most important challenge that faces the engineers and the decision maker in governments and municipalities, especially when it is limited. This paper presents a methodology for water mains rehabilitation projects’ budget allocation. The proposed methodology consists of two models: (1) the grade classification model; and (2) the project ranking model. The grade classification model uses significant sustainability development criteria such as: economic; social; and environmental criteria. The main function of the grade classification model is to classify the projects into five grade level (lowest, low, medium, high, and very high), whereas, the main function of the project ranking model is to rank the projects at the same level in descending order according to their weighted scoring value. A factor’s numerical grade scales have been established to adjust the factor’s scoring in the project ranking model. Simos’ procedure is integrated with the scoring factors model to develop the grade classification model. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.04.003
  • An investigation into the former consulate of Britain as one of the first
           samples of modern architecture in Iran

    • Authors: Mojtaba Parsaee; Parinaz Motealleh; Mohamad Parva
      Pages: 61 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mojtaba Parsaee, Parinaz Motealleh, Mohamad Parva
      The Bushehr city (Iran) had been the center of attention in different historical periods by foreign countries and central government due to political and economic strategic position in Persian Gulf. The situation and condition of Bushehr, especially in Qajar era, caused that the city encountered the changes and reformations as a result of both inner and outer factors. So, the modernism process occurred in this city not long after it had emerged in Europe. So that, some buildings were built in the city which contained the features of modernism. This research, at first, introduces the former consulate of Britain (Sabzabad edifice) and discovers when the building was built based on a historical-interpretative method. After that, the principals of modern architecture are explained from the different theorists’ stand point and also the characteristics of early modern architecture in Iran are explained. Finally, by describing the Bushehr condition in the early arrival of modernism, a qualitative and adaptive comparison has been done between Sabzabad architectural mechanism and the principals of modern architecture and its features in Iran. Thus, Sabzabad edifice is regarded as one of the first samples of modern architecture in Iran. The results of this research demonstrate the political, economic and also the architectural status of Bushehr city in the process of modernism in Iran which has been neglected by researchers and historians thus far.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.01.002
  • Compatibility of global environmental assessment methods of buildings with
           an Egyptian energy code

    • Authors: Amal Kamal Mohamed Shamseldin
      Pages: 72 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Amal Kamal Mohamed Shamseldin
      Several environmental assessment methods of buildings had emerged over the world to set environmental classifications for buildings, such as the American method “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” (LEED) the most widespread one. Several countries decided to put their own assessment methods to catch up with the previous orientation, such as Egypt. The main goal of putting the Egyptian method was to impose the voluntary local energy efficiency codes. Through a local survey, it was clearly noted that many of the construction makers in Egypt do not even know the local method, and whom are interested in the environmental assessment of buildings seek to apply LEED rather than anything else. Therefore, several questions appear about the American method compatibility with the Egyptian energy codes – that contain the most exact characteristics and requirements and give the outmost credible energy efficiency results for buildings in Egypt-, and the possibility of finding another global method that gives closer results to those of the Egyptian codes, especially with the great variety of energy efficiency measurement approaches used among the different assessment methods. So, the researcher is trying to find the compatibility of using non-local assessment methods with the local energy efficiency codes. Thus, if the results are not compatible, the Egyptian government should take several steps to increase the local building sector awareness of the Egyptian method to benefit these codes, and it should begin to enforce it within the building permits after a proper guidance and feedback.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.04.002
  • Requirements for establishing an information system to manage issuing
           building permits

    • Authors: Mona Mahrous Abdel Wahed
      Pages: 83 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mona Mahrous Abdel Wahed
      The Egyptian Urban suffers from many negative aspects. This urban deterioration cannot be confined to a specific factor or a single reason, it may be because of the master plans itself, perhaps for reasons related to managing the urban development, or because of the process of issuing building permits, may be that the social environment is the reason, it can also be the financial policies, as well as the efficiency of local administrations employees, and the multiplicity of actors involved in the implementation process and the lack of coordination between them. The processes of development control and issuing building permits are important reasons in the problems facing the urban deterioration. To overcome most of these problems it is important to introduce a powerful technology that can be utilized in issuing building permits. GIS is an excellent choice for managing issuing building permits. The paper proposes a mechanism of an Information System to support and manage the building permits processes. It defines the user requirements and formulates the System Architecture, which identifies the essential components and processes, and their functional relationships. In order to introduce the proposed mechanism the following points were studied: 1. Identify the organizations involved in the process of issuing building permits. 2. Identify the needs and responsibilities of these organizations. 3. Identify the processes, inputs and outputs of each process. 4. Identify the procedural steps for implementing the proposed mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.04.001
  • New cities between sustainability and real estate investment: A case study
           of New Cairo city

    • Authors: Reham M. Hafez
      Pages: 89 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): Reham M. Hafez
      Urban development differs from one country to another. The various aims and ways differ according to the different economical, social and environmental situations. Many countries followed the policy of establishing new cities in the aim of redistribution of the population or to be as a nucleus that assists in encouraging the economic activity of a certain region or to be a new capital. Egypt has adopted the policy of establishing the new cities for national aims. Many cities were being developed according to development stages, from the first generation, the second generation to the third generation. New Cairo is one of the second generation cities. It is characterized by its distinctive developed location. It has been developed as a result of the economy and investment politics of the Egyptian government at this time, which made it the focus of real estate investment. However, this resulted in negative influences on the sustainability. That is made clear in the different stages of developing the city, – before laying the general comprehensive plan, during preparing the plan and the successive stages of development till now. This research reviews the basis of development of the new cities. The influence of the real estate investment in some Arab countries, then it handles the case study – “New Cairo city”. Discussing all the investing factors made the city in its current status. Then comes the recommendations in a trial to get an alternative structure to achieve sustainability in light of the current determinants and growth stages.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.03.001
  • Performance appraisal of the A2/O process in domestic wastewater treatment
           replacing the anaerobic unit with UASB

    • Authors: M.A. Moharram; H.S. Abdelhalim; E.H. Rozaik
      Pages: 98 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): M.A. Moharram, H.S. Abdelhalim, E.H. Rozaik
      Feasibility of a combined system consisting of an anaerobic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by anoxic unit then aerobic activated sludge (AS) was investigated. The system was fed with normal domestic wastewater, then medium loading wastewater using activated sludge from El Berka WWTP, then high strength sewage having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2635mg COD/L. The organic loading rate (OLR) was increased gradually from 0.5 to 4.43kg COD/m3/day. The HRT was changed for each loading from 10.5 to 15h. The internal recirculation (IR) was tested at 100%, 200% and 300% for each loading run. The return activated sludge was adjusted to maintain a mixed liquor suspended solids of greater than 2500ppm. At steady state conditions, the UASB reactor achieved removal efficiency up to 79.13% of the total COD. The combined system performed an excellent organic removal pushing the overall removal efficiency of the total COD, TN and TP to 95.87%, 84.95% and 87.59%, respectively. When the OLR increased to 4.43kg COD/m3/day, the effluent quality of the UASB deteriorated reaching a percent of 48.20 for COD removal efficiency dropped to 62.90%, 29.90% and 46.90% respectively. The optimum operational conditions for the system on different organic loadings were HRT=15h and the IR=200%.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.01.004
  • Biosorption of manganese from groundwater by biomass of Saccharomyces

    • Authors: M. Fadel; Naziha M. Hassanein; Maha M. Elshafei; Amr H. Mostafa; Marwy A. Ahmed; Hend M. Khater
      Pages: 106 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): M. Fadel, Naziha M. Hassanein, Maha M. Elshafei, Amr H. Mostafa, Marwy A. Ahmed, Hend M. Khater
      Heavy metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. Biological methods such as biosorption or bioaccumulation strategies for the removal of metals ions may provide an attractive alternative to existing technologies. Microorganisms, as heavy metal bioadsorbents, offer a new alternative for removal of toxic or valuable metals in water. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has received increasing attention due to its unique nature and capacity for metal sorption. It is one of the most promising biosorbents capable of removing metal ions from aqueous solution. Manganese occurs naturally in many surface water and groundwater sources and in soils that may erode into this water. Eleven S. cerevisiae yeast strains in alive and dead forms were screened for biosorption and bioaccumulation of manganese from artificial aqueous solution. S. cerevisiae F-25 in alive form was found to be highly biosorbent for Mn+2 and biosorbed 22.5mg Mn+2/gm yeast biomass. Optimization of environmental conditions reveals that optimum concentrations for maximum Mn2+ biosorption by S. cerevisiae F-25 in alive form were 4.8mg Mn2+/l after 30min at pH 7, agitation 150rpm and yeast biomass concentration 0.1gm/l at 30°C. Competition of Mn+2 with other heavy metals shows that Mn+2 in control sample without, any other heavy metals added in solution at 4.8mg/l of the biosorbed Mn+2 was 41.3mg/g biomass. Addition of other heavy metals affects the percent of biosorbed Mn+2.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2014.12.006
  • Hydration characteristics and compressive strength of hardened cement
           pastes containing nano-metakaolin

    • Authors: S.M.A. El-Gamal; M.S. Amin; M. Ramadan
      Pages: 114 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1
      Author(s): S.M.A. El-Gamal, M.S. Amin, M. Ramadan
      In this study the effect of inclusion of nano-metakaolin (NMK) to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the hydration characteristics and microstructure of hardened OPC–NMK pastes was studied. The OPC–NMK blends were prepared by the partial substitution of OPC by NMK (4, 6, 10 and 15 weight %). The fresh pastes were made using an initial water/solid (W/S) ratio of 0.27 by weight and then hydrated for various time intervals. At the end of each hydration time, the hardened blended cement pastes were tested for compressive strength, free lime content, combined water content, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compressive strength results revealed that the inclusion of nano-metakaolin into OPC improved the mechanical properties of NMK–OPC pastes during almost all ages of hydration, especially with the paste containing 10 wt% NMK. The compressive strength values obtained for OPC paste blended with 4% silica fume (SF) and 6% NMK are comparable to those of the neat OPC paste. The DSC thermograms and XRD diffractograms obtained for some selected hardened pastes indicated the formation of amorphous calcium silicate hydrates, calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium hydroxide. SEM micrographs showed the formation of a dense microstructure for the hardened OPC–NMK and OPC–NMK-SF pastes as compared to the neat OPC paste after 90days of hydration.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2014.11.008
  • Application of electrical resistivity measurement as quality control test
           for calcareous soil

    • Authors: Marwa Mostafa; Mona B. Anwar; Amr Radwan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal
      Author(s): Marwa Mostafa, Mona B. Anwar, Amr Radwan
      Soil properties determination for some applications requires quick, easy and cheap method rather than using the traditional sophisticated, time consuming and expensive laboratory test methods. The use of non-disturbing test method is very much recommended to have more reliable test results. Recently, there has been a great demand towards using special techniques and apparatuses for measuring the soil properties in-situ which facilitate having more tests and covering larger area in shorter time. The electrical geophysical method is one of these techniques which allow rapid measure for soil electrical properties such as electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity and potential directly from soil surface to any depth without soil disturbance. In this research, laboratory tests were carried out on calcareous soil samples for determining their electrical resistivity after compaction. Samples were extracted from the soil formation in Ain Helwan inside Helwan University campus. Soil formation in Ain Helwan is different than the usual Nile formation in Cairo or the desert formation near to Helwan area, as it has calcareous nature. Results between electrical resistivity and compaction index were plotted and relationships were developed for soil in this site between electrical resistivity and different soil properties, water content and compaction index. The effect of fine contents on results was also discussed. Based on the obtained results it was found that the change in water content and fines content are reflected on the obtained electrical resistivity and accordingly an in-situ compaction control can be carried out by applying the electrical resistivity approach.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2017.07.001
  • Fluidity evaluation of fiber reinforced-self compacting concrete based on
           buoyancy law

    • Authors: Metwally A.A. Abd Elaty; Mariam F. Ghazy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal
      Author(s): Metwally A.A. Abd Elaty, Mariam F. Ghazy
      An experimental testing program was undertaken to evaluate the applicability of using the principles of Archimedes' law for buoyancy to assess the fluidity of self compacting concrete (SCC) as well as fiber reinforced self compacting concrete mixes (FR-SCC). A cone instrument with different apex angle values (20, 30, 40 and 45°) was implemented. One type of steel fibers (SF), three types of polypropylene fibers (PP1, PP2 and PP3) as well as one type of glass fibers (GF) with different fiber volume fractions and aspect ratios were conducted. Fourteen FR-SCC mixes in addition to a control mix were examined. A new terminology called fluidity index (FI) was proposed and evaluated based on the displaced volume rate according to the buoyancy law through performing cone penetration test. Parallel with the penetration test, traditional flow ability and segregation resistance tests were performed. The results indicated that the proposed method is effective in evaluating the fluidity of FR-SCC mixes in terms of FI. FI values between 0.8 and 1.0 indicate SCC mixes whereas, FI lower than 0.8 indicate fresh concrete with fluidity not satisfying requirements of SCC. The proposed method can be performed either at laboratory or at field with and without sampling. Moreover, it can be directly adapted to the cast concrete in structural members provided that there is no obstruction for penetration. The direct proportion between FI and the slump flow test results indicated its viability to evaluate the fluidity of both FR-SCC and SCC mixtures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2017.04.003
  • Inside Front Cover

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:28:12Z
  • Science park implementation – A proposal for merging research and
           industry in developing Arab countries

    • Authors: Ashraf Mansour Habib Mansour; Lamis Kanso
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal
      Author(s): Ashraf Mansour Habib Mansour, Lamis Kanso
      Present economy, expansion, achievements of inventions, demographic distribution and business development of knowledge are the key elements of economic and social development. It looks as close as it is, to conception process; it is the process of creating a new innovation with the role of business needs and technological development. Since 1950, science parks have been developed in the United States of America to bridge the gap between research and Industry. Nowadays a science park is widely spread among developed countries, but not with the same plan, objectives, funds, equipped modalities and outcomes. This paper will discuss Science Park implementation as an approach for merging research and industry in Lebanon which is considered an example of a developing Arab country. It is going to present how this moderately new archetype for business innovation could be implemented. Based on studies and analysis, an overview has been done by applying an ideal approach, plan, program, and site selection. This is according to the international criteria essence with the Middle Eastern status and especially the Lebanese one. The paper showed that the science park in Lebanon should be approached and financed by universities rather than the government. Furthermore, it highlights the criteria for its implementation and proposed the appropriate site.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:22:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2017.06.002
  • Heritage conservation ideologies analysis – Historic urban Landscape
           approach for a Mediterranean historic city case study

    • Authors: Hoda Zeayter; Ashraf Mansour Habib Mansour
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal
      Author(s): Hoda Zeayter, Ashraf Mansour Habib Mansour
      This paper highlights the different ideologies in the history of the conservation movement. It shows a long progress of theories implied through history since it started in early classical ages until the modern globalisation era, and highlights certain points as optimistic strategy to be applied in the conservation of historic city. The ideologies' reviews both the material-based approaches in conservation applied in the beginning of the conservation movement in Europe and the later values-based approaches developed internationally. After reviewing history of ideologies, the methodology used in this paper is carrying an evaluation for the contemporary approaches – in the first part of the research – by analysing them according to three factors: selectivity, authenticity/integrity and sustainability, in order to find the optimum ideology that counters the challenges of the 21st century in historic city's cores. As a result of the analysis carried out, the Historic Urban Landscape approach was verified to be that optimum ideology. The application will be in the form of recommendations that address each step considered by the theory. The second part of the paper focuses on The Historic Urban Landscape Approach, and it includes its application specifically on a Mediterranean historic city (the old city of Tyre-Lebanon) and favours it as the optimum conservation ideology. The research aims to validate the progress in the conservation approaches by examining its historic evolution. The evaluation of the actual approaches in conservation projects demonstrates the positivism of the communal ideology to sustain these projects.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T05:49:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2017.06.001
  • On the durability of Portland limestone cement: Effect of pH on the
           thaumasite formation

    • Authors: Hanaa Y. Ghorab; Fouad S. Zahran; Mohamed Kamal; Amr Said Meawad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal
      Author(s): Hanaa Y. Ghorab, Fouad S. Zahran, Mohamed Kamal, Amr Said Meawad
      The mechanism of thaumasite formation is studied in a solution of sodium silicate and ettringite stored for 12months at 7°C. After 7months, the mix was carbonated by bubbling CO2 gas and the pH decreased from 11 to 9.5; at the 9th month the pH was raised again to 12.5 by adding lime water. The phases formed at the different pH ranges were identified by means of X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that a certain reaction occurred in the mix stored for 7months at pH 11: A shoulder appeared at frequency of 1030cm−1 in the infrared spectrogram of the mix and the band in the frequency region ∼500–400cm−1 broadened; the X-ray patterns show, however, unchanged ettringite patterns with weak calcite phase. The ettringite phase disappears by lowering the pH to 9.5, and an amorphous phase forms instead. Diffraction lines of aragonite and calcite are identified in this sample, and its IR spectra indicate the transformation of the shoulder at 1030cm−1 to a strong broad band at 1027cm−1 and the appearance of infrared frequencies characteristic of the carbonate phases. The amorphous phase formed is a carbonated complex of hydrated silicate and of decomposed ettringite. It converts to thaumasite with the supply of lime and the rise of pH to 12.5.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T12:56:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2017.04.002
  • A model for prioritizing concrete structures repair works

    • Authors: Said Abdel Hamid; Ahmed Nouh; Nael Y. Zabel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal
      Author(s): Said Abdel Hamid, Ahmed Nouh, Nael Y. Zabel
      The reinforced concrete assets such as bridges, tunnels, administration buildings, schools and the residential buildings are important factors in the Egyptian economy. Several researches have been made in the field of concrete defects and methods of repair. Concrete can deteriorate for a variety of reasons such as the corrosion of steel bars, design errors, construction errors and the environmental conditions. Concrete structures’ deterioration is often the result of a combination of deterioration factors. Factors that contribute to the deterioration of the reinforced concrete structures can be classified into five categories as follows: (1) Design factors such as the code requirements, the structural system, and the foundation design; (2) construction factors such as the mix design and the quality control; (3) protection factors such as the thermal insulation and the water proofing; (4) material factors such as the aggregate and the cement; and (5) the applied loads factors such as the chemicals and the earthquakes. This paper provides a model for prioritizing the concrete structures’ repair works. Past researches have been reviewed to gather the main factors that contribute to the deterioration of concrete structures. Interviews with senior engineers have been conducted during the development of the proposed model. A numerical example has been presented to demonstrate the proposed model.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T12:56:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2017.04.001
  • Inside Front Cover

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T12:52:08Z
  • The conservation of the waterfront of Saida: A model for tourism and
           culture-led revitalization in valuable areas

    • Authors: Khaled A. Osman; Baher I. Farahat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal
      Author(s): Khaled A. Osman, Baher I. Farahat
      This paper is a model for the Tourism and Culture-led Revitalization in valuable areas which makes special emphasize on revitalizing the waterfront of Saida. To revitalize valuable areas, countries are attempting to attract new activities; a key new activity has been tourism and associated culture activities. Strategies for tourism and culture-led revitalization have encouraged the exploitation of the area's historic legacy for tourist development. Such development has usually meant a partial or extensive restructuring of the area's economic base. Saida has been a major touristic city but it lost its regional importance because of lack of touristic and entertaining facilities. Therefore, in order to encourage the tourism in Saida and to fully exploit the sea which is the most important feature in the city, we suggest that there must be a new building complex to fulfill the above needs by making a new maritime portal and a 5 stars Hotel in order to activate the urban tourism. Moreover, it sheds light on the weak points of the Lebanese local tourism and it suggests a new solution to develop the official economical governmental income. It develops a methodology based on a specific site analysis working on the proposed urban tissue of Saida.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T22:34:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2017.02.003
  • Winkler model for pile seismic analysis considering end constraints

    • Authors: Ahmed M. Hassan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal
      Author(s): Ahmed M. Hassan
      Beam on nonlinear Winkler foundation (BNWF) analysis of pile foundation subjected to vertically propagating earthquake ground motions is presented in this paper. The BNWF is considered a simplified approach that is capable to model nonlinear soil-pile-structure interaction. Soil nonlinearity is simulated by p-y curves according to American Petroleum Institute (API) procedure. The analyses are carried out using the open source finite element platform OpenSees. Results are verified against centrifuge experiments and numerical finite element simulations published in the literature. In this paper pile tip and head constraints effects on bending moments and displacement responses are investigated. Three types of pile tip constraints are applied: floating, end bearing, and fixed supports. Pile top constraint is modeled as either free or fixed head. Three different earthquake ground motions are applied in the model. Effect of superstructure mass is investigated for the three considered earthquake records and the different assumed pile end and head constraints. The results indicate significant influence of pile tip and head constraints on pile bending moment and displacement responses. A significant effect of superstructure mass on the analyses results is also observed. The analyses show that earthquake record characteristics remarkably influence pile response behavior. Different earthquake records scaled to the same peak ground acceleration give different pile seismic responses.

      PubDate: 2017-03-07T19:29:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2017.02.001
  • The use of sewage sludge in the production of ceramic floor tiles

    • Authors: Sh.K. Amin; E.M. Abdel Hamid; S.A. El-Sherbiny; H.A. Sibak; M.F. Abadir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal
      Author(s): Sh.K. Amin, E.M. Abdel Hamid, S.A. El-Sherbiny, H.A. Sibak, M.F. Abadir
      Scientists proved that municipal sewage sludge contains many dangerous pathogens, toxic heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, drains, storm water runoff, hospitals, and industrial plants. Sewage sludge represents an extremely high ecological hazard to the environment. Due to the increasing amount of sludge generated from the wastewater treatments plants a strong demand for environmentally and effective safe reuse has arisen. One potential use of that waste is its incorporation in the production of ceramic tiles. The main aim of present work was to study the possibility of usage of this hazardous waste in floor ceramic tiles industry. A dried sludge waste was added in percentages from 5% up to 35% to a standard floor tile mix, molded, pressed uniaxially at 30MPa and then fired at temperatures reaching 1150°C for 15 min soaking time. The properties of both green and fired tiles were investigated as function of percent waste added. The vitrification parameters, which are linear firing shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, and mechanical property, were determined and compared with ISO standards. Fired samples of the proposed mixtures were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was possible to obtain tiles that abided by ISO standards for maximum addition of 7% sludge fired at 1150°C (for water absorption<10%), and 10% sludge or 5% sludge for tiles fired at 1150°C and 1100°C, respectively (for water absorption>10%), which are recommended for both their economic and environmental benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-03-07T19:29:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2017.02.002
  • Behavior of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid steel and FRP composites

    • Authors: Suzan A.A. Mustafa; Hilal A. Hassan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal
      Author(s): Suzan A.A. Mustafa, Hilal A. Hassan
      This paper presents a nonlinear finite element model to investigate the behavior of hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymers and steel reinforcement. Different types of Fiber Reinforced Polymers; CFRP and GFRP; were used along with steel rebars in the studied concrete beams. The study was conducted using the nonlinear finite element program “ANSYS”. Nonlinear material models for the components of the concrete beam were used in the three dimensional finite element models. The outcomes got from finite element analysis were confirmed against experimental results. A broad parametric study was conducted to explore the effect of replacing steel reinforcement by different types of FRP bars. The study showed that the contribution of steel rebars to FRP rebars in concrete beams improved beam ductility and eliminated the unfavorable brittle failure of the concrete beam. In addition, it is better to use steel rebars as top reinforcement in concrete beams with hybrid reinforcement. In hybrid GFRP/steel reinforced concrete beams, a significant reduction in stiffness and a noticeable increase in the beams' deflection after the initiation of first crack and yielding of steel reinforcement were observed. On the other hand, in hybrid CFRP/steel reinforced concrete beams showed a better performance during cracking initiation and propagation.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T18:23:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2017.01.001
  • Stabilization of peat soil using locally admixture

    • Authors: Ashraf E. Abdel-Salam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2017
      Source:HBRC Journal
      Author(s): Ashraf E. Abdel-Salam
      Peat has considerable negative geotechnical properties such as high water content, low shear strength, high organic matter, and low bearing capacity and consequently a significant severing high compressibility takes place that makes it as one of the most difficult soils for constructing structures over its natural state. Because of these geotechnical problems of peat soil, improvement mechanism is so essential when the peat soil exists to deal with it as a soil foundation. In this paper, the physical and mechanical properties of the peat are discussed. Also, the two creative mixtures were prepared to study their effect on the properties of peat and to what extent can these new mixtures improve both the physical and mechanical properties of peat layers to bear stresses as the soil foundation, the first one consisted of clayey diatomite which is widespread in Egypt, calcium carbonate, lime and water. On the other hand, the prepared second mixture has the same ingredients of the first one except to replace the clayey diatomite by the cement. For both mixtures two systems of cubes were prepared, and peat was added to the two prepared mixtures. Then the all cubes were submerged in clean water, and also in sewage water for forty-five days for the sake of studying their durability against submergence and environmental changes, and the cubes’ resistances were measured. The obtained results in this study were compared by other currently used mixtures for stabilizing peat soils to date for focusing clearly on the performance magnitude of this study.

      PubDate: 2017-01-11T18:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.hbrcj.2016.11.004
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