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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2358 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 194 of 194 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 275)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)


Journal Cover Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
  [1 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2077-1312
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [198 journals]
  • JMSE, Vol. 6, Pages 2: Automated Image Analysis of Offshore Infrastructure
           Marine Biofouling

    • Authors: Kate Gormley, Faron McLellan, Christopher McCabe, Claire Hinton, Joseph Ferris, David Kline, Beth Scott
      First page: 2
      Abstract: In the UK, some of the oldest oil and gas installations have been in the water for over 40 years and have considerable colonisation by marine organisms, which may lead to both industry challenges and/or potential biodiversity benefits (e.g., artificial reefs). The project objective was to test the use of an automated image analysis software (CoralNet) on images of marine biofouling from offshore platforms on the UK continental shelf, with the aim of (i) training the software to identify the main marine biofouling organisms on UK platforms; (ii) testing the software performance on 3 platforms under 3 different analysis criteria (methods A–C); (iii) calculating the percentage cover of marine biofouling organisms and (iv) providing recommendations to industry. Following software training with 857 images, and testing of three platforms, results showed that diversity of the three platforms ranged from low (in the central North Sea) to moderate (in the northern North Sea). The two central North Sea platforms were dominated by the plumose anemone Metridium dianthus; and the northern North Sea platform showed less obvious species domination. Three different analysis criteria were created, where the method of selection of points, number of points assessed and confidence level thresholds (CT) varied: (method A) random selection of 20 points with CT 80%, (method B) stratified random of 50 points with CT of 90% and (method C) a grid approach of 100 points with CT of 90%. Performed across the three platforms, the results showed that there were no significant differences across the majority of species and comparison pairs. No significant difference (across all species) was noted between confirmed annotations methods (A, B and C). It was considered that the software performed well for the classification of the main fouling species in the North Sea. Overall, the study showed that the use of automated image analysis software may enable a more efficient and consistent approach to marine biofouling analysis on offshore structures; enabling the collection of environmental data for decommissioning and other operational industries.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse6010002
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • JMSE, Vol. 6, Pages 3: Two Centuries of Climate Change and Climate
           Variability, East Coast Australia

    • Authors: Peter Helman, Rodger Tomlinson
      First page: 3
      Abstract: On the east Australian coast, climate change is expressed as a slowly rising sea level. Analysis of records, dating back over two centuries, also shows oscillating multidecadal ‘storm’ and ‘drought’ dominated climate periods that are distinct from long-term climate change. Climate variability, as expressed by these distinct multidecadal periods, is generally associated with phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation Index (IPO). Two centuries of climate and coastline response are examined for the central east coast of Australia, between Fraser Island and Coffs Harbour. The long record has been compiled by analysing a wide range of indicators and observations, including: historical accounts, storm records, sea level trends, assessment of storm erosion faces, and coastal movement in relation to fixed monuments, surveys, and maps. Periods of suppressed sea level, beach accretion, and drought were found to be associated with strongly positive IPO. Periods of higher sea level, increased storminess, and beach erosion were associated with strongly negative IPO. Understanding the behaviour of climate variability over different timescales has the potential to improve the understanding of, and responses to, climate change. This will be important in the sustainable management of geomorphic and ecological systems.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • JMSE, Vol. 6, Pages 4: Oil Spill Detection and Mapping Using Sentinel 2

    • Authors: Polychronis Kolokoussis, Vassilia Karathanassi
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Two object-based image analysis methods are developed for detecting oil spills from known natural outflows as well as light oil spill events using Sentinel 2 imagery. The methods are applied to Sentinel 2 images of a known area of natural oil outflow as well as on a Sentinel 2 image of a recent oil spill event along the south coast of Athens, Greece. The preliminary results are considered very successful and consistent, with a high degree of applicability to other Sentinel 2 satellite images. Further testing and fine tuning of the proposed object-based methodology should be carried out using atmospheric correction and ground truth.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • JMSE, Vol. 6, Pages 5: Quantifying Economic Value of Coastal Ecosystem
           Services: A Review

    • Authors: Seyedabdolhossein Mehvar, Tatiana Filatova, Ali Dastgheib, Erik de Ruyter van Steveninck, Roshanka Ranasinghe
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The complexity of quantifying ecosystem services in monetary terms has long been a challenging issue for economists and ecologists. Many case specific valuation studies have been carried out in various parts of the World. Yet, a coherent review on the valuation of coastal ecosystem services (CES), which systematically describes fundamental concepts, analyzes reported applications, and addresses the issue of climate change (CC) impacts on the monetary value of CES is still lacking. Here, we take a step towards addressing this knowledge gap by pursuing a coherent review that aims to provide policy makers and researchers in multidisciplinary teams with a summary of the state-of-the-art and a guideline on the process of economic valuation of CES and potential changes in these values due to CC impacts. The article highlights the main concepts of CES valuation studies and offers a systematic analysis of the best practices by analyzing two global scale and 30 selected local and regional case studies, in which different CES have been valued. Our analysis shows that coral reefs and mangroves are among the most frequently valued ecosystems, while sea-grass beds are the least considered ones. Currently, tourism and recreation services as well as storm protection are two of the most considered services representing higher estimated value than other CES. In terms of the valuation techniques used, avoided damage, replacement and substitute cost method as well as stated preference method are among the most commonly used valuation techniques. Following the above analysis, we propose a methodological framework that provides step-wise guidance and better insight into the linkages between climate change impacts and the monetary value of CES. This highlights two main types of CC impacts on CES: one being the climate regulation services of coastal ecosystems, and the other being the monetary value of services, which is subject to substantial uncertainty. Finally, a systematic four-step approach is proposed to effectively monetize potential CC driven variations in the value of CES.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • JMSE, Vol. 6, Pages 1: Effects of Salinity on Bubble Cloud Characteristics

    • Authors: Magdalena Anguelova, Pablo Huq
      First page: 1
      Abstract: A laboratory experiment investigates the influence of salinity on the characteristics of bubble clouds in varying saline solutions. Bubble clouds were generated with a water jet. Salinity, surface tension, and water temperature were monitored. Measured bubble cloud parameters include the number of bubbles, the void fraction, the penetration depth, and the cloud shape. The number of large (above 0.5 mm diameter) bubbles within a cloud increases by a factor of three from fresh to saline water of 20 psu (practical salinity units), and attains a maximum value for salinity of 12–25 psu. The void fraction also has maximum value in the range 12–25 psu. The results thus show that both the number of bubbles and the void fraction vary nonmonotonically with increasing salinity. The lateral shape of the bubble cloud does not change with increasing salinity; however, the lowest point of the cloud penetrates deeper as smaller bubbles are generated.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse6010001
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 45: Validation of a Tool for the Initial Dynamic
           Design of Mooring Systems for Large Floating Wave Energy Converters

    • Authors: Jonas Thomsen, Francesco Ferri, Jens Kofoed
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Mooring of floating wave energy converters is an important topic in renewable research since it highly influences the overall cost of the wave energy converter and thereby the cost of energy. In addition, several wave energy converter failures have been observed due to insufficient mooring systems. When designing these systems, it is necessary to ensure the applicability of the design tool and to establish an understanding of the error between model and prototype. The present paper presents the outcome of an experimental test campaign and construction of a numerical model using the open-source boundary element method code NEMOH and the commercial time-domain mooring analysis tool OrcaFlex. The work used the wind/wave energy converter Floating Power Plant as a case study, which is defined as a large floating structure with a passive mooring system. The investigated mooring consists of a three-legged turret system with synthetic lines, and it was tested for both operational and extreme events. In order to understand the difference between the model and experimental results, no tuning of the model was done, besides adding drag elements with values found from a simplified methodology. This resembles initial design cases where no experimental data are available. Generally good agreement was found for the tensions in the lines when the drag element was applied, with some overestimation of the motions. The main cause of difference was found to be underestimation of linear damping. A model was tested with additional linear damping, and it illustrated that a final analysis needs to use experimental data to achieve the best results. However, the analyses showed that the investigated model can be used without tuning in initial investigations of mooring systems, and it is expected that this approach can be applied to other similar systems.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040045
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 46: SISI: A New Device for In Situ Incubations at the
           Ocean Surface

    • Authors: Janina Rahlff, Christian Stolle, Oliver Wurl
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The sea-surface microlayer (SML) forms the uppermost boundary layer between atmosphere and ocean, and has distinctive physico-chemical and biological features compared to the underlying water. First findings on metabolic contributions of microorganisms to gas exchange processes across the SML raised the need for new in situ technologies to explore plankton-oxygen turnover in this special habitat. Here, we describe an inexpensive research tool, the Surface In Situ Incubator (SISI), which allows simultaneous incubations of the SML, and water samples from 1 m and 5 m, at the respective depths of origin. The SISI is deployed from a small boat, seaworthy up to 5 bft (Beaufort scale), and due to global positioning system (GPS) tracking, capable of drifting freely for hours or days. We tested the SISI by applying light/dark bottle incubations in the Baltic Sea and the tropical Pacific Ocean under various conditions to present first data on planktonic oxygen turnover rates within the SML, and two subsurface depths. The SISI offers the potential to study plankton-oxygen turnover within the SML under the natural influence of abiotic parameters, and hence, is a valuable tool to routinely monitor their physiological role in biogeochemical cycling and gas exchange processes at, and near, the sea surface.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040046
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 47: Wind-Driven Overturning, Mixing and Upwelling in
           Shallow Water: A Nonhydrostatic Modeling Study

    • Authors: Jochen Kämpf
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Using a nonhydrostatic numerical model, this work demonstrates that onshore winds are a principal agent of overturning and vigorous vertical mixing in nearshore water of lakes and inner continental shelves. On short (superinertial) timescales of a few hours, onshore winds create surface currents pushing water against the shore which, via the associated pressure gradient force, creates an undercurrent. The resulting overturning circulation rapidly becomes dynamically unstable due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanism, internal gravity waves form, and vigorous vertical mixing follows. The vertical extent of the overturning cell depends on the speed of surface currents and density stratification (which is influenced by other processes such as tidal mixing). In smaller enclosed water bodies, wave reflection in conjunction with dynamical instabilities support rapid mixed-layer deepening and overturning of the entire water column. Based on these findings, the author postulates that dynamic instabilities following from onshore wind events are of fundamental importance to biogeochemical cycles and ecological processes in shelf seas and lakes.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040047
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 48: Biorock Electric Reefs Grow Back Severely Eroded
           Beaches in Months

    • Authors: Thomas Goreau, Paulus Prong
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Severely eroded beaches on low lying islands in Indonesia were grown back in a few months—believed to be a record—using an innovative method of shore protection, Biorock electric reef technology. Biorock shore protection reefs are growing limestone structures that get stronger with age and repair themselves, are cheaper than concrete or rock sea walls and breakwaters, and are much more effective at shore protection and beach growth. Biorock reefs are permeable, porous, growing, self-repairing structures of any size or shape, which dissipate wave energy by internal refraction, diffraction, and frictional dissipation. They do not cause reflection of waves like hard sea walls and breakwaters, which erodes the sand in front of, and then underneath, such structures, until they collapse. Biorock reefs stimulate settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to the environmental stress of all forms of marine life, restoring coral reefs, sea grasses, biological sand production, and fisheries habitat. Biorock reefs can grow back eroded beaches and islands faster than the rate of sea level rise, and are the most cost-effective method of shore protection and adaptation to global sea level rise for low lying islands and coasts.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040048
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 49: Sea Level Change and Coastal Climate Services: The
           Way Forward

    • Authors: Gonéri Le Cozannet, Robert Nicholls, Jochen Hinkel, William Sweet, Kathleen McInnes, Roderik Van de Wal, Aimée Slangen, Jason Lowe, Kathleen White
      First page: 49
      Abstract: For many climate change impacts such as drought and heat waves, global and national frameworks for climate services are providing ever more critical support to adaptation activities. Coastal zones are especially in need of climate services for adaptation, as they are increasingly threatened by sea level rise and its impacts, such as submergence, flooding, shoreline erosion, salinization and wetland change. In this paper, we examine how annual to multi-decadal sea level projections can be used within coastal climate services (CCS). To this end, we review the current state-of-the art of coastal climate services in the US, Australia and France, and identify lessons learned. More broadly, we also review current barriers in the development of CCS, and identify research and development efforts for overcoming barriers and facilitating their continued growth. The latter includes: (1) research in the field of sea level, coastal and adaptation science and (2) cross-cutting research in the area of user interactions, decision making, propagation of uncertainties and overall service architecture design. We suggest that standard approaches are required to translate relative sea level information into the forms required to inform the wide range of relevant decisions across coastal management, including coastal adaptation.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040049
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 50: An Integrated Numerical Model for the Design of
           Coastal Protection Structures

    • Authors: Theophanis Karambas, Achilleas Samaras
      First page: 50
      Abstract: In the present work, an integrated coastal engineering numerical model is presented. The model simulates the linear wave propagation, wave-induced circulation, and sediment transport and bed morphology evolution. It consists of three main modules: WAVE_L, WICIR, and SEDTR. The nearshore wave transformation module WAVE_L (WAVE_Linear) is based on the hyperbolic-type mild slope equation and is valid for a compound linear wave field near coastal structures where the waves are subjected to the combined effects of shoaling, refraction, diffraction, reflection (total and partial), and breaking. Radiation stress components (calculated from WAVE_L) drive the depth averaged circulation module WICIR (Wave Induced CIRculation) for the description of the nearshore wave-induced currents. Sediment transport and bed morphology evolution in the nearshore, surf, and swash zone are simulated by the SEDTR (SEDiment TRansport) module. The model is tested against experimental data to study the effect of representative coastal protection structures and is applied to a real case study of a coastal engineering project in North Greece, producing accurate and consistent results for a versatile range of layouts.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040050
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 51: Comparative Analysis of Coastal Flooding
           Vulnerability and Hazard Assessment at National Scale

    • Authors: Marcello Di Risio, Antonello Bruschi, Iolanda Lisi, Valeria Pesarino, Davide Pasquali
      First page: 51
      Abstract: The evaluation of the coastal hazard and vulnerability caused by storm conditions is an important issue related to coastal flooding and erosion. Although these topics have been widely tackled by past research, they cannot be avoided, but need to be carefully managed by local authorities in order to limit damage to coastal infrastructure, to protect human life, habitats and sensitive species. Usually, this issue is tackled through common approaches at the regional scale. This paper illustrates the first steps of a research project aimed at assessing coastal hazard and vulnerability to wave-induced flooding at the national scale. In order to apply the method to the national scale, it is necessary to select a suitable dataset. This has to be consistent with the whole application area, concerning its spatial distribution, reliability and availability. Thus, one of the aims of this project is to perform a comparative analysis using data available at the national and local scale. The analysis was performed for the area of Montalto di Castro (Tyrrhenian Sea) by using datasets with different spatial resolutions. The results revealed that the use of low resolution data does not significantly affect the estimated nearshore wave features, while the wave runup in underestimated by about 25%. This underestimation influences also the vulnerability and hazard assessments. In particular, the vulnerability is conservatively assessed if low resolution data are used. On the other hand, the hazard is conservatively assessed when low resolution data are used only if the wave runup is amplified by considering the 25% underestimation. The results presented herein can be extended to other sites with the same general features (i.e., microtidal and dissipative coastal stretches).
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040051
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 52: Impact of Cyclone Track Features and Tidal Phase
           Shift upon Surge Characteristics in the Bay of Bengal along the Bangladesh

    • Authors: Mohammad Asad Hussain, Yoshimitsu Tajima, Mohammed Abed Hossain, Partho Das
      First page: 52
      Abstract: The impact of cyclone track features (e.g., cyclone translation speed, cyclone path and cyclone landfall crossing angle) in combination with tidal phase shift upon surge characteristics have been investigated at the Bay of Bengal along the Bangladesh coast. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model in a horizontal direction (2DH) coupled with a storm-surge model has been employed for the study. Numerical experiments with three different cyclone translation speeds show that when the surge height is directly forced by the cyclonic wind speed especially within the RWM (Radius of Maximum Wind), faster translation speed produces reduced surge height as the cyclone gets less time to force the water. On the other hand, at locations outside the RMW, surge waves travel as a propagating long wave where higher surges are produced by faster moving cyclones. It is found that surge arrival times are more and more affected by tidal phase when cyclone translation speed is reduced. Analysis of seven hypothetical parallel cyclone paths show that local bathymetry and complex coastline configurations strongly influence the surge height and surge arrival time along the Bangladesh coast. From the analyses of cyclone landfall crossing angles at the Khulna and Chittagong coasts, it is observed that surge durations are the smallest at both the coasts when the coastline crossing angles are the smallest.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040052
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 53: Partial Stator Overlap in a Linear Generator for
           Wave Power: An Experimental Study

    • Authors: Anna E. Frost, Liselotte Ulvgård, Linnea Sjökvist, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon
      First page: 53
      Abstract: This paper presents a study on how the power absorption and damping in a linear generator for wave energy conversion are affected by partial overlap between stator and translator. The theoretical study shows that the electrical power as well as the damping coefficient change quadratically with partial stator overlap, if inductance, friction and iron losses are assumed independent of partial stator overlap or can be neglected. Results from onshore experiments on a linear generator for wave energy conversion cannot reject the quadratic relationship. Measurements were done on the inductance of the linear generator and no dependence on partial stator overlap could be found. Simulations of the wave energy converter’s operation in high waves show that entirely neglecting partial stator overlap will overestimate the energy yield and underestimate the peak forces in the line between the buoy and the generator. The difference between assuming a linear relationship instead of a quadratic relationship is visible but small in the energy yield in the simulation. Since the theoretical deduction suggests a quadratic relationship, this is advisable to use during modeling. However, a linear assumption could be seen as an acceptable simplification when modeling since other relationships can be computationally costly.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040053
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 54: Geometrical Spreading Correction in Sidescan Sonar
           Seabed Imaging

    • Authors: Duncan Tamsett
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Sound backscattered to a sonar from a seabed decreases in intensity with increasing range ( R ) due to geometrical spreading. As a far-range approximation, a geometrical spreading correction of + 30 log R decibels may be applied. A correction based on an accurate estimation of the area of the seabed ensonified by the sonar pulse incorporates additional terms that are a function of: range, sonic ray inclination angle, along- and across-trace components of seabed slope and sonar vehicle pitch. At near-normal incidence, the area of the seabed ensonified by the pulse lies within a circle truncated by the narrowness of the sonar beam. Beyond a critical range, the ensonified area separates into two areas disposed on opposite sides of an annulus, one being the principal and the other its conjugate. With increasing range, backscatter intensity from the conjugate area rapidly decreases. At steep inclination angles, the principal area of seabed ensonified is effectively increased by an estimable factor due to scattering from the conjugate area. Backscatter from the conjugate area leads the angle of incidence measured by swath interferometry requiring a correction for an estimate of the angle to the center of the pulse in the principal area.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040054
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 55: A Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Landcover and
           Coastal Changes at Wandandian Delta System, Southeastern Australia

    • Authors: Ali Al-Nasrawi, Carl Hopley, Sarah Hamylton, Brian Jones
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Large numbers of people live along and depend upon the world’s coastal resources. Human modifications of the coastal zone, in combination with climate induced environmental changes, have had a major effect on the natural ecological systems. GIS analysis of remote sensed data, combined with fieldwork and laboratory tests, can be used to determine the resultant eco-geomorphic changes that need to be managed sustainably on a worldwide scale. Modelling the eco-geomorphic dynamics between 1949 and 2016 on the Wandandian Creek delta (southeastern NSW, Australia) provides a case study of management options for such coastal resources. Results from the Wandandian Creek delta show that sand/silt sediment derived from the partially (22%) modified terrestrial catchment has prograded into the wave-dominated St. Georges Basin where it is impacted by nearshore processes. Clear spatio-temporal growth of the areal extent and elevation of the deltaic levees and sandspits, with their associated mangroves and saltmarshes, has occurred over the past 65 years. Although the growth rate has fluctuated during the study period, due to flood events in 1974, 1990s and 2010, the overall subaerial and subaqueous delta area has had an average growth of 4168 m2 annually with the shoreline extending 1.451 m/year on average. This geomorphic growth has stabilised the estuarine deltaic habitats with high proportions of nutrients and organic matter, particularly within saltmarsh, mangrove, Casuarina/Juncus and other mixed native plant areas. This research shows the importance of analysing morphological changes observed on the delta that can be related to both anthropogenic modifications and natural processes to the catchment and thus should be used in the development of catchment and coastal management plans.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040055
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 56: Transmission of Low-Frequency Acoustic Waves in
           Seawater Piping Systems with Periodical and Adjustable Helmholtz Resonator

    • Authors: Boyun Liu, Liang Yang
      First page: 56
      Abstract: The characteristics of acoustic wave transmitting in a metamaterial-type seawater piping system are studied. The metamaterial pipe, which consists of a uniform pipe with air-water chamber Helmholtz resonators (HRs) mounted periodically along its axial direction, could generate a wide band gap in the low-frequency range, rendering the propagation of low-frequency acoustic waves in the piping system dampened spatially. Increasing the air volume in the Helmholtz chamber would result in a sharply decrease in the central frequency of the resonant gap and an extension in the bandwidth in the beginning, yet very slowly as the air volume is further augmented. Acoustic waves will experience a small amount of energy loss if the acoustic–structure interaction effect is considered. Also, the structure-borne sound will be induced because of the interaction effects. High pressure loadings on the system may bring in a shrink in the band gap; nevertheless, the features of broad band gaps of the system is still be maintained.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040056
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 57: Regime Changes in Global Sea Surface Salinity

    • Authors: Alfredo Aretxabaleta, Keston Smith, Tarandeep Kalra
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Recent studies have shown significant sea surface salinity (SSS) changes at scales ranging from regional to global. In this study, we estimate global salinity means and trends using historical (1950–2014) SSS data from the UK Met Office Hadley Centre objectively analyzed monthly fields and recent data from the SMOS satellite (2010–2014). We separate the different components (regimes) of the global surface salinity by fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model to the data and using expectation–maximization to distinguish the means and trends of the data. The procedure uses a non-subjective method (Bayesian information criterion) to extract the optimal number of means and trends. The results show the presence of three separate regimes: Regime A (1950–1990) is characterized by small trend magnitudes; Regime B (1990–2009) exhibited enhanced trends; and Regime C (2009–2014) with significantly larger trend magnitudes. The salinity differences between regime means were around 0.01. The trend acceleration could be related to an enhanced global hydrological cycle or to a change in the sampling methodology. Understanding past SSS changes can provide insight into future climate evolution by complementing the knowledge acquired in recent decades from long-term temperature record analyses.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040057
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 58: Effect of Partial Use of Venice Flood Barriers

    • Authors: Luca Cavallaro, Claudio Iuppa, Enrico Foti
      First page: 58
      Abstract: The Venice lagoon is one of the most important areas in Italy because of its history and its particular structure and form. In order to defend Venice and other towns within the lagoon from severe floods, the Italian Government promotes a project that includes, among other measures, the construction of the Experimental Electromechanical Module (MoSE). The MoSE is a system of mobile gates installed at the lagoon inlets that are able to temporarily isolate the Venetian lagoon from the Adriatic Sea during severe storm surge events, thus ensuring acceptable safeguarding water levels. To prevent interference between the barriers and the normal port activities, locks have been constructed at each lagoon inlet. However, the use of such locks causes a slowdown in maritime traffic. In order to evaluate a means of reducing such interference during the flooding events characterized by high but not extreme water levels, the present paper demonstrates, by means of a numerical approach, that one of the three inlets can be left open so as to ensure the transit of the vessels. The present paper also points out the meteorological conditions for which the safeguarding water levels of the lagoon are not exceeded when closing only two inlets.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-12-11
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040058
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 59: Sub-Ensemble Coastal Flood Forecasting: A Case
           Study of Hurricane Sandy

    • Authors: Justin Schulte
      First page: 59
      Abstract: In this paper, it is proposed that coastal flood ensemble forecasts be partitioned into sub-ensemble forecasts using cluster analysis in order to produce representative statistics and to measure forecast uncertainty arising from the presence of clusters. After clustering the ensemble members, the ability to predict the cluster into which the observation will fall can be measured using a cluster skill score. Additional sub-ensemble and composite skill scores are proposed for assessing the forecast skill of a clustered ensemble forecast. A recently proposed method for statistically increasing the number of ensemble members is used to improve sub-ensemble probabilistic estimates. Through the application of the proposed methodology to Sandy coastal flood reforecasts, it is demonstrated that statistics computed using only ensemble members belonging to a specific cluster are more representative than those computed using all ensemble members simultaneously. A cluster skill-cluster uncertainty index relationship is identified, which is the cluster analog of the documented spread-skill relationship. Two sub-ensemble skill scores are shown to be positively correlated with cluster forecast skill, suggesting that skillfully forecasting the cluster into which the observation will fall is important to overall forecast skill. The identified relationships also suggest that the number of ensemble members within in each cluster can be used as guidance for assessing the potential for forecast error. The inevitable existence of ensemble member clusters in tidally dominated total water level prediction systems suggests that clustering is a necessary post-processing step for producing representative and skillful total water level forecasts.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040059
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 60: Spray-Mediated Air-Sea Gas Exchange: The Governing
           Time Scales

    • Authors: Edgar Andreas, Penny Vlahos, Edward Monahan
      First page: 60
      Abstract: It is not known whether sea spray droplets can act as agents that influence air-sea gas exchange. We begin to address that question here by evaluating the time scales that govern spray-mediated air-sea gas transfer. To move between the interior of a spray droplet and the atmospheric gas reservoir, gas molecules must complete three distinct steps: (1) Gas molecules must mix between the interior surface and the deep interior of the aqueous solution droplet; time scale τaq estimates the rate of this transfer; (2) Molecules must cross the droplet’s interface; time scale τint parameterizes this transfer; and (3) The molecules must transit a “jump” layer between a spray droplet’s exterior surface and the atmospheric gas reservoir; time scale τair dictates the rate of this transfer. The same steps, in reverse order, pertain to gas molecules moving from an atmospheric reservoir to a drop’s interior. For the six most plentiful gases, excluding water vapor, in the atmosphere—helium, neon, argon, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide—τair, τint, and τaq are shorter than the time scales that quantify the rate at which a newly formed spray droplet’s temperature, radius, and salinity evolve. We therefore conclude that, following the assumptions herein, a model for spray-mediated air-sea gas exchange can assume that the gas concentration in spray droplets is always in instantaneous equilibrium with the local atmospheric gas concentration.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040060
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 61: Second-Pass Assessment of Potential Exposure to
           Shoreline Change in New South Wales, Australia, Using a Sediment
           Compartments Framework

    • Authors: Michael Kinsela, Bradley Morris, Michelle Linklater, David Hanslow
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The impacts of coastal erosion are expected to increase through the present century, and beyond, as accelerating global mean sea-level rise begins to enhance or dominate local shoreline dynamics. In many cases, beach (and shoreline) response to sea-level rise will not be limited to passive inundation, but may be amplified or moderated by sediment redistribution between the beach and the broader coastal sedimentary system. We describe a simple and scalable approach for estimating the potential for beach erosion and shoreline change on wave-dominated sandy beaches, using a coastal sediment compartments framework to parameterise the geomorphology and connectivity of sediment-sharing coastal systems. We apply the approach at regional and local scales in order to demonstrate the sensitivity of forecasts to the available data. The regional-scale application estimates potential present and future asset exposure to coastal erosion in New South Wales, Australia. The assessment suggests that shoreline recession due to sea-level rise could drive a steep increase in the number and distribution of asset exposure in the present century. The local-scale example demonstrates the potential sensitivity of erosion impacts to the distinctive coastal geomorphology of individual compartments. Our findings highlight that the benefits of applying a coastal sediment compartments framework increase with the coverage and detail of geomorphic data that is available to parameterise sediment-sharing systems and sediment budget principles. Such data is crucial to reducing uncertainty in forecasts by understanding the potential response of key sediment sources and sinks (e.g., the shoreface, estuaries) to sea-level rise in different settings.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040061
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 25: Determining the Horizontal and Vertical Water
           Velocity Components of a Turbulent Water Column Using the Motion Response
           of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    • Authors: Supun Randeni P., Alexander Forrest, Remo Cossu, Zhi Leong, Dev Ranmuthugala
      First page: 25
      Abstract: This work introduces a new method to calculate the water velocity components of a turbulent water column in the x, y, and z directions using Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) motion response (referred to as the ‘WVAM method’). The water column velocities were determined by calculating the difference between the motion responses of the vehicle in calm and turbulent water environments. The velocity components obtained using the WVAM method showed good agreement with measurements from an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted to the AUV. The standard deviation between the two datasets were below 0.09 m s−1 for the velocity components in the x, y, and z directions, and were within the uncertainty margin of the ADCP measurements. With the WVAM method, it is possible to estimate the velocity components within close proximity to the AUV. This region encompasses the vehicle boundary layer and the ADCP blanking distance, which is not typically resolved. Estimating vertical and horizontal velocities around the boundary layer of the AUV is important for vehicle navigation and control system optimization, and to fill the blanking distance gap within a water column velocity profile, which is important for flow field characterization. The results show that it is possible to estimate the flow field in the vicinity of AUVs and other self-propelled vehicles.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 26: Meteorological Aspects of the Eastern North
           American Pattern with Impacts on Long Island Sound Salinity

    • Authors: Justin Schulte, Nickitas Georgas, Vincent Saba, Penelope Howell
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The eastern North American sea level pressure dipole (ENA) pattern is a recently identified teleconnection pattern that has been shown to influence mid-Atlantic United States (U.S) streamflow variability. Because the pattern was only recently identified, its impacts on U.S. precipitation and estuaries on daily to seasonal timescales is unknown. Thus, this paper presents the first seasonal investigation of ENA relationships with global atmospheric fields, U.S. precipitation, and mid-Atlantic estuarine salinity. We show that the ENA pattern explains up to 25–36% of precipitation variability across Texas and the western U.S. We also show that, for the Northeast U.S, the ENA pattern explains up to 65% of precipitation variability, contrasting with previous work showing how well-known climate indices can only explain a modest amount of precipitation variability. The strongest ENA-precipitation relationships are in the spring and fall. The relationships between the ENA pattern and precipitation across remote regions reflect the upper-atmospheric Rossby wave pattern associated with the ENA pattern that varies seasonally. The El-Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is related to the spring ENA pattern, indicating that extended outlooks of the ENA pattern may be possible. We also show that the ENA index is strongly correlated with salinity and vertical haline stratification across coastal portions of the mid-Atlantic Bight so that hypoxia forecasts based on the ENA index may be possible. Statistical connections between vertical salinity gradient and ENSO were identified at lags of up two years, further highlighting the potential for extended hypoxia outlooks. The strong connection between anomalies for precipitation and mid-Atlantic Bight salinity suggests that the ENA pattern may be useful at an interdisciplinary level for better understanding historical regional climate variability and future impacts of climate change on regional precipitation and the health of estuaries.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 27: Numerical Modeling of Marine Circulation,
           Pollution Assessment and Optimal Ship Routes

    • Authors: Vladimir Zalesny, Valeriy Agoshkov, Robert Aps, Victor Shutyaev, Anton Zayachkovskiy, Floris Goerlandt, Pentti Kujala
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Methods and technology have been developed to solve a wide range of problems in the dynamics of sea currents and to assess their “impact” on objects in the marine environment. Technology can be used for monitoring and forecasting sea currents, for solving the problems of minimizing risks and analyzing marine disasters associated with the choice of the optimal course of the ship, and assessing the pollution of coastal zones, etc. The technology includes a numerical model of marine circulation with improved resolution of coastal zones, a method for solving the inverse problem of contamination of the sea with a passive impurity, and a variational algorithm for constructing the optimal trajectory of the vessel. The methods and technology are illustrated by solving problems of Baltic Sea dynamics. The model of sea dynamics is governed by primitive equations that are solved on a grid with an improved resolution of the selected coastal zone—in this case, the Gulf of Finland. The equations of the model are formulated in a bipolar orthogonal coordinate system with an arbitrary arrangement of poles and the sigma coordinate in the vertical direction. An increase in the horizontal resolution of the allocated zone is achieved due to the displacement of the north pole in the vicinity of the city of St. Petersburg. A class of dangerous technogenic situations and natural phenomena (sea accidents, which can be investigated with the help of the proposed methodology), includes tanker accidents in the case of a possible collision with a stationary object (with “dynamic danger”) or a moving object (including another ship), accidents on oil-producing platforms and oil pipelines, and coastal pollution.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 28: Spatial and Temporal Clustering Analysis of
           Extreme Wave Events around the UK Coastline

    • Authors: Victor Malagon Santos, Ivan Haigh, Thomas Wahl
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Densely populated coastal regions are vulnerable to extreme wave events, which can cause loss of life and considerable damage to coastal infrastructure and ecological assets. Here, an event-based analysis approach, across multiple sites, has been used to assess the spatial footprint and temporal clustering of extreme storm-wave events around the coast of the United Kingdom (UK). The correlated spatial and temporal characteristics of wave events are often ignored even though they amplify flood consequences. Waves that exceeded the 1 in 1-year return level were analysed from 18 different buoy records and declustered into distinct storm events. In total, 92 extreme wave events are identified for the period from 2002 (when buoys began to record) to mid-2016. The tracks of the storms of these events were also captured. Six main spatial footprints were identified in terms of extreme wave events occurrence along stretches of coastline. The majority of events were observed between November and March, with large inter-annual differences in the number of events per season associated with the West Europe Pressure Anomaly (WEPA). The 2013/14 storm season was an outlier regarding the number of wave events, their temporal clustering and return levels. The presented spatial and temporal analysis framework for extreme wave events can be applied to any coastal region with sufficient observational data and highlights the importance of developing statistical tools to accurately predict such processes.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 29: Observed Sea-Level Changes along the Norwegian

    • Authors: Kristian Breili, Matthew Simpson, Jan Nilsen
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Norway’s national sea level observing system consists of an extensive array of tide gauges, permanent GNSS stations, and lines of repeated levelling. Here, we make use of this observation system to calculate relative sea-level rates and rates corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) along the Norwegian coast for three different periods, i.e., 1960 to 2010, 1984 to 2014, and 1993 to 2016. For all periods, the relative sea-level rates show considerable spatial variations that are largely due to differences in vertical land motion due to GIA. The variation is reduced by applying corrections for vertical land motion and associated gravitational effects on sea level. For 1960 to 2010 and 1984 to 2014, the coastal average GIA-corrected rates for Norway are 2.0 ± 0.6 mm/year and 2.2 ± 0.6 mm/year, respectively. This is close to the rate of global sea-level rise for the same periods. For the most recent period, 1993 to 2016, the GIA-corrected coastal average is 3.5 ± 0.6 mm/year and 3.2 ± 0.6 mm/year with and without inverse barometer (IB) corrections, respectively, which is significantly higher than for the two earlier periods. For 1993 to 2016, the coastal average IB-corrected rates show broad agreement with two independent sets of altimetry. This suggests that there is no systematic error in the vertical land motion corrections applied to the tide-gauge data. At the same time, altimetry does not capture the spatial variation identified in the tide-gauge records. This could be an effect of using altimetry observations off the coast instead of directly at each tide gauge. Finally, we note that, owing to natural variability in the climate system, our estimates are highly sensitive to the selected study period. For example, using a 30-year moving window, we find that the estimated rates may change by up to 1 mm/year when shifting the start epoch by only one year.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 30: Use of Multibeam and Dual-Beam Sonar Systems to
           Observe Cavitating Flow Produced by Ferryboats: In a Marine Renewable
           Energy Perspective

    • Authors: Francisco Francisco, Nicole Carpman, Irina Dolguntseva, Jan Sundberg
      First page: 30
      Abstract: With the prospect to deploy hydrokinetic energy converters in areas with heavy boat traffic, a study was conducted to observe and assess the depth range of cavitating flow produced by ferryboats in narrow channels. This study was conducted in the vicinity of Finnhamn Island in Stockholm Archipelago. The objectives of the survey were to assess whether the sonar systems were able to observe and measure the depth of what can be cavitating flow (in a form of convected cloud cavitation) produced by one specific type of ferryboats frequently operating in that route, as well as investigate if the cavitating flow within the wake would propagate deep enough to disturb the water column underneath the surface. A multibeam and a dual-beam sonar systems were used as measurement instruments. The hypothesis was that strong and deep wake can disturb the optimal operation of a hydrokinetic energy converter, therefore causing damages to its rotors and hydrofoils. The results showed that both sonar system could detect cavitating flows including its strength, part of the geometrical shape and propagation depth. Moreover, the boat with a propeller thruster produced cavitating flow with an intense core reaching 4 m of depth while lasting approximately 90 s. The ferry with waterjet thruster produced a less intense cavitating flow; the core reached depths of approximately 6 m, and lasted about 90 s. From this study, it was concluded that multibeam and dual-beam sonar systems with operating frequencies higher than 200 kHz were able to detect cavitating flows in real conditions, as long as they are properly deployed and the data properly analyzed.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 31: South Florida’s Encroachment of the Sea and
           Environmental Transformation over the 21st Century

    • Authors: Joseph Park, Erik Stabenau, Jed Redwine, Kevin Kotun
      First page: 31
      Abstract: South Florida encompasses a dynamic confluence of urban and natural ecosystems strongly connected to ocean and freshwater hydrologic forcings. Low land elevation, flat topography and highly transmissive aquifers place both communities at the nexus of environmental and ecological transformation driven by rising sea level. Based on a local sea level rise projection, we examine regional inundation impacts and employ hydrographic records in Florida Bay and the southern Everglades to assess water level exceedance dynamics and landscape-relevant tipping points. Intrinsic mode functions of water levels across the coastal interface are used to gauge the relative influence and time-varying transformation potential of estuarine and freshwater marshes into a marine-dominated environment with the introduction of a Marsh-to-Ocean transformation index (MOI).
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 32: UK Macro-Algae Biofuels: A Strategic Management
           Review and Future Research Agenda

    • Authors: Per Gegg, Victoria Wells
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Macro-algae is increasingly gaining attention as a potential feedstock for biofuels and as a potential alternative fuel for aviation. Technological aspects are showing promise, and being examined more widely. This paper uses a strategic management perspective to complete an initial macro-environmental scan of the potential opportunities and threats to a seaweed biofuels industry. This is in response to calls to look beyond technological aspects, and highlights the importance of social acceptance. It is clear that very little is known about the potential economic, social, environmental and political/legal issues that might arise in the development of this industry. While we can look at the development of other, more established renewable technologies and seaweed industries away from the UK to highlight potential issues this does not give us a clear picture. Further research is needed to ensure that a proactive approach is used to research and inform stakeholders who will affect the further technological development and commercialization of the industry.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 33: Sea Level Forecasts Aggregated from Established
           Operational Systems

    • Authors: Andy Taylor, Gary Brassington
      First page: 33
      Abstract: A system for providing routine seven-day forecasts of sea level observable at tide gauge locations is described and evaluated. Forecast time series are aggregated from well-established operational systems of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology; although following some adjustments these systems are only quasi-complimentary. Target applications are routine coastal decision processes under non-extreme conditions. The configuration aims to be relatively robust to operational realities such as version upgrades, data gaps and metadata ambiguities. Forecast skill is evaluated against hourly tide gauge observations. Characteristics of the bias correction term are demonstrated to be primarily static in time, with time varying signals showing regional coherence. This simple approach to exploiting existing complex systems can offer valuable levels of skill at a range of Australian locations. The prospect of interpolation between observation sites and exploitation of lagged-ensemble uncertainty estimates could be meaningfully pursued. Skill characteristics define a benchmark against which new operational sea level forecasting systems can be measured. More generally, an aggregation approach may prove to be optimal for routine sea level forecast services given the physically inhomogeneous processes involved and ability to incorporate ongoing improvements and extensions of source systems.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030033
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 34: Integrating Long Tide Gauge Records with
           Projection Modelling Outputs. A Case Study: New York

    • Authors: Phil J. Watson
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Sea level rise is one of the key artefacts of a warming climate which is predicted to have profound impacts for coastal communities over the course of the 21st century and beyond. The IPCC provide regular updates (5–7 years) on the global status of the science and projections of climate change to assist guide policy, adaptation and mitigation endeavours. Increasingly sophisticated climate modelling tools are being used to underpin these processes with demand for improved resolution of modelling output products (such as predicted sea level rise) at a more localized scale. With a decade of common coverage between observational data and CMIP5 projection model outputs (2007–2016), this analysis provides an additional method by which to test the veracity of model outputs to replicate in-situ measurements using the case study site of New York. Results indicate that the mean relative velocity of the model projection products is of the order of 2.5–2.8 mm/year higher than the tide gauge results in 2016. In the event this phenomena is more spatially represented, there is a significant role for long tide gauge records to assist in evaluating climate model products to improve scientific rigour.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030034
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 35: CaMEL and ADCIRC Storm Surge Models—A
           Comparative Study

    • Authors: Muhammad Akbar, Richard Luettich, Jason Fleming, Shahrouz Aliabadi
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The Computation and Modeling Engineering Laboratory (CaMEL), an implicit solver-based storm surge model, has been extended for use on high performance computing platforms. An MPI (Message Passing Interface) based parallel version of CaMEL has been developed from the previously existing serial version. CaMEL uses hybrid finite element and finite volume techniques to solve shallow water conservation equations in either a Cartesian or a spherical coordinate system and includes hurricane-induced wind stress and pressure, bottom friction, the Coriolis effect, and tidal forcing. Both semi-implicit and fully-implicit time stepping formulations are available. Once the parallel implementation is properly validated, CaMEL is evaluated against ADCIRC, an established storm surge model, using a hindcast of storm surge due to Hurricane Katrina. Observed high water marks are used to verify that both models have comparable accuracy. The effects of time step on the stability and accuracy of the models are investigated and indicate that the semi- and fully-implicit solvers in CaMEL allow the use of larger timesteps than ADCIRC’s explicit and semi-implicit solvers. However, ADCIRC outperforms CaMEL in parallel scalability and execution wall clock times. Wall times of CaMEL improve significantly when the largest stable time step sizes are used in respective models, although ADCIRC still is faster.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030035
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 36: Projected 21st Century Sea-Level Changes, Observed
           Sea Level Extremes, and Sea Level Allowances for Norway

    • Authors: Matthew Simpson, Oda Ravndal, Hilde Sande, Jan Nilsen, Halfdan Kierulf, Olav Vestøl, Holger Steffen
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Changes to mean sea level and/or sea level extremes (e.g., storm surges) will lead to changes in coastal impacts. These changes represent a changing exposure or risk to our society. Here, we present 21st century sea-level projections for Norway largely based on the Fifth Assessment Report from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC AR5). An important component of past and present sea-level change in Norway is glacial isostatic adjustment. We therefore pay special attention to vertical land motion, which is constrained using new geodetic observations with improved spatial coverage and accuracies, and modelling work. Projected ensemble mean 21st century relative sea-level changes for Norway are, depending on location, from −0.10 to 0.30 m for emission scenario RCP2.6; 0.00 to 0.35 m for RCP 4.5; and 0.15 to 0.55 m for RCP8.5. For all RCPs, the projected ensemble mean indicates that the vast majority of the Norwegian coast will experience a rise in sea level. Norway’s official return heights for extreme sea levels are estimated using the average conditional exceedance rate (ACER) method. We adapt an approach for calculating sea level allowances for use with the ACER method. All the allowances calculated give values above the projected ensemble mean Relative Sea Level (RSL) rise, i.e., to preserve the likelihood of flooding from extreme sea levels, a height increase above the most likely RSL rise should be used in planning. We also show that the likelihood of exceeding present-day return heights will dramatically increase with sea-level rise.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030036
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 37: Anti-Collision Assessment and Prediction
           Considering Material Corrosion on an Offshore Protective Device

    • Authors: Ang Qiu, Xiangxi Han, Hongyu Qin, Wei Lin, Youhong Tang
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Corrosion deterioration of steel can heavily degrade the performance of marine and offshore structures. A typical steel protective device, which has worked for a dozen years in a river estuary, is selected as the research object. Its current corrosion response is measured on site and its further corrosive response is predicted based on measurement data and the structure’s current state. Nonlinear finite element method is utilized to analyze the degradation of the protective device’s anti-collision performance. Meanwhile the rubber buffer effect has been investigated for its anti-collision on the protective device. A prediction method is proposed that can accurately forecast degradation of the anti-collision performance of a protective device as time progresses.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030037
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 38: Effect of Bottom Friction, Wind Drag Coefficient,
           and Meteorological Forcing in Hindcast of Hurricane Rita Storm Surge Using
           SWAN + ADCIRC Model

    • Authors: Muhammad Akbar, Simbarashe Kanjanda, Abram Musinguzi
      First page: 38
      Abstract: An evaluation of the effect of bottom friction, wind drag coefficient, and meteorological forcing is conducted using a tightly coupled wave and circulation model, SWAN + ADCIRC (i.e., Simulating WAves Nearshore + ADvanced CIRCulation), to hindcast the storm surge of Hurricane Rita (2005). Wind drag coefficient formulations of Powell, Zijlema, and Peng & Li are used to calculate wind stresses. Bottom friction and wind drag coefficients are systematically increased and decreased to quantify their impacts on the hindcast. Different meteorological forcing options are applied to study the effect of wind fields on storm surge development and propagation. Simulated water levels are compared with observed data collected from about 150 locations. It is evident that a lower bottom friction causes higher and faster surge propagation, and earlier arrival of inundation peak at locations far from the land fall. Drag coefficients of Powell, with or without a cap of 0.002, and Zijlema produce similar results, while that of Peng & Li slightly overpredicted the surge. Wind fields may cause overprediction or underprediction of the surge, depending on the choice of the wind model. A good agreement is found between Zijlema’s findings and this study; that simultaneously decreasing or increasing both bottom friction and wind drag essentially provides the same hindcast results.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030038
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 39: An Analysis of Ship-Source Marine Pollution in
           Nigeria Seaports

    • Authors: D. Onwuegbuchunam, T. Ebe, L. Okoroji, A. Essien
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Existing studies indicate that marine pollution control in the ports of developing economies is marred by a lack of administrative control and inadequate provision of waste reception facilities. In Nigeria ports, ship generated waste control services and provision of waste reception facilities are outsourced to private companies with no requirement for an activity audit. Apart from the port authority, other government agencies are also involved in pollution monitoring and control. Hence, functions are duplicated and effective regulation is arguably weakened by conflicts of interest. A scientific based integrated model is therefore proposed to address the managerial problem posed in the control of marine pollution in Nigerian ports. In this paper, we conduct a physico-chemical and microbiological analysis of samples of ships’ wastewater to determine the status of marine pollution in the port environment. The samples were collected from randomly selected ships at berths in seaport locations. The outputs from the analysis are then integrated as inputs into an administrative framework model. The integrated model developed is proposed as an alternative administrative tool for monitoring and controlling pollution in seaports. The policy implications of the developed model are discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030039
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 40: Applying Principles of Uncertainty within Coastal
           Hazard Assessments to Better Support Coastal Adaptation

    • Authors: Scott Stephens, Robert Bell, Judy Lawrence
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Coastal hazards result from erosion of the shore, or flooding of low-elevation land when storm surges combine with high tides and/or large waves. Future sea-level rise will greatly increase the frequency and depth of coastal flooding and will exacerbate erosion and raise groundwater levels, forcing vulnerable communities to adapt. Communities, local councils and infrastructure operators will need to decide when and how to adapt. The process of decision making using adaptive pathways approaches, is now being applied internationally to plan for adaptation over time by anticipating tipping points in the future when planning objectives are no longer being met. This process requires risk and uncertainty considerations to be transparent in the scenarios used in adaptive planning. We outline a framework for uncertainty identification and management within coastal hazard assessments. The framework provides a logical flow from the land use situation, to the related level of uncertainty as determined by the situation, to which hazard scenarios to model, to the complexity level of hazard modeling required, and to the possible decision type. Traditionally, coastal flood hazard maps show inundated areas only. We present enhanced maps of flooding depth and frequency which clearly show the degree of hazard exposure, where that exposure occurs, and how the exposure changes with sea-level rise, to better inform adaptive planning processes. The new uncertainty framework and mapping techniques can better inform identification of trigger points for adaptation pathways planning and their expected time range, compared to traditional coastal flooding hazard assessments.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030040
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 41: Effects of Salinity on Surface Lifetime of Large
           Individual Bubbles

    • Authors: Magdalena Anguelova, Pablo Huq
      First page: 41
      Abstract: The influence of salinity on the characteristics of individual bubbles (2–4 mm in diameter) in fresh and saline water (up to 40 practical salinity units) was investigated. Bubbles were produced by forcing air through capillary tubes. Aqueous solutions in distilled and filtered tap waters with minimized presence of organic additives were used. Salinity, surface tension, and water temperature were monitored. Parameters measured were the bubble surface lifetime, diameter, and rise velocity. The surface lifetime varies widely (in the range of 0.4–35 s) depending on the salinity concentration and the purity of the solutions. Variations with salinity of size and rise velocity of large individual bubbles are discussed. Interpretation of the results in terms of anti-foaming (negative adsorption), as well as the Marangoni and the Gibbs effects, is helpful in understanding the results.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030041
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 42: Choosing a Future Shoreline for the San Francisco
           Bay: Strategic Coastal Adaptation Insights from Cost Estimation

    • Authors: Daniella Hirschfeld, Kristina Hill
      First page: 42
      Abstract: In metropolitan regions made up of multiple independent jurisdictions, adaptation to increased coastal flooding due to sea level rise requires coordinated strategic planning of the physical and organizational approaches to be adopted. Here, we explore a flexible method for estimating physical adaptation costs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline. Our goal is to identify uncertainties that can hinder cooperation and decision-making. We categorized shoreline data, estimated the height of exceedance for sea level rise scenarios, and developed a set of unit costs for raising current infrastructure to meet future water levels. Using these cost estimates, we explored critical strategic planning questions, including shoreline positions, design heights, and infrastructure types. For shoreline position, we found that while the shortest line is in fact the least costly, building the future shoreline at today’s transition from saltwater to freshwater vegetation is similar in cost but allows for the added possibility of conserving saltwater wetlands. Regulations requiring a specific infrastructure design height above the water level had a large impact on physical construction costs, increasing them by as much as 200%. Finally, our results show that the costs of raising existing walls may represent 70% to 90% of the total regional costs, suggesting that a shift to earthen terraces and levees will reduce adaptation costs significantly.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030042
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 43: Impact of North Atlantic Teleconnection Patterns
           on Northern European Sea Level

    • Authors: Léon Chafik, Jan Nilsen, Sönke Dangendorf
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Northern European sea levels show a non-stationary link to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The location of the centers of the NAO dipole, however, can be affected through the interplay with the East Atlantic (EAP) and the Scandinavian (SCAN) teleconnection patterns. Our results indicate the importance of accounting for the binary combination of the NAO with the EAP/SCAN for better understanding the non-stationary drivers inducing sea level variations along the European coasts. By combining altimetry and tide gauges, we find that anomalously high monthly sea levels along the Norwegian (North Sea) coast are predominantly governed by same positive phase NAO+/EAP+ (NAO+/SCAN+) type of atmospheric circulation, while the Newlyn and Brest tide gauges respond markedly to the opposite phase NAO−/EAP+ combination. Despite these regional differences, we find that coherent European sea level changes project onto a pattern resembling NAO+/SCAN+, which is signified by pressure anomalies over Scandinavia and southern Europe forcing winds to trace the continental slope, resulting in a pile-up of water along the European coasts through Ekman transport. We conclude that taking into consideration the interaction between these atmospheric circulation regimes is valuable and may help to understand the time-varying relationship between the NAO and European mean sea level.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030043
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 44: Cost and Materials Required to Retrofit US
           Seaports in Response to Sea Level Rise: A Thought Exercise for Climate

    • Authors: Austin Becker, Ariel Hippe, Elizabeth Mclean
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Climate changes projected for 2100 and beyond could result in a worldwide race for adaptation resources on a scale never seen before. This paper describes a model for estimating the cost and materials of elevating coastal seaport infrastructure in the United States to prevent damage from sea level rise associated with climate change. This study pilots the use of a generic port model (GenPort) as a basis from which to estimate regional materials and monetary demands, resulting in projections that would be infeasible to calculate on an individual port-by-port basis. We estimate the combined cost of adding two meters of additional fill material to elevate the working surface and then reconstructing the generic port. We use the resulting unit area cost to develop an estimate to elevate and retrofit 100 major United States commercial coastal ports. A total of $57 billion to $78 billion (2012 US dollars) and 704 million cubic meters of fill would be required to elevate the 100 ports by two meters and to reconstruct associated infrastructure. This estimation method and the results serve as a thought exercise to provoke considerations of the cumulative monetary and material demands of widespread adaptations of seaport infrastructure. The model can be adapted for use in multiple infrastructure sectors and coastal managers can use the outlined considerations as a basis for individual port adaptation strategy assessments.
      Citation: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5030044
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 15: Offshore Deployments of Wave Energy Converters by
           Seabased Industry AB

    • Authors: Maria Chatzigiannakou, Irina Dolguntseva, Mats Leijon
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Since 2008, Seabased Industry AB (SIAB) has manufactured and deployed several units of wave energy converters (WECs) of different design. The WECs are linear generators with point absorber buoy systems that are placed on the seabed, mounted on a gravitation concrete foundation. These deployments have taken place in different areas, using different deployment vessels. Offshore deployments of WECs and underwater substations have so far been complicated procedures, that were both expensive and time-consuming. The focus of this paper is to discuss these deployments in terms of economy and time efficiency, as well as safety. Because seven vessels have been used to facilitate the deployments, an evaluation on the above basis is carried out for them. The main conclusions and certain solutions are presented for the various problems encountered during these deployments and the vessel choice is discussed. It is found that the offshore deployment process can be optimized in terms of cost, time efficiency and safety with a careful vessel choice, use of the latest available technologies and detailed planning and organizing.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5020015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 16: Short-Term Nitrogen and Phosphorus Release during
           the Disturbance of Surface Sediments: A Case Study in an Urbanised
           Estuarine System (Gold Coast Broadwater, Australia)

    • Authors: Ryan Dunn, Nathan Waltham, Peter Teasdale, David Robertson, David Welsh
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Understanding the effects of sediment disturbances on nutrient loadings is important for the management of estuarine settings. This study investigated the initial influence of sediment disturbance on water column nutrient concentrations in a shallow estuarine setting within the Gold Coast Broadwater, using a laboratory-based approach. Undisturbed sediment cores (200 mm Ø × 330 mm length, plexiglass) were incubated before and after being subjected to a disturbance event, to investigate the effect on the immediate and subsequent short-term water column nutrient concentrations. Sediment NH4+bio and PO43−bio concentrations ranged from 150 to 478 and 1.50 to 8.56 nmol g−1 dry wt, respectively. Water column NH4+ concentrations underwent the greatest increase (>1000% or approx. 14 times greater) immediately following disturbance, with mean effluxes increasing by >300%. Thereafter, water column NH4+ concentrations and efflux rates declined to near initial pre-disturbance concentrations. Water column NH4+ concentrations accounted for 0.58%–5.50% of the depth-integrated sediment NH4+bio concentration, indicating mobilization of the sediment bound exchangeable NH4+. The observed changes in PO43− concentrations and fluxes were much lower in comparison to those observed for N-species. Following disturbance, increases in the water column PO43− concentration accounted for 7.16%–8.22% depth-integrated sediment bioavailable PO43− at +1 and +2 hours, and 5.65% at +7 hours, respectively. These results provide important insight into the potential implications of disturbance events, such as vessel activities and dredging operations, within the case study region, providing information for potential management options and relevant water quality concerns.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5020016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 17: Erratum: Garzon, J.L.; Ferreira, C.M. Storm Surge
           Modeling in Large Estuaries: Sensitivity Analyses to Parameters and
           Physical Processes in the Chesapeake Bay. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4, 45

    • Authors: Juan Garzon, Celso Ferreira
      First page: 17
      Abstract: n/a
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5020017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 18: Coastal Ecosystem Effects of Increased Summer
           Temperature and Contamination by the Flame Retardant HBCDD

    • Authors: Clare Bradshaw, Anna-Lea Golz, Kerstin Gustafsson
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The combined effects of ocean warming and contaminants on marine ecosystems are poorly understood. In this study, we exposed model ecosystems comprising typical shallow coastal Baltic Sea communities to elevated temperature (+5 °C) and the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), both singly and in combination, for 13 days. Higher temperatures caused the release of PO4 from the sediment, which in turn stimulated the growth of the cyanobacteria Dolichospermum sp. This in turn led to an increase in the copepod Acartia bifilosa and other indirect effects in the plankton, interpreted as being caused by changes in predation, grazing, and competition. Elevated temperatures also stimulated benthic primary production and increased production of benthic mollusk larvae. Although increased temperature was the dominant driver of effects in these systems, HBCDD also appeared to have some effects, mainly in the zooplankton (both direct and indirect effects) and benthic meiofauna (an interactive effect with temperature). Although the study used model ecosystems, which are an approximation of field conditions, it highlights that interactive ecosystem effects between two stressors are possible and demonstrates the ecological and temporal complexity of such responses. Such unpredictable responses to warming and contaminants are a major challenge for ecosystem management to deal with multistressor situations in the Baltic Sea.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5020018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 19: Sediment Transport into the Swinomish Navigation
           Channel, Puget Sound—Habitat Restoration versus Navigation Maintenance

    • Authors: Tarang Khangaonkar, Adi Nugraha, Steve Hinton, David Michalsen, Scott Brown
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The 11 mile (1.6 km) Swinomish Federal Navigation Channel provides a safe and short passage to fishing and recreational craft in and out of Northern Puget Sound by connecting Skagit and Padilla Bays, US State abbrev., USA. A network of dikes and jetties were constructed through the Swinomish corridor between 1893 and 1936 to improve navigation functionality. Over the years, these river training dikes and jetties designed to minimize sedimentation in the channel have deteriorated, resulting in reduced protection of the channel. The need to repair or modify dikes/jetties for channel maintenance, however, may conflict with salmon habitat restoration goals aimed at improving access, connectivity and brackish water habitat. Several restoration projects have been proposed in the Skagit delta involving breaching, lowering, or removal of dikes. To assess relative merits of the available alternatives, a hydrodynamic model of the Skagit River estuary was developed using the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). In this paper, we present the refinement and calibration of the model using oceanographic data collected from the years 2006 and 2009 with a focus on the sediment and brackish water transport from the river and Skagit Bay tide flats to the Swinomish Channel. The model was applied to assess the feasibility of achieving the desired dual outcome of (a) reducing sedimentation and shoaling in the Swinomish Channel and (b) providing a direct migration pathway and improved conveyance of freshwater into the Swinomish Channel. The potential reduction in shoaling through site-specific structure repairs is evaluated. Similarly, the potential to significantly improve of brackish water habitat through dike breach restoration actions using the McGlinn Causeway project example, along with its impacts on sediment deposition in the Swinomish Navigation Channel, is examined.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5020019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 20: Improved Methodology of Weather Window Prediction
           for Offshore Operations Based on Probabilities of Operation Failure

    • Authors: Tomas Gintautas, John Sørensen
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The offshore wind industry is building and planning new wind farms further offshore due to increasing demand on sustainable energy production and already occupied prime resource locations closer to shore. Costs of operation and maintenance, transport and installation of offshore wind turbines already contribute significantly to the cost of produced electricity and will continue to increase, due to moving further offshore, if the current techniques of predicting offshore wind farm accessibility are to stay the same. The majority of offshore operations are carried out by specialized ships that must be hired for the duration of the operation. Therefore, offshore wind farm accessibility and costs of offshore activities are primarily driven by the expected number of operational hours offshore and waiting times for weather windows, suitable for offshore operations. Having more reliable weather window estimates would result in better wind farm accessibility predictions and, as a consequence, potentially reduce the cost of offshore wind energy. This paper presents an updated methodology of weather window prediction that uses physical offshore vessel and equipment responses to establish the expected probabilities of operation failure, which, in turn, can be compared to maximum allowable probability of failure to obtain weather windows suitable for operation. Two case studies were performed to evaluate the feasibility of the improved methodology, and the results indicated that it produced consistent and improved results. In fact, the updated methodology predicts 57% and 47% more operational hours during the test period when compared to standard alpha-factor and the original methodologies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5020020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 21: The Impact of Uncertainties in Ice Sheet Dynamics
           on Sea-Level Allowances at Tide Gauge Locations

    • Authors: Aimée Slangen, Roderik van de Wal, Thomas Reerink, Renske de Winter, John Hunter, Philip Woodworth, Tamsin Edwards
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Sea level is projected to rise in the coming centuries as a result of a changing climate. One of the major uncertainties is the projected contribution of the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica to sea-level rise (SLR). Here, we study the impact of different shapes of uncertainty distributions of the ice sheets on so-called sea-level allowances. An allowance indicates the height a coastal structure needs to be elevated to keep the same frequency and likelihood of sea-level extremes under a projected amount of mean SLR. Allowances are always larger than the projected SLR. Their magnitude depends on several factors, such as projection uncertainty and the typical variability of the extreme events at a location. Our results show that allowances increase significantly for ice sheet dynamics’ uncertainty distributions that are more skewed (more than twice, compared to Gaussian uncertainty distributions), due to the increased probability of a much larger ice sheet contribution to SLR. The allowances are largest in regions where a relatively small observed variability in the extremes is paired with relatively large magnitude and/or large uncertainty in the projected SLR, typically around the equator. Under the RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway) projections of SLR, the likelihood of extremes increases more than a factor 10 4 at more than 50–87% of the tide gauges.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5020021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 22: An Alternative Method to Niskin Sampling for
           Molecular Analysis of the Marine Environment

    • Authors: Jonathan Teague, Thomas Scott, Sanjay Sharma, George Graham, Michael Allen
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The development of low-cost, open-source Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) systems has provided almost unrestricted access for researchers looking to monitor the marine environment in ever greater resolution. Sampling microbial communities from the marine environment, however, still usually relies on Niskin-bottle sampling (ROV or Conductivity-Temperature-Depth sampler (CTD) based), a method which introduces an inaccuracy and variability that is incompatible with metatranscriptomic analysis, for example. Here, we describe a versatile, easily-replicated platform which achieves in situ mRNA preservation, via the addition of RNAlater to filtered microbial cells, to enhance ROV or CTD functionality.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5020022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 23: Correction: Hajieghrary, H.; Mox, D.; Hsieh, M.A.
           Information Theoretic Source Seeking Strategies for Multiagent Plume
           Tracking in Turbulent Fields. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
           2017, 5, 3

    • Authors: Hadi Hajieghrary, Daniel Mox, M. Hsieh
      First page: 23
      Abstract: none
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5020023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 24: Predicting Dynamic Coastal Delta Change in
           Response to Sea-Level Rise

    • Authors: Wietse Van De Lageweg, Aimée Slangen
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The world’s largest deltas are densely populated, of significant economic importance and among the most valuable coastal ecosystems. Projected twenty-first century sea-level rise (SLR) poses a threat to these low-lying coastal environments with inhabitants, resources and ecology becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding. Large spatial differences exist in the parameters shaping the world’s deltas with respect to river discharge, tides and waves, substrate and sediment cohesion, sea-level rise, and human engineering. Here, we use a numerical flow and transport model to: (1) quantify the capability of different types of deltas to dynamically respond to SLR; and (2) evaluate the resultant coastal impact by assessing delta flooding, shoreline recession and coastal habitat changes. We show three different delta forcing experiments representative of many natural deltas: (1) river flow only; (2) river flow and waves; and (3) river flow and tides. We find that delta submergence, shoreline recession and changes in habitat are not dependent on the applied combination of river flow, waves and tides but are rather controlled by SLR. This implies that regional differences in SLR determine delta coastal impacts globally, potentially mitigated by sediment composition and ecosystem buffering. This process-based approach of modelling future deltaic change provides the first set of quantitative predictions of dynamic morphologic change for inclusion in Climate and Earth System Models while also informing local management of deltaic areas across the globe.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5020024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 1: Role of Beach Morphology in Wave Overtopping Hazard

    • Authors: Benjamin Phillips, Jennifer Brown, Jean-Raymond Bidlot, Andrew Plater
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Understanding the role of beach morphology in controlling wave overtopping volume will further minimise uncertainties in flood risk assessments at coastal locations defended by engineered structures worldwide. XBeach is used to model wave overtopping volume for a 1:200 year joint probability distribution of waves and water levels with measured, pre- and post-storm beach profiles. The simulation with measured bathymetry is repeated with and without morphological evolution enabled during the modelled storm event. This research assesses the role of morphology in controlling wave overtopping volumes for hazardous events that meet the typical design level of coastal defence structures. Results show that disabling storm-driven morphology under-represents modelled wave overtopping volumes by up to 39% under high H s conditions and has a greater impact on the wave overtopping rate than the variability applied within the boundary conditions due to the range of wave-water level combinations that meet the 1:200 year joint probability criterion. Accounting for morphology in flood modelling is therefore critical for accurately predicting wave overtopping volumes and the resulting flood hazard and to assess economic losses.
      PubDate: 2017-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010001
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 2: Multi-Layered Stratification in the Baltic Sea:
           Insight from a Modeling Study with Reference to Environmental Conditions

    • Authors: Bijan Dargahi, Venkat Kolluru, Vladimir Cvetkovic
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The hydrodynamic and transport characteristics of the Baltic Sea in the period 2000–2009 were studied using a fully calibrated and validated 3D hydrodynamic model with a horizontal resolution of 4.8 km. This study provided new insight into the type and dynamics of vertical structure in the Baltic Sea, not considered in previous studies. Thermal and salinity stratification are both addressed, with a focus on the structural properties of the layers. The detection of cooler regions (dicothermal) within the layer structure is an important finding. The detailed investigation of thermal stratification for a 10-year period (i.e., 2000–2009) revealed some new features. A multilayered structure that contains several thermocline and dicothermal layers was identified from this study. Statistical analysis of the simulation results made it possible to derive the mean thermal stratification properties, expressed as mean temperatures and the normalized layer thicknesses. The three-layered model proposed by previous investigators appears to be valid only during the winter periods; for other periods, a multi-layered structure with more than five layers has been identified during this investigation. This study provides detailed insight into thermal and salinity stratification in the Baltic Sea during a recent decade that can be used as a basis for diverse environmental assessments. It extends previous studies on stratification in the Baltic Sea regarding both the extent and the nature of stratification.
      PubDate: 2017-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 3: Information Theoretic Source Seeking Strategies for
           Multiagent Plume Tracking in Turbulent Fields

    • Authors: Hadi Hajieghrary, Daniel Mox, M. Hsieh
      First page: 3
      Abstract: We present information theoretic search strategies for single and multi-robot teams to localize the source of biochemical contaminants in turbulent flows. The robots synthesize the information provided by sporadic and intermittent sensor readings to optimize their exploration strategy. By leveraging the spatio-temporal sensing capabilities of a mobile sensing network, our strategies result in control actions that maximize the information gained by the team while minimizing the time spent localizing the biochemical source. By leveraging the team’s ability to obtain simultaneous measurements at different locations, we show how a multi-robot team is able to speed up the search process resulting in a collaborative information theoretic search strategy. We validate our proposed strategies in both simulations and experiments.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 4: Evaluating the Reliability of Counting Bacteria
           Using Epifluorescence Microscopy

    • Authors: Thirumahal Muthukrishnan, Anesh Govender, Sergey Dobretsov, Raeid Abed
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The common practice of counting bacteria using epifluorescence microscopy involves selecting 5–30 random fields of view on a glass slide to calculate the arithmetic mean which is then used to estimate the total bacterial abundance. However, not much is known about the accuracy of the arithmetic mean when it is calculated by selecting random fields of view and its effect on the overall abundance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the arithmetic mean by estimating total bacterial abundance and to calculate its variance using a bootstrapping technique. Three fixed suspensions obtained from a three-week-old marine biofilm were stained and dispersed on glass slides. Bacterial cells were counted from a total of 13,924 fields of view on each slide. Total bacterial count data obtained were used for calculating the arithmetic mean and associated variance and bias for sample field sizes of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40. The study revealed a non-uniform distribution of bacterial cells on the glass slide. A minimum of 20 random fields of view or a minimum of 350 bacterial cells need to be counted to obtain a reliable value of the arithmetic mean to estimate the total bacterial abundance for a marine biofilm sample dispersed on a glass slide.
      PubDate: 2017-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 5: Thermal Recirculation Modeling for Power Plants in
           an Estuarine Environment

    • Authors: Mehrdad Salehi
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Many power plants require large quantities of water for cooling purposes. The water taken from the source water body (e.g., lakes, estuaries, bays and rivers) circulates through the plant and returns to the source through outfall with a higher temperature. For optimal performance of the power plant, the intake inlet and discharge outlet should be meticulously placed so that the heated water will not recirculate back into the power plant. In this study, the Flow module of the Delft3D software is employed to simulate the temperature transport within the study area in three-dimensional and nested format. Model results are used to optimize the location of intake inlets, outfall outlets and diffuser port orientations. The physical processes used in the study are tidal fluctuations, winds, river discharges, salinity and temperature. The subject power plant (power plant parameters presented in this paper are realistic; however, they do not target any specific power plant within the study area) has a nominal capacity of 2600 MW and is planned to be located in Delaware Bay, USA. Existing field measurements are used to calibrate the model in a coupled two-staged fashion for main tidal constituents, currents and water temperature. The sensitivity of the model against various input parameters is tested, and conservative values are selected. The location of the intake is fixed, and the location of the outfall is changed until the thermal impact to the intake is less than 1 °C. Analysis of the results shows that there is a linear logarithmic relation between the excess temperatures at the intake inlet and horizontal eddy diffusivity. The k - ϵ turbulence closure results in higher excess temperature and a more conservative design. Extending the outfall location to the deeper portion of the estuary combined with port orientations reduces the impact by keeping the thermal plume away from the intake inlet and meeting the established criteria. It is concluded that an approximate distance of 1300 m is the optimal location for the power plant outfall outlets. In addition, the diffuser ports should not discharge the heated water toward the intake and have to be oriented away from the line connecting outfall to the intake.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 6: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of JMSE in 2016

    • Authors: JMSE Editorial Office
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The editors of JMSE would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. We greatly appreciate the contribution of expert reviewers, which is crucial to the journal’s editorial process. We aim to recognize reviewer contributions through several mechanisms, of which the annual publication of reviewer names is one. Reviewers receive a voucher entitling them to a discount on their next MDPI publication and can download a certificate of recognition directly from our submission system. Additionally, reviewers can sign up to the service Publons ( to receive recognition. Of course, in these initiatives we are careful not to compromise reviewer confidentiality. Many reviewers see their work as a voluntary and often unseen part of their role as researchers. We are grateful to the time reviewers donate to our journals and the contribution they make.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 7: Characterization of the New Status of Nador Lagoon
           (Morocco) after the Implementation of the Management Plan

    • Authors: Najih Mohamed, Nachite Driss, Berday Nadia, Pastres Roberto, Lamrini Abdeljaouad, Rezzoum Nor-dine
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The present study was carried out in 2011 with the aims of (1) evaluating the changes in sedimentary distribution that occurred in Nador lagoon seabed (Morocco) after the implementation of the lagoon management plan in 2009; and (2) characterizing its new sedimentary status in 2011. Due to the lack of a baseline, we used the 1992 sedimentary status for comparison. The seabed surface sediment distribution showed a great change between 1992 and 2011. We found the same four sediment facies, which were present in 1992, namely: mud, sandy mud, muddy sand, and fine sand. However, in 2011, mud covered more than 54% of the lagoon seabed surface, mostly located in the middle part of the seabed, whereas in 1992, more than 80% of the lagoon seabed was covered by sandy mud. The sediments’ characteristics showed moderately to poorly sorted facies (S0), ranging between platykurtic and leptokurtic (SK) and with various symmetry indices (SG). The organic matter content in sediment has strongly decreased, from values higher than 20% in most areas in 1992 to a mean value of 3.9% in 2011, ranging from 0.2% to 10.4%, thus confirming that the management actions implemented in 2009 were likely effective in reducing the organic pollution.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 8: Towards the Development of an Operational Forecast
           System for the Florida Coast

    • Authors: Vladimir Paramygin, Y. Sheng, Justin Davis
      First page: 8
      Abstract: A nowcasting and forecasting system for storm surge, inundation, waves, and baroclinic flow for the Florida coast has been developed. The system is based on dynamically coupled CH3D and SWAN models and can use a variety of modules to provide different input forcing, boundary and initial conditions. The system is completely automated and operates unattended at pre-scheduled intervals as well as in event-triggered mode in response to Atlantic-basin tropical cyclone advisories issued by the National Hurricane Center. The system provides up to 72-h forecasts forward depending on the input dataset duration. Spatially, the system spans the entire Florida coastline by employing four high-resolution domains with resolutions as fine as 10–30 m in the near-shore and overland to allow the system to resolve fine estuarine details such as in the Intracoastal Waterway and minor tributaries. The system has been validated in both hindcast and nowcast/forecast modes using water level and salinity data from a variety of sources and has been found to run robustly during the test periods. Low level products (e.g., raw output datasets) are disseminated using THREDDS while a custom defined web-based graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for high level access.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 9: Energy Balance of Biogas Production from
           Microalgae: Effect of Harvesting Method, Multiple Raceways, Scale of Plant
           and Combined Heat and Power Generation

    • Authors: John Milledge, Sonia Heaven
      First page: 9
      Abstract: A previously-developed mechanistic energy balance model for production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass grown in open raceway systems was used to consider the energetic viability of a number of scenarios, and to explore some of the most critical parameters affecting net energy production. The output demonstrated that no single harvesting method of those considered (centrifugation, settlement or flocculation) produced an energy output sufficiently greater than operational energy inputs to make microalgal biogas production energetically viable. Combinations of harvesting methods could produce energy outputs 2.3–3.4 times greater than the operational energy inputs. Electrical energy to power pumps, mixers and harvesting systems was 5–8 times greater than the heating energy requirement. If the energy to power the plant is generated locally in a combined heat and power unit, a considerable amount of “low grade” heat will be available that is not required by the process, and for the system to show a net operational energy return this must be exploited. It is concluded that the production of microalgal biogas may be energetically viable, but it is dependent on the effective use of the heat generated by the combustion of biogas in combined heat and power units to show an operational energy return.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 10: Application of State of Art Modeling Techniques to
           Predict Flooding and Waves for an Exposed Coastal Area

    • Authors: Malcolm Spaulding, Annette Grilli, Chris Damon, Grover Fugate, Bryan Oakley, Tatsu Isaji, Lauren Schambach
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) are developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to provide guidance in establishing the risk to structures and infrastructure in the coastal zone from storm surge and coincidental waves. The maps are used by state agencies and municipalities to help guide coastal planning and establish the minimum elevation standard for new or substantially improved structures. A summary of the methods used and results of 2012 FIRM mapping are presented for Charlestown, RI; a coastal community located along the exposed, southern shoreline of the state. Concerns with the methods used in the 2012 analysis are put in context with the National Research Council’s (NRC) 2009 review of the FEMA coastal mapping program. New mapping is then performed using state of the art, fully coupled surge and wave modeling and data analysis methods to address the concerns in the NRC review. The new maps and methodologies are in compliance with FEMA regulations and guidelines. The approach makes extensive use of the numerical modeling results from the recent US Army Corp of Engineers (USACE), North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS 2015). Revised flood maps are presented and compared with the 2012 FIRM map to provide insight into the differences. The new maps highlight the importance of developing better estimates of offshore surge dynamics and its coupling to waves, dune erosion based on local observations, and the advancement in nearshore mapping of waves in flood inundated areas by the use of state of the art, two-dimensional wave transformation models.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 11: Scheduling of Maintenance Tasks and Routing of a
           Joint Vessel Fleet for Multiple Offshore Wind Farms

    • Authors: Nora Raknes, Katrine Ødeskaug, Magnus Stålhane, Lars Hvattum
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Maintenance costs related to offshore wind farms are severely limiting their potential for being profitable. This paper proposes a new mathematical model that considers how maintenance tasks should be scheduled and performed by technicians transported using a fleet of dedicated vessels. The model is novel in its combination of modelling several work shifts and including vessels that can stay offshore for several shifts, while handling large maintenance tasks and accurate calculation of downtime costs. Simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the model in its pure form, as well as when solved heuristically using a rolling horizon heuristic. The results indicate that the end-of-horizon effects of the mathematical formulation are handled effectively. Computational experiments also illustrate how the mathematical model coupled with simulation can be used to evaluate strategic decisions regarding the composition of a vessel fleet used to execute maintenance tasks.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 12: Wind-Wave Characterization in a Wind-Jet Region:
           The Ebro Delta Case

    • Authors: Laura Ràfols, Elena Pallares, Manuel Espino, Manel Grifoll, Agustín Sánchez-Arcilla, Manel Bravo, Abdel Sairouní
      First page: 12
      Abstract: This manuscript describes the wind-wave generation, development and fading in a complex area: a wind-jet region. The study region is the offshore Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) where strong cross-shelf winds occur due to a topographic channelization. This leads to relatively short-fetch conditions, which interact with the swell component. The third-generation wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) is implemented and fed by high-resolution wind fields. A combination of buoy and High Frequency (HF) radar data is used for model validation, resulting in a reasonable level of agreement. The numerical results characterize the wind-wave evolution during a wind jet. A bimodal spectrum is observed due to the interaction of swell and sea systems. The wave directional spreading exhibits lower values at the wind-jet axis. Finally, a reliability analysis of the wave data from an HF radar deployed at the region is carried out.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 13: Inspection-Class Remotely Operated
           Vehicles—A Review

    • Authors: Romano Capocci, Gerard Dooly, Edin Omerdić, Joseph Coleman, Thomas Newe, Daniel Toal
      First page: 13
      Abstract: This paper presents a review of inspection-class Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs). The review divides the classification of inspection-class ROVs; categorising the vehicles in order of size and capability. A state of the art technology review is undertaken, discussing various common subsystems of the ROV. Standard and novel ROV shapes and designs are reviewed, with emphasis on buoyancy, frame materials and hydrodynamics. Several power considerations and designs are discussed, accounting for battery fed and mains fed systems. ROV telemetry is split into a discussion on the various transmission hardware systems and the communication protocols that are most widely used in industry and research today. A range of thruster technologies is then introduced with consideration taken of the various thruster architectures available. Finally, the navigation and positioning sensors employed for ROV navigation and control are reviewed. The author has also created a number of comparison tables throughout the review; tables include comparison of wired data transmission technology, comparison of common ROV communication protocols and comparisons of various inertial navigation systems. By the end of the review the reader will have clearer understanding on the fundamentals of inspection-class ROV technologies and can use this as an introduction to further paper investigation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • JMSE, Vol. 5, Pages 14: Application of State of the Art Modeling
           Techniques to Predict Flooding and Waves for a Coastal Area within a
           Protected Bay

    • Authors: Malcolm L. Spaulding, Annette Grilli, Chris Damon, Grover Fugate, Tatsu Isaji, Lauren Schambach
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) are developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to provide guidance in establishing the risk to structures and infrastructure from storm surge sand associated waves in the coastal zone. The maps are used by state agencies and municipalities to help guide coastal planning and establish the minimum elevation and construction standards for new or substantially improved structures. A summary of the methods used and a comparison with the results of 2013 FIRM mapping are presented for Warwick, Rhode Island (RI), a coastal community located within Narragansett Bay. Because of its location, Warwick is protected from significant coastal erosion and wave attacks, but is subject to surge amplification. Concerns surrounding the FEMA methods used in the 2013 FIRM analysis are put in context with the National Research Council’s (NRC) 2009 review of the FEMA coastal mapping program. New mapping is then performed using state of the art, fully coupled surge and wave modeling, and data analysis methods, to address the NRC concerns. The new maps and methodologies are in compliance with FEMA regulations and guidelines. This new approach makes extensive use of the numerical modeling results from the recent US Army Corp of Engineers, North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS, 2015). Revised flooding maps are presented and compared to the 2013 FIRM maps, to provide insight into the differences. The new maps highlight the importance of developing better estimates of surge dynamics and the advancement in nearshore mapping of waves in flood inundated areas by the use of state of the art, two-dimensional, wave transformation models.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jmse5010014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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