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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2268 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 183 of 183 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)


Journal Cover Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring
  [SJR: 0.296]   [H-I: 7]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2190-5452 - ISSN (Online) 2190-5479
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Structural health monitoring of bridges: a model-free ANN-based approach
           to damage detection
    • Authors: A. C. Neves; I. González; J. Leander; R. Karoumi
      Abstract: As civil engineering structures are growing in dimension and longevity, there is an associated increase in concern regarding the maintenance of such structures. Bridges, in particular, are critical links in today’s transportation networks and hence fundamental for the development of society. In this context, the demand for novel damage detection techniques and reliable structural health monitoring systems is currently high. This paper presents a model-free damage detection approach based on machine learning techniques. The method is applied to data on the structural condition of a fictitious railway bridge gathered in a numerical experiment using a three-dimensional finite element model. Data are collected from the dynamic response of the structure, which is simulated in the course of the passage of a train, considering the bridge in healthy and two different damaged scenarios. In the first stage of the proposed method, artificial neural networks are trained with an unsupervised learning approach with input data composed of accelerations gathered on the healthy bridge. Based on the acceleration values at previous instants in time, the networks are able to predict future accelerations. In the second stage, the prediction errors of each network are statistically characterized by a Gaussian process that supports the choice of a damage detection threshold. Subsequent to this, by comparing damage indices with said threshold, it is possible to discriminate between different structural conditions, namely between healthy and damaged. From here and for each damage case scenario, receiver operating characteristic curves that illustrate the trade-off between true and false positives can be obtained. Lastly, based on the Bayes’ Theorem, a simplified method for the calculation of the expected total cost of the proposed strategy, as a function of the chosen threshold, is suggested.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0252-5
  • Seismic performance assessment of isolated bridges for different limit
    • Authors: P. Castaldo; R. Lo Priore
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the seismic performances of bridges isolated by the friction pendulum system (FPS) bearings considering the seismic hazard of Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi site (Italy), to provide useful and preliminary recommendations in terms of health assessment for design or retrofit of new or existing bridges, respectively. Single- and two-degree-of-freedom models are considered to describe the isolated bridge behavior taking into account an infinitely rigid deck and the isolated bridge behavior having an infinitely rigid deck with the elastic pier, respectively. In both models, a velocity-dependent rule for the FPS isolators is assumed. Seismic excitations are properly modeled as non-stationary stochastic processes having different intensities corresponding to different limit states and with frequency contents related to the medium soil condition, representative of the soil type in Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi site (Italy). The statistics of deck and pier responses of the isolated bridge are evaluated for different system parameters such as mass ratio, isolation period, pier period and friction coefficient of the FPS considering both Life Safety and Collapse Prevention limit states according to Italian seismic codes. The results, deriving mainly from the two-degree-of-freedom (2dof) model analyses, show that particular values of the friction coefficient allow to minimize the response of the pier depending on the different system properties and the different limit states. In particular, the optimum friction coefficient of the FPS ranges from 0.01 to 0.04 and from 0.01 to 0.05 for Life Safety and for Collapse Prevention limit state, respectively, depending on the structural properties.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0255-2
  • A numerical–experimental study for structural damage detection in CFRP
           plates using remote vibration measurements
    • Authors: Guilherme Ferreira Gomes; Yohan Alí Diaz Mendéz; Sebastião Simões da Cunha; Antônio Carlos Ancelotti
      Abstract: The performance and behavior of composite structures can be significantly affected by degradation and damage. Degradation can be caused by exposure to environmental conditions and damage can be caused by handling conditions, such as impact and loading. Such damages are not always visible on the surface and could potentially lead to catastrophic structural failures. This paper addresses the specific challenge of using numerical simulations to assess damage detection techniques applied to composite laminated plates. This study aims to solve the direct and inverse problem of damage detection by combining numerical and experimental data. Finite element analysis was carried out to analyze the direct problem of mechanical response. Heuristic optimization techniques were used to solve the direct and inverse problem by combining data from a model with that of the experiment to identify structural damage. This study also sought to update the finite element model by minimizing the objective function. The structure studied was constituted of a composite plate. Two damage models were used: (i) circular hole and (ii) delamination (local stiffness reduction). The results of the optimization algorithms show good efficacy in the detection of structural damage, identifying the damaged location on the structure and also quantifying the size of the damage in real composite structures. A method has been proposed to identify the damage in CFRP plates using remote vibration measurements. Furthermore, the numerical simulation and experimental tests have been used to verify the method.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0254-3
  • Monitoring-based analysis of the static and dynamic characteristic of wind
           actions for long-span cable-stayed bridge
    • Authors: Dong-Hui Yang; Ting-Hua Yi; Hong-Nan Li; Yu-Feng Zhang
      Abstract: Wind action is one of the environmental actions which has substantial static and dynamic effects on the long-span bridges. The main objective of the paper is to reveal the static and dynamic characteristics of the regular wind and typhoon condition. A monitoring-based investigation has been carried out to analyze the characteristics of the wind actions. The static characteristics of regular wind and typhoon condition are investigated by analyzing the average wind speed. Moreover, the dynamic characteristics of the two conditions of wind actions are studied by analyzing the parameters of turbulence intensity and gust factors. The correlation analysis is performed between the lateral wind speed and the lateral girder displacement to reveal the static effects of the wind actions on the bridge structures. It is concluded that static and dynamic characteristics of regular wind and typhoon conditions are quite different, and the dynamic effects of wind actions obtained based on monitoring data need to be further studied.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0257-0
  • Dynamic monitoring system for utility-scale wind turbines: damage
           detection and fatigue assessment
    • Authors: Gustavo Oliveira; Filipe Magalhães; Álvaro Cunha; Elsa Caetano
      Abstract: Wind turbines are designed to last about 20 years. However, information regarding the actual structural condition of the wind turbine throughout this period is very limited or even null. This situation prevents the exploitation of the full potential of the support structure of the turbine, including the extension of its period of life. This paper presents an overview of a dynamic monitoring system developed to monitor the structural integrity of utility-scale wind turbines. This monitoring system, based on automated techniques of operational modal analysis, aims to deliver important information regarding the actual condition of the wind turbine: early detection of structural changes (i.e. damage) and evaluation of fatigue condition of the support structure. In this paper, a special focus is given to the latter.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0250-7
  • “Drive-by’’ bridge frequency-based monitoring utilizing
           wavelet transform
    • Authors: Chengjun Tan; Ahmed Elhattab; Nasim Uddin
      Abstract: In recent years, the concept of bridge monitoring using indirect measurements from a passing vehicle has been rapidly developed. This concept is known as “drive-by bridge inspection”. Most of the methods proposed under this approach utilize the dynamic characteristics of the bridge as an indicator of damage, such as the natural frequency of the bridge. The natural frequency is often estimated using fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, FFT has a low frequency resolution at the condition of higher velocity of a passing vehicle; therefore, it is not appropriate to be used to monitor the frequency change caused by the degradation of the bridge structural integrity. This paper introduces a new frequency identification technique based on wavelet analysis. Wavelet transform is characterized by its high-frequency resolution and can, therefore, be used to visualize the bridge damage represented as changing the fundamental frequency of the bridge. The paper will implement this approach using an implicit Vehicle-Bridge Interaction (VBI) algorithm to simulate the passage of the inspection vehicle over the bridge. The acceleration signals are then processed using wavelet analysis to extract the bridge frequency. In addition, the study will investigate the use of a subtracted signal from two consecutive axles. The latter point has the advantage of substantially removing the effect of the road roughness from the recorded acceleration history.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0246-3
  • Existing metallic bridges in Egypt: current conditions and problems
    • Authors: Maha M. Hassan; Sherif A. Elsawaf; Hussein H. Abbas
      Abstract: Several metallic bridges are present in Egypt and form an important part of the transportation network. Many of these bridges exceeded the intended design life. Currently, deterioration of bridge conditions is pronounced and is leading to many problems. In addition, it is feared that lack of corrective procedures may lead to failure within a few years. Periodic maintenance and major repair activities during a structure service life are mandatory to sustain a satisfactory performance that preserves public safety and extends the service life. The current work is carried out to summarize the most frequent structural problems and defects faced during inspection campaign of a group of metallic bridges in Egypt. Reported problems include but are not limited to corrosion, fatigue cracks, and permanent deformations in structural elements. Data are collected through an extensive investigation of several metallic bridges in Egypt. The study included visual inspection, structural analysis under the action of loads imposed by latest design codes, fatigue assessment of different bridge components, and field tests. Observations include problems or defects related to steel superstructure, pedestrian side walkways, sleepers and rails system, bracing systems, in addition to reinforced concrete substructures. The study is meant to shed light upon the current conditions of vital structures and explore the available practical repair techniques.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0251-6
  • Quantifying live bending moments in rail using train-mounted vertical
           track deflection measurements and track modulus estimations
    • Authors: Saeideh Fallah Nafari; Mustafa Gül; J. J. Roger Cheng
      Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology to quantify the vertical bending moments that generate in rail under the passage of train wheels. In this method, the rail-bending moments are quantified from track modulus estimated using train-mounted vertical track deflection (VTD) measurements. This provides a practical approach for quantifying the rail-bending moments along large railway networks. The method requires the mathematical correlations between VTD, track modulus and rail-bending moments. Hence, a detailed finite element model was developed to investigate and quantify the mathematical correlations between these parameters. Various track modulus distributions were simulated and the resultant VTD and rail-bending moments were calculated. The mathematical correlation between inputted track modulus, and modelled VTD and rail-bending moments were then quantified using statistical approaches. From the results, track modulus average and standard deviation can be estimated over track windows using the VTD measurements. These estimations can be then employed to quantify the average and peak for the envelope of the maximum vertical bending moment in rail over the same track window. The accuracy of the method was verified using a numerical case study for which a random track modulus distribution was considered and artificial noise was added to the modelled VTD.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0248-1
  • Toward transportation asset management: what is the role of geotechnical
    • Authors: P. Mazzanti
      Abstract: Geotechnical assets are vital for the efficiency of transportation corridors. Geotechnical monitoring can be a powerful tool for an effective maintenance of transportation assets and for safety purposes. Thanks to the technological evolution that has occurred during recent years, several monitoring technologies are now available to perform geotechnical monitoring. Ranging from remote satellite systems to contact instrumentation, it is now possible to perform a multi-scale approach in space and time, thus effectively supporting management and decision making actions. In this paper, three main categories of geotechnical monitoring are considered on the basis of the “monitoring purpose”: knowledge monitoring, control monitoring and emergency monitoring. STN (space–time-need) diagrams are proposed as a simple and useful graphic tool for the design of an effective monitoring plan that accounts for both the technical capabilities of the available monitoring technologies and the specific monitoring needs. Effective monitoring programs, suitable tools for data collection, management and processing combined with efficient models to support decision making leads to “Smart Geotechnical Asset Management” (SGAM). SGAM is a program that takes advantage of sensors collecting data in order to make risk assessment continuously updated over time.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0249-0
  • Experimental vibration analyses of a historic tower structure
    • Authors: Giovanni Bongiovanni; Giacomo Buffarini; Paolo Clemente; Dario Rinaldis; Fernando Saitta
      Abstract: Tower structures were often built by Romans to celebrate military victories, especially in honor of army leaders. They played an important role in the reconstruction of some historical periods, but also in the study of the historical seismicity. These considerations, in conjunction with their cultural value, justify the interest in such structures, which are still objects of several studies. In this paper, the experimental dynamic analyses of the column erected in honour of Emperor Trajan, which is one of the most interesting tower structure in Rome, are shown. The experimental results obtained recently are compared with those of a previous experimental campaign. The study is the base for a numerical modelling of the tower and successive structural analysis in the framework of a preservation effort.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0245-4
  • A non-destructive method to determine the rotational stiffness of timber
           frame connections
    • Authors: Paul Crovella; George Kyanka
      Abstract: A method for non-destructive determination of the initial rotational stiffness of timber joints using the natural frequency of vibration of the beam is presented. The rotational stiffness of the joint is defined as “k”, and the bending stiffness of the member is defined as EI/L. The ratio of joint stiffness to the bending stiffness (k/EI/L or kL/EI) is defined as α. Previous researchers have found that for 1 < α < 100, the joint is semi-rigid, and the structural analysis should include joint rotational stiffness to limit stress calculation error to < 5%. The stiffness determined using the frequency of vibration was compared to stiffness determined using the measured deflection with a center-point loading. The relative deviation between the two, using the center point loading as a reference, was calculated. Twenty beams located in six buildings were tested, and 70% were found to have α > 1. The method accurately classified the joints as pinned or semi-rigid for 90% of the cases. The average percent relative deviation for the field-tested beams with α > 1 was 38%. Percent deviation for α > 1 could be reduced by almost half by taking a 5 mm diameter × 50 mm long sample for density testing. The probability distribution of the joint stiffnesses was characterized using a Weibull distribution. Errors due to assumptions about (1) equal stiffness of joints at each end, (2) existing stress in members, and (3) vibration damping were all studied. The relative impact of each on the results of the method is presented.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0247-2
  • Numerical model upgrading of a historical masonry building damaged during
           the 2016 Italian earthquakes: the case study of the Podestà palace in
           Montelupone (Italy)
    • Authors: F. Clementi; A. Pierdicca; A. Formisano; F. Catinari; S. Lenci
      Abstract: In October 2016, two major earthquakes occurred in Marche region in the Centre of Italy, causing widespread damage. The epicentre of the second one struck Norcia, Visso and Accumoli and a lot of damages to cultural heritage were done in the cities of Tolentino, San Severino, Camerino, Matelica, Macerata and Montelupone, where are located the Podestà Palace and the Civic Tower investigated in this paper. The main aim of this research is the determination of modal properties of these historical masonry constructions using experimental and numerical studies. The experimental analysis was based on ambient vibration survey, while numerical analysis was based on finite element analysis with solid elements. The results of the experimental study were used to tune the numerical model of the structure. As the most doubtful parameters, the modulus of elasticity of the masonry and the interaction among structural parts were adjusted to achieve the experimental results with numerical model by simple operations. Obtaining good consistency between the experimental and numerical analyses, the study revealed the actual dynamic properties of the damaged palace.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0253-4
  • Study on dynamic characteristics and seismic response of the extradosed
           cable-stayed bridge with single pylon and single cable plane
    • Authors: Qu Hao; Su Jufeng; Huang Pingming
      Abstract: Taking Sifang Bridge in Suijiang County, Yunnan Province as a research object, this paper established a three-dimensional finite-element model of the entire bridge. In the semi-floating structure system, the dynamic characteristics were calculated according to the pile–soil interaction, and the influence of pile–soil interaction on the dynamic characteristics of the structure was analyzed. Based on this, the seismic dynamic time history analysis method was used by considering the cable sag, nonlinearity of the support, rigidity of the structure, boundary condition setting, and the pile–soil interaction. Then, we analyzed the seismic performance of the structure and its responses by providing the seismic wave at different levels. The results showed that the structure can be softened by the pile–soil interaction. The dynamic characteristics of the structure in each direction could be accurately reflected by considering the pile–soil interaction. Due to the weak lateral stiffness of the main pylon, the other structural measures should be added in the design. The support between the pylon and girder was the most unfavorable part in the along bridge segment, while the bottom of the pylon was the most unfavorable part in the across bridge segment. Under the earthquake magnitude E1, the bridge sustained the damage and the structure was in the elastic working range. Under the earthquake magnitude E2, some local repairable damage has been detected in some segment of the bridge. The results of this study can be used as a potential reference for practical engineering problems as well as can provide the parameter basis for the subsequent seismic design of the bridge. At the same time, this study has also provided a theoretical reference and an effective method for the seismic analysis of cable-stayed bridge with single pylon and single cable plane of the same kind.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0243-6
  • Monitoring of orthotropic steel decks for experimental evaluation of
           residual fatigue life
    • Authors: Giovanni Tecchio; Filippo Lorenzoni; Mauro Caldon; Marco Donà; Francesca da Porto; Claudio Modena
      Abstract: Orthotropic steel decks, directly subjected to traffic loads, are very sensitive to fatigue: defects mainly appear as cracks, which affect the top plates, longitudinal ribs and cross-beams of the deck. In this kind of bridges, structural health monitoring can be effectively adopted in characterising the safety threshold of the ongoing fatigue damage. This paper estimates the residual fatigue life of an existing orthotropic box-girder bridge, using experimental data from long-term monitoring of real traffic-induced effects. The bridge in question, less than 25 years old, is located on one of Italy’s busiest toll highways and evidenced fatigue damage due to deficiencies in original design and detailing. After preliminary visual inspections, the dynamic identification of the bridge was investigated by operational modal analysis, and a long-term monitoring campaign of strain measurements was subsequently carried out, involving series of strain gauges located on the most critical bridge sections. According to stress cycles recorded at these points, unlimited life verification was carried out according to EN 1993-1-9, and estimates of the residual fatigue life of the various elements were then derived by extrapolation of the experimental data. The proposed method can effectively be applied to fatigued steel bridge decks so that residual fatigue life and the real urgency of retrofitting interventions can be evaluated in operational conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0240-9
  • Efficient hysteresis loop analysis-based damage identification of a
           reinforced concrete frame structure over multiple events
    • Authors: Cong Zhou; J. Geoffrey Chase; Geoffrey W. Rodgers
      Abstract: Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are common in seismic zones. However, damage assessment after earthquake events can be problematic and subjective due to their highly nonlinear and time-varying behaviour when damaged. This research develops a hysteresis loop analysis (HLA)-based method for rapid structural health monitoring of an experimental, scaled 12-storey RC frame building subjected to two levels of input ground motions. A six equivalent degree-of-freedom (DOF) system model is proposed to represent the 12-storey test structure, where the accelerations of every two floors are recorded during earthquake excitations. Hysteresis loops are then reconstructed for each DOF using the calculated equivalent restoring force and divided into a number of half cycles in chronological order. Finally, changes in elastic storey stiffness used as a damage index are tracked over time for damage identification of each DOF based on the statistical analysis of the selected half cycles. The identification results clearly show that the proposed algorithm is capable of identifying damage that was not evident by external visual appearance, and also offers significant advantages in identifying the location and severity of damage over traditional methods for realistic RC structures immediately after an event.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0241-8
  • Condition assessment of heritage timber buildings in operational
    • Authors: Mengning Lyu; Xinqun Zhu; Qingshan Yang
      Abstract: Due to changing environments and aging, the structural resistance of the heritage buildings has been reduced significantly. It has become crucial to monitor and protect the architectural heritage buildings. The objective of this research is to monitor and assess the performance of the heritage Tibetan timber building in operational environments. A three-storey corridor part of the typical heritage building was chosen in the study. A long-term monitoring system was installed in the building to collect the structural response and temperature. Detailed finite element model was built based on site investigation and existing documents, and updated based on the temperature-based response sensitivity using the field-monitoring data. The updated model was further evaluated using the static and dynamic analysis for condition assessment of the building in operational environments. The results show that the updated model is effective and accurate to predict the structural behaviour of the building in operational environments. Based on temperature-based response sensitivity, it is capable of tracking structure performance throughout the life-cycle allowing for condition-based maintenance and structural protection.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0239-2
  • Isolating the location of scour-induced stiffness loss in bridges using
           local modal behaviour
    • Authors: Luke J. Prendergast; Kenneth Gavin; David Hester
      Abstract: Detecting scour by analysing bridge vibrations is receiving an increasing amount of attention in the literature. Others have considered changes in natural frequency to indicate the presence of scour damage; however, little work has been reported on identifying the location of a scour hole based on vibration measurements. In this paper, a numerical study is carried out using a bespoke vehicle–bridge–soil dynamic interaction model to examine how the first six vibration modes (Eigen frequencies) of a typical integral bridge are affected by scour at different locations. It is found that depending on the location of the scour hole, some modes are much more affected than others in terms of frequency changes. In fact, a clear pattern emerges as to which modes are affected by which scour location. Using this knowledge, the location of a scour hole can potentially be detected on a real bridge. However, recognising that it is not possible to undertake an eigenvalue analysis on an actual bridge, an analysis is performed by collecting acceleration signals from various points on the structure. The bridge is loaded by a realistic vehicle model, incorporating vehicle–bridge interaction effects, which leads to the generation of discrete acceleration signals at various ‘sensor’ locations on the bridge. In this paper, it is found that it is possible to detect the location of a scour hole using a relatively small number of ‘sensors’. However, to achieve this, careful signal processing is necessary and advice on a number of pertinent issues is provided.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0238-3
  • A novel method for selecting measurement points in structural model
           updating and damage detection
    • Authors: Ataollah Gharechahi; Mohammad Javad Ketabdari
      Abstract: In this paper, a method is proposed for data selection from multiple measured points in damage identification of structures. Experimental data always have errors due to limitations in the technology of measurement instruments or noise because of nature of measurement. Hence, a part or all data may be associated with frustrating errors, and in practice, it may not be useful to solve the sensitive equations by Least Square Algorithm. Therefore, the proposed method in this research helps to achieve reliable results. The presented damage detection algorithm is applied to a six-bay truss structure and the result is compared with other methods for damage detection using data of mode shapes and natural frequencies. Numerical examples using the noise polluted data prove that the proposed method is a more efficient substitute for all the conventional damage detection methods.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0237-4
  • Assessment of cracks detection in pavement by a distributed fiber optic
           sensing technology
    • Authors: X. Chapeleau; J. Blanc; P. Hornych; J-L. Gautier; J. Carroget
      Abstract: This paper presents the feasibility of damage detection in asphalt pavements by embedded fiber optics as a new non-destructive inspection technique. The distributed fiber optic sensing technology based on the Rayleigh scattering was used in this study. The main advantage of this technique is that it allows to measure strains over a long length of fiber optic with a high spatial resolution, less than 1 cm. By comparing strain profiles measured at different times, an attempt was made to link strain changes with the appearance of damage (cracking) in the pavement. This non-destructive method was evaluated on accelerated pavement testing facility, in a bituminous pavement. In our experimentation, the optical fibers were placed near the bottom of the asphalt layer. The application of 728,000 heavy vehicle loads (65 kN dual wheel loads) was simulated in the experiment. Optical fiber measurements were made at regular intervals and surface cracking of the pavement was surveyed. After some traffic, a significant increase of strains was detected by the optical fibers at different points in the pavement structure, before any damage was visible. Later, cracking developed in the zones where the strain profiles were modified, thus indicating a clear relationship between the increased strains and crack initiation. These first tests demonstrate that distributed fiber optic sensors based on Rayleigh scattering can be used to detect crack initiation and propagation in pavements, by monitoring strain profiles in the bituminous layers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0236-5
  • Application of a regression model for predicting traffic volume from
           dynamic monitoring data to the bridge safety evaluation
    • Authors: Kaiwan Wattana; Mayuko Nishio
      Abstract: This paper presents the verification and application of estimated traffic volume obtained from a statistical model. The model was constructed from dynamic responses acquired by a structural health monitoring (SHM) system installed on an in-service cable-stayed bridge. The SHM system consists of accelerometers, temperature sensors, and a traffic-counting system based on installed cameras on the bridge. The model performance was firstly assessed, and it was concluded that the constructed regression model for estimating the number of equivalent trucks from the dynamic responses was applicable. However, it was also recognized that the traffic conditions such as the number of passing vehicles and the speed of traffic flow slightly affected the estimation accuracies. Then, the relationships between the traffic volume and the adopted dynamic responses in the statistical model were verified by using the finite element (FE) model in order to apply in the bridge safety evaluation. The analytical results from the FE model revealed that the adopted responses obtained from the analytical data affected by only the traffic volume variability corresponded with those from the measurement, i.e., the adopted responses were sensitive to the traffic volume. Therefore, they were valid for use in the estimation of traffic volume. After that, the reliability indices of the target bridge were calculated by using the estimated traffic volume as the operational load effects with comparison of those calculated from the designed load in the design standard. The bridge reliability based on the estimated traffic volume could provide the actual safety conditions under the operational load, and it contributed more to decision making in bridge maintenance than those based on the design load.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0234-7
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