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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2282 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (102 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1204 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (68 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (90 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 186 of 186 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring
  [SJR: 0.296]   [H-I: 7]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2190-5452 - ISSN (Online) 2190-5479
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Improved axle detection for bridge weigh-in-motion systems using fiber
           optic sensors
    • Authors: Myra Lydon; D. Robinson; S. E. Taylor; G. Amato; E. J. O. Brien; N. Uddin
      Pages: 325 - 332
      Abstract: Abstract Bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM) systems provide a non-destructive means of gathering traffic loading information by using an existing bridge as a weighing scale to determine the weights of vehicles passing over. In this research critical locations for sensors for the next-generation B-WIM were determined from a full 3D explicit finite element analysis (FEA) model. Although fiber optic sensors (FOS) have become increasingly popular in SHM systems there are currently no commercially available fiber optic WIM systems available. The FEA in this research facilitated the development of the first ever full fiber optic B-WIM and its potential has been demonstrated with the site installation of this system. The system combined nothing-on-the-road axle detection and alternative methods of measuring strain at the supports. The system was installed on a 20-m span beam and slab RC bridge in Northern Ireland and the results presented in this paper confirm the suitability of FOS in providing the clear defined peaks required for accurate axle detection in B-WIM.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0229-4
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Damage detection using curvatures obtained from vehicle measurements
    • Authors: Eugene J. OBrien; Daniel Martinez; Abdollah Malekjafarian; Enrique Sevillano
      Pages: 333 - 341
      Abstract: Abstract This paper describes a new procedure for bridge damage identification through drive-by monitoring. Instantaneous curvature (IC) is presented as a means to determine a local loss of stiffness in a bridge through measurements collected from a passing instrumented vehicle. Moving reference curvature (MRC) is compared with IC as a damage detection tool. It is assumed that absolute displacements on the bridge can be measured by the vehicle. The bridge is represented by a finite element (FE) model. A Half-car model is used to represent the passing vehicle. Damage is represented as a local loss of stiffness in different parts of the bridge. 1% random noise and no noise environments are considered to evaluate the effectiveness of the method. A generic road surface profile is also assumed. Numerical simulations show that the local damage can be detected using IC if the deflection responses can be measured with sufficient accuracy. Damage quantification can be obtained from MRC.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0233-8
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Condition assessment of heritage timber buildings in operational
           environments
    • Authors: Mengning Lyu; Xinqun Zhu; Qingshan Yang
      Abstract: Abstract Due to changing environments and aging, the structural resistance of the heritage buildings has been reduced significantly. It has become crucial to monitor and protect the architectural heritage buildings. The objective of this research is to monitor and assess the performance of the heritage Tibetan timber building in operational environments. A three-storey corridor part of the typical heritage building was chosen in the study. A long-term monitoring system was installed in the building to collect the structural response and temperature. Detailed finite element model was built based on site investigation and existing documents, and updated based on the temperature-based response sensitivity using the field-monitoring data. The updated model was further evaluated using the static and dynamic analysis for condition assessment of the building in operational environments. The results show that the updated model is effective and accurate to predict the structural behaviour of the building in operational environments. Based on temperature-based response sensitivity, it is capable of tracking structure performance throughout the life-cycle allowing for condition-based maintenance and structural protection.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0239-2
       
  • Isolating the location of scour-induced stiffness loss in bridges using
           local modal behaviour
    • Authors: Luke J. Prendergast; Kenneth Gavin; David Hester
      Abstract: Abstract Detecting scour by analysing bridge vibrations is receiving an increasing amount of attention in the literature. Others have considered changes in natural frequency to indicate the presence of scour damage; however, little work has been reported on identifying the location of a scour hole based on vibration measurements. In this paper, a numerical study is carried out using a bespoke vehicle–bridge–soil dynamic interaction model to examine how the first six vibration modes (Eigen frequencies) of a typical integral bridge are affected by scour at different locations. It is found that depending on the location of the scour hole, some modes are much more affected than others in terms of frequency changes. In fact, a clear pattern emerges as to which modes are affected by which scour location. Using this knowledge, the location of a scour hole can potentially be detected on a real bridge. However, recognising that it is not possible to undertake an eigenvalue analysis on an actual bridge, an analysis is performed by collecting acceleration signals from various points on the structure. The bridge is loaded by a realistic vehicle model, incorporating vehicle–bridge interaction effects, which leads to the generation of discrete acceleration signals at various ‘sensor’ locations on the bridge. In this paper, it is found that it is possible to detect the location of a scour hole using a relatively small number of ‘sensors’. However, to achieve this, careful signal processing is necessary and advice on a number of pertinent issues is provided.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0238-3
       
  • A novel method for selecting measurement points in structural model
           updating and damage detection
    • Authors: Ataollah Gharechahi; Mohammad Javad Ketabdari
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a method is proposed for data selection from multiple measured points in damage identification of structures. Experimental data always have errors due to limitations in the technology of measurement instruments or noise because of nature of measurement. Hence, a part or all data may be associated with frustrating errors, and in practice, it may not be useful to solve the sensitive equations by Least Square Algorithm. Therefore, the proposed method in this research helps to achieve reliable results. The presented damage detection algorithm is applied to a six-bay truss structure and the result is compared with other methods for damage detection using data of mode shapes and natural frequencies. Numerical examples using the noise polluted data prove that the proposed method is a more efficient substitute for all the conventional damage detection methods.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0237-4
       
  • Assessment of cracks detection in pavement by a distributed fiber optic
           sensing technology
    • Authors: X. Chapeleau; J. Blanc; P. Hornych; J-L. Gautier; J. Carroget
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the feasibility of damage detection in asphalt pavements by embedded fiber optics as a new non-destructive inspection technique. The distributed fiber optic sensing technology based on the Rayleigh scattering was used in this study. The main advantage of this technique is that it allows to measure strains over a long length of fiber optic with a high spatial resolution, less than 1 cm. By comparing strain profiles measured at different times, an attempt was made to link strain changes with the appearance of damage (cracking) in the pavement. This non-destructive method was evaluated on accelerated pavement testing facility, in a bituminous pavement. In our experimentation, the optical fibers were placed near the bottom of the asphalt layer. The application of 728,000 heavy vehicle loads (65 kN dual wheel loads) was simulated in the experiment. Optical fiber measurements were made at regular intervals and surface cracking of the pavement was surveyed. After some traffic, a significant increase of strains was detected by the optical fibers at different points in the pavement structure, before any damage was visible. Later, cracking developed in the zones where the strain profiles were modified, thus indicating a clear relationship between the increased strains and crack initiation. These first tests demonstrate that distributed fiber optic sensors based on Rayleigh scattering can be used to detect crack initiation and propagation in pavements, by monitoring strain profiles in the bituminous layers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0236-5
       
  • Application of a regression model for predicting traffic volume from
           dynamic monitoring data to the bridge safety evaluation
    • Authors: Kaiwan Wattana; Mayuko Nishio
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the verification and application of estimated traffic volume obtained from a statistical model. The model was constructed from dynamic responses acquired by a structural health monitoring (SHM) system installed on an in-service cable-stayed bridge. The SHM system consists of accelerometers, temperature sensors, and a traffic-counting system based on installed cameras on the bridge. The model performance was firstly assessed, and it was concluded that the constructed regression model for estimating the number of equivalent trucks from the dynamic responses was applicable. However, it was also recognized that the traffic conditions such as the number of passing vehicles and the speed of traffic flow slightly affected the estimation accuracies. Then, the relationships between the traffic volume and the adopted dynamic responses in the statistical model were verified by using the finite element (FE) model in order to apply in the bridge safety evaluation. The analytical results from the FE model revealed that the adopted responses obtained from the analytical data affected by only the traffic volume variability corresponded with those from the measurement, i.e., the adopted responses were sensitive to the traffic volume. Therefore, they were valid for use in the estimation of traffic volume. After that, the reliability indices of the target bridge were calculated by using the estimated traffic volume as the operational load effects with comparison of those calculated from the designed load in the design standard. The bridge reliability based on the estimated traffic volume could provide the actual safety conditions under the operational load, and it contributed more to decision making in bridge maintenance than those based on the design load.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0234-7
       
  • Blind source separation-based optimum sensor placement strategy for
           structures
    • Authors: A. Sadhu; G. Goli
      Abstract: Abstract Optimal sensor placement (OSP) plays a key role towards cost-effective structural health monitoring (SHM) of flexible structures like tall buildings. In the context of SHM, vibration measurements collected from a large array of sensors involve significant data storage, signal processing, and labor-intensive deployment of sensors. Moreover, with the increasing cost of vibration sensors, it is not possible to install sensors at all locations of the structure. To circumvent these practical challenges, the OSP provides a powerful mathematical framework to estimate unknown structural information based on optimally instrumented sensors located at fewer locations. The proposed research is focused on determination of optimum sensor positions in the multi-degrees-of-freedom system using blind source separation (BSS) method. The underdetermined signal separation capability of the BSS is explored to conduct the modal identification using fewer sensors and the resulting modal parameters are utilized to set up the optimization criterion for optimal sensor configurations. The methodology is illustrated using simulation models with different mass and stiffness distributions under a wide range of ground motion characteristics. Finally, the vibration measurements of the Canton tower data in China are utilized to demonstrate the performance of the proposed OSP technique.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0235-6
       
  • Structural health monitoring of the retrofitting process, characterization
           and reliability analysis of a masonry heritage construction
    • Authors: Esequiel Mesquita; António Arêde; Ruben Silva; Patrício Rocha; Ana Gomes; Nuno Pinto; Paulo Antunes; Humberto Varum
      Abstract: Abstract In the last decades, heritage constructions (HC) had been rehabilitated and inserted in functional areas of cities, therefore, the necessity for keeping them structurally safe and functional is high. Therefore, the employment of structural health monitoring (SHM) and operational modal analysis (OMA) techniques can be worthy alternatives for structural characterization and safety management. However, in the literature few cases of SHM of HC are reported, and guidelines or recommendations specifically for safety assessment of HC is an effort still undergoing. Thus, the present work describes the strategies for SHM and structural characterization of a Portuguese stone heritage construction, namely Santo António Church and introduces a new approach for heritage assessment so-called Reliability Analysis Based on Vibrational Measures (RABVIM). The results showed that SHM allowed to guarantee the efficiency level of the retrofitting measures carried out, while OMA provided useful information on the structure modal parameters, under operational loading actuation, apart from the data for reliability assessment. Finally, this work demonstrates that RABVIM can be an interesting and useful tool to support the safety assessment of HC.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0232-9
       
  • Nondestructive damage detection in deteriorated girders using changes in
           nodal displacement
    • Authors: Tuan Minh Ha; Saiji Fukada
      Abstract: Abstract The use of static and dynamic responses as inputs in the evaluation procedures of concrete structures has been discussed for many years. With the aim of contributing to efficient structural health monitoring approaches, the present study attempts to develop an estimation method that utilizes only displacement data for detecting structural damage. The approach is based on the correlation between structural damage and variations in measured responses. Specifically, two new damage indicators—displacement assurance criterion (DAC) and displacement-based index (DBI)—are introduced and employed in numerous scenarios to determine damage properties. Parametric studies are performed by a finite-element analysis to verify the correlation of DAC with increasing deterioration and the sensitivity of DBI for identifying the location of damage. In addition, the influence of parameters that affect the accuracy of the proposed methods, such as number of measurements and location of observation points, is also examined. The results demonstrate that DAC can properly indicate the occurrence of degradation in structures and DBI can be utilized as a suitable pointer for damage localization.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0231-x
       
  • Infrared thermographic assessment of cement mortar porosity and strength
    • Authors: Obinna Onuaguluchi; Nemkumar Banthia
      Abstract: Abstract Noninvasive ways of condition assessment and quality control during construction are critically needed. In the study reported here, the possibility of using the infrared thermography (IRT) technique to estimate the total porosity and the compressive strength of cement mortar was investigated. To assess the cooling characteristics of specimens and the porosity detection limit of IRT, mortar mixtures with a constant aggregate volume fraction and varying water-to-cement ratios of 0.25, 0.35, 0.45, 0.55, and 0.65 were heated and subjected to four different cooling durations. Thereafter, the relationships between specimen cooling characteristics, measured porosity, and compressive strength were evaluated. The compressive strength prediction efficiency of the proposed IRT model was also compared to that of the commonly used ultrasonic velocity (UPV)-strength prediction models. Results indicate that the differences in the residual temperature of specimens during cooling became pronounced with decreasing w/c ratio. Although a generally good fit with the Newton’s Cooling function was obtained for all the cooling durations considered, 60 min was the best, giving a strong exponential relationship between thermal time constant and total porosity (R 2 value of 0.99). Furthermore, with R 2 values of 0.97–0.98 and standard error (SE) of 4.0–4.5 MPa, the compressive strength prediction accuracy of the IRT-strength models were superior to those of the UPV-strength models, which recorded 0.89–0.94 R 2 values and SE of 6.2–9.0 MPa for the same set of mixtures. These results suggest that besides serving as a quality control tool during new construction, the identification of delamination and appropriate area for core extraction during condition assessment of concrete structures are other inherent potentials of the IRT technique proposed in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0230-y
       
  • Geotechnical monitoring using total stations and laser scanners: critical
           aspects and solutions
    • Authors: Werner Lienhart
      Abstract: Abstract Modern geotechnical monitoring is based on a variety of surface-based and integrated sensors. This article discusses the potential but also the limitations of total stations and laser scanners in monitoring of civil infrastructure and natural phenomena. We report about our experiences gained in long-term monitoring projects and discuss the impact of the setup location, the signal travel path, and the target. Although modern instruments are capable of measurements with accuracies of a few millimetres or better, neglecting error sources like temperature dependence of the tilt sensor, orientation of the used prism, obstructions and reflections of the measurement beam, and atmospheric refraction can easily cause errors of several millimetres or even centimetres.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0228-5
       
  • Strategy for the maintenance and monitoring of electric road
           infrastructures based on recursive lifetime prediction
    • Authors: Rosario Ceravolo; Gaetano Miraglia; Cecilia Surace
      Abstract: Abstract Wireless charging is an attractive technology that is expected to promote customer acceptance of electric vehicles since it can improve convenience and sustainability. The dynamic properties and the long-term structural behavior of these particular infrastructures call for in depth investigations, to define specific requirements for the installation of the system, as well as for its maintenance, lifecycle analysis and monitoring. Currently, several technologies exist that integrate dynamic inductive charging systems within the infrastructure, ranging from rails with box-section to buried solutions. A wide-range discussion is provided on how to assess the structural performance of electric roads (e-roads), including numerical strategies for the estimation of their lifetime. Structural health monitoring (SHM) strategies for e-roads will be then outlined. Indeed, a SHM strategy integrated with lifecycle management is essential to calibrate structural assessment and prediction, to optimize the maintenance of infrastructure and, possibly, to operate infrastructure systems beyond their original design life. Finally, results of simulations are presented for the e-road solution.
      PubDate: 2017-06-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0227-6
       
  • Stay cable tension estimation using a vision-based monitoring system under
           various weather conditions
    • Authors: Sung-Wan Kim; Bub-Gyu Jeon; Jin-Hwan Cheung; Seong-Do Kim; Jae-Bong Park
      Abstract: Abstract Recently, the construction of long-span bridges has increased due to continuous developments in materials and construction technologies. For long-span bridges that use cables, it is important to continuously monitor bridge safety by measuring cable tensions under construction and in traffic use. Among the many methods of measuring cable tensions, the vibration method, which estimates tensions based on cable shapes and natural frequencies, is currently popular because it is more cost-efficient and convenient than direct methods. Studies on the estimation of cable tensions using image measurement systems are actively underway, but they are used for routine inspections rather than in fixed systems for long-term monitoring of cable tensions. In this study, a vision-based monitoring system to measure cable tensions is installed. The system is applied to a cable-stayed bridge in traffic use. To verify the possibility of long-term monitoring cable tensions, images acquired under various weather conditions were used to estimate the cable tensions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0226-7
       
  • Sources of errors in fatigue assessment of steel bridges using BWIM
    • Authors: S. Faraz; K. Helmi; B. Algohi; B. Bakht; A. Mufti
      Abstract: Abstract Manitoba has many ageing steel bridge structures on its highway network that are facing increased axle loads, speed, and traffic intensity, all of which accelerate their deterioration due to fatigue. An immediate replacement or rehabilitation is not feasible for the existing structures that have already approached their expected service life. The residual life of these types of structures, or their component, is estimated by conducting a fatigue evaluation and damage assessment. Field measurements are very accurate in estimating fatigue loading. This paper discusses a case study of the fatigue assessment on an ageing steel bridge in Winnipeg, Manitoba, which integrates a bridge-weighing-in-motion (BWIM) system. The South Perimeter Bridge is instrumented with a structural health monitoring system which is used to perform BWIM and fatigue analysis of the steel girder bridge. The identified sources of error in the fatigue evaluation using the BWIM system, if addressed properly, are expected to increase the accuracy of fatigue analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0225-8
       
  • Damage detection in structures using angular velocity
    • Authors: Samer Al-Jailawi; Salam Rahmatalla
      Abstract: Abstract A new methodology is presented in this work to detect, localize, and relatively quantify damage in structures based on the changes in the second spatial derivative (curvature) of the power spectral density (PSD) of the angular velocity during vibration. The proposed method is based on the output motion only and does not require information about the input forces/motions. The PSD of the angular velocity signal at different locations on structural beams was used to identify the frequencies where the beams show large angular velocity. The curvature of the PSD of the angular velocity at these peak frequencies was then calculated. A damage index is presented that measures the differences between the PSD curvature of the angular velocity of a damaged structure and an artificial healthy baseline structure. The efficacy of the proposed method in detecting and localizing single and multiple damages was numerically demonstrated on structural beams with the presence of white noise. The method was very effective in detecting and localizing small damage on beams with narrow slots even when 10% white noise was added to the measured data. The method also successfully detected and localized a narrow slot in laboratory testing of a cantilever beam.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0224-9
       
  • Analysis of load test on composite I-girder bridge
    • Authors: F. Huseynov; J. M. W. Brownjohn; E. J. O’Brien; D. Hester
      Abstract: Abstract This paper showcases the importance of field testing in efforts to deal with the deteriorating infrastructure. It shows that when tested, bridges do not necessarily behave as expected under load, particularly with respect to boundary conditions. This is demonstrated via a load test performed on a healthy but ageing composite reinforced concrete bridge in Exeter, UK. The bridge girders were instrumented with strain transducers and static strains were recorded while a four-axle, 32 tonne lorry remained stationary in a single lane. Subsequently, a 3-D finite element model of the bridge was developed and calibrated based on the field test data. The bridge deck was originally designed as simply supported, however, it is shown (from the field test and calibrated model) that the support conditions were no longer behaving as pin-roller which affects the load distribution characteristics of the superstructure. Transverse load distribution factors (DFs) of the bridge deck structure were studied for different boundary conditions. The DFs obtained from analysis were compared with DFs provided in Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB) Standard Specification. Having observed in the load test that the ends of the deck appeared to be experiencing some rotational restraint, a parametric study was carried out to calculate mid-span bending moment (under DMRB assessment loading) for varying levels of restraint at the end of the deck.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0223-x
       
  • SHM of a stayed bridge during a structural failure, case study: the Rio
           Papaloapan Bridge
    • Authors: Francisco J. Carrión; Juan A. Quintana; Saúl E. Crespo
      Abstract: Abstract The Rio Papaloapan Bridge in Mexico is a stayed structure that has reported structural problems; it has required extra rehabilitation works besides a SHM system for continuous remote monitoring. The main problems were identified as structural deficiencies in the upper anchoring elements of the cables and up till now, these have caused two fractures and loosening of cables. The first failure, reported in 2000, was produced by deficiencies of the constitutive material and, in June 2015; a second failure took place due to a defective weld. In 2013 a SHM system was installed in the bridge for permanent remote monitoring, and although it did not have the ability to prevent the second failure, it was possible to measure, reproduce and evaluate the structural behavior of the bridge during and after this event; this information was very valuable to assess the overall structural integrity of the bridge and to quantify the effect of the failure to decide immediate preventive actions and to verify the effectiveness of the rehabilitation to recuperate the initial condition. This case study describes how the problem was addressed using the information collected from the monitoring system, and from the point of view of cost effectiveness of the SHM system, an initial evaluation of the costs and benefits has been done to estimate the value of having the information in almost real time for decision-making and to assure the bridge safety and integrity, versus the initial investment cost for the SHM system. As an initial conclusion, SHM are cost effective when structures are under many external or structural uncertainties affecting the bridge´s reliability.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0221-z
       
  • Monitoring wooden Warren truss hangar to extend their design life
    • Authors: Laura Locklin; Jorge Orellana; George Akhras
      Abstract: Abstract The Canadian Forces (CF) maintains close to 60 wooden Warren truss buildings that were initially constructed as temporary structures during the World War II Era. Within a few months of construction, significant shrinkage and cracking began to take place. Various repairs and inspection methods have been tried over the years, but the remaining structures continue to pose structural integrity concerns. Regular inspections are not sustained and recommended repairs are often costly and over conservative. A structural health monitoring (SHM) system is applied to extend the design life and improve the safety of these structures. This work investigated applicable methods of SHM in order to attain an understanding of the long-term performance under service load as well as detect and identify the severity of damage. The evaluation of various sensor types and methods of data collection are reviewed in order to develop and select a suitable SHM system. Electrical strain gauges have been in place since 2012 and fiber optic sensors have been recently installed. The current SHM system is fixed on three of the eleven trusses. This paper presents the results of the preliminary study and its conclusions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0217-8
       
  • Crack detection in steel girders of bridges using a broken wire electronic
           binary sensor
    • Authors: Farnaz Raeisi; A. Mufti; G. Mustapha; D. J. Thomson
      Abstract: Abstract North American infrastructure, including steel bridges, are aging and reaching the end of their service lives. Over time, environmental stresses and cyclic truck traffic over bridges may lead to crack formation and crack propagation in the steel girders used in bridges. Cracks in steel girders decreases the load bearing capacity of the superstructure and may lead to failure of the structure. Existing methods of crack detection can not be practically deployed over larger structures. There is a need for a low-cost distributed crack sensing system. Given the critical nature of bridges, a continuous monitoring system would be preferred. Available continuous monitoring systems, such as Fiber Optic Sensors (FOS) are expensive which makes them unfeasible to be used for most of the bridges. In this paper, a new low-cost and accurate Binary sensor for detecting cracks in steel girders is discussed. The Binary sensor is comprised of wire bonded onto the girder using an adhesive. When the girder cracks, the crack is coupled to the wire, via the adhesive, causing it to also crack. The sensing system detects the open circuit in the wire created by the crack. A critical figure of merit for this system is the minimum crack width required to cause the wire to break. In the present work, cracks of less than 0.2 mm width can be reliably detected on steel girders.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13349-017-0211-1
       
 
 
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