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CIVIL ENGINEERING (219 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 219 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access  
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Construindo     Open Access  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 79)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Road and Traffic Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Lithosphere     Open Access  
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Media Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
REDER : Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos sobre Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres     Open Access  
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Investigación     Open Access  
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Sul-Americana de Engenharia Estrutural     Open Access  
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.399
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 17  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2008-3556 - ISSN (Online) 2008-6695
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [234 journals]
  • Correction to: TOSCA: a Tool for Optimisation in Structural and Civil
           engineering Analyses

    • Abstract: With the aim of avoiding confusion with any other commercial software having the same name, any future reference to the optimisation software package described in this article should be made as TOSCA-TS.
      PubDate: 2018-12-18
  • Numerical model for estimating time-dependent reliability of a corroding
           pipeline over its lifetime

    • Abstract: This work aims to evaluate time-dependent reliability of a pipeline under corrosion impact over its lifetime. A finite element corrosion model was proposed, and an empirical power low model is also used and coupled with a probabilistic model for evaluating reliability index about a limit state function. The failure probability of structure was determinate for deferent corrosion rate (low, moderate and high rates), considering corrosion depth. Form method and Monte Carlo simulation are used for evaluating the structure reliability. The impact of applying both effect of corrosion and residual stress is shown which is appears a significant failure probability of the studied pipeline. The found results are analyzed and discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-11-28
  • Numerical method for analysis and design of isolated square footing under
           concentric loading

    • Abstract: Footing is an important part of a structure, because its repair is extremely difficult and cumbersome. Therefore, all structural parameters should be carefully considered when designing a footing. An isolated footing needs sufficient depth, when considering the fixed base assumption. Extensive research has previously been conducted to define and formalize the depth of a rigid footing, i.e., the depth required, such that footing behaves as a rigid. Alternatively, working stress method (WSM) and limit state method (LSM) provide a lower depth for low subgrades and a higher depth for high subgrades than that required by rigid condition if a unit width footing is considered for the design. This paper presents a simple approach for calculating the depth to meet the rigid condition under static loading. The proposed calculation method produced a better rigidity than the existing approaches and it correlated well to the finite-element method (FEM) for low subgrades. The reinforcement distribution is function of the bending moment (BM). Steel is uniformly embedded throughout the length or width of conventional footing methods, but this is inappropriate, because the bending moment is not uniform along the length or width of the footing. This paper proposes solutions to this by redefining the placement of steel in the central zone of the footing. The effective zone for reinforcement was based on the FEM results. This simple procedure was developed for calculating the maximum moment using the Diagonal Strip Method (DSM). DSM is a substitute for FEM, and it has been shown to correlate well. The BM at central zone as well as at the edges can be calculated to define the spacing of the reinforcements.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
  • Comparative study on the seismic performance assessment of existing
           buildings with and without retrofit strategies

    • Abstract: A large number of infilled RC frame buildings have undergone moderate to extensive structural damages and even collapsed after the 2015 Gorkha earthquake. The repair and maintenance works are still being carried out in the existing RC buildings, many of them without any consultation with design engineers. Such practices are likely to create a benefit of doubt on the efficiency of the retrofitting works and repair/maintenance works. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the seismic performance of the existing non- and pre-engineered buildings, and later employed retrofit measures that are commonly practised in the region. The analytical results revealed that the selected buildings were seismically deficient and are most likely to undergo extensive damage to collapse states, at 0.3 g PGA. It was found that the retrofit measure significantly enhances the stiffness, maximum strength and ductility in the existing buildings. The pushover curves indicated that the steel bracing highly increased the stiffness, strength and ductility capacity in all case study buildings. The steel-braced building was recorded to have increased the maximum base shear capacity by almost ten times for the soft-storey MRT1 building. Similarly, the retrofit measures also eliminated the potential single storey drift concentration recorded in the original building, such that a uniform inter-storey drift profile can be attained throughout. The conditional probability of collapse for the case study buildings, at 0.3 g PGA, ranges from 13.5 to 42% and could be minimized below 4% in the worst case scenario for the shear wall. All the numerical results demonstrated that steel bracing was much more effective in enhancing the seismic performance of the existing buildings.
      PubDate: 2018-11-22
  • Study of torsional behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with
           aramid fiber strips

    • Abstract: This paper investigates the strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams for its torsional behavior using aramid fiber strips. Most of the time aramid fiber is used as an externally bonded reinforcement to increase flexural and shear strength of RC beams. An attempt is made to use it for improving torsional moment carrying capacity of RC beam. Torsional failure mostly occurs in earthquake prone areas subjected to rapid failure. Brittle failure of structures occurs due to torsional moment. Different patterns of aramid fiber strips are selected to wrap around RC beams and torsional behavior of these strengthened beams is studied. RC beam of M30 grade of concrete is strengthened with aramid fiber strips and tested for torsional failure using lever arms subjected to torque. The beam size is 150 mm × 300 mm and of 1.3 m in length, designed as per IS456-2000. A total of 21 numbers of reinforced concrete rectangular beams were cast for the experimental study. Three are taken as controlled beams with normal reinforcement, 3 beams are designed with torsional reinforcement and other 15 beams with normal reinforcement have grouped in five sets. These five sets are strengthened using aramid fiber strips of 150 mm width with variable spacing of 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 mm, respectively. The effect of different configuration of aramid fiber on torsional moment carrying capacity, angle of twist and failure mode of the beams is studied.
      PubDate: 2018-11-21
  • Coupled vs uncoupled analysis of one-way RC-slabs under nearby air

    • Abstract: The numerical techniques used for blast analysis of structures are categorized in “coupled” and “uncoupled” analysis methods. In a coupled analysis, the fluid–structure interaction is taken into account. Such analysis, although more accurate, is often complex and time consuming. In an “uncoupled” analysis, the blast loads are estimated by empirical equations and then applied to the structure in a separate analysis. Such an analysis is more cost effective, and of more interest for most practical design applications. The main objective of this study is to assess the efficiency of the empirical graphs prescribed by the UFC Code for uncoupled analysis of structures under the nearby air explosions of scaled distances between 0.4 and 0.7 kg/m1/3. The main characteristic of such explosions is the highly nonuniform distribution of blast-reflected pressure on the surface of structure. A method has been developed by the authors to address this nonuniform distribution in the uncoupled analysis. To examine the accuracy of analysis, the response values and the pattern of damages introduced on several reinforced concrete slabs under blast loads are compared with the results of a corresponding coupled analysis, and experimental observations. The uncoupled analysis described in this paper can be reasonably employed in the blast analysis and design of many structures.
      PubDate: 2018-11-14
  • Simplified finite element model for evaluation of ultimate capacity of
           corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete beam-columns

    • Abstract: A simplified nonlinear finite element analysis (NLFEA) based on enhanced inspection, material testing, and nonlinear sectional analysis is introduced as part of a semi-quantitative assessment approach of aged beam-columns. The focus is on the evaluation of the structural performance and residual capacities of slab-on-girder bridge columns subjected to combined external loads and reinforcement corrosion. NLFEA takes into account different levels of geometrical, material, and bond damage due to reinforcement corrosion. At each load step of the nonlinear analysis process, NLFEA establishes the instantaneous stiffness of the structure through effective transfer of the instantaneous axial and flexural rigidities from the sectional level to the element level. The model adopts a displacement field tuning convergence approach that involves single or multiple correction phases satisfying the equilibrium and any user-defined displacement tolerance. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed NLFEA is verified by comparison with test and analytical results from previous studies conducted on undamaged and corrosion-damaged structural elements. NLFEA proves to have high numerical stability and fast convergence, establishing its adoptability in large structural analysis/assessment frameworks. For corrosion-damaged beamcolumns, it is found that critical design sections do not necessarily remain critical for the structural evaluation.
      PubDate: 2018-10-31
  • TOSCA: a Tool for Optimisation in Structural and Civil engineering

    • Abstract: Many structural engineering problems, e.g. parameter identification, optimal design and topology optimisation, involve the use of optimisation algorithms. Genetic algorithms (GA), in particular, have proved to be an effective framework for black-box problems and general enough to be applied to the most disparate problems of engineering practice. In this paper, the code TOSCA, which employs genetic algorithms in the search for the optimum, is described. It has been developed by the authors with the aim of providing a flexible tool for the solution of several optimisation problems arising in structural engineering. The interface has been developed to couple the programme to general solvers using text input/output files and in particular widely used finite element codes. The problem of GA parameter tuning is systematically dealt with by proposing some guidelines based on the role and behaviour of each operator. Two numerical applications are proposed to show how to assess the results and modify GA parameters accordingly, and to demonstrate the flexibility of the integrated approach proposed on a realistic case of seismic retrofitting optimal design.
      PubDate: 2018-10-29
  • Seismic vulnerability study of Soltaniyeh dome using nonlinear static and
           dynamic analyses

    • Abstract: Soltaniyeh dome is the largest brick dome in the world and registered in UNESCO’s world heritage site that makes it one of the most important historical buildings in Iran. It suffered significant damages during its lifetime; therefore, preservation of that from the future destruction is vital. In this paper, the vulnerability of the structure was studied by FEM model which was verified by previous experimental and analytical studies. The extended FEM method (XFEM) was used to consider crack formation and propagation. Gravity, pushover and nonlinear dynamic analyses were conducted to study the behavior of structure under service and seismic load. The results indicate that the structure is adequate in the gravity loads but significant cracks are started from the opening of the second and third floors and propagate through the dome and its supports in the design earthquake (475-year return period). These results in addition to the drift diagram of structure suggest that the top of the structure is more vulnerable and needed to be rehabilitated.
      PubDate: 2018-10-17
  • Assessing the accuracy of RC design code predictions through the use of
           artificial neural networks

    • Abstract: In light of recently published work highlighting the incompatibility between the concepts underlying current code specifications and fundamental concrete properties, the work presented herein focuses on assessing the ability of the methods adopted by some of the most widely used codes of practice for the design of reinforced concrete structures to provide predictions concerning load-carrying capacity in agreement with their experimentally established counterparts. A comparative study is carried out between the available experimental data and the predictions obtained from (1) the design codes considered, (2) a published alternative method (the compressive force path method), the development of which is based on assumptions different (if not contradictory) to those adopted by the available design codes, as well as (3) artificial neural networks that have been calibrated based on the available test data (the later data are presented herein in the form of a database). The comparative study reveals that the predictions of the artificial neural networks provide a close fit to the available experimental data. In addition, the predictions of the alternative assessment method are often closer to the available test data compared to their counterparts provided by the design codes considered. This highlights the urgent need to re-assess the assumptions upon which the development of the design codes is based and identify the reasons that trigger the observed divergence between their predictions and the experimentally established values. Finally, it is demonstrated that reducing the incompatibility between the concepts underlying the development of the design methods and the fundamental material properties of concrete improves the effectiveness of these methods to a degree that calibration may eventually become unnecessary.
      PubDate: 2018-10-09
  • Single diagonal precast prestressed concrete bracing for strengthening
           existing concrete frames

    • Abstract: A new method for seismic retrofitting concrete structures is proposed using an X-shaped precast prestressed concrete brace. This PPC brace is made of four precast concrete parts and middle section that are assembled and added to the existing frame. This method has the following benefits: there is no need to work with wet concrete in site or anchor and bolt to the existing frame, which may lead to a fast and economic retrofitting method. The X-shaped concrete brace was made in half size and its efficiency is confirmed. That X-shaped precast prestressed concrete brace was simulated and evaluated by computerized analysis using ABAQUS FEA modeling by authors of this paper earlier, and the proposed brace showed proper results in reducing lateral drifts and that method is considered as a proper method for seismic retrofitting. Here we are suggesting a different setup for the brace, which may lead to faster and more economic strengthening of RC structures. The new setup is omitting the middle section and suggests the brace to be used as a single diagonal. A model of this proposed method is simulated in ABAQUS FEA and the results show it is proper in reducing lateral displacements.
      PubDate: 2018-10-03
  • Effect of soil condition on seismic response of isolated base buildings

    • Abstract: In the present paper, nonlinear time history and response spectrum analyses were carried out using Etabs-2015 software to study the influence of soil condition beneath the isolated base. The effects of soil flexibility are considered in the current study to examine the differences in spectral acceleration, base shear, story displacements, story drifts and story shear obtained following the seismic provisions of Indian standard code. Various soils are systematically compared and discussed for a seismic performance of multistory buildings. Parametric analysis of the buildings fitted with isolation devices is carried out to choose the appropriate type of soil. The study shows that the value of base shear increases with an increase of soil flexibility and superstructure stiffness. It also observed that the spectral acceleration (SA) and spectral displacement (SD) are higher in soft soil condition, which gives us evidence that the response spectral of a structure is associated with soil condition. The paper concluded that the hard soil and medium soil are suitable for base isolation building. In addition, analysis and design considerations for base isolated and conventional structures are suggested to enable the designer to get a better understanding at the preliminary design stage.
      PubDate: 2018-09-03
  • Collapse limit state definition for seismic assessment of code-conforming
           RC buildings

    • Abstract: This paper presents a study on the selection of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) for the definition of collapse for code-conforming reinforced concrete buildings. The definition of collapse for buildings is not unique, as different codes and authors define it with respect to different EDPs and different values of the EDPs. Since collapse is associated with large plastic deformations, collapse is typically defined by deformation, displacement, and eventually energy EDPs. The EDPs can be either local when they refer to a single structural element response parameter (such as element rotation with respect to the chord) or global when they refer to an overall building response parameter (such as inter-story drift or top floor displacement). The Italian buildings code NTC2008 and Eurocode 8 use the chord rotation as EDP, while FEMA 356 and other North American literature use inter-story drift ratio. This study compares different definitions of EDPs and different values of the selected EDPs by analyzing two code-conforming benchmark buildings, one six-story and the other nine-story high, designed according to Italian code. Multiple-stripe, non-linear dynamic analyses are carried out on the two buildings modeled with concentrated hinges. The results show that different collapse definitions lead to very different safety evaluations and point to the need for the definition of a single EDP and a single value to make collapse analyses (and risk assessment) studies comparable.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Free vibration analysis of functionally graded doubly curved shell panels
           resting on elastic foundation in thermal environment

    • Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to develop an analytical investigation on free vibration of a simply supported functionally graded (FG) doubly curved shell panels resting on elastic foundation in thermal environment. Heat conduction and temperature-dependent material properties are both taken into account. The temperature field considered is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the shell surface and varied in the thickness direction only. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and applying the Hamilton’s principle, governing equations of motion are derived. The results of the study are compared with the available published literature. The numerical results obtained reveal that the material volume fraction index, geometrical parameters and temperature change have significant effects on natural frequencies of the FG doubly curved shell panels.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
  • Dynamic analysis of metro rail bridge subjected to moving loads
           considering soil–structure interaction

    • Abstract: This paper investigates the dynamic response of a metro rail over-bridge, subjected to moving loads. Track irregularity and train inertia effects are not considered. Bridge superstructure, piers and substructure are modelled using shell element, rails are modelled with frame elements and the interaction between bridge deck and piers is simulated using link supports (bearings) in SAP2000 (2014). Moving load analysis is performed for two models namely fixed base model and complete pile model. For complete pile model, the piles are modelled using frame elements. IS 2911: 2010 is considered to evaluate the soil stiffness properties. Modal damping ratio of 5% is adopted. Finite element method is used to perform the dynamic analysis and Newmark-β method is considered to solve the equations of motion. From the comparative study between two models, and for two loading cases, it was noted that the speed of the train is a very important parameter influencing the dynamic response of the bridge. Moreover, the resonance phenomenon for the complete pile model was observed at lower speed compared to the fixed base model for both the loading cases. From this study, it can be stated that a full three-dimensional (3D) multi-span simply supported bridges’ dynamic analysis is important to obtain the transient response of the bridge structure.
      PubDate: 2018-08-31
  • Probabilistic seismic performance assessment of brick masonry infill
           reinforced concrete building

    • Abstract: The present study aims at investigation of seismic performance of brick masonry infill (BMI) reinforced concrete building through probabilistic approach. An existing seven storey reinforced concrete building situated in Indian seismic zone IV, which represents the typical properties of medium-rise non-ductile residential apartment buildings in India has been considered. Nonlinear seismic behavior of building with and without BMI is studied to evaluate seismic performance. Probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM), fragility curves and damage probability matrix has been developed. Analytical fragility curves using incremental dynamic analysis have been developed. Sixteen natural ground motion records from PEER strong motion database are used to study the ground motion variability. Incremental dynamic analysis is performed and the maximum interstory drift is obtained as a response parameter for all simulations. The PSDM parameters are calculated using regression analysis for numerical models. The variation in the PSDM parameters is studied. Discrete probability matrices are developed for different damage stages. Finally, the effects of brick masonry infill on seismic performance are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-08-23
  • Performance-based assessment of response reduction factor of RC-elevated
           water tank considering soil flexibility: a case study

    • Abstract: The seismic design codes/standards of most countries include the nonlinear response of a structure implicitly through a response reduction/modification factor (R). It is the factor by which the actual base shear should be reduced to find the design base shear during design basic earthquake considering nonlinear behavior and deformation limits of structures. In the present study, attempts are made to determine the ‘R’ factors of four existing RC staging elevated water tanks, which are designed as per draft Indian standards for seismic design of liquid and RC designs and having a ductile detailing considering the effects of soil flexibility. The elevated RC water tanks are analyzed using displacement controlled non-linear static pushover analysis to evaluate the base shear capacity and ductility of tank considering soil flexibility. The ‘R’ factor is obtained for four realistic designs of elevated RC water tanks having different capacities at two performance levels. The evaluated values of ‘R’ factor are compared with the values suggested in the design code. The results of the study show that the flexibility of supporting soil has considerable effect on response reduction factor, period and overall performance of water tank, indicating that idealization of fixity at base may be seriously mistaken for soft soils. All the studied water tanks were designed with higher safety margin than that of specified in Indian Standards.
      PubDate: 2018-07-28
  • Experimental tests on existing RC beams strengthened in flexure and
           retrofitted for shear by C-FRP in presence of negative moments

    • Abstract: The shear strength of reinforced concrete beams extracted from existing buildings often reveals insufficient transversal steel reinforcement, mainly due to design or construction defects or increased design load requirements. FRP wrapping is one of the best solutions to improve beam shear strength as the retrofitting intervention is fast and the cost is modest. Design codes provide clear indication about the retrofitting design of simply supported beams, while the case of a beam with negative moments at the end is not considered, although this is in the case of a beam in a framed structure. One of the main uncertainties lies in the effectiveness of the FRP U sheet anchorage behavior in the area of negative bending moments with cracked concrete. This may limit the shear strength of the retrofitted beam. In this study, two beams extracted from an existing building constructed in the 1930s in Rome and retrofitted by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (C-FRP) U strips placed at beam ends, where also negative bending moments were present, and have been evaluated with experimental tests at the laboratory of the Department of Architecture of Roma Tre University. Beam steel and concrete characteristics were evaluated by means of different tests. The experimental results are discussed considering the final results in terms of maximum shear resistance in the presence of negative bending moments. Load deflections at different points along the beam, shear-C-FRP deformation along the reinforcement strips and the damage state for different load levels, are presented. The importance of avoiding possible fragile mechanisms in the sections retrofitted with FRP is clearly shown.
      PubDate: 2018-07-20
  • Finite-element modeling of UHPC hybrid bridge deck connections

    • Abstract: In recent years, linked bridge deck elements have gained popularity for facilitating more durable components in bridge decks, but these components require field-applied connections for constructing the entire bridge. Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) is started to be a major material for closure pours in bridges and various Department of Transportations have been developing guidelines. UHPC is known by its superior quality than conventional concrete in terms of constructability, strength and durability. So far, very limited data are available on the finite-element modeling (FEM) of hybrid bridge deck connections. In this study, FEMs have been presented to define the crucial factors affecting the response of bridge hybrid deck panel system under monotonic loads. The commercial software ABAQUS was used to validate the modes and to generate the data presented herein and the concrete damage plasticity was used to simulate both conventional concrete and UHPC. Numerical results were validated using available experimental data. The key parameters studied were the mesh size, the dilation angle, reinforcement type, concrete models, steel properties, and the contact behavior between the UHPC and the conventional concrete. The models were found to capture the load–deflection response of experimental results, failure modes, crack patterns and ductility indices show satisfactorily response. A sensitivity test was also conducted by considering various key parameters such as concrete and steel constitutive models and their associated parameters, mesh size, and contact behavior. It is perceived that increasing the dilation angle leads to an increase in the initial stiffness of the model. The damage in concrete under monotonic loading is found higher in normal concrete than UHPC with no signs of de-bonding between the two materials. Changing the dilation angle from 20° to 40° results in an increase of 7.81% in ultimate load for the panel with straight reinforcing bars, whereas for the panel with headed bars, the increase in ultimate load was found 8.56%.
      PubDate: 2018-07-17
  • Distortional buckling behaviour of intermediate cold-formed steel lipped
           channel section with various web stiffeners under compression

    • Abstract: The aim of the study is to investigate the distortional buckling behaviour of intermediate cold-formed lipped channel section under pinned end condition subjected to axial compression. An extensive test and numerical investigation of cold-formed lipped channel column with various types of intermediate web stiffeners is presented. In this study, three types of intermediate web stiffeners are chosen such as V, U and Σ. The entire cross-sectional dimensions meet with the pre-qualified column dimension given in Direct Strength Method for cold-formed steel structures. Totally, 12 columns are tested and results are compared with the numerical analysis. Numerical analysis is carried out using software ABAQUS. Material and geometric imperfections are incorporated in the FE model. Selected section dimensions met with the distortional buckling mode. Good correlation is achieved between experiment and finite element analysis. All the results are compared with the Direct Strength Method specifications for cold-formed steel structures. Based on the comparison of results, a suitable design modification is proposed. Furthermore, results are verified with the existing results which are available from the literature.
      PubDate: 2018-06-29
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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