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 Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2449 journals)     - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (208 journals)    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (208 journals)    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (116 journals)    - ENGINEERING (1288 journals)    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (394 journals)    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (81 journals)    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (98 journals) CIVIL ENGINEERING (208 journals)                  1 2 | Last
 Showing 1 - 200 of 208 Journals sorted alphabetically ACI Structural Journal       (Followers: 20) Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering       (Followers: 3) Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences       (Followers: 3) Advances in Civil Engineering       (Followers: 41) Advances in Structural Engineering       (Followers: 33) Agregat       (Followers: 1) Ambiente Construído       (Followers: 1) American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture       (Followers: 35) Architectural Engineering       (Followers: 5) Architecture and Engineering Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering       (Followers: 3) Archives of Civil Engineering       (Followers: 12) Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics       (Followers: 2) ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology       (Followers: 4) Australian Journal of Structural Engineering       (Followers: 7) Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge 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 International Journal of Advanced Structural EngineeringJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.399 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 17     Open Access journal ISSN (Print) 2008-3556 - ISSN (Online) 2008-6695 Published by SpringerOpen  [228 journals]
• Assessing the accuracy of RC design code predictions through the use of
artificial neural networks

• Abstract: In light of recently published work highlighting the incompatibility between the concepts underlying current code specifications and fundamental concrete properties, the work presented herein focuses on assessing the ability of the methods adopted by some of the most widely used codes of practice for the design of reinforced concrete structures to provide predictions concerning load-carrying capacity in agreement with their experimentally established counterparts. A comparative study is carried out between the available experimental data and the predictions obtained from (1) the design codes considered, (2) a published alternative method (the compressive force path method), the development of which is based on assumptions different (if not contradictory) to those adopted by the available design codes, as well as (3) artificial neural networks that have been calibrated based on the available test data (the later data are presented herein in the form of a database). The comparative study reveals that the predictions of the artificial neural networks provide a close fit to the available experimental data. In addition, the predictions of the alternative assessment method are often closer to the available test data compared to their counterparts provided by the design codes considered. This highlights the urgent need to re-assess the assumptions upon which the development of the design codes is based and identify the reasons that trigger the observed divergence between their predictions and the experimentally established values. Finally, it is demonstrated that reducing the incompatibility between the concepts underlying the development of the design methods and the fundamental material properties of concrete improves the effectiveness of these methods to a degree that calibration may eventually become unnecessary.
PubDate: 2018-10-09

• Single diagonal precast prestressed concrete bracing for strengthening
existing concrete frames

• Abstract: A new method for seismic retrofitting concrete structures is proposed using an X-shaped precast prestressed concrete brace. This PPC brace is made of four precast concrete parts and middle section that are assembled and added to the existing frame. This method has the following benefits: there is no need to work with wet concrete in site or anchor and bolt to the existing frame, which may lead to a fast and economic retrofitting method. The X-shaped concrete brace was made in half size and its efficiency is confirmed. That X-shaped precast prestressed concrete brace was simulated and evaluated by computerized analysis using ABAQUS FEA modeling by authors of this paper earlier, and the proposed brace showed proper results in reducing lateral drifts and that method is considered as a proper method for seismic retrofitting. Here we are suggesting a different setup for the brace, which may lead to faster and more economic strengthening of RC structures. The new setup is omitting the middle section and suggests the brace to be used as a single diagonal. A model of this proposed method is simulated in ABAQUS FEA and the results show it is proper in reducing lateral displacements.
PubDate: 2018-10-03

• Exact finite element formulation in generalized beam theory

• Abstract: This paper presents the formulation of exact stiffness matrices applied in linear generalized beam theory (GBT) under constant and/or linear loading distribution in the longitudinal direction. Also, the assortment of the correct exact stiffness matrix and the corresponding shape function are presented based on main transversal deformation mode, which can be divided into: (1) dominant distortion mode; (2) dominant torsion mode; (3) and critical distortion–torsion mode. Special attention is given to the hyperbolic–trigonometric shape functions, which are organized in a system of vector in function of longitudinal direction and a coefficient matrix obtained from the completeness requirement. This approach has the benefit of compacting the terms of the stiffness matrix and systematizing the boundary conditions of an element by applying the completeness coefficient matrix as a transformation matrix. As a result, in linear analysis, a single element can represent the stress and displacement fields. Moreover, due to the higher-order continuous derivatives properties of hyperbolic–trigonometric shape functions, the generalized internal shear is obtained without the typical discontinuity of Hermitian shape functions. A full and detailed example, applied in a thin-walled circular hollow cross section, provides not only an illustration of the presented approach, but also a quick introduction point in GBT.
PubDate: 2018-09-05

• Effect of soil condition on seismic response of isolated base buildings

• Abstract: In the present paper, nonlinear time history and response spectrum analyses were carried out using Etabs-2015 software to study the influence of soil condition beneath the isolated base. The effects of soil flexibility are considered in the current study to examine the differences in spectral acceleration, base shear, story displacements, story drifts and story shear obtained following the seismic provisions of Indian standard code. Various soils are systematically compared and discussed for a seismic performance of multistory buildings. Parametric analysis of the buildings fitted with isolation devices is carried out to choose the appropriate type of soil. The study shows that the value of base shear increases with an increase of soil flexibility and superstructure stiffness. It also observed that the spectral acceleration (SA) and spectral displacement (SD) are higher in soft soil condition, which gives us evidence that the response spectral of a structure is associated with soil condition. The paper concluded that the hard soil and medium soil are suitable for base isolation building. In addition, analysis and design considerations for base isolated and conventional structures are suggested to enable the designer to get a better understanding at the preliminary design stage.
PubDate: 2018-09-03

• Collapse limit state definition for seismic assessment of code-conforming
RC buildings

• Abstract: This paper presents a study on the selection of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) for the definition of collapse for code-conforming reinforced concrete buildings. The definition of collapse for buildings is not unique, as different codes and authors define it with respect to different EDPs and different values of the EDPs. Since collapse is associated with large plastic deformations, collapse is typically defined by deformation, displacement, and eventually energy EDPs. The EDPs can be either local when they refer to a single structural element response parameter (such as element rotation with respect to the chord) or global when they refer to an overall building response parameter (such as inter-story drift or top floor displacement). The Italian buildings code NTC2008 and Eurocode 8 use the chord rotation as EDP, while FEMA 356 and other North American literature use inter-story drift ratio. This study compares different definitions of EDPs and different values of the selected EDPs by analyzing two code-conforming benchmark buildings, one six-story and the other nine-story high, designed according to Italian code. Multiple-stripe, non-linear dynamic analyses are carried out on the two buildings modeled with concentrated hinges. The results show that different collapse definitions lead to very different safety evaluations and point to the need for the definition of a single EDP and a single value to make collapse analyses (and risk assessment) studies comparable.
PubDate: 2018-09-01

• Free vibration analysis of functionally graded doubly curved shell panels
resting on elastic foundation in thermal environment

• Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to develop an analytical investigation on free vibration of a simply supported functionally graded (FG) doubly curved shell panels resting on elastic foundation in thermal environment. Heat conduction and temperature-dependent material properties are both taken into account. The temperature field considered is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the shell surface and varied in the thickness direction only. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and applying the Hamilton’s principle, governing equations of motion are derived. The results of the study are compared with the available published literature. The numerical results obtained reveal that the material volume fraction index, geometrical parameters and temperature change have significant effects on natural frequencies of the FG doubly curved shell panels.
PubDate: 2018-09-01

• Dynamic analysis of metro rail bridge subjected to moving loads
considering soil–structure interaction

• Abstract: This paper investigates the dynamic response of a metro rail over-bridge, subjected to moving loads. Track irregularity and train inertia effects are not considered. Bridge superstructure, piers and substructure are modelled using shell element, rails are modelled with frame elements and the interaction between bridge deck and piers is simulated using link supports (bearings) in SAP2000 (2014). Moving load analysis is performed for two models namely fixed base model and complete pile model. For complete pile model, the piles are modelled using frame elements. IS 2911: 2010 is considered to evaluate the soil stiffness properties. Modal damping ratio of 5% is adopted. Finite element method is used to perform the dynamic analysis and Newmark-β method is considered to solve the equations of motion. From the comparative study between two models, and for two loading cases, it was noted that the speed of the train is a very important parameter influencing the dynamic response of the bridge. Moreover, the resonance phenomenon for the complete pile model was observed at lower speed compared to the fixed base model for both the loading cases. From this study, it can be stated that a full three-dimensional (3D) multi-span simply supported bridges’ dynamic analysis is important to obtain the transient response of the bridge structure.
PubDate: 2018-08-31

• Probabilistic seismic performance assessment of brick masonry infill
reinforced concrete building

• Abstract: The present study aims at investigation of seismic performance of brick masonry infill (BMI) reinforced concrete building through probabilistic approach. An existing seven storey reinforced concrete building situated in Indian seismic zone IV, which represents the typical properties of medium-rise non-ductile residential apartment buildings in India has been considered. Nonlinear seismic behavior of building with and without BMI is studied to evaluate seismic performance. Probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM), fragility curves and damage probability matrix has been developed. Analytical fragility curves using incremental dynamic analysis have been developed. Sixteen natural ground motion records from PEER strong motion database are used to study the ground motion variability. Incremental dynamic analysis is performed and the maximum interstory drift is obtained as a response parameter for all simulations. The PSDM parameters are calculated using regression analysis for numerical models. The variation in the PSDM parameters is studied. Discrete probability matrices are developed for different damage stages. Finally, the effects of brick masonry infill on seismic performance are discussed.
PubDate: 2018-08-23

• Performance-based assessment of response reduction factor of RC-elevated
water tank considering soil flexibility: a case study

• Abstract: The seismic design codes/standards of most countries include the nonlinear response of a structure implicitly through a response reduction/modification factor (R). It is the factor by which the actual base shear should be reduced to find the design base shear during design basic earthquake considering nonlinear behavior and deformation limits of structures. In the present study, attempts are made to determine the ‘R’ factors of four existing RC staging elevated water tanks, which are designed as per draft Indian standards for seismic design of liquid and RC designs and having a ductile detailing considering the effects of soil flexibility. The elevated RC water tanks are analyzed using displacement controlled non-linear static pushover analysis to evaluate the base shear capacity and ductility of tank considering soil flexibility. The ‘R’ factor is obtained for four realistic designs of elevated RC water tanks having different capacities at two performance levels. The evaluated values of ‘R’ factor are compared with the values suggested in the design code. The results of the study show that the flexibility of supporting soil has considerable effect on response reduction factor, period and overall performance of water tank, indicating that idealization of fixity at base may be seriously mistaken for soft soils. All the studied water tanks were designed with higher safety margin than that of specified in Indian Standards.
PubDate: 2018-07-28

• Experimental tests on existing RC beams strengthened in flexure and
retrofitted for shear by C-FRP in presence of negative moments

• Abstract: The shear strength of reinforced concrete beams extracted from existing buildings often reveals insufficient transversal steel reinforcement, mainly due to design or construction defects or increased design load requirements. FRP wrapping is one of the best solutions to improve beam shear strength as the retrofitting intervention is fast and the cost is modest. Design codes provide clear indication about the retrofitting design of simply supported beams, while the case of a beam with negative moments at the end is not considered, although this is in the case of a beam in a framed structure. One of the main uncertainties lies in the effectiveness of the FRP U sheet anchorage behavior in the area of negative bending moments with cracked concrete. This may limit the shear strength of the retrofitted beam. In this study, two beams extracted from an existing building constructed in the 1930s in Rome and retrofitted by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (C-FRP) U strips placed at beam ends, where also negative bending moments were present, and have been evaluated with experimental tests at the laboratory of the Department of Architecture of Roma Tre University. Beam steel and concrete characteristics were evaluated by means of different tests. The experimental results are discussed considering the final results in terms of maximum shear resistance in the presence of negative bending moments. Load deflections at different points along the beam, shear-C-FRP deformation along the reinforcement strips and the damage state for different load levels, are presented. The importance of avoiding possible fragile mechanisms in the sections retrofitted with FRP is clearly shown.
PubDate: 2018-07-20

• Finite-element modeling of UHPC hybrid bridge deck connections

• Abstract: In recent years, linked bridge deck elements have gained popularity for facilitating more durable components in bridge decks, but these components require field-applied connections for constructing the entire bridge. Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) is started to be a major material for closure pours in bridges and various Department of Transportations have been developing guidelines. UHPC is known by its superior quality than conventional concrete in terms of constructability, strength and durability. So far, very limited data are available on the finite-element modeling (FEM) of hybrid bridge deck connections. In this study, FEMs have been presented to define the crucial factors affecting the response of bridge hybrid deck panel system under monotonic loads. The commercial software ABAQUS was used to validate the modes and to generate the data presented herein and the concrete damage plasticity was used to simulate both conventional concrete and UHPC. Numerical results were validated using available experimental data. The key parameters studied were the mesh size, the dilation angle, reinforcement type, concrete models, steel properties, and the contact behavior between the UHPC and the conventional concrete. The models were found to capture the load–deflection response of experimental results, failure modes, crack patterns and ductility indices show satisfactorily response. A sensitivity test was also conducted by considering various key parameters such as concrete and steel constitutive models and their associated parameters, mesh size, and contact behavior. It is perceived that increasing the dilation angle leads to an increase in the initial stiffness of the model. The damage in concrete under monotonic loading is found higher in normal concrete than UHPC with no signs of de-bonding between the two materials. Changing the dilation angle from 20° to 40° results in an increase of 7.81% in ultimate load for the panel with straight reinforcing bars, whereas for the panel with headed bars, the increase in ultimate load was found 8.56%.
PubDate: 2018-07-17

• Distortional buckling behaviour of intermediate cold-formed steel lipped
channel section with various web stiffeners under compression

• Abstract: The aim of the study is to investigate the distortional buckling behaviour of intermediate cold-formed lipped channel section under pinned end condition subjected to axial compression. An extensive test and numerical investigation of cold-formed lipped channel column with various types of intermediate web stiffeners is presented. In this study, three types of intermediate web stiffeners are chosen such as V, U and Σ. The entire cross-sectional dimensions meet with the pre-qualified column dimension given in Direct Strength Method for cold-formed steel structures. Totally, 12 columns are tested and results are compared with the numerical analysis. Numerical analysis is carried out using software ABAQUS. Material and geometric imperfections are incorporated in the FE model. Selected section dimensions met with the distortional buckling mode. Good correlation is achieved between experiment and finite element analysis. All the results are compared with the Direct Strength Method specifications for cold-formed steel structures. Based on the comparison of results, a suitable design modification is proposed. Furthermore, results are verified with the existing results which are available from the literature.
PubDate: 2018-06-29

• Free vibration characteristics of stiffened plates

• Abstract: The free vibration characteristics, such as fundamental frequency and mode shape of stiffened plates employing standard finite element analysis, are investigated in this paper. The parametric study is presented for free vibration characteristics of stiffened plates with various parameters, such as type, orientation and number of stiffeners, boundary conditions and aspect ratio of plates and stiffener depth to plate thickness ratio. Typical mode shapes are also presented for clamped square eccentrically stiffened plates. Finally, design charts with non-dimensional parameters are proposed to determine the fundamental frequency of commonly adopted clamped stiffened plates in construction. These charts will be very much useful for designers for obtaining the fundamental frequencies of the stiffened plates of different dimensions without doing much complicated analysis or using standard computer codes.
PubDate: 2018-06-04

• Effects of courtyard and opening on a rectangular plan shaped tall
building under wind load

• Abstract: The variation in pressure on various faces of a rectangular shaped tall building due to the presence of courtyard and opening is examined for a boundary layer flow condition corresponding to terrain category II of IS:875 (Part 3)-2015. ANSYS CFX is used for the simulation. Two turbulence models, k- $$\varepsilon$$ and shear stress transport (SST), are used in the validation of ANSYS CFX, and the results are compared with different international standards. In the presence of courtyard and opening, interesting and unusual pressure distributions on certain faces are observed due to a self-interference effect. Flow patterns around the building for different areas of opening are also studied to explain the phenomena occurring around the building. Furthermore, the polynomial expressions for calculating force coefficients and mean pressure coefficients of each face for different angles of attack and areas of opening are proposed using least-squares regression method. Accuracy of the fitted polynomials is measured by R2 value.
PubDate: 2018-06-04

• Seismic behavior of a low-rise horizontal cylindrical tank

• Abstract: Cylindrical storage tanks are widely used for various types of liquids, including hazardous contents, thus requiring suitable and careful design for seismic actions. The study herein presented deals with the dynamic analysis of a ground-based horizontal cylindrical tank containing butane and with its safety verification. The analyses are based on a detailed finite element (FE) model; a simplified one-degree-of-freedom idealization is also set up and used for verification of the FE results. Particular attention is paid to sloshing and asynchronous seismic input effects. Sloshing effects are investigated according to the current literature state of the art. An efficient methodology based on an “impulsive-convective” decomposition of the container-fluid motion is adopted for the calculation of the seismic force. The effects of asynchronous ground motion are studied by suitable pseudo-static analyses. Comparison between seismic action effects, obtained with and without consideration of sloshing and asynchronous seismic input, shows a rather important influence of these conditions on the final results.
PubDate: 2018-05-12

• Effect of strong-column weak-beam design provision on the seismic
fragility of RC frame buildings

• Abstract: Incremental dynamic analyses are conducted for a suite of low- and mid-rise reinforced-concrete special moment-resisting frame buildings. Buildings non-conforming and conforming to the strong-column weak-beam (SCWB) design criterion are considered. These buildings are designed for the two most severe seismic zones in India (i.e., zone IV and zone V) following the provisions of Indian Standards. It is observed that buildings non-conforming to the SCWB design criterion lead to an undesirable column failure collapse mechanism. Although yielding of columns cannot be avoided, even for buildings conforming to a SCWB ratio of 1.4, the observed collapse mechanism changes to a beam failure mechanism. This change in collapse mechanism leads to a significant increase in the building’s global ductility capacity, and thereby in collapse capacity. The fragility analysis study of the considered buildings suggests that considering the SCWB design criterion leads to a significant reduction in collapse probability, particularly in the case of mid-rise buildings.
PubDate: 2018-04-25

• Assessment of the behavior of reinforced concrete beams retrofitted with
pre-stressed CFPR subjected to cyclic loading

• Abstract: Rehabilitation of weak and damaged structures has been considered widely during recent years. A relatively modern way of strengthening concrete components is to confine parts under tension and shear by means of carbon fiber reinforce polymer (CFRP). This way of strengthening due to the conditions of composite materials such as light weight, linear elastic behavior until failure point, high tensile strength, high elastic modulus, resistance against corrosion, and high fatigue resistance has become so common. During structural strengthening by means of not pre-stressed FRP materials, usually, it is not possible to benefit from the maximum capacity of FRP materials. In addition, sometimes, the expensive cost of such materials will not make a suitable balance between rates of strengthening and consuming spending. Thus, pre-stressing CFRP materials has an undeniable role in the effective use of materials. In the current research, general procedure of simulation using finite-element method (FEM) by means of the numerical package ABAQUS has been presented. In this article, 12 reinforced concrete (RC) models in two states (strengthened with simple and pre-stressed CFRP) under cycling loading have been considered. A parametric study has been carried out in this research on the effects of parameters such as CFRP surface area, percentage of tensile steel rebar and pre-stressing stress on ultimate load carrying capacity (ULCC), stiffness, and the ability of depreciation energy for the samples. In the current article also, for design parameters, percentages of tensile steel rebars, surface area of CFPR sheets, and the effective pre-stressing stress in RC beams retrofitted with pre-stressed CFPR sheets have investigated. In this paper, it was investigated that using different amount of parameters such as steel rebar percentage, CFRP surface area percentage, and CFRP pre-stressing, the resulted ULCC and energy depreciation of the specimens was observed to be increasing and decreasing. Results from examined specimens with optimum steel rebar percentage, CFRP surface area percentage, and CFRP pre-stressing which had the most enhancement on ULCC and energy depreciation are reported in the current article.
PubDate: 2018-03-01

• Adaptive form-finding method for form-fixed spatial network structures

• Abstract: An effective form-finding method for form-fixed spatial network structures is presented in this paper. The adaptive form-finding method is introduced along with the example of designing an ellipsoidal network dome with bar length variations being as small as possible. A typical spherical geodesic network is selected as an initial state, having bar lengths in a limit group number. Next, this network is transformed into the ellipsoidal shape as desired by applying compressions on bars according to the bar length variations caused by transformation. Afterwards, the dynamic relaxation method is employed to explicitly integrate the node positions by applying residual forces. During the form-finding process, the boundary condition of constraining nodes on the ellipsoid surface is innovatively considered as reactions on the normal direction of the surface at node positions, which are balanced with the components of the nodal forces in a reverse direction induced by compressions on bars. The node positions are also corrected according to the fixed-form condition in each explicit iteration step. In the serial results of time history, the optimal solution is found from a time history of states by properly choosing convergence criteria, and the presented form-finding procedure is proved to be applicable for form-fixed problems.
PubDate: 2018-02-26

• Seismic performance of spherical liquid storage tanks: a case study

• Abstract: Spherical storage tanks are widely used for various types of liquids, including hazardous contents, thus requiring suitable and careful design for seismic actions. On this topic, a significant case study is described in this paper, dealing with the dynamic analysis of a spherical storage tank containing butane. The analyses are based on a detailed finite element (FE) model; moreover, a simplified single-degree-of-freedom idealization is also set up and used for verification of the FE results. Particular attention is paid to the influence of sloshing effects and of the soil–structure interaction for which no special provisions are contained in technical codes for this reference case. Sloshing effects are investigated according to the current literature state of the art. An efficient methodology based on an “impulsive–convective” decomposition of the container-fluid motion is adopted for the calculation of the seismic force. With regard to the second point, considering that the tank is founded on piles, soil–structure interaction is taken into account by computing the dynamic impedances. Comparison between seismic action effects, obtained with and without consideration of sloshing and soil–structure interaction, shows a rather important influence of these parameters on the final results. Sloshing effects and soil–structure interaction can produce, for the case at hand, beneficial effects. For soil–structure interaction, this depends on the increase of the fundamental period and of the effective damping of the overall system, which leads to reduced design spectral values.
PubDate: 2018-02-24

• Compressive behavior of glulam columns with initial cracks under eccentric
loads

• Abstract: This paper investigates the mechanical performance of longitudinally cracked glulam columns under eccentric compression loads. Experimental investigation was conducted to explore the influence of initial cracks on the failure modes and load bearing capacity of glulam columns. Two different crack patterns named DC and IC, and two column lengths (i.e. 600 and 1100 mm) were considered in the experiments. It was indicated that these two crack patterns reduced the capacity of slender glulam columns and the difference of failure modes was observed between glulam columns with and without initial cracks. Further, a numerical model was developed and validated by the test results. With the application of cohesive zone material model, the propagation of initial cracks could be considered in the numerical modeling. A parametric study was carried out by the verified model and the influence of crack lengths and crack locations was further investigated. From the numerical analysis, it was found that through cracks reduced the capacity of glulam columns significantly. Also, crack location impacts the capacity of glulam columns and the extent of impact relates to the slenderness ratio of the columns, while cracks with different lengths have similar influence on the capacity of columns.
PubDate: 2018-01-25

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