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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2449 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (208 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (208 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (116 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1288 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (394 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (81 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (208 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 208 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Architecture and Engineering     Open Access  
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access  
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 290)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 78)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Sul-Americana de Engenharia Estrutural     Open Access  
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
Territorium : Revista Portuguesa de riscos, prevenção e segurança     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Building and Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.169
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 15  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0360-1323
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Green retrofit of aged residential buildings in Hong Kong: A preliminary
           study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 143Author(s): Yongtao Tan, Guo Liu, Yan Zhang, Chenyang Shuai, Geoffrey Qiping Shen Green retrofit of aged residential buildings offers an alternative solution to reduce global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The promotion of green retrofit and the performance of retrofitted buildings depend on applicable technologies and policies. A wide range of retrofit technologies and retrofit policies have been applied throughout the world. However, little attention has been paid to identify feasible retrofit technologies and retrofit policies for particular regions, for example Hong Kong. In this study, both of technologies and policies of refurbishment were reviewed and examined with aiming to develop a framework for implementing suitable green retrofit technologies and green retrofit policies in Hong Kong. The particular characteristics of Hong Kong residential buildings were extracted based on the investigation of 100 public buildings. Taking the typical situations (building feature, climate environment and policy circumstance) as the selection criteria, 28 green retrofit technologies and 18 green retrofit policies were recommended. By analysing their attributes, these technologies and policies were integrated into a framework based on the three development stages of green retrofit (namely, pilot stage, promotion stage and full implementation stage). The findings in this study are useful for local government setting up green retrofit strategies for Hong Kong and also provide good references for other countries and regions.
       
  • Transient evolution and backlayering of buoyancy-driven contaminants in a
           narrow inclined space
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 143Author(s): Tao Du, Jiaxing Du, Dong Yang, Song Dong, Lingling Yang The transport of buoyancy-driven contaminants in narrow inclined spaces, for example underground tunnels, is frequently seen in engineering. We carry out a series of experiments to investigate the transient evolution of buoyancy-driven flow in a narrow inclined tank. The negative buoyancy is introduced by releasing brine through a localized source located at the ceiling of the tank which is immersed in fresh water. We adopt a light attenuation technique to measure the transient distribution of the reduced gravity in the tank. In each of the experiments, the reduced gravity of the downstream current is stratified in the transverse direction of the tank but almost keeps constant in the longitudinal direction. A model is established to calculate the average reduced gravity at the downstream side of the buoyant source after the flow reaches steady state. The reduced gravity of the backlayering flow is significantly larger than that of the downward current. A simple model is proposed to estimate the maximum transient backlayering length. Moreover, the non-dimensional time tb,max/H/g0'sinθ for the transient backlayering flow to reach its maximum length is determined. The propagation velocity of the front of the current depends on the buoyancy flux of the front. The buoyancy-driven contaminates propagate downstream with constant velocity in the steady state.
       
  • Glare quantification for indoor volleyball
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 143Author(s): Martijn Pakkert, Alexander L.P. Rosemann, Juliëtte van Duijnhoven, Maurice A.H. Donners Sports facilities all over the world apply LED lighting. The combination of high luminance and small luminous surfaces causes a high probability of glare and LED lighting contains these specifications. There are specific situations for which validated glare models exist, such as offices or outdoor soccer fields, although indoor sports facilities are not one of them. Additionally, we do not know the degree to which lighting may impact athletes' performance. Contradictory research exists on whether glare decreases task performance, and whether any decrease is due to discomfort glare or disability glare. In the current research, objective performance measurements were conducted on a volleyball court with both amateur and professional athletes from the Dutch national indoor volleyball competition—the Eredivisie. An eye tracker was used to see if gaze data contributed to a better understanding of performance or the subjective experience of glare. The results show that athletes' performance was not decreased due to glare, although the subjective experiences, measured by discomfort and non-acceptance, increased significantly. The current unified glare rating (UGR) glare model has a strong correlation with the discomfort findings, although the combination of source luminance and background luminance predicts discomfort and non-acceptance even better. This paper demonstrates that existing glare models perform well for indoor sports environments.
       
  • Thermal comfort modeling in transient conditions using real-time local
           body temperature extraction with a thermographic camera
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 143Author(s): Andrei Claudiu Cosma, Rahul Simha This work evaluated the use of thermographic cameras as a non-invasive method to automatically model human thermal comfort in transient conditions, using data from 30 healthy subjects tested in an office setup with ambient temperatures between 21.11 °C and 27.78 °C. Office temperature, relative humidity, exposed skin temperature and clothing temperature were automatically measured over approximately 27 min per subject, using remote sensors and avoiding any contact with the subjects. Thermal comfort levels were evaluated using subjects feedback, recorded every minute for the entire experiment. Clothing insulation and metabolic rate were kept relatively constant for this experiment (0.54 clo and 1.1 met). Average skin temperature was extracted from five different locations, with average temperatures of 33.5 °C, 34.5 °C, and 35.6 °C corresponding to cold discomfort, comfort and warm discomfort respectively. Average clothing temperature was also extracted from three different location, with 32.3 °C, 33.8 °C and 35.0 °C corresponding to the same three comfort levels. Relative humidity levels were similar for all subjects, with average values between 38% and 33%. Results showed significant correlation between observed skin temperature, clothing temperature and thermal comfort level. Also, collected data showed that the temperature difference between different body locations was highly correlated with thermal comfort, and the variance of skin temperature over a small area was significantly correlated with thermal comfort. The results suggest that non-invasive thermographic cameras that combine visual and thermal modes are sufficiently accurate in real-world settings to drive control of HVAC systems.
       
  • Heat removal efficiency based multi-node model for both stratum
           ventilation and displacement ventilation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 143Author(s): Sheng Zhang, Yong Cheng, Chao Huan, Zhang Lin The non-uniform distribution of vertical air temperature helps stratum ventilation and displacement ventilation to save energy compared with mixing ventilation. To reasonably predict the vertical distribution of the non-uniform air temperature, the multi-node (nodal) model requires an in-depth understanding of the airflow pattern and is specific for different designs of ventilation, which challenges engineers/designers in practice. To be more practical, this study proposes a heat removal efficiency (HRE) based multi-node model. The proposed model employs HRE to conveniently represent the airflow pattern, requiring little understanding of the airflow pattern. Moreover, the proposed model is general for both stratum ventilation and displacement ventilation, and flexible to include heating/cooling devices. Experimental case studies show that compared with the conventional model, the proposed model is more accurate and robust. The proposed model reduces the overall mean absolute error in the temperature predictions of the nodes of the air and inner surfaces of the enclosure by 0.1°C (from 0.94°C to 0.84°C) for stratum ventilation, and by 0.08°C (from 0.33°C to 0.25°C) for displacement ventilation with floor heating; and reduces the associated overall standard deviation of errors by 0.14°C (from 0.55°C to 0.41°C) and 0.02°C (from 0.19°C to 0.17°C) respectively. Benefiting from its convenience, generality, flexibility, accuracy and robustness, the proposed model is practical and would contribute to the practical applications of the energy-efficient stratum/displacement ventilation strategies.
       
  • A study of thermal comfort enhancement using three energy-efficient
           personalized heating strategies at two low indoor temperatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 143Author(s): Udayraj, Ziqi Li, Ying Ke, Faming Wang, Bin Yang There is great potential to apply personalized heating for saving energy and enhancing individual thermal comfort in buildings during cold weather. This study investigated the enhancement of thermal comfort of occupants using personalized heating systems at low indoor temperatures. Three personalized heating systems are chosen for this work, i.e., a radiant heating panel with a heated table pad (denoted as HB1), a heated chair with a heated floor mattress (denoted as HB2), and electrical heating clothing (a heated jacket and trousers, denoted as EHC). The effectiveness of three selected heating systems on overall/local body thermal comfort of female occupants under two indoor temperatures of 15 and 18 °C has been investigated. Total energy consumption of these heating systems has also been examined and compared. Thermal acceptability of EHC was better than HB1 and HB2 at both two temperatures. Overall thermal sensation vote (TSV) in EHC was significantly better than that in HB1. Mean skin temperature remained within the thermal comfort range (32–34 °C). In order to achieve thermal comfort on 70% and 80% of the inhabitants at various body parts, local body TSVs should be within −0.43 to 1.87 and −0.36 to 1.87, respectively. Further, EHC consumed
       
  • A wind tunnel study on three-dimensional buoyant flows in street canyons
           with different roof shapes and building lengths
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 143Author(s): Jonas Allegrini Higher temperatures are measured in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas due to the urban heat island effect. One of the most efficient ways of removing heat from urban areas is wind-driven ventilation. Building configurations have a strong impact on the wind flow patterns and therefore on the heat removal from urban areas. Buoyancy can promote heat removal by inducing three-dimensional flow structures. This prevents the formation of standing vortices in street canyons, which are formed for forced convective flow regimes and trap heat inside the street canyons. A wind tunnel study is conducted for street canyons in an urban area. The wind tunnel floor is heated to different temperatures to induce buoyancy. The flow structures are measured with PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) on horizontal and vertical planes within the street canyon and the air temperatures are measured with an approach based on infrared thermography. The flows entering the street canyon through the lateral sides are measured on a horizontal PIV plane. These lateral flows can be found for buoyancy driven flows and are important, since they prevent the formation of standing vortices. To improve the heat removal in forced convective flows, different roof shapes and heights are studied and the lengths of the street canyon buildings are varied. The results show that lateral flows can be found for street canyons with non-uniform building heights and that the air temperatures are decreased in such street canyons due to the improved ventilation.
       
  • Vision-based thermal comfort quantification for HVAC control
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Wooyoung Jung, Farrokh Jazizadeh This study presents a vision-based approach that employs RGB video images as the sole source for inferring thermoregulation states in the human body in response to thermal condition variations in indoor environments. The primary objective is to contribute to our envisioned thermoregulation-based HVAC control that leverages actual thermal demands from end-users’ thermoregulation states for increased energy efficiency. Given that the envisioned control system calls for measurement techniques under four constraints of non-intrusiveness, applicability, sensitivity, and ubiquity (i.e., feasibility and scalability), this study investigated the potentials of ubiquitously obtainable RGB video images (through webcams or smartphones). Using photoplethysmography (PPG), a well-known optical technique for measuring blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of skin, we have leveraged the mechanism of blood flow control to the skin surface (blood vessels' dilation and constriction) for heat dissipation regulations, reflected in PPG signal's amplitude. Given the subtle variations of PPG signals and their susceptibility to noise, we proposed a framework that uses a combination of independent component analysis and adaptive filtering to reduce unwanted and in-band artifacts while preserving the amplitude information of PPG signals that indicates thermophysiological states. The framework was experimentally evaluated using transient thermal conditions to account for applicability and sensitivity attributes. Therefore, without considering an acclimation time for stabilized thermoregulation states, human subjects were exposed to varying temperatures (∼20–30 °C) while reporting their thermal sensations. In total, for 10 human subjects out of 15, a positive correlation between vision-based indicators, skin temperature, and thermal sensations were observed demonstrating promising potential in inferring thermal sensations of occupants with sufficient sensitivity.
       
  • ALOS: Automatic learning of an occupancy schedule based on a new
           prediction model for a smart heating management system
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Amel Nacer, Bruno Marhic, Laurent Delahoche, Jean-baptiste Masson In our day and age, lowering energy consumption in buildings is a must. Smart-buildings will provide the answer if and when they can adjust the required indoor temperature to the occupancy. Developing an occupancy model that forecasts the time of arrival and departure is therefore mandatory. Our article deals with the occupancy prediction model of a building meant for an inteligent heating management system. The prediction also integrates short and long duration of occupation/unoccupation. ALOS is based on an unsupervised clustering method (to classify the events ‘departure’ and ‘arrival’) and on the EM (Expectation Maximisation) algorithm with a new mixture model to determine short and long duration of the events. While most previous studies focused on either the residential or the tertiary building, our approach predicts occupancy in both types of buildings. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of our approach, it was tested on real occupancy datasets (familly consisting of 4 people and elderly person living alone). The results indicate that ALOS achieves excellent average prediction accuracies, notebaly from 80% up to 90%, which makes it efficient and provides easy implementation. Finally, a major strength of the ALOS method is that it only needs just under a week to integrate a change of the occupants' habits.
       
  • Smart and dynamic route lighting control based on movement tracking
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Eveliina Juntunen, Esa-Matti Sarjanoja, Juho Eskeli, Henrika Pihlajaniemi, Toni Österlund Intelligent LED lighting pilot was carried out along a light traffic route in a housing area in Helsinki. The goal of the research was to develop and test a lighting control system with an optimal lighting behavior, which saves energy without lessening safety and security of route users during the dark. The developed lighting control solution was based on tracking route users' movements and location along the route with passive infrared (PIR) sensors. Using this information, the system could create lighting conditions where the illuminated area reaches further in front of the user than behind. This was considered as an optimal solution from the perspectives of energy savings and user comfort.The control was implemented on a real life test site used by pedestrians and cyclists consisting of 28 lighting posts with controllable LED luminaires. The recorded PIR data was analyzed to evaluate the performance of the developed system in northern outdoor conditions and to compare different lighting control schemes and their influence on energy consumption. The experiences gained during the piloting showed that the system could operate in outdoor conditions, but strong wind in a cold environment caused false sensor activity. The used arrangement of the three PIR sensors with wide field of view made the system sensitive to false detections, especially as installed high in lighting poles surrounded by foliage. The relative energy saving compared to the existing control solution of the area was 60–77% depending on the used smart control scenario and the calendar time.
       
  • Secondary VOCs emission from used fibrous filters in portable air cleaners
           and ventilation systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Jingjing Pei, Lili Ji Previous research suggests that filters used in indoor portable air cleaners or ventilation systems may be an indoor pollutant source at some point of using when it is loaded with certain amount of particle or gas phase pollutants. To evaluate its influence on indoor air quality, both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the potential source is needed. This study aims at investigating secondary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission from used fibrous particle filters. Used filters from portable air cleaners used in real life were collected. HEPA fibrous filters challenged by outdoor dust were investigated to simulate its application in residential fresh air system. Filter samples were stored in room temperature and three different relative humidity settings before testing. The emitted VOCs species and emission rate were measured using a single-pass test system, with TENAX sorbent tubes sampling and GC-MS analysis method. The emitted TVOC concentration profile with time presented a single-peak curve. The data indicated that the TVOC emission rate of used filters were influenced by both dust loading amount and environmental VOCs level. With the same dust loading, TVOC emission rate of filters challenged by indoor dust was 2–10 times higher than filters challenged by outdoor dust. When the environmental VOCs concentration was stable, there is a liner relationship between TVOC emission rate and dust loading. The TVOC emission rate was in the range of 0.63mg/m2-3.46 mg/m2 for filters used in portable air cleaners. After exposure in humid environment, the total emitted TVOC generally decreased with the major decrease of Alkanes, Aromatics, Esters and Alcohols categories, while the emission rate of Aldehydes, Ketones and Olefins increased. Possible reason was discussed.
       
  • Performance evaluation of CO2-based ventilation control to reduce CO2
           concentration and condensation risk in residential buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Mi-Su Shin, Kyu-Nam Rhee, Eun-Tack Lee, Gun-Joo Jung As the airtightness of a building envelope gets higher to achieve energy efficiency, the necessity of appropriate ventilation for residential buildings is continually increasing. Many residential buildings are equipped with energy recovery ventilators (ERV) for energy-efficient ventilation; however, the ERVs are usually operated by occupants' manual control, which often leads to insufficient or unnecessary ventilation. Because it is difficult to operate an ERV during nighttime, when occupants cannot control the system, a residential building can suffer from poor indoor air quality and increasing condensation risks. Herein, a CO2-based ventilation control strategy was implemented in an existing ERV system for residential buildings. Considering that most ERV systems operate with a central control, the appropriate CO2 sensor location (or representative room) was investigated in a mock-up residential building. Comparative experiments were conducted to evaluate the control performances in terms of indoor air quality (CO2 control performance) and fan energy consumption. Experimental results showed that a living-room-based control can maintain an overall CO2 concentration in the entire space at acceptable levels. It was also shown that a living-room-based control resulted in reduced ventilation energy if the CO2 dispersed through open bedroom doors. The CO2-based ventilation control was modified to mitigate the condensation risk while minimizing the possibility of fan noise or cold draught. Through mock-up experiments on a modified CO2-based ventilation control, it was shown that CO2 concentrations can be maintained at acceptable levels and condensation risks can be mitigated even when the outdoor temperature decreases to −15 °C.
       
  • Calibrated hygrothermal simulation models for historical buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Guilherme B.A. Coelho, Hugo Entradas Silva, Fernando M.A. Henriques Historic buildings are a living representation of our past and it is our duty to ensure that future generations have access to their heritage. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to determine the conditions that the buildings are in and, if needs be, to make the necessary changes. In this latter stage, it is helpful to have a validated whole-building hygrothermal model since it takes into consideration most of the processes that affect their hygrothermal performance, thus allowing us to choose the most appropriate interventions.This paper aims to establish a validation process for historic buildings based on annual indoor conditions using simulation software. Hence, the indoor conditions is a 13th century church in Lisbon were monitored over a year. The model accuracy was assessed by comparing the simulated and measured temperature and water-vapour pressure, and quantified using the coefficient of determination, coefficient of variation of the root mean square error, normalized mean bias error and goodness of fit. The hygrothermal model was then validated by comparison against other models in literature and existing standards/guidelines.Four outdoor weather files were simulated to show the importance of monitoring the outdoor climate as closely as possible to the case-study. The soil/slab interface temperature was obtained using six different models. A sensitivity analysis was developed to optimize some of the inputs. Ultimately, the church hygrothermal model was validated. However, in hygrothermal models the simulation time can be long, therefore, a simplified model was developed using two of the four tested simplifications.
       
  • The feasibility of highly granular lighting control in open-plan offices:
           Exploring the comfort and energy saving potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Christel de Bakker, Mariëlle Aarts, Helianthe Kort, Alexander Rosemann Highly granular lighting control reduces the energy consumption of shared office spaces by automatically controlling lighting at unoccupied desks. Typically, lighting is switched off, but this approach results in non-uniform illuminance distributions. In offices where individual work areas are often not separated by partitions and occupants oversee the entire office space, a dimming approach might be more comfortable. Therefore, this study tests the feasibility of a new concept that involves the use of different dimming levels in the task, surrounding, and background area. We evaluated this concept on both user comfort and the energy use through a user study in a controlled environment (final N = 25). From this work, we concluded that most users (68–84%) are comfortable with different dimming levels throughout a workspace. Initial energy calculations based on assumed activity patterns showed promising results for the four most extreme dimming scenarios (LDP reduction > 26%). We identified two conditions as most promising in achieving both energy savings and comfort, namely when the dimming level was at minimum in the background area of the office space. These findings encourage research to continue investigating individual occupancy-based dimming as it has high practical value in the increasing smart office environment.
       
  • Hierarchical Bayesian modeling for predicting ordinal responses of
           personalized thermal sensation: Application to outdoor thermal sensation
           data
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Jongyeon Lim, Yasunori Akashi, Doosam Song, Hyokeun Hwang, Yasuhiro Kuwahara, Shinji Yamamura, Naoki Yoshimoto, Kazuo Itahashi A concept known as ‘nudge’ has recently received attention in many application domains. It implies influencing the behavior and decision-making of individuals by making indirect suggestions through the presentation of adequate information. We apply such a perspective to improve the value of a space. It can be measured by the number of visitors, and the predicted thermal sensation is considered as information offered to potential visitors. In the present study, we explain how to generate the information required for a successful nudge. This information must be specifically tailored towards personalized characteristics, rather than a one-fits-all approach. This study presents a new data-driven method for predicting individuals' thermal sensation by formulating the effect of both measured (thermal) and non-measured factors on thermal sensation votes. The proposed model is explicitly encoded based on a major premise that “different individuals have different thermal sensation characteristics; however, all individuals also have a common trend.” The inference model uses a Bayesian approach, and is hierarchically structured to represent dependencies across model parameters of the personalized characteristics of individual-level and the typical trend of group-level thermal sensations. The Markov chain Monte Carlo approach is used to approximate the posterior distribution and draw inferences on the model parameters. The results, based on data collected from outdoor spaces, show that the proposed model provides accurate predictions for personalized thermal sensation and improves the efficiency of parameter estimates. Our approach provides fresh insight into statistical models for predicting thermal sensation.
       
  • Development of a moisture transfer calculation method of hygroscopic
           material plate in buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Hang Wan, Gongsheng Huang, Xinhua Xu Hygroscopic material could be used to moderate the indoor humidity fluctuation and reduce heating and cooling energy consumption. In order to calculate the moisture transfer between the wall hygroscopic material plate and the indoor air quickly and accurately, a simple moisture transfer calculation method coupling moisture transfer function and Fourier transform is proposed and developed. This paper further presents the analytical verification and experimental validation of this method. The analytical verification shows that the average relative error between the model prediction and analytical results under the periodic sinusoidal and rectangular variations of indoor air humidity are 0.2% and 5.2% respectively. An experiment test rig was established to measure the moisture sorption of hygroscopic material plate taking silicate calcium plate as a sample. The chamber climate was controlled as expected and two typical real office climates with different moisture load schedule were simulated. Compared with the experimental measurements, the average relative errors of the moisture flux between the model prediction and the measurement are 10.7% for Case 1 and 12.1% for Case 2 respectively. The proposed method has also been validated by published experiment measurements and shows a good accuracy as well as high computationally efficiency. This simple method can be easily applied on moisture sorption calculation of hygroscopic materials.
       
  • Analysis of human factors in a building environmental assessment system in
           Korea: Resident perception and the G-SEED for MF scores
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Joohyun Lee, Mardelle Shepley This study investigates the relationships between the scores of the Green Standard for Energy and Environmental Design for Multi-Family Housing (G-SEED for MF) and resident perception ratings in Korea. Various sets of data were collected and analyzed, including the G-SEED for MF scorecards, resident surveys, and focus group interviews with professionals and residents. Results show that residents in the certified apartments have low awareness of the system. There are differences between the presence of G-SEED for MF features and the occupants' perception of those features. Additional differences are found between the expectations of professionals and resident ratings on the system's features. Its higher scores do not necessarily mean higher resident perception ratings of such features. The studied residents' perceptions often differ from those of professionals. The professionals are inclined to give more focus on construction costs of projects rather than living environments for occupants. The G-SEED for MF is currently evaluated on its economic benefits and energy consumption disregarding residents' opinions on the actual performance of green buildings. Suggestions for future development imply that perspectives of different end users need to be examined from varied research angles and methodologies to make the G-SEED for MF a comprehensive set of evaluation including significant human factors: building users' experience and perception.
       
  • Performance of an innovative VUV-PCO purifier with nanoporous TiO2 film
           for simultaneous elimination of VOCs and by-product ozone in indoor air
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Tongzhou Xu, Hong Zheng, Pengyi Zhang An innovative vacuum ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (VUV-PCO) air purifier, consisting of a photocatalytic unit bearing nanoporous TiO2 film, an ozone removal unit bearing Mn-Fe catalyst and a radial fan, was designed and constructed. The performance of the VUV-PCO air purifier in simultaneous elimination of VOCs and O3 by-product was, for the first time, evaluated in a sealed actual room. The evaluation was conducted in both intermittent on/off and continuous operations. The results illustrated that the air purifier had high efficiency in removing formaldehyde and moderate efficiency in removing benzene, toluene, ofm-xylene, ortho-xylene, pentanal, octanal and nonanal, which were released from particleboard into the sealed room. During the removal of formaldehyde decomposition and TVOC in intermittent three-time on/off operation, the air purifier exhibited good stability. During the operation without heating, the air purifier had high formaldehyde and TVOC removal efficiencies, reaching values of about 48.00% and 78.71%, respectively after 90 min. During the continuous operation, the air purifier was able to continuously and effectively remove formaldehyde, benzene homologues, aldehyde and ketone compounds, while the ozone removal unit was able to effectively eliminate ozone generated during VUV photocatalysis. The removal of TVOC by 38.25% was reached after 240 min. In addition, heating the ozone removal unit was found to not only accelerate the release of VOCs from particleboard, but also promote the decomposition of ozone. The ozone removal unit operated with heating was able to reduce ozone content from 250 to 75 ppb.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • An open acceptance model for indoor environmental quality (IEQ)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): L.T. Wong, K.W. Mui, T.W. Tsang Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) acceptance prediction is crucial to sustainable building development. A simple yet comprehensive IEQ modelling strategy that can genuinely reflect occupant's responses to environmental conditions is necessary. This study proposes an open acceptance model that uses frequency distribution functions of occupant's responses towards IEQ parameters to assess IEQ. The proposed model is not only flexible enough to encapsulate a diverse range of descriptive model parameters but also feasible for openly available IEQ acceptance data, offering the flexibility to add data incrementally to allow easy model updating as and when a new set of observations arrives, this model can be a solution to the existing problems and limitations encountered in IEQ modelling.
       
  • Experimental visualisation of wake flows induced by different shaped
           moving manikins
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Yao Tao, Kiao Inthavong, Phred Petersen, Krishna Mohanarangam, William Yang, Jiyuan Tu Traditional smoke visualisation is based on stationary objects with a moving fluid. This paper presents wake flow from moving manikins investigated by a new smoke visualisation technique. Three scaled models 1/5th of realistic manikin models were used, including two body shapes (thin and wide) and two gestures (standing and walking). Smoke visualisation was produced by a chemical reaction between acetic acid (CH3COOH) and cyclohexylamine (C6H13 N) to generate smoke. Highspeed photography and image processing techniques were used to determine the qualitative and quantitative data on the airflow patterns and separation points from the manikin motion. Detailed flow separation images showed that regular vortices were produced off the head and the shoulder, while flow separating at the hand swirled behind and inwards. Analysis of flow over the head revealed how the separation point shifted from the back of the head to the front as the velocity decreased. When the manikin came to a stop, the results also showed increased airflow activity around the face which increases the risk of inhaled particulate matter from the surroundings. Image processing analysis produced quantitative data which included the vortex shedding frequency coming off the shoulder, and the separation point from the manikin head. It is expected that the experimental results will provide validation data for future computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modelling results.
       
  • Detailed experimental investigation of air speed field induced by ceiling
           fans
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Shuo Liu, Aleksandra Lipczynska, Stefano Schiavon, Edward Arens Comfort cooling by ceiling fans is cost-effective and energy-efficient compared to compressor-based cooling and fans are commonly used in tropical and subtropical countries. There are however limited data and design tools supporting the design of fan systems, especially for situations where there are multiple fans. In this paper, we investigate airflow profiles induced by a single fan and multiple fans using high spatial resolution air speed measurements (5,760 and 20,160 measuring points for the two cases respectively) in a climatic chamber. To authors' knowledge, this is the first time that interaction between multiple fans has been reported. We developed typical airflow patterns from the measurements and further validated them via smoke visualization. The single-fan results are consistent with previous studies of this configuration, providing additional refinements. For the multiple-fan case, both the difference of fan speed levels and the distance between the fans affect the interacting airflow profiles of the fans in complex ways. When fans are close enough, the combined air speed profile cannot be extrapolated from the profile of a single fan. All the measurement results are open sourced: raw data is included in the supplementary materials and can be visualized via an online platform (single fan, multiple fans). The data and the tool can be used to validate CFD models and inform fan layout design.
       
  • Life cycle assessment (LCA) of double-skin façade (DSF) system with
           fiber-reinforced concrete for sustainable and energy-efficient buildings
           in the tropics
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Rotana Hay, Claudia P. Ostertag Building envelope governs heat transfer between the external environment and building interiors and thus greatly influences the energy demand for heating and cooling. In this study, an innovative double-skin façade (DSF) system achievable with a new concrete composite called high performance green hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HP-G-HyFRC) is proposed. Mechanical performance and partial life cycle assessment (LCA) focusing on embodied and operational energy was evaluated for the new system against an existing solid façade (SW) system as generally adopted in public housing in Singapore. Flexural test results showed that in addition to a 25% reduction in concrete usage and weight, the DSF system also exhibited a higher structural capacity and ductility as compared to the SW counterpart. LCA analysis of a functional unit revealed that the DSF system could potentially reduce the annual operational energy and CO2eq emission by 9.2%, despite a higher embodied energy and materials cost. Yet, the additional embodied energy and cost could be recovered within the first 2 and 8.2 years of operation, respectively. The findings demonstrate a promising potential for the application of the DSF system to reduce operational energy of buildings in the tropics.
       
  • A satisfaction-range approach for achieving thermal comfort level in a
           shared office
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Mehdi Pazhoohesh, Cheng Zhang A personal comfort assessment model predicts occupants' thermal comfort responses, specific to each individual, as an alternative to the mean response of a large population. However, current air conditioning systems rely on a fixed set-point based on the maximum occupancy assumptions which may cause discomfort for occupants. In addition, securing consistent comfort level for occupants in a shared space is challenging due to the difference of preference thermal comfort of individuals. This research proposes a method which is not only relying on individuals' survey participation but also utilizing the advantages of the comfort level modelling. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate thermal comfort through modelling of the predicted mean vote (PMV) and the predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) in several scenarios and the consequential thermal zones and their corresponding occupants were identified. A fuzzy-based approach is used to develop a personal thermal preference profile. Based on the present occupants in the room, a boundary of temperatures for HVAC set-points is estimated and used for controlling the HVAC system. The implementation of the proposed method shows the mean margin error of 12.95 percent for the prediction of preference temperatures of nine occupants in a shared space. The result shows that the proposed approach has a significant potential of maintaining most of the occupants in a reasonable thermal comfort range.
       
  • Towards the development of a standardized testing protocol for overhead
           island kitchen exhaust devices: Procedures, measurements and paths forward
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Jordan D. Clark, Gabriel Rojas, Iain S. Walker
       
  • Unsteady large-scale flow patterns and dynamic vortex movement in
           near-field triple buoyant plumes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Shi Yin, Yuguo Li, Yifan Fan, Mats Sandberg Unsteady flow patterns of interacting buoyant plumes are important for buoyant ventilation and particularly influence pollutant and heat transports in indoor and outdoor environments. This study reveals fundamental large-scale flow patterns in triple building plumes, investigates vortex moving trends during the pattern transition processes, and explores possible mechanisms of pattern diversity by two-dimensional (2-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Total five tests are studied, including three different heat strengths Q (180, 90, and 30 W) and three source layouts characterized by the ratios of source spacing S to source width W (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0).Streamline distributions and axial velocity profiles clearly reveal three fundamental global flow patterns: a right-slanting asymmetrical flow pattern, a left-slanting asymmetrical flow pattern, and an axisymmetric flow pattern. Correspondingly, it indicates four basic transition processes, i.e., right-to-center, left-to-center, center-to-right, and center-to-left transitions (“center” represents the axisymmetric pattern). A novel vortex tracking method, based on lambda-2 (λ2) criterion and principles of the PIV technique, is developed and successfully applied to qualitatively track the vortex moving trends during the transition processes. The regular vortex moving trends are found to be reasonably consistent with the global pattern transition trends.The flow pattern diversity is speculated to be mainly driven by unstable heat source wall flows and downstream swaying motions in this study. These critical unstable motions are considered to probably relate to unstable lateral entrainment and vortex interaction, particularly beside the central plume. Consistently, the regular vortex moving trends are usually observed in and around the central plume.
       
  • Stressing the passive behavior of a Passivhaus: An evidence-based scenario
           analysis for a Mediterranean case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Vincenzo Costanzo, Kristian Fabbri, Stefano Piraccini This paper first reports the outcomes of a one-year measurement campaign of a passive house built in the Mediterranean climate of Cesena (Italy) in terms of thermal comfort parameters temperature and relative humidity and Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) parameter CO2 concentrations. The design carried out with the help of the steady state Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) was able to guarantee good comfort conditions during the heating period, but on the other hand, overheating occurrences during the cooling season have been recorded for almost 50% time according to EN 15251 Standard. Further analyses conducted with the help of dynamic simulations in EnergyPlus allowed identifying the insulation levels and ventilation mode as the key design factors to change in order to reduce overheating to less than 20% of time while keeping a comfortable indoor environment in winter.The simplifications that can be made by reducing the insulation material thickness (up to a third of the original value) on the roof and on the walls, replacing triple-glazed windows with double-glazed windows and implementing a hybrid ventilation strategy instead of using Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery (MVHR) alone could also lead to economic savings. These savings, due to both lower construction costs and operational energy savings, amount to 8755 euros in terms of Net Present Value (NPV) over 30 years' time.The Passivhaus Standard can still be regarded as a good reference for designing low-energy and comfortable houses in a Mediterranean climate if some simplifications are made according to detailed building performance simulations.
       
  • Spatial distribution of building energy use in the United States through
           satellite imagery of the earth at night
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Derek Fehrer, Moncef Krarti Despite the importance of geospatial analysis of energy use in buildings, the data available for such exercises is limited. A potential solution is to use geospatial information, such as that obtained from satellites, to disaggregate building energy use data to a more useful scale. Many researchers have used satellite imagery to estimate the extent of human activities, including building energy use and population distribution. Much of the reported work has been carried out in rapidly developing countries such as India and China where urban development is dynamic and not always easy to measure. In countries with less rapid urbanization, such as the United States, there is still value in using satellite imagery to estimate building energy use for the purposes of identifying energy efficiency opportunities and planning electricity transmission. This study evaluates nighttime light imagery obtained from the VIIRS instrument aboard the SUOMI NPP satellite as a predictor of building energy use intensity within states, counties, and cities in the United States. It is found that nighttime lights can explain upwards of 90% of the variability in energy consumption in the United States, depending on conditions and geospatial scale. The results of this research are used to generate electricity and fuel consumption maps of the United States with a resolution of less than 200 square meters. The methodologies undertaken in this study can be replicated globally to create more opportunities for geospatial energy analysis without the hurdles often associated with disaggregated building energy use data collection.
       
  • Experimental and modeling study of pressure drop across electrospun
           nanofiber air filters
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Ye Bian, Li Zhang, Chun Chen Electrospun nanofiber air filters can achieve high PM2.5 removal efficiency with a relatively low pressure drop because of the slip effect. They may therefore be applied in buildings to reduce indoor exposure to PM2.5 with lower energy consumption. This study first fabricated 25 nylon nanofiber filters with different filter parameters of fiber diameter, filter thickness, and packing density. The pressure drop across each nanofiber filter was measured under five different face velocities. This study then developed a method for modeling the pressure drop across electrospun nanofiber air filters using the filter parameters. 125 sets of experimental data were obtained for the model development, and a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the pressure drop across nylon electrospun nanofiber filters. The results showed that the pressure drop was proportional to the face velocity and filter thickness. The product of drag coefficient and Reynolds number was a function of both packing density and Knudsen number. The semi-empirical model reasonably predicted the pressure drop across the nylon electrospun nanofiber filters with a median relative error of 4.3%.
       
  • Window-opening behavior in Chinese residential buildings across different
           climate zones
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Dayi Lai, Susu Jia, Yue Qi, Junjie Liu Window-opening behavior significantly influences indoor air quality (IAQ), energy consumption, and thermal comfort in residential buildings with natural ventilation. To understand window-opening behavior in Chinese residential buildings, this study conducted a one-year measurement in 58 apartments in 14 cities across five different climate zones in China. The influences of climate region, season, household type, and weekday/weekend pattern on the interaction between occupants and windows were analyzed and presented. The average daily “open-window” duration in Chinese bedrooms was 9.4 h. Generally, the length of time that the windows were open in cold regions was shorter than that in warm regions, even when the outdoor air temperatures among regions were similar. The open-window duration increased from winter to summer, as the outdoor air temperature increased. However, the duration decreased when the mean daily outdoor air temperature reached around 27 °C. Approximately 40% of the window-opening actions occurred in the morning from 6:00 to 9:00. During working hours (9:00–17:00) on weekdays, windows were opened more frequently if non-working persons were in the house. On weekends, residents opened windows at a later time than on weekdays. On the basis of the acquired information, a typical window-operation schedule as occupant behavior was proposed for Chinese bedrooms. It provides a more accurate boundary condition for analyses of IAQ, energy consumption, and thermal comfort in Chinese residential buildings.
       
  • An operational monitoring tool facilitating the transformation of urban
           brownfields into sustainable neighborhoods
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Martine Laprise, Sophie Lufkin, Emmanuel Rey The regeneration of urban brownfields is a relevant strategy to limit the sprawling of post-industrial European cities. However, the integration of sustainability issues in urban brownfield regeneration projects is not a spontaneous process, remaining in most cases partial or superficial. Achieving the goals of sustainable development requires high global quality objectives, integrated into the project dynamics, and a continuous monitoring of environmental, social, and economic indicators, adapted to the specificities of brownfields. Following these considerations, an operational monitoring tool facilitating the transformation of urban brownfields into sustainable neighborhoods was created. This paper presents and discusses the verification stage of the tool, divided into two complementary tests: 1) test-applications on three case studies in Belgium, France and Switzerland and 2) interactions with the involved stakeholders.First, we describe the functioning of the tool. Then, we present the test-applications results, supported by the Val Benoit project in Liège (Belgium) as an example. They are followed by the interactions with the stakeholders that took the form of roundtable discussions. Finally, we discuss the performance of the tool looking at its potential added-value. It reveals that an adapted operational monitoring tool can facilitate sustainability assessment, reporting, decision-making and multidisciplinary collaboration. Globally speaking, the integration of monitoring practices appears not only feasible, but also realistic and desired.
       
  • Performance evaluation of different air distribution systems for removal
           of concentrated emission contaminants by using vortex flow ventilation
           system
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Zhixiang Cao, Yi Wang, Chao Zhai, Meng Wang An excellent air distribution system is a key factor to maintain indoor air quality, particularly in high-concentration contaminant-released buildings such as industrial halls. This study evaluated the performance of a new type of air distribution system, the vortex flow system, for contaminant removal and compared it with three other commonly used air distribution systems. The airflow fields and distribution of contaminants in large-space buildings with concentrated contaminant sources were studied. In addition, the mean age of air (MAA), air change efficiency, ventilation effectiveness, and mean residence time (MRT) of the contaminants were used to evaluate the four air distribution systems. The results of this study illustrated the significance of the air distribution system on the ventilation performance. Owing to the flow characteristics of the column vortex, the contaminants released from the source in the vortex flow system were limited by the negative pressure gradient near the center of the vortex zone and rapidly moved upward along the vortex core, resulting in a higher ventilation efficiency of contaminant removal with a lower ventilation flow rate. The results demonstrated the application potential of the vortex flow system in large-space buildings with concentrated emission contaminants.
       
  • Simulation of heat and moisture flow through walls covered with uncoated
           medium density expanded cork
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): A. Tadeu, L. Škerget, N. Simões, R. Fino This paper evaluates the influence of the solar heat flux, temperature, and relative humidity on OSB and concrete walls covered with uncoated medium density expanded cork. A boundary element numerical model was used to simulate the coupled heat and moisture transfer through the multi-layer porous solid walls.The expanded cork hygrothermal properties were determined experimentally. After experimental validation of a building solution using a hotbox, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the effect of the abrupt change in relative humidity and temperature. It was concluded that the relative humidity variation is only relevant when there are significant weather changes during the course of the year.Thus, the summer and winter conditions of Bragança (Portugal) and Seville (Spain) were selected to illustrate the hygrothermal behaviour of the walls. Different thicknesses of expanded cork were simulated. The results show that the impact of the short-term environment moisture variation is limited to the outer surface layers. It was also found that the moisture along the medium density expanded cork coated wall is only high when the outer moisture is high and remains high for a long period of time.
       
  • Reducing formaldehyde emission of urea formaldehyde-bonded particleboard
           by addition of amines as formaldehyde scavenger
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Aizat Ghani, Zaidon Ashaari, Paiman Bawon, Seng Hua Lee Particleboard is one of the building materials that contribute to the emittance of formaldehyde in enclosed area. In order to reduce the formaldehyde emission from particleboard, amines were added into the urea formaldehyde (UF) resin as formaldehyde scavenger. The amines used were methylamine, ethylamine and propylamine. 0.5, 0.7 and 1% of each type of amine were added into UF resin and the mixtures were used to produce particleboard from rubberwood particles. The properties of the UF resin after addition of amines such as gelation time, viscosity, pH, free formaldehyde content and thermal stability were evaluated. The physical, mechanical properties and formaldehyde emission of the produced boards were also assessed. The results revealed that fully cured amine-containing UF resin possesses higher thermal stability compared to control UF resin. Amine-containing UF resin also had longer gelation time due to higher pH value. Nevertheless, both physical and mechanical properties of the resultant particleboard were negatively affected. Particleboard made from amine-containing UF resin had higher thickness swelling and water absorption. In addition, lower bending strength and internal bonding strength were also recorded. Insufficient pressing time for fully cured of resin might be the reason for such phenomenon. Particleboard with F*** emission level (0.5 ≤ x ≤ 1.5 mg/L) as specified in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) or European's E0 class equivalent were achieved when ethylamine and propylamine were added, regardless of dosage used. This study showed the feasibility of using amines as formaldehyde scavenger. However, optimisation of processing parameters is needed to enhance the physico-mechanical properties of the particleboard.
       
  • Analysis on body heat losses and its effect on thermal sensation of people
           under moderate activities
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Haiying Wang, Songtao Hu The motivation of this study is to explore the changes of heat losses of people who undertake moderate activities and its effect on thermal sensation. Based on heat transfer equations and experimental data, heat losses have been calculated. The results have shown that in all conditions, the total ratio of latent heat loss (LHL) and sensible heat loss (SHL) is almost constant ranging from 0.9 to 0.95. With increase of LHL or decrease of SHL, people's mean thermal sensation vote (TSV) will increase regardless of whether they are in thermal balance. Skin wettedness is also related to TSV. Further study has discovered that ratios of LHL (RLHL) and SHL (RSHL) are correlated to TSV separately. By polynomial regression, two predicting equations have been fitted based on RSHL and RLHL, and they are essentially coincident with the sum of RSHL and RLHL being 0.93. The validity of predicting equations has been verified by using independent experimental data. Either of the equations can be used to predict TSV under moderate activities. Different from the current heat balance theory in thermal comfort, attention has been put on the change of ratios of heat losses in this paper, which provides a new perspective to understand thermal comfort under higher level of activities.
       
  • Global warming potential and energy consumption of temporary works in
           building construction: A case study in Hong Kong
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Md. Uzzal Hossain, Chi Sun Poon The importance of the building industry on environmental impacts, especially global warming potential (GWP) impact due to greenhouse gases emissions is undisputed. Thus, significant efforts have been devoted to minimize environmental impacts and waste management problems from building construction globally. Numerous studies have particularly focused on assessing the environmental impacts of buildings based on materials, construction processes and whole building systems. However, less attention has been given on some critical features, especially on temporary works (e.g., hoarding system). But the temporary works also consume considerable amounts of materials and generate significant amounts of waste due to its short service life time. Therefore, this study evaluated the environmental impacts of hoarding systems as a case study in Hong Kong with the aim to identify the areas of impacts reduction and improvements in its waste management system. A case-specific structured questionnaire survey was conducted to the relevant stakeholders to identify the essential materials, and construction, deconstruction and waste management processes of hoarding systems, whereas life cycle assessment was employed to assess the associated environmental impacts. The findings demonstrated that more than 3 tonnes of CO2 eq GWP and 39 GJ of non-renewable energy consumption impacts were associated with 1 m of hoarding construction. This is mainly due to the use of large amounts of steel products and concrete in the construction of the hoarding system. This results and analysis can help the building industry to identify the opportunity for reducing environmental impacts, and facilitate resource-efficient and effective design of hoarding systems.
       
  • Thermal comfort and thermal adaptive behaviours in traditional dwellings:
           A case study in Nanjing, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Chengcheng Xu, Shuhong Li, Xiaosong Zhang, Suola Shao Adaptive thermal comfort is the predominant model used for studying thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings. However, current international thermal comfort standards do not represent the people living in all the different types of Chinese buildings, especially in old and traditional dwellings. Much of China's urban and rural populations live in traditional dwellings; their indoor thermal comfort and characteristics differ from those of people who reside in modern dwellings because of their unique thermal experiences and adaptive behaviours. To improve upon the thermal comfort database for energy-saving transformation of traditional dwellings, such as installation of heating or cooling devices and systems for residents, we conducted a field study of thermal comfort and thermal adaptive behaviours of residents in a traditional residential settlement in Nanjing in summer and winter. The results show that traditional dwellers are more tolerant to harsh environments, and their thermal neutral temperature and thermal sensitivity are lower in winter and higher in summer, than those of the people that reside in modern dwellings. Residents of traditional homes employ a series of thermal adaptive behaviours to expand their thermal comfort zone. We demonstrate a significant difference in human thermal comfort, which provides a basis for heating systems design for traditional dwellings and for further research on thermal comfort in different kinds of dwellings and regions.
       
  • Validation and assessment of the CFD-0 module of CONTAM software for
           airborne contaminant transport simulation in laboratory and hospital
           applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Bruno Perazzo Pedroso Barbosa, Nisio de Carvalho Lobo Brum Hospital and laboratory buildings are designed with intrinsic features for infection control, and are related to an intensive energy use. Although many studies suggest that insufficient ventilation increases the risk of disease transmission in the indoor environment, significant questions still remain on the ventilation requirements for airborne infection control. ASHRAE proposes high research priority on the study of indoor flow regimes, room pressurization and filtration, for hospitals and laboratories where infectious diseases agents are handled. The objective of this paper is to promote an assessment and validation of the CFD-0 module of the CONTAM software, for the simulation of airborne contaminant transport in hospital and laboratory applications. These objectives are justified by the fact that this public domain code, supported by the NIST, may be an important tool for studying the role of ventilation parameters in infection control for hospital and laboratory settings. Three benchmarks were selected for that task: the ASHRAE-RP 1271, geared to challenge the code ability in simulating the complex indoor airflow features, such as jets, separation, impingement, and thermal plumes, that arise in room transitional non-isothermal confined flow; A benchmark that resembles real laboratory spaces; and a third benchmark, that resembles real hospital isolation rooms. Results demonstrated that CFD-0 provided, at least, a marginally acceptable performance, for mixed and displacement ventilation modes. The prediction results are more meaningful than those using the “perfect mixture” assumption, for assessments on ventilation performance and personnel exposure to hazardous substances in these spaces.
       
  • Ambiguities regarding the relationship between office lighting and
           subjective alertness: An exploratory field study in a Dutch office
           landscape
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): J. van Duijnhoven, M.P.J. Aarts, A.L.P. Rosemann, H.S.M. Kort The current field study investigated the ambiguities regarding the relationship between office lighting and subjective alertness. In laboratory studies, light-induced effects were demonstrated. Field studies are essential to prove the validity of these results and the potential recommendations for lighting in future buildings. Therefore, lighting measurements and subjective health data were gathered in a Dutch office environment. Health data was collected by questionnaires and includes data on functional health, wellbeing and alertness. Multiple general, environmental, and personal variables were identified as confounders for the relationship between light and alertness. For six out of the total 46 participants a statistically significant correlation was found between horizontal illuminance (Ehor) and subjective alertness. Further research needs to incorporate a larger sample size and more potential confounders for the relationship between Ehor and alertness. Further research including these recommendations may explain why certain people respond to light while others do not.
       
  • Indoor air quality and occupants' ventilation habits in China: Seasonal
           measurement and long-term monitoring
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Junjie Liu, Xilei Dai, Xiangdong Li, Susu Jia, Jingjing Pei, Yuexia Sun, Dayi Lai, Xiong Shen, Hejiang Sun, Haiguo Yin, Kailiang Huang, Hongwei Tan, Yao Gao, Yiwen Jian It is very important to know the current level of indoor pollution and occupants' ventilation habits. With this aim, this study presents an investigative project that covered five climate zones in China. The project consisted of two parts: long-term monitoring and seasonal measurements. For the long-term monitoring, we installed indoor air quality (IAQ) sensors, window state sensors, and mechanical ventilation sensors inside homes. In regard to IAQ, The median indoor 24-h averaged PM2.5 concentration ranged from 18 to 49 μg/m3. The indoor and outdoor 24-h averaged PM2.5 concentrations were similar for most of the regions. The 24-h averaged indoor CO2 concentrations were lower than 1000 ppm for all regions in all four seasons. Northern China usually had higher indoor CO2 concentrations than did southern China. In regard to occupants' behavior, in naturally ventilated homes, both the window-opening probability and open-window duration per day increased from the north to the south of China in winter. According to the example of mechanically ventilated Apartments, where pressure sensors were used to monitor the relative pressure at the air outlet of a mechanical ventilation system, the occupants used the ventilation system mainly in winter and spring. For the seasonal investigation, indoor formaldehyde concentrations in 224 homes were measured in four seasons (sampling time: 20 min). In summer, the indoor formaldehyde concentration reached its peak for the year, with about 35% of homes having concentrations larger than 100 μg/m3 under closed conditions (doors and windows have been closed for more than 12 h).
       
  • REDIS: A value-based decision support tool for renovation of building
           portfolios
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Anne N. Gade, Tine S. Larsen, Søren B. Nissen, Rasmus L. Jensen Renovation of the existing building stock is getting increased attention in many European countries. One decision to be made by the professional building owner is the prioritization of which buildings to renovate within a building portfolio. This article proposes a new, value-based decision support tool, REDIS, which can support the professional building owner in this process. REDIS provides a framework for dialogue in the pre-design stage of renovation projects, and calculates a Renovation Value Factor for each building, based on a number of criteria weights, building status data and estimated renovation costs, indicating which buildings give the building owner most value for money if renovated. The REDIS tool is demonstrated through an application example using real data from a case of selecting which school buildings to renovate within a portfolio of 56 schools. Representatives from the municipality that owns the 56 schools compared the results of the REDIS tool to the results of their original decision process, where ten out of the 56 schools were chosen for renovation. The result from the tool differed from the original decision results. The evaluation results indicated that the REDIS tool supports the building owner in choosing which buildings to renovate within a building portfolio. The contributions of this study are the proposed decision support framework and the tool prototype, with the major contribution being to encourage a structured dialogue among the decision makers.
       
  • Surface removal rate of ozone in residences in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Mingyao Yao, Bin Zhao Outdoor ozone has been proven to be strongly associated with both morbidity and mortality. The deposition of ozone on indoor surfaces is the main loss of ambient ozone migrating into indoor environments, which is critical for assessing human exposure to ozone. In this study, the surface removal rate due to ozone deposition on indoor surfaces in 14 residences in China was measured. The deposition velocities for the uptake of ozone were measured as well as theoretically calculated. The results indicate that the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of the surface removal rate of ozone in the studied Chinese residential rooms was 2.8 ± 1.1 h−1. The mean ± SD of the measured deposition velocity was 109 ± 34 cm/h, which is much larger than the theoretically calculated value of 27 ± 3 cm/h. The significant difference between the measured and theoretically calculated values might result from the accumulation of organic chemicals on indoor surfaces due to the occupants' daily activities. The measured surface removal rate of ozone in Chinese residences may be further applied for estimating human exposure to ozone in China, where ozone pollution has been increasingly severe.
       
  • Field study of NOx degradation by a mineral-based air purifying
           paint
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Q.L. Yu, Y. Hendrix, S. Lorencik, H.J.H. Brouwers This paper studies the performance of a mineral-based transparent air purifying paint. The air pollutants removal efficiency of this photocatalytic paint was first determined following the ISO 22197-1 procedure under laboratory conditions. Subsequently, its air pollutants removal efficiency under realistic conditions was determined by outdoor monitoring with a duration of 20 months, applying a new monitoring protocol. The weather conditions, including temperature, wind flow, humidity, precipitation, and NOx concentration were continuously monitored. The efficiency of the photocatalytic paint was analyzed. The influence of the environmental parameters on the air pollutant removal efficiency as well as long term performance was discussed. The results show the excellent air purifying efficiency of this new paint, nevertheless the environmental parameters show dramatic effects on its long term performance. Furthermore, this study also confirmed the robustness of the proposed air purification performance monitoring protocol.
       
  • Sounds and sound preferences in Han Buddhist temples
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Dongxu Zhang, Mei Zhang, Daping Liu, Jian Kang This study recorded various sounds heard in Han Buddhist temples and analysed their acoustic parameters. Subsequently, it investigated the factors that influence sound preferences in these temples using a questionnaire survey. The results indicate that the physical acoustic and psychoacoustic parameters of various sounds correspond to the roles they play at the temple. Buddhism-related man-made sounds dominate the sound environment in temples. In addition, signal and soundmark are prevalent. In the case of sound preferences, natural sounds are preferred, and age and religious beliefs have a significant effect on the respondents' preference for the sound of a temple bell. Signal and Buddhism-related man-made sounds are affected by a variety of respondent demographic characteristics, while Buddhism-unrelated man-made sounds and keynote sounds are rarely affected by these characteristics. The education level of the respondents affects their preferences for various types of sound, and the respondents' evaluations of Buddhism and acoustic environment are related to their preferences for Buddhism-related man-made sounds, soundmarks, and keynote sounds. Among the assessed physical acoustic and psychoacoustic parameters, only sharpness is closely correlated with sound preference in Han Buddhist temples.
       
  • Large-eddy simulation of flow and pollutant dispersion in a 3D urban
           street model located in an unstable boundary layer
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Guoyi Jiang, Ryuichiro Yoshie Large-eddy simulation (LES) based on the standard Smagorinsky model was employed to simulate microscale pollutant dispersion in a three-dimensional urban street model in an unstable boundary layer. First, an inflow turbulence generation technique based on Kataoka's method was investigated under unstable conditions. Moreover, the method was validated by comparing with experimental data. An objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of LES for estimating thermal/pollutant dispersion in weak-wind regions. Results revealed that given appropriate inflow data, the calculated mean flow variables and their fluctuations agreed favorably with the experimental data under unstable conditions. The flow and pollutant dispersion inside a street canyon were investigated through LES. A primary recirculation was formed inside the street canyon. Consequently, the temperature and pollutant concentration were highly affected. Another objective of this study was to investigate the transport mechanism of pollutant between a 3D street canyon and outer space. Thus, analyses of the concentration fluxes and pollutant flow rate were conducted for the street canyon, the role of turbulence in pollutant transportation was determined. Results revealed that total pollutant inflow rate was higher than its outflow rate for the two side surfaces but opposite for top surface. Turbulence considerably contributed to pollutant transportation, especially to the pollutant inflow rate at side surfaces and pollutant outflow rate at top surface. For top surface, turbulence contribution for pollutant outflow rate reached 75%. Analysis of the air flow rate revealed that air exchange between street canyons and outer space is mainly through the side surfaces.
       
  • Design and development of a low-cost angular sky luminance measurement
           system
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Marshal Maskarenj, Rangan Banerjee, Prakash C. Ghosh Energy efficient building design requires simulated assessment of overall performance through reliable models, taking into account the daylight variations along with other significant parameters such as ventilation, plug loads and occupant behaviour. A robust indoor daylight model applicable to locations across the globe needs to incorporate local variations of sky luminance on a spatial and temporal basis, and needs an affordable system for dynamic angular daylight measurement to be used as part of a wider distributed network. In the present work, a low-cost prototype based on Light Dependent Resistors for measurement of angular daylight luminance distribution is developed and analyzed. This device was used to capture the angular analog data for 221 sky segments (20 azimuthal x 11 altitudinal segments and Zenith). The analog data was further converted to luminance data, and the visualized data was compared with sky-dome photographs and also with simulated polar daylight maps for a few Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE) skies. The repeatability of the experiment was assessed by comparing the luminance data for selected sky segments over multiple time-segments for consecutive days. Measured data was found to be an acceptable fit with the CIE-models over various time segments, validating the prototype.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Laboratory test to assess sensitivity of bio-based earth materials to
           fungal growth
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Aurélie Laborel-Préneron, Kouka Ouédraogo, Alexis Simons, Matthieu Labat, Alexandra Bertron, Camille Magniont, Christine Roques, Christophe Roux, Jean-Emmanuel Aubert The effect of molds present in buildings on the health of the occupants is a major issue hence, when a building material is developed, its sensitivity to microbial growth should be assessed. However, few studies have investigated fungal growth on bio-based building materials with the resources available in a laboratory specializing in materials. The objective of this paper is thus to propose a simple and efficient experimental method useful for construction materials laboratories, adapted from methods proposed in the literature. For this purpose, fungal growth was investigated under different environmental conditions on earth-based material with or without the addition of straw or hemp shiv. Samples were inoculated with a strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis and were incubated for 12 weeks at 76, 84 or 93% RH, and 30 °C or 20 °C. Reproducible results showed that earth-based materials were more sensitive to fungi when they were enriched in plant aggregates. Fungal development was observed on earth material containing plant aggregates after 4 weeks of exposure at 93% RH and 30 °C, whereas it was observed after 8 weeks on raw earth material under the same conditions. Additionally, the possibility of quantifying fungal development with increased sensitivity by using image analysis is proposed. Due to the growth of fungal species other than A. brasiliensis, a natural inoculation approach is recommended. One of the conclusions is that liquid water is more favorable to mold growth than relative humidity alone. The addition of liquid water is thus recommended to accelerate the test.
       
  • Design and performance analysis of a regenerative evaporative cooler for
           cooling of buildings in arid climates
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Building and Environment, Volume 142Author(s): Rabah Boukhanouf, Omar Amer, Hatem Ibrahim, John Calautit Evaporative cooling has been considered a low energy consumption process that often is associated with displacement ventilation and passive cooling strategies of buildings. While significant energy savings can be accrued from using evaporative cooling, there are many design challenges to improve the processes of heat and mass transfer and reduce design complexities. This paper seeks to advance the design of evaporative cooling through building and testing a novel regenerative evaporative cooler prototype. It proposes a design that integrates heat pipe and porous ceramic tube modules as an alternative to plate heat exchangers. The paper describes design arrangement of the cooler, a mathematical model and laboratory test results. Under controlled laboratory test conditions, the measured performance indices of wet bulb effectiveness, specific cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) were determined as 0.8, 140 W per m2 of wet ceramic surface area and 11.43 respectively. Furthermore, experimental results show that under typical ambient conditions commensurate with that prevailing in arid climates, the cooler air supply temperature was as much as 14 °C below that of the ambient air.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Correlation of ambient air temperature and cognitive performance: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Armin Jeddi Yeganeh, Georg Reichard, Andrew P. McCoy, Tanyel Bulbul, Farrokh Jazizadeh Despite their impact on work performance, cognitive responses to thermal variations in buildings have not been accurately quantified. Practical limitations in individual laboratory experiments with limited participants often cause low statistical power and restrict generalizability. Thus, inconsistencies in individual studies motivate summary reviews and meta-analyses.The objective of this study is to estimate the correlation between ambient air temperature and cognitive performance through a systematic literature review. We identified laboratory experiment reports published between 1980 and 2018, out of which 45 passed the targeted inclusion and exclusion criteria set forward by the scope of this study. To obtain summary effect statistics, 28 reports were included in a single analysis conducted by the use of the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software.Under laboratory conditions with fixed clothing values, studies with the weighted mean of 4.34 °C, 10.04 °C, and 26.68 °C increase in the neutral air temperature show about % 0.40, % 5.37, and % 7.97 reductions in cognitive performance respectively. Heat stress causes the most significant decline in the most attention-demanding tasks. The results show an overall decline in both speed and accuracy measures due to changes in ambient air temperature. Accuracy measures and longer exposures are associated with relatively more decline in heat and cold. The estimated temperature-performance correlation follows a bell-shaped curve centered around the average control temperature. The results help inform policy and design decisions concerned with thermal comfort and upper limits for occupational exposure to cold and heat.
       
  • A generic simulation model for prediction of thermal conditions and human
           performance in cockpits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Jörg Schminder, Roland Gårdhagen This paper presents a computational approach to predict the thermal environment in a cockpit during on-ground and in-flight aircraft operation. A method was developed to model cockpit air temperature, which serves as input to black-globe and wet-bulb temperature computation. Subsequently the simulated temperatures are used to compute common heat stress indices such as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), Fighter Index of Thermal Stress (FITS), or Predicted Mean Vote (PMV). To demonstrate the manifold information made available by the computed heat stress indices, WBGT e.g. is set in relation to different types of occupational exposure limits demonstrating not only the possibility to predict physiological constraints but mental performance too. The generic cockpit model and thermal comfort computations were validated against experimental data gained from on ground temperature measurements inside an aircraft cockpit, which underwent a sudden large temperature change. The results exemplify how thermal comfort and possible physical as well as mental degradation of aircrews can be assessed quickly using the presented model.
       
  • The impacts of viaduct settings and street aspect ratios on personal
           intake fraction in three-dimensional urban-like geometries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Jian Hang, Zenan Xian, Dongyang Wang, Cheuk Ming Mak, Baomin Wang, Yifan Fan High vehicular pollutants exposure to residents in near-road buildings raises special concerns in micro-scale urban science, as it causes severe health problems for those residents. This paper integrates a new parameter, i.e. personal intake fraction (IF_p), into computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to investigate the flow and the resulted personal exposure of two-phase pollutants (CO and particular matters) in three-dimensional (3D) urban-like models. The impacts of street aspect ratios (building height/street width H/W = 0.5–1.5), viaduct settings, noise barriers and pollutant source locations were considered.3D downward helical flows exist in the secondary streets perpendicular to the parallel approaching wind, which produces lateral pollutant transport across the interface between the main street and secondary streets. Therefore, the overall average IF_p () of CO (∼0.23–0.59 ppm) in our current 3D urban models (H/W = 1) is much smaller than that in two-dimensional (2D) street canyon (∼3.25–5.21 ppm) models. Although narrower 2D street canyons usually present greater , our current 3D urban models do not show this monotone decreasing trend due to the complicated flow structures. of fine particles are always smaller than that of CO. Furthermore, if a single pollutant source is placed on the viaduct, become much smaller than that in cases with a single ground-level source. If the source location changes to the upstream secondary street, significantly decreases due to stronger local wind. Finally, of leeward-side cases usually exceeds that of windward-side cases by several times, but with viaduct settings, this leeward-to-windward ratio significantly decreases.
       
  • A longitudinal study of summertime occupant behaviour and thermal comfort
           in office buildings in northern China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Cheng Sun, Ran Zhang, Steve Sharples, Yunsong Han, Hongrui Zhang The adaptive behaviour and thermal responses of building occupants can be responsible for significant uncertainties when comparing monitored and modelled building energy performance. A better understanding of the interaction of occupants and their buildings is necessary for managing this uncertainty and reducing discrepancies between predicted and actual energy use (commonly known as ‘the performance gap’). This paper presents the results from a longitudinal study during a summer season of ten mixed-mode offices located in Harbin, a city in northern China, which experiences severe winters and warm summers. The study collected data from on-line daily surveys, field measurements of the local environment, occupants' experiences and adaptive control behaviours. Occupant-building interactions were analysed through observing adaptive behaviour, perceived thermal sensations in the physical environment, architectural geometric variables and personnel characteristics. The driving mechanisms for behaviours and feelings were also studied. The results showed a high probability of window opening for both day and night, and a high frequency of the use of a mix of cooling options, including fans and air conditioning, accompanied by natural ventilation in the summer season. The active interaction of the offices' internal environments with the outdoor environment motivated more connections of occupant thermal feelings with the outdoor physical variables. Relative humidity levels were potential key predictors for window opening, and the geometric parameters of offices, occupants' fan use and perceived thermal feelings also showed a level of predictive ability. Evaluating the nature of occupant feelings and behaviours interactions may inform and improve results from building performance-based design.
       
  • 10 questions concerning sustainable building renovation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Per Anker Jensen, Esmir Maslesa, Jakob Brinkø Berg, Christian Thuesen In countries all over Europe the need for building renovation is receiving increased attention. One reason for this is an ageing building stock. Another reason is the need for more environmentally sustainable buildings with reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions to limit the harmful climate impact. There is at the same time a need to upgrade many buildings to improve the quality of life – social sustainability, for instance improve indoor climate; and to increase productivity in the building process to ensure affordable housing – economic sustainability.Low productivity and frequent conflicts in the construction sector have led to an increasing interest in new forms of collaboration between the different stakeholders involved in construction projects. Development of strategic partnerships concerning a portfolio of renovation projects are seen as a promising way to achieve more sustainable building renovation for some large building clients and for companies with a high maturity in collaborative practice.There is a large number of tools for design decision support and systems for sustainability certification of buildings, but there are not many tools and systems dedicated to building renovation. Measuring the different dimensions of sustainability is a challenge. Regulations play a central role in opening the markets for sustainable building renovation through incentive schemes, building codes, etc. Although traditional approaches to energy renovation emphasize more efficient heating and lighting systems and better insulation, there is a tendency to address the challenge more holistically by emphasizing social targets.
       
  • Impact of various ventilation modes on IAQ and energy consumption in
           Chinese dwellings: First long-term monitoring study in Tianjin, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Lei Zhao, Junjie Liu, Jianlin Ren People typically spend many hours a day inside their homes. Outdoor PM2.5, indoor décor, and the activities of residents worsen indoor air quality. Natural ventilation, natural ventilation with a portable air cleaner (PAC), and mechanical ventilation are some of the main ventilation modes. However, limited data are available on the actual performance of different ventilation modes. We conducted a one-year on-site program of measurement in six apartments in Tianjin, China. The results showed that indoor air quality was affected by both outdoor particle concentration and indoor activities (walking, cooking, etc.). Natural ventilation alone cannot guarantee indoor air quality. A mechanical ventilation system could reduce the duration of high indoor particulate pollution periods to some extent; however, whole year monitoring revealed that it was not effective in increasing healthy time ratios. Reduction in CO2 concentrations above the standard levels through mechanical ventilation is 22.3% more than that through natural ventilation dwellings. Natural ventilation with a portable air cleaner can remove mass particulate pollution rapidly and maintain good indoor air quality with long-time operation. This study is expected to contribute towards the improvement of indoor air quality and the health of residents.
       
  • Ten questions concerning cost-effective energy and carbon emissions
           optimization in building renovation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Manuela Almeida, Marco Ferreira In European countries, buildings are the major energy consumers due to the general low energy performance of the existing building stock. To achieve the ambitioned targets for emissions reduction, it will be necessary to take actions for its large scale renovation. However, today's standards are mainly focused on new buildings, guiding the improvement of the energy performance of the existing buildings into expensive processes and complex procedures that seldom are accepted by users, owners or promoters. For these buildings, the range of technical solutions is shorter and may lead to ancillary works that result in a relevant increase in costs.In this context, the IEA EBC Programme launched the Annex56 project, with the goal of investigating solutions and produce guidance suitable for European residential buildings, taking into consideration not only the benefits related to energy and emissions reduction, but also the added value resulting from the renovation process. Considering the goal of reducing emissions, measures that promote the use of renewable energy can be as effective as energy efficiency measures, therefore, it is important to determine the optimal balance between the minimization of energy demand and the use of renewable energy.The optimization process has to explore the full range of cost-effective reduction of emissions and energy use and also to take into account the additional benefits and the overall added value achieved by the building within the renovation process as well as the increasing relevance of the embodied energy associated to the materials and systems used in the interventions.
       
  • Lighting up the office: The effect of wall luminance on room appraisal,
           office workers' performance, and subjective alertness
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Adrie de Vries, Jan L. Souman, Boris de Ruyter, Ingrid Heynderickx, Yvonne A.W. de Kort Creating the right environment is considered essential in today's office designs to foster collaboration, concentration and creativity. Much, however, is still unknown with regard to how lighting affects the office knowledge worker. In this study, we have explored the effects of a single, carefully isolated lighting design parameter, namely wall luminance, on the appraisal of an office space, the affective state of the occupants, their subjective alertness and their performance on a key knowledge worker task: problem solving. Room appraisal increased significantly with higher wall luminance, both on attractiveness and illumination. No effects were found on the pleasure, arousal or dominance dimensions of emotion ratings by the participants, nor were effects found on the performance of divergent and convergent problem-solving tasks. Unexpectedly, wall luminance did affect the subjective alertness of the participants, as participants were able to maintain their level of subjective alertness in the highest wall luminance condition, whereas subjective alertness decreased significantly over time in the lowest and medium wall luminance conditions. As this effect is commonly found in studies where light exposure on the human eye is manipulated (and often attributed to non-visual effects) the finding from this study provides a first indication that next to the amount of light on the eye, wall luminance and room appearance might also play a role.
       
  • Passive hygrothermal behaviour and indoor comfort concerning the
           construction evolution of the traditional Basque architectural model. Lea
           valley case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Matxalen Etxebarria Mallea, Lauren Etxepare Igiñiz, Margarita de Luxán García de Diego The main objective of this article is the measurement of the passive hygrothermal behaviour and indoor comfort in the traditional Basque architectural model as it has developed and evolved since the 15th Century. For that purpose, the traditional farmhouse architecture in the River Lea valley, located in the Historical Territory of Bizkaia (Basque Country, Spain) and characterized by a temperate-humid climate, was studied and evaluated.Since the origin of the Basque farmhouse as an « architectural model» in the 15th Century, not only have its construction system, structure, architectural composition and construction materials evolved, but also the indoor hygrothermal variables, the Operative Temperature [°C] and Relative Humidity [%] have gradually evolved. In order to obtain the base behaviour diagnosis, computational models have been developed using Design Builder v.5.0.1.024 simulation programme. In addition, based on Olgyay's, Givoni's and ASHRAE's Standard 55–2013 conditions, three hygrothermal comfort ranges have been defined to determine the relationship between the two hygrothermal variables and indoor human well-being.As a result, it is concluded that the evolution of the construction of the architectural farmhouse model has had a hidden or unknown but significant influence on the hygrothermal performance of the buildings and, therefore, on the level of human comfort; through their evolution they have become more comfortable buildings.
       
  • Effects of neighborhood building density, height, greenspace, and
           cleanliness on indoor environment and health of building occupants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Isabelle Y.S. Chan, Anita M.M. Liu The influences of indoor environment quality on occupant health have long been one of the main focuses in built environment and public health research. However, evidence to this effect has been inconsistent. Furthermore, previous urban studies have indicated the interaction between urban morphology and indoor environment. This study thus goes beyond indoor environment to investigate: i) the effects of neighborhood environment on occupant health; and ii) the mediating roles of indoor environment on the neighborhood environment and occupant health relationships. To achieve this aim, buildings located in different neighborhood environment in Hong Kong are selected. Data are collected by post-occupancy evaluation (occupant health), indoor environment assessment (thermal comfort, indoor air quality, ventilation, visual comfort, and acoustic comfort) and neighborhood environment assessment (neighborhood building density, building height, cleanliness and greenspace) through questionnaire survey. Through correlation analysis, regression modelling and Sobel test, it is found that: i) occupant health is significantly affected by neighborhood building height, building density and cleanliness; ii) the relationships between neighborhood environment and occupant health are significantly mediated by indoor environment, in terms of visual and acoustic comfort; and iii) neighborhood greenspace affects occupant health indirectly through influencing indoor air quality. To cross validate the results of the survey study, which is conducted using subjective data, objective measurements and analyses are further conducted. The objective study, echoing the survey study results, indicates that buildings with lower neighborhood building density and height, and cleaner neighborhood environment have better visual (higher illuminance level) and acoustic (lower noise level) performances.
       
  • Evaluating the economic sustainability of a vertical greening system: A
           Cost-Benefit Analysis of a pilot project in mediterranean area
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Paolo Rosasco, Katia Perini The growing diffusion of vertical green systems has led to the development of new systems and technological solutions which can improve the quality of urban environments. The present research evaluates the economic sustainability of a vertical greening system (VGS) installed on an office building in Genoa (Italy) through a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA). The benefits deriving from the installation of VGS are compared with the costs. The economic benefits considered are related to the economic effects of energy savings (for air conditioning), with values deriving from field studies and monitoring activities, biomass production, estimated according to the material produced by annual maintenance works (pruning), and property value. The latter is estimated thanks to the involvement, by means of a specific survey, of real estate agents working in the city of Genoa. Results show that a VGS can be economically sustainable when a tax reduction on installation costs is considered; in this case, the Net Present Value and the Internal Rate of Return are positive and the Pay Back Period is lower than the life span of VGS. A relevant contribution is also determined by the energy saving for building summer conditioning due to the reduction of the external air temperature. A Monte Carlo simulation allows verifying the reliability of the results obtained for the economically sustainable scenarios. A Sensitivity Analysis on the main variables underlines the relevance of the design phase in order to optimize the choice of materials and technological solutions reducing installation and maintenance costs.
       
  • Human simulator – A tool for predicting thermal sensation in the
           built environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018Source: Building and EnvironmentAuthor(s): Barbara Koelblen, Agnes Psikuta, Anna Bogdan, Simon Annaheim, René M. Rossi One of the challenges for engineers designing indoor environments is merging the need for energy savings with providing thermally comfortable conditions for the occupants. Since the best way to evaluate thermal comfort, i.e. direct enquiry, is at the same time the most cost- and time-consuming one, various modelling tools are widely used. However, in order to assess complex heterogeneous environments created by novel building systems, there is a need for more sophisticated and precise tools.In this paper, we present a new human simulator methodology for indoor environmental research, combining three tools to predict thermal sensation, namely, a thermal manikin, a thermoregulation model, and a thermal sensation model. Thanks to the thermoregulation model's control, the thermal manikin is capable of mimicking the thermo-physiological response of a human exposed to chosen environmental conditions, which provides reliable input data for advanced thermal sensation models. Along with presenting this concept, the performance of a commercially available human simulator was demonstrated on five validation examples representing office-like conditions for which thermal sensation was predicted with satisfactory accuracy. Based on the presented results, we discussed the capabilities and limitations of human simulators for indoor environment research such as the benefits of performing measurements directly in the assessed environment with real garments, and the challenges related to the manikin's accuracy. The presented human simulator approach is suitable to apply in the building's design process, as well as the development of new solutions for conditioning indoor spaces, and can support the evaluation of existing buildings.
       
 
 
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