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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2268 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (103 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1201 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (380 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (67 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 183 of 183 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover Building and Environment
  [SJR: 2.121]   [H-I: 86]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0360-1323
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Verification of Fiala-based human thermophysiological model and its
           application to protective clothing under high metabolic rates
    • Authors: Jan Pokorný; Jan Fišer; Miloš Fojtlín; Barbora Kopečková; Róbert Toma; Jiří Slabotínský; Miroslav Jícha
      Pages: 13 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Jan Pokorný, Jan Fišer, Miloš Fojtlín, Barbora Kopečková, Róbert Toma, Jiří Slabotínský, Miroslav Jícha
      In the past years, a theory of how to predict human heat stress and thermal comfort using advanced thermo-physiological models has been broadly extended. These models are more complex than the well-established overall indices of the heat stress (ISO 7933) and thermal comfort (ISO 7730) and they allow to simulate the effects of metabolism, thermoregulation, and clothing on human thermal state in greater detail. However, the most discussed issue is a validity of such complex models. The validation process of multi-segment thermophysiological models has to be focused not only on the overall parameters, but also on the local ones. The aim of this study is to verify our implementation of Fiala-based model with similar models and measurements. To conclude with, the results were in a good agreement with the original Fiala model with respect to the simulation of the passive system, the active system, and the DTS index (Dynamical Thermal Sensation) for a wide range of ambient temperatures (from 5 °C to 48 °C). Further, the study covers testing of protective clothing, such as Tychem-F and military NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) suit FOP M2000 including the Klimatex underwear. The mean absolute deviations (MAD) of rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, and local skin temperatures, valid for protective clothing in a range from 25 °C to 40 °C and metabolic rates up to 4.3 met, were 0.20 °C, 0.78 °C and 1.25 °C respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T07:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • A novel environmental control system facilitating humidification for
           commercial aircraft
    • Authors: Long Chen; Xingjuan Zhang; Chao Wang; Chunxin Yang
      Pages: 34 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Long Chen, Xingjuan Zhang, Chao Wang, Chunxin Yang
      Extreme aircraft cabin air dryness during cruise has aroused wide concern throughout the past 30 years. A new integrated system featuring air supply, pressure regulation, temperature control, water separation, and cabin humidification is proposed based on numerous field investigations, existing cabin humidification methods, and conventional aircraft environmental control systems. Cabin humidification is realized through the injection of purified water into the suction side of cabin environmental control system compressor without changing the original system structure. Another advantage of the new system is the lower demand of ram air benefitted from the decreased temperature of compressor inlet with water injection process. System analysis models and software using enthalpy parameter method are also presented. Verification experiments focused on the core parts of the integrated system show that the system analysis models agree with the experimental data well. System performance characteristic and fuel penalty are evaluated using thermodynamic analysis parameters. Results show that under 5 g/(kg·dry air) humidification, the cabin humidity increased smoothly to about 27.9% during the cruising state. The fuel penalty decreased by 1% under the new integrated system for the lower demand of ram air. The novel integrated system is effective and economy.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T02:51:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Energy performance investigation of an innovative environmental control
           system in subway station
    • Authors: Huan Zhang; Tong Cui; Minzhang Liu; Wandong Zheng; Chunguang Zhu; Shijun You; Yazhuo Zhang
      Pages: 68 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Huan Zhang, Tong Cui, Minzhang Liu, Wandong Zheng, Chunguang Zhu, Shijun You, Yazhuo Zhang
      More than 70% of the non-traction energy consumption is attributable to environmental control system in subway stations, in which ventilation system accounts for the largest portion. Energy savings will be affected significantly if the environmental control system can be improved effectively. This paper proposed an innovative environment control system. The system features an innovative platform door with controllable vents, aiming to improve the energy performance and thermal environment in subway station. This study used on-site experimental data and numerical simulations to analyze the thermal environment of the station for optimizing the controllable vents of innovative platform doors including position, size and open angle. Moreover, the operation control strategy for the innovative environmental control system was put forward. The energy performance of the innovative environmental control system was discussed for the five cities, which represent five climate zones of China. The results showed the innovative environmental control system could satisfy the requirements of thermal comfort. Compared with the traditional platform screen doors system, the energy consumption could be reduced by 20.64%–60.43%.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T02:51:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.09.023
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Investigation of the effects of temperature for supplied air from a
           personal nozzle system on thermal comfort of air travelers
    • Authors: Zhaosong Fang; Hong Liu; Baizhan Li; Xiuyuan Du; Andrew Baldwin
      Pages: 82 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Zhaosong Fang, Hong Liu, Baizhan Li, Xiuyuan Du, Andrew Baldwin
      Air travel has become the most popular form of long distance travel owing to speed and convenience. In order to create a healthy and thermally comfortable environment in the aircraft's cabin, personalized nozzle ventilation is supplied to passengers. In such a system, the temperature of the supplied air is normally lower than the ambient temperature by 5 °C. In this study, an experimental investigation of thermal responses and skin temperature measurements was carried out in a mock-up of an aircraft cabin. The results indicate that local cooling is an effective way to improve the overall thermal comfort, especially for cooling the upper body. Based on paired t-test analyses, there were no significant temperature differences between the effects of isothermal and non-isothermal air supply on subjective responses and mean skin temperatures. The regression models of local thermal and overall thermal sensations were obtained and analyzed. Such models will be beneficial for the optimum design of future personalized nozzle ventilation systems.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T02:51:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.09.020
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Analytical model for the moisture absorption in capillary active building
           materials
    • Authors: Michele Bianchi Janetti; Peter Wagner
      Pages: 98 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Michele Bianchi Janetti, Peter Wagner
      Isothermal absorption of moisture in a semi-infinite porous body is described with a diffusion law as a free boundary problem in which the porous domain is divided into a nearly saturated and a nearly dry region. This problem is solved via an analytical approach by assuming the diffusivity as a step function of the volumetric water content. The analytical solution is then applied to modeling the behavior of two real building materials during a water uptake test. It is shown that the model is able to explain the absorption process adequately, and that a good agreement with the measured data is obtained. Finally, a novel method for the inverse determination of the diffusivity via water uptake tests is proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T02:51:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • A decision making support tool for selecting green building certification
           credits based on project delivery attributes
    • Authors: Senem Seyis; Esin Ergen
      Pages: 107 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Senem Seyis, Esin Ergen
      The Green Building (GB) certification process embodies detailed requirements and specifications that lead to additional tasks for project teams, which increases complexity levels of the entire project delivery process. Previous studies show that if the GB certification credits to be fulfilled are selected without considering project team attributes, then elevated levels of time, money, and labor could get wasted while attempting to meet the additional requirements of GB certification. The aim of this study is to develop a multi-attribute decision making (MADM) support tool to be used by GB experts to select the appropriate GB certification credits based on the project team attributes. The developed framework with relative weights assigned via the Delphi method was used to perform the MADM analysis, which employs the hybrid use of the Multi Attribute Utility Technique (MAUT) and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). This paper presents the developed MADM tool (i.e., GB-CS tool) and the relative weights of the attributes that were determined following expert opinions. To validate the tool, a case study was conducted at a LEED-registered residential project. The results show that the GB-CS Tool was successful in ranking the GB certification credits to be selected. This hybrid MADM tool can be used for preventing disruptions and bottlenecks in GB project delivery processes by assisting the owners/GB consultants in effectively selecting suitable GB certification credits based on the project team attributes. Thus, with the assistance of the GB-CS tool, root causes of waste can be mitigated in the GB project delivery process, decreasing associated hidden costs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T02:51:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.09.028
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Optimization of glazing systems in Non-Residential buildings: The role of
           the optical properties of air-conditioned environments
    • Authors: Roberto Bruno
      Pages: 147 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Roberto Bruno
      Highly glazed envelope in non-residential buildings are usually designed to have more access to daylight and to offer better visual comfort. However, large windows allow for the transfer of remarkable heat gains and thermal losses that affect the building energy consumptions. Because the latter represent the majority of operating expenses, in the design phase an appropriate window size and a suitable glass typology have to be identified to achieve energy and economy savings. In this paper, a simplified procedure to determine the optimal glazed system in function of the sensible and latent energy requirements, is proposed. The calculation of the involved energy requirements has been carried out by the quasi-steady procedures described in the international standard ISO 13790, but employing a novel steady-state model to calculate the transmitted solar radiation through windowed surface. An absorption coefficient of the indoor cavity, in fact, was introduced to take into account the fraction of the solar radiation transmitted through the windows that, after mutual internal reflections, escapes outside from the same glazed surfaces. In building envelopes equipped with large glazed surface, this fraction cannot be neglected because it does not become a thermal load for the indoor environment. The same calculations were carried out considering also the air-conditioned volume as “black” to the transmitted solar radiation in order to evaluate the weight of the cavity absorption coefficient on the choice of the glazed system.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T11:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • PV-PCM integration in glazed building. Co-simulation and genetic
           optimization study
    • Authors: Hagar Elarga; Andrea Dal Monte; Rune Korsholm Andersen; Ernesto Benini
      Pages: 161 - 175
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Hagar Elarga, Andrea Dal Monte, Rune Korsholm Andersen, Ernesto Benini
      The study describes a multi-objective optimization algorithm for an innovative integration of forced ventilated PV-PCM modules in glazed façade buildings: the aim is to identify and optimize the parameters that most affect thermal and energy performances. 1-D model, finite difference method FDM, thermal resistances technique and enthalpy method were applied to describe different façade solutions and transient thermal performance of PCM. The coupling between the PV-PCM façade code implemented in MATLAB and the TRNSYS software was developed to estimate the dynamic thermal energy profiles. An exploratory step has also been considered prior to the optimization algorithm: it evaluates the energy profiles before and after the application of PCM to PV module integrated in glazed building. The optimization analysis investigate parameters such as ventilation flow rates and time schedule to obtain the best combination suiting the PCM performance and external-internal loads. A group of solution were identified on the Pareto front. Savings in thermal loads for the best individual reached 26.4% while the best in temperature increment in operating temperatures was recorded as 6.8% comparing to the design set temperature.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T11:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.09.029
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • A state-space method for real-time transient simulation of indoor airflow
    • Authors: Qiujian Wang; Yiqun Pan; Mingya Zhu; Zhizhong Huang; Wei Tian; Wangda Zuo; Xu Han; Peng Xu
      Pages: 184 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Qiujian Wang, Yiqun Pan, Mingya Zhu, Zhizhong Huang, Wei Tian, Wangda Zuo, Xu Han, Peng Xu
      Inhomogeneous airflow distribution is common in air-conditioned rooms, especially the large open spaces. To evaluate the thermal comfort of such space, or the control performance of the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems in an efficient way, one will need a fast prediction method to simulate the airflow and temperature distribution. This paper proposes a discrete state-space method, called state-space fluid dynamics (SFD), for the fast indoor airflow simulation. To handle time-varying velocity and temperature field, SFD converts all the governing equations of fluid dynamics into the form of a state-space model. Four typical cases are selected to evaluate both the accuracy and speed of SFD, compared with fast fluid dynamics (FFD), which is another fast airflow simulation program. Results show that SFD is capable of achieving faster-than-real-time airflow simulation with an accuracy similar to FFD. The computing time of SFD is longer than FFD when the time step size is the same. However, SFD can generally produce better results than FFD when the time step size is larger, which allows SFD run faster than FFD.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T11:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.09.032
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Study on the impacts of human walking on indoor particles dispersion using
           momentum theory method
    • Authors: Shi-Jie Cao; Dongdong Cen; Weirong Zhang; Zhuangbo Feng
      Pages: 195 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Shi-Jie Cao, Dongdong Cen, Weirong Zhang, Zhuangbo Feng
      Particle dispersion can be influenced by human activities' inducing effect, which may not be allowed in high-demanded cleanness environment, such as operation room. The application of dynamic mesh simulation method has been widely applied for objects moving, which is not CPU-friendly in calculation as well as complex meshing required. Thus, we proposed a new method of momentum theory to investigate human motion induced effects on indoor environments (i.e., momentum source implemented into Navier-Stokes equations to simulate human/objects moving). Experiments were conducted for validation. RNG k-ε model was adopted for turbulence modeling. Both methods of dynamic mesh and momentum theory were used to investigate the impacts of human induced motion on indoor environments of airflow distributions and particles dispersion. It was found that momentum theory method is sufficiently fine when compared to dynamic mesh (flow and particle deviation within 15% and 5% respectively). Momentum theory method was then employed to investigate the decay process of particle concentration influenced by human walking in a chamber, which could save 90% of the calculation time compared to dynamic mesh method. The results also indicated that particles decay would be delayed in the presence of object moving. Particle concentration in different zones of the chamber was also discussed. We found that particle decay effected by human motion (with speed of 0.2  m/s) was 19.6% faster than that without human motion in the region with larger background airflow velocities.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T11:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • A daylight optimized simulation-based shading controller for venetian
           blinds
    • Authors: Angelina Katsifaraki; Bruno Bueno; Tilmann E. Kuhn
      Pages: 207 - 220
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Angelina Katsifaraki, Bruno Bueno, Tilmann E. Kuhn
      A new controller for office spaces with venetian blinds has been developed to explicitly address both daylight maximization and glare control. Conventionally, systems that operate on these principles require numerous sensors to monitor the visual conditions in the room, leading to expensive, complicated and impractical installations. To address this problem the developed controller substitutes the illuminance sensors with real-time daylight simulations based on the Three-phase method and uses bi-directional scattering distribution functions (BSDF). An optimization engine based on the principles of fuzzy logic has been added to the system in order to evaluate the visual conditions in the room and decide on the optimal shade configuration. A prototype of the controller has been built and tested under real life conditions in a rotatable test facility located in Freiburg, Germany. The accuracy with which the simulation engine predicts horizontal and vertical illuminances in the room has been satisfactorily evaluated against measurements and the operation of the controller has been assessed. A case study has been conducted in order to demonstrate the benefits of the new simulation-based controller over two widely used control strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T11:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Precipitation collection and evapo(transpi)ration of living wall systems:
           A comparative study between a panel system and a planter box system
    • Authors: P.M.F. van de Wouw; E.J.M. Ros; H.J.H. Brouwers
      Pages: 221 - 237
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): P.M.F. van de Wouw, E.J.M. Ros, H.J.H. Brouwers
      By reducing the quantity of precipitation reaching the ground, a green façade can contribute to a more natural way of rainwater drainage. Additionally, it provides shadowing, insulation, and evapotranspiration (ET) of water enabling it to reduce the heat load of a building. The collection of precipitation and the ET were tested over a two month period on two commercially available living wall systems. The entering and outgoing amounts of water were monitored, as well as the mass variation of the systems. The weather data, collection of precipitation and condensation, and the ET were determined. The precipitation collection of one vertical m2 expressed as an equivalent percentage of the precipitation on one horizontal m2 results on average in 18.8% and 33.0% for the panel and the planter box system respectively, whereby the occurrence of wind driven rain is not essential. Wind speed, humidity, air temperature, and solar radiation have been found to be neither independent nor dominant, yet trends for both systems are in good correlation. Correlating the measured ET with the reference ET obtained through the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation results in a factor of 1.46 and 0.76 between a horizontal m2 of reference crop and a vertical m2 of the panel and the planter box system respectively, values relating to deviating designs and dissimilar irrigation procedures. The total estimated ET power is 18 (±3) kW/m2/year and 11 (±3) kW/m2/year for the panel and the planter box system, respectively. The derived water balances indicate the need for proper irrigation management throughout the year.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T09:01:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • CFD study on gaseous pollutant transmission characteristics under
           different ventilation strategies in a typical chemical laboratory
    • Authors: Weidong Liu; Dong Liu; Naiping Gao
      Pages: 238 - 251
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Weidong Liu, Dong Liu, Naiping Gao
      Indoor environments in chemical laboratories have attracted growing concerns because laboratory personnel are faced with an increased risk of severe diseases. This study investigates gaseous pollutant transmission characteristics in a typical chemical laboratory with a fume hood under different scenarios using a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) program, which is validated by a face velocity measurement. Airflow patterns and pollutant concentration distributions are analyzed while performances of the general ventilation and fume hoods are discussed. Orthogonal Experiment Design (OED) is used to analyze the order of magnitude of various factors. It is indicated that fume hoods prevent the dispersion of pollutants and make pollutant concentration distributions different from conventional ventilation systems. It is further demonstrated that both ACH and ventilation effectiveness are significant for the improvement of indoor environments and the limits to advantages of increasing ACH result from the decline in the growth rate of ventilation effectiveness or even the reduction of ventilation efficiency. Moreover, analysis of range and analysis of variance are adopted to analyze the simulation results, which suggests that pollutant source location, supply location and ACH are three dominant factors for the performances of the general ventilation. And the amount of leakage of fume hoods in DV systems is several orders of magnitude lower than MV but breathing zone control level is not only influenced by the amount of leakage but also airflow patterns.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T09:01:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.09.033
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Development of a Colour Quality Assessment Tool for indoor luminous
           environments affecting the circadian rhythm of occupants
    • Authors: I.T. Kim; A.S. Choi; M.K. Sung
      Pages: 252 - 265
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): I.T. Kim, A.S. Choi, M.K. Sung
      The colour of indoor luminous environments affects the circadian rhythm and awakening of humans. If the blue colour of a luminous environment perceived by an observer's circadian action factor (CAF), which represents the impact of light on the hormones and biorhythm of an observer, is high, the secretion of melatonin is suppressed. To design an appropriate indoor luminous environment, the final colour of a space perceived by an observer must be accurately predicted and its effects on the observer must be considered. Therefore, this study developed a Colour Quality Assessment Tool (CQAT) that utilizes the spectral reflectance factor of interior finishes and the spectral power distribution (SPD) data of luminaires to accurately calculate the luminous exitance radiated by interior finishes and the colour quality components of the SPD, luminance, CAF, colour coordinates, and correlated colour temperature (CCT) based on the colours of the interior finishes and light sources. In addition, the colour quality was evaluated considering the angle between the interior finishes and the view of an observer from a specific direction and position. The colour quality of different interior finishes was assessed using the CQAT, and the results showed that the luminous environment CCT perceived by observers differed by 1882 K (approximately 31%) or more and that the CAF differed by 0.16 (approximately 14%) or more based on the colour of the interior finishes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T09:01:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Lessons from in-home air filtration intervention trials to reduce urban
           ultrafine particle number concentrations
    • Authors: Doug Brugge; Matthew C. Simon; Neelakshi Hudda; Marisa Zellmer; Laura Corlin; Stephanie Cleland; Eda Yiqi Lu; Sonja Rivera; Megan Byrne; Mei Chung; John L. Durant
      Pages: 266 - 275
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Doug Brugge, Matthew C. Simon, Neelakshi Hudda, Marisa Zellmer, Laura Corlin, Stephanie Cleland, Eda Yiqi Lu, Sonja Rivera, Megan Byrne, Mei Chung, John L. Durant
      Background Exposure to airborne ultrafine particle (UFP; <100 nm in aerodynamic diameter) is an emerging public health problem. Nevertheless, the benefit of using high efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtration to reduce UFP concentrations in homes is not yet clear. Methods We conducted a randomized crossover study of HEPA filtration without a washout period in 23 homes of low-income Puerto Ricans in Boston and Chelsea, MA (USA). Most participants were female, older adults who were overweight or obese. Particle number concentrations (PNC, a proxy for UFP) were measured indoors and outdoors at each home continuously for six weeks. Homes received both HEPA filtration and sham filtration for three weeks each in random order. Results Median PNC under HEPA filtration was 50–85% lower compared to sham filtration in most homes, but we found no benefit in terms of reduced inflammation; associations between hsCRP, IL-6, or TNFRII in blood samples and associations with indoor PNC were inverse and not statistically significant. Conclusions Limitations to our study design likely contributed to our findings. Limitations included carry-over effects, a population that may have been relatively unresponsive to UFP, reduction in PNC, even during sham filtration, that limited differences between HEPA and sham filtration, window opening by participants, and lack of fine-grained (room-specific) participant time-activity information. Our approach was similar to other recent HEPA intervention studies of particulate matter exposure and cardiovascular risk, suggesting that there may be a need to improve study designs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T09:01:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Thermal comfort evaluation in cruise terminals
    • Authors: Vitor Cardoso; Nuno M.M. Ramos; Ricardo M.S.F. Almeida; Eva Barreira; João Poças Martins; M. Lurdes Simões; Luís Sanhudo; Bruno Ribeiro
      Pages: 276 - 287
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Vitor Cardoso, Nuno M.M. Ramos, Ricardo M.S.F. Almeida, Eva Barreira, João Poças Martins, M. Lurdes Simões, Luís Sanhudo, Bruno Ribeiro
      The variations of building typologies contribute to the difficulty of performing a correct analysis of the comfort conditions in buildings that do not fit the more common geometries and occupation patterns. The main objective of the article is to evaluate the comfort conditions of cruise terminal buildings, an example of this type of problem. A twofold strategy, comprising in-situ measurements and user surveys was implemented. A total of 20 independent field measurements of thermal comfort parameters underwent in 2 facilities located in Portugal. The in-situ measurements supported the comfort assessment by the PMV analytical index and by the ASHRAE 55 and EN15251 adaptive approaches. The responses to 572 questionnaires to judge sensations and preferences of the passengers were obtained. Other aspects were also inquired, such as the time spent in the facilities and the health status. The comparison of the comfort assessment with the results of the survey showed that the adaptive models provided a broader acceptance of the measured environmental conditions, in line with the broader acceptance demonstrated by the users. The significant restriction of the PMV model application in this building typology was emphasized. The contrast of sensations by passengers of different national origin, with tropical originals feeling neutral at higher operative temperatures than temperate climate originals, was detected as an influencing factor. Waiting time was another relevant factor found, as the time spent inside the buildings pointed to a greater demand by passengers.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T09:01:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Personalized human comfort in indoor building environments under diverse
           conditioning modes
    • Authors: Da Li; Carol C. Menassa; Vineet R. Kamat
      Pages: 304 - 317
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Da Li, Carol C. Menassa, Vineet R. Kamat
      In practice, building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are essentially set at nominal levels according to industry guidelines. However, several studies have demonstrated that this conventional practice is unlikely to meet the thermal requirements of occupants in a single or multi-occupancy space due to occupants' diverse preferences, activities and needs. To improve occupants' thermal comfort, this study develops and tests a smartphone application framework which is capable of dynamically determining the optimum room conditioning mode (mechanical conditioning or natural ventilation) and HVAC settings (thermostat setpoint) in single and multi-occupancy spaces. The “personalized” HVAC control framework integrates environment data (obtained from sensors) with human physiological and behavioral data (obtained from wearable devices, polling apps) in a smartphone application we developed for human-building interaction. In the operation phase, occupants' thermal preferences are continuously predicted using the personalized comfort models, developed from the training data through the Random Forest classifier, when determining the optimum HVAC control strategies. Two case studies are conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed framework to improve thermal comfort in single and multi-occupancy spaces.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T09:01:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Exploration of the Bayesian Network framework for modelling window control
           behaviour
    • Authors: Verena M. Barthelmes; Yeonsook Heo; Valentina Fabi; Stefano P. Corgnati
      Pages: 318 - 330
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Verena M. Barthelmes, Yeonsook Heo, Valentina Fabi, Stefano P. Corgnati
      Extended literature reviews confirm that the accurate evaluation of energy-related occupant behaviour is a key factor for bridging the gap between predicted and actual energy performance of buildings. One of the key energy-related human behaviours is window control behaviour that has been modelled by different probabilistic modelling approaches. In recent years, Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become a popular representation based on graphical models for modelling stochastic processes with consideration of uncertainty in various fields, from computational biology to complex engineering problems. This study investigates the potential applicability of BNs to capture underlying complicated relationships between various influencing factors and energy-related behavioural actions of occupants in buildings: in particular, window opening/closing behaviour of occupants in residential buildings is investigated. This study addresses five key research questions related to modelling window control behaviour: (A) variable selection for identifying key drivers impacting window control behaviour, (B) correlations between key variables for structuring a statistical model, (C) target definition for finding the most suitable target variable, (D) BN model with capabilities to treat mixed data, and (E) validation of a stochastic BN model. A case study on the basis of measured data in one residential apartment located in Copenhagen, Denmark provides key findings associated with the five research questions through the modelling process of developing the BN model.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T09:01:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Modified predator-prey algorithm approach to designing a cooling or
           insulating skylight
    • Authors: Martin Fält; Frank Pettersson; Ron Zevenhoven
      Pages: 331 - 338
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Martin Fält, Frank Pettersson, Ron Zevenhoven
      Both cooling and thermal insulation can be achieved using a triple-glazed skylight filled with a gas that absorbs and emits thermal radiation. Utilizing radiative cooling as the driving force a cooling effect can be achieved in the here outlined skylight, while it can also act as a thermal insulator when desired. Inside the skylight the gas it contains circulates by natural convection induced by its heated lower compartment to the radiatively cooled upper compartment that “sees” the sky. By this circulation, cooling is obtained to a room located below the skylight. When this circulation is cut off, the skylight acts as a thermal insulator. This gives a multi-objective optimization problem, as these two objectives are conflicting. In this article, a Pareto front is created that shows possible trade-off solutions between the cooling and insulating properties of the designed skylight. This Pareto front is created by optimizing the dimensions of the skylight. Thus, the skylight will provide an optimal cooling effect and an optimal insulation effect when needed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T09:01:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Experimental identification of key parameters contributing to moisture
           accumulation in an aircraft section
    • Authors: Tengfei (Tim) Zhang; Guohui Li; Chao-Hsin Lin; Zhigang (Daniel) Wei; Shugang Wang
      Pages: 339 - 347
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Tengfei (Tim) Zhang, Guohui Li, Chao-Hsin Lin, Zhigang (Daniel) Wei, Shugang Wang
      Aircraft can acquire large amounts of moisture in its insulation layers. The trapped moisture increases the aircraft's weight, degrades thermal and sound insulation performance, induces microbe growth, and causes various types of corrosion. It is known that moisture accumulation varies with flight conditions. However, the specific effects of individual parameters, such as flight altitude, cabin air pressure, cabin air temperature, and relative humidity, on moisture accumulation remain unknown. This investigation measures moisture accumulation mass in a reduced-scale mockup of an aircraft section. The mockup is composed of a metallic shell, porous insulation blankets, a ventilation system, heat and moisture generation devices, etc. The mockup is placed in a psychrometric altitude chamber in which the air pressure and psychrometric parameters can be varied in order to simulate different flight conditions. The moisture mass accumulated within the insulation blankets and on the interior skin of the shell is weighed on a digital precision balance. The results reveal that flight altitude and cabin air relative humidity have the greatest effect on moisture accumulation amounts, while cabin air pressure and temperature play relatively weak roles. Greater moisture gain is observed at a high flight altitude and a high cabin humidity level, and vice versa.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T09:01:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Assessing the risk of downwind spread of avian influenza virus via
           airborne particles from an urban wholesale poultry market
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Jianjian Wei, Jie Zhou, Kitling Cheng, Jie Wu, Zhifeng Zhong, Yingchao Song, Changwen Ke, Hui-Ling Yen, Yuguo Li
      Interspecies transmissions of avian influenza viruses (AIV) occur at the human-poultry interface, among which the live poultry markets (LPMs) are easily assessed by urban residents. Thousands of live poultry from different farms arrive daily at wholesale markets before being sold to retail markets. We assessed the risk of AIV downwind spread via airborne particles from a representative wholesale market in Guangzhou. Air samples were collected using the cyclone-based NIOSH bioaerosol samplers at different locations inside a wholesale market, and viral RNA and avian 18S RNA were quantified using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to investigate the AIV spread pattern. Viral RNA was readily detected from 19 out of 21 air sampling events, predominantly from particles larger than 1 μm. The concentration of viral RNA detected at the poultry holding area was 4.4 × 105 copies/m3 and was as high as 2.6 × 104 copies/m3 100 m downwind. A high concentration of avian 18S RNA (2.5 × 108 copies/m3) detected at the poultry holding area was used for assessing the potential spread of avian influenza virus during outbreak situations. CFD modeling indicated the combined effect of wind direction and surrounding buildings on the spread of virus and a slow decay rate of the virus in the air in the downwind direction. Because of the large volume of poultry trade daily, wholesale markets located in urban areas may pose considerable AIV infection risk to neighboring residents via wind spread, even in the absence of direct contact with poultry.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:13:03Z
       
  • Large-eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion in a cavity at fine grid
           resolutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Hideki Kikumoto, Ryozo Ooka
      This study validates large-eddy simulations (LESs) at fine grid resolutions to analyze the turbulent dispersion of pollutants in a cavity space, representing an urban street canyon. A pollution dispersion experiment was conducted using a physical model of a cavity with a height (H) of 1.0 m and an aspect ratio of unity (1:1). A line source at the bottom center of the cavity was used to deliver the tracer gas (a mixture of ethylene and synthetic air). The wind velocity was measured with a hot-wire anemometer. The tracer gas concentration was measured using a fast flame ionization detector. Following the physical experiment, LESs were conducted under the same model settings. Simple orthogonal grids were employed for the LESs with a grid spacing of H/200 and H/400. The LESs produced a good prediction of the mean and root-mean-square (RMS) velocity values. The LESs also predicted the mean, RMS, and percentiles of concentration well. However, a slight grid-dependency existed for the 95th and 99th concentration percentiles and the power spectral density of concentration at high-frequencies. The high percentiles were under predicted in the LESs as compared to the experiment near the source, especially in the coarser grid simulation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:13:03Z
       
  • Spatiotemporal distribution of indoor particulate matter concentration
           with a low-cost sensor network
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Jiayu Li, Haoran Li, Yehan Ma, Yang Wang, Ahmed A. Abokifa, Chenyang Lu, Pratim Biswas
      Real-time measurement of particulate matter (PM) is important for the maintenance of acceptable air quality. The high cost of conventional instruments typically limits the number of monitoring sites, which in turn undermines the accuracy of real-time mapping of sources and hotspots of air pollutants with sufficient spatial resolution. In this study, a wireless network of low-cost particle sensors that can be deployed indoors was developed. To overcome the well-known limitations of low sensitivity and poor signal quality associated with low-cost sensors, a sliding window and a low pass filter were developed to enhance the signal quality. Utility of the networked system with improved sensitivity was demonstrated by deploying it in a woodworking shop. Data collected by the networked system was utilized to construct spatiotemporal PM concentration distributions using an ordinary Kriging method and an Artificial Neural Network model to elucidate particle generation and ventilation processes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:13:03Z
       
  • Saturation based color appearance of objects: A comparison between healthy
           elderly, young adults, and young adults wearing goggles simulating
           cataract
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Asha L. Hegde, Nicholas Bishop
      Proper use of light and color in the built environment benefits all users, especially ones with reduced visual functioning such as older adults and low vision individuals. In this study, differences in saturation based color appearance of objects were compared between young eyes, old healthy eyes, and young eyes wearing foggy/yellowing goggles simulating cataract. Four color—Red, Green, Blue and Purple—and three saturation levels were manipulated when holding illuminance and value within each of the 4 colors constant. The perceived value of donning simulation goggles by the young was also assessed. Results indicated that there were no significant differences on saturation based color appearance between the young and the older healthy eye in the test situations. Young subjects wearing goggles rated all color appearance characteristics higher for color red than the young without goggles at all three levels of saturation, indicating that the goggles simulated the yellowing deficiency well. Regardless of visual conditions the color blue was perceived the best in high saturation, but in low saturation, the reverse was true where blue was rated low with regards to color appearance characteristics. Color purple which is more of reddish purple was perceived the best in low saturation. This study indicates that when considering color in the built environment, specifying color only by name (i.e. red, blue etc.) can be problematic. Saturation of the color is an important component and its application can provide individuals of all age groups and visual capabilities a supportive visual environment.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:13:03Z
       
  • Implications of present and upcoming changes in bioclimatic potential for
           energy performance of residential buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Luka Pajek, Mitja Košir
      Bioclimatic potential analysis is one of the starting points for bioclimatic building design. However, as climate changes are being brought into the spotlight, bioclimatic potential is being put into question as well, because traditionally used passive strategies at a specific location may no longer represent properly balanced approach. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to systematically evaluate bioclimatic potential of the selected five locations. At these locations, bioclimatic potential was observed separately for each of the last five decades. In the second part, present and future energy performance of one bioclimatic and one non-bioclimatic real residential building was simulated. The results show that yearly balance between heating and cooling passive strategies changed through time in all the locations. For example, the use of overheating prevention strategies is becoming more significant than it used to be in the past. Specifically, the period of year when shading is needed to achieve thermal comfort increased by 2–7% points, depending on location. Energy performance analysis of the selected buildings showed that by 2050 both analysed buildings will become cooling dominated and that by 2050 the current design solutions in bioclimatic buildings will become irrelevant or at least extremely inefficient. In general, in temperate climate zone the prevailing bioclimatic strategies integrated in architecture focus on heating season. Therefore, bioclimatic strategies in a particular location must be re-evaluated in order to design new and retrofit existing energy efficient contemporary buildings with comfortable indoor thermal conditions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:13:03Z
       
  • Determining the optimal occupancy density for reducing the energy
           consumption of public office buildings: A statistical approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Hyuna Kang, Minhyun Lee, Taehoon Hong, Jun-Ki Choi
      Due to the various restrictions on the energy performance of public office buildings, it is essential to obtain occupancy information for not only evaluating but also regulating the building energy performance. There is still a lack of information and standard, however, for occupancy density due to the limitations on data collection and the lack of reliable data. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the optimal occupancy density for reducing the energy consumption in public office buildings. Towards this end, this study used various statistical methods, such as correlation analysis, decision tree, and Mann-Whitney U test, based on the actual occupancy data from public office buildings in South Korea. This study was conducted in three steps: (i) establishment of the database; (ii) determination of the optimal occupancy density using the statistical approach; and (iii) application of the proposed occupancy density using building energy policies. As a result, it was shown that buildings with an occupancy density above 31.41 m2/person could save up to 50.3% energy on average compared to those with an occupancy density below 31.41 m2/person. The analysis results showed that the proposed occupancy density could help in deciding the appropriate occupancy density for reducing the energy consumption of public office buildings.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:13:03Z
       
  • Towards more sustainable social housing projects: Recognizing the
           importance of using local resources
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Biagio F. Giannetti, Jorge C.C. Demétrio, Feni Agostinho, Cecília M.V.B. Almeida, Gengyuan Liu
      The social housing projects of Brazil are focused on providing shelter for families with low income and on reaching the ultimate objective of more sustainable development of the nation. The Brazilian program, in supporting these families, is carried out through three main standardized housing projects: popular housing (R1), popular building (PP4), and building for social interest (PIS). Decisions regarding the choice of one project instead of another are usually based on economic considerations, disregarding environmental issues important for achieving sustainable development. The main goal of this work is to assess which social housing projects should be promoted in each Brazilian state, aiming for higher sustainability. For this purpose, emergy accounting is used to quantify the environmental sustainability index (ESI*) and the emergy index for construction productivity (EICP, in m2/sej). Results show the existence of different degrees of ESI* and EICP values among the three types of social housing projects, when considering the state in which projects are implemented. Analysis of the results identified the social housing projects that should be promoted to maximize ESI* and EICP aiming for higher sustainability. Choosing a project exclusively based on economic considerations could be premature, because it may forgo the opportunity to maximize sustainability of the national social housing program. This study also provides a scientific contribution to the emergy accounting method with regard to the scales of analysis that support the criteria used to count a resource as local or imported and in considering the partial renewabilities of resources according to regional characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:13:03Z
       
  • Numerical and experimental study on airborne disinfection by negative ions
           in air duct flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Pei Zhou, Yi Yang, Gongsheng Huang, Alvin C.K. Lai
      In this paper, we develop a mathematical model that aims (1) to predict the distribution of negative ions generated by an air ionizer installed in a ventilation duct and (2) to predict the efficiency with which it inactivates bacteria. The transportation equation for the negative ions was resolved combined with the bulk air velocity and the electric field. The bacteria distribution was solved numerically by integrating the susceptibility constant, which was acquired from the experiments. Two types of bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus epidermidis) were aerosolized and released into a 9-m ventilation duct system. Inactivation efficiencies were calculated for inlet velocities from 2 to 6.5 m/s and for various ion intensities. The efficiencies for S. marcescens and S. epidermidis were 31.53% (SD, 11.4%) and 12.17% (SD, 0.43%), respectively, with susceptibility constants of 8.67 × 10−11 Colony-Forming Units (CFU)/ions and 2.72 × 10−11 CFU/ions, respectively. The modeling results matched those of the experiments well. The pressure penalty at the maximum velocity (6.5 m/s) was only 9 Pa. The results show that the use of negative ions has great potential to enhance indoor air quality by reducing airborne microorganisms in ventilation systems.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:13:03Z
       
  • A human behavior integrated hierarchical model of airborne disease
           transmission in a large city
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Nan Zhang, Hong Huang, Boni Su, Xun Ma, Yuguo Li
      Epidemics of infectious diseases such as SARS, H1N1, and MERS threaten public health, particularly in large cities such as Hong Kong. We constructed a human behavior integrated hierarchical (HiHi) model based on the SIR (Susceptible, Infectious, and Recovered) model, the Wells-Riley equation, and population movement considering both spatial and temporal dimensions. The model considers more than 7 million people, 3 million indoor environments, and 2566 public transport routes in Hong Kong. Smallpox, which could be spread through airborne routes, is studied as an example. The simulation is based on people's daily commutes and indoor human behaviors, which were summarized by mathematical patterns. We found that 59.6%, 18.1%, and 13.4% of patients become infected in their homes, offices, and schools, respectively. If both work stoppage and school closure measures are taken when the number of infected people is greater than 1000, an infectious disease will be effectively controlled after 2 months. The peak number of infected people will be reduced by 25% compared to taking no action, and the time of peak infections will be delayed by about 40 days if 90% of the infected people go to hospital during the infectious period. When ventilation rates in indoor environments increase to five times their default settings, smallpox will be naturally controlled. Residents of Kowloon and the north part of Hong Kong Island have a high risk of infection from airborne infectious diseases. Our HiHi model reduces the calculation time for infection rates to an acceptable level while preserving accuracy.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:13:03Z
       
  • Experimental study on occupants' interaction with windows and lights in
           Mediterranean offices during the non-heating season
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Federica Naspi, Marco Arnesano, Lorenzo Zampetti, Francesca Stazi, Gian Marco Revel, Marco D'Orazio
      The modelling of human behaviour is an important challenge for the building sector, as the actions of users have significant impacts on both energy consumption and comfort assessment. In the search for a comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of occupants, many researchers have directed their efforts towards determining typical patterns and developing models to predict human-building interactions. This study investigates the behaviour of building users during the summer season in offices in Mediterranean climate. Studies focusing on this area are still lacking, despite their importance for cooling loads. A survey is conducted using a dedicated sensor network to monitor environmental variables, and to determine the presence of people and their interactions with windows and lights in three offices. The driving factors for the actions of users are assessed and behavioural models are proposed. The results indicate that interactions with windows and lights are driven by both time-related events and environmental factors, confirming previous findings. A comparison of the proposed models with others developed for different climate zones suggests that interactions with windows are affected by the geographic area, while light switching behaviour seems to be very similar for the different case studies. A simplified approach for the consideration of different user-device interactions is also proposed. This novel method, developed to evaluate the interactivity between users and building systems, is based on a coefficient of interactivity, CI. Both the behavioural models and the simplified approach could be introduced into future simulations to improve predictions of energy use in buildings.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T03:13:03Z
       
  • Environmental quality of university classrooms: Subjective and objective
           evaluation of the thermal, acoustic, and lighting comfort conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Paola Ricciardi, Cinzia Buratti
      Questionnaires are an important tool for analyzing the thermo-hygrometric, acoustic, and lighting conditions of indoor environments. In the present work thermal, acoustical, and visual conditions were investigated through both subjective and objective measurements carried out in 7 classrooms at the University of Pavia, Italy. Measurements of the main descriptors of thermal, acoustical, and visual comfort were carried out and new specific questionnaires were purposely developed, in order to investigate the students' perception on acoustic and lighting comfort and to analyze which are the subjective parameters most correlated with the experimental results. Both 7-value and 13-value scales were provided to the occupants for the thermal comfort evaluation and no significant differences in the results were found. Among all the acoustic comfort questions, the ones related to background noise present the highest correlation. Other questions were selected considering the intelligibility - comprehension and the overall assessment of the auditory environment in the classrooms. Classroom 5 is the worst in terms of acoustic conditions and it is confirmed by the correspondent indexes named IBN and ISQ. The analysis of the lighting questionnaire showed that the average measured illuminance value has a high correlation with the perceived visual comfort. The classrooms annoying glares have a strong relationship to the classroom excessive light contrasts and a good correlation with the measured illuminance values. Among the acoustic and lighting questionnaires, ten questions with the best correlation with the experimental results were chosen and ten indexes were proposed, in order to describe the comfort conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • Techno-economic analysis for constructing solar photovoltaic projects on
           building envelopes
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Yan Li, Chunlu Liu
      Solar energy applications in buildings are crucial to urban sustainable development and commercial energy investment. Increased environmental and economic awareness, coupled with local governmental incentives, inevitably causes a growth in construction of photovoltaic (PV) projects. Previous studies extensively explored and developed life cycle energy assessment and costing analysis for payback times of rooftop PV systems. This paper presents a new methodology that combines a life cycle cost (LCC) approach and a pixel method for visualising economic performances of constructing PV projects. The time of recovering the expenditure invested in a PV project is then considered a main economic indicator and is formulated mathematically in the pixel unit representing an actual area of 3 cm × 3 cm in an empirical study. A building model derived from a real student accommodation is then chosen as a case study in this paper. The 3D visualisation demonstrates a potential investment return for placing each solar panel on a specific site over roofs and facades. The proposed contour lines of economic returns also illustrate the optimum ranges for constructing potential PV projects with desirable payback periods during their lifetimes. Results reveal that the façade installation is sometimes competitive with the roof-top installation. This study will benefit designers and construction managers in determining the optimal solution of implementing the rooftop and façade PV systems in the phases of design and construction.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • Weather correlations to calculate infiltration rates for U. S. commercial
           building energy models
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Lisa C. Ng, Nelson Ojeda Quiles, W. Stuart Dols, Steven J. Emmerich
      As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather. The current work includes cities in seven additional climate zones and uses the updated versions of the prototype commercial building types developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy. Comparisons were made between the predicted infiltration rates using three representations of the commercial building types: PNNL EnergyPlus models, CONTAM models, and EnergyPlus models using the infiltration inputs developed in this paper. The newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus yielded average annual increases of 3% and 8% in the HVAC electrical and gas use, respectively, over the original infiltration inputs in the PNNL EnergyPlus models. When analyzing the benefits of building envelope airtightening, greater HVAC energy savings were predicted using the newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus compared with using the original infiltration inputs. These results indicate that the effects of infiltration on HVAC energy use can be significant and that infiltration can and should be better accounted for in whole-building energy models.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • Enhancing the environmental performance of industrial settlements: An
           economic evaluation of extensive green roof competitiveness
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Raul Berto, Carlo Antonio Stival, Paolo Rosato
      This paper evaluates the private and social costs and benefits of adopting an extensive green roof as opposed to a cool roof in an existing industrial building in Trieste (North-Eastern Italy). The evaluations from social and private viewpoints both consider costs and benefits of refurbishments, energy consumption, and maintenance. From the social side, the externalities derived from green or cool roofing, such as aesthetic aspects, biodiversity preservation and natural habitat provision, carbon reduction, air quality improvement, and hydrological aspects, are monetized using cost-benefit transfer approaches. The first analysis result is the poor convenience of adopting a green roof compared to a cool one from the private investor's viewpoint. The second finding is the positive net present value of the social cost-benefit analysis for the green roof compared with the cool roof, due to the positive externalities of the former. Monetization of externalities allows calculating the economic incentives needed to promote the spread of green roofing in the Mediterranean area. Consequently, two different types of incentives are proposed: direct contribution for refurbishment intervention and annual reduction of local property tax. A final sensitivity analysis using the Monte Carlo method is performed on intrinsic and random variables, defined by triangular or uniform distributions. The probability evaluation of economic affordability is provided from the private investor's viewpoint, first considering private costs and benefits and, second, introducing the financial incentives for balancing the public benefits provided by an extensive green roof.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • An experimental evaluation on air purification performance of Clean-Air
           Heat Pump (CAHP) air cleaner
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Ying Sheng, Lei Fang, Yuexia Sun
      The escalation of energy consumption in buildings and heightened concerns about acceptable indoor air quality stimulate interest in the usage of air cleaner as an adjunct for indoor environmental conditioning. A regenerative desiccant wheel integrated into a ventilation system termed Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) can improve the air quality during the process of dehumidification without using additional energy. An experimental study in a field lab was performed to investigate the air cleaning performance of CAHP. Photoacoustic gas analyzer-INNOVA was used to characterize chemical removal of indoor air pollutants by the CAHP. The results revealed that all the detected VOCs were removed effectively by the CAHP with an average single pass efficiency of 82.7% when the regeneration temperature for desiccant wheel was 60 °C. The mass balance between adsorption and desorption of the desiccant wheel was 96.8%, which indicated that the most of gaseous pollutants were not accumulated in the CAHP. The regeneration temperature for the wheel could affect the air purification performance of CAHP. At 70 °C of regeneration temperature, the air-cleaning efficiency reached 96.7%. Up to 70% of the outdoor air ventilation can be saved with the operation of CAHP. The clean air deliver rate (CADR) was over threefold of the outdoor air supply rate when CAHP was in operation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • Assessment of equivalent thermal properties of multilayer building walls
           coupling simulations and experimental measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Luca Evangelisti, Claudia Guattari, Paola Gori, Francesco Asdrubali
      The growing effort of reducing energy needs in the building sector calls for an accurate characterization of the performances of external walls, which are the main cause of thermal exchanges and consequently are fundamental to realize accurate simulation models to evaluate and control thermal loads. The dynamic characterization of a multilayer wall can be performed by defining its stratigraphy and the thermo-physical parameters of each layer. When existing buildings are investigated, technical specifications may be unknown or difficult to obtain due to documents lost over time; furthermore, aging may have altered the building materials characteristics. In these cases, in-situ measurements become essential but there is the need to analyze the behavior of walls considering their dynamic characteristics, not obtainable by employing non-destructive tests, such as the heat-flow meter method. The paper aims to verify if an equivalent homogeneous wall can be associated to a multilayer wall in the sense of producing the same behavior if exposed to the same outdoor environmental conditions. Findings in literature demonstrate that, generally, this is not exactly achievable. However, the possibility of an approximate equivalence is investigated in this work by means of finite-element simulations and experimental measurements. The results obtained in actual case studies show that this equivalence can be made, obtaining preliminary satisfying results. The proposed methodology can be employed in existing and historical buildings to achieve useful equivalent data directly applicable for the energy retrofit phase and for achieving a better coupling between the building and the heating/cooling system, reducing environmental impacts.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • Framework for measuring sustainability of neighbourhoods in Nagpur, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Sarika Bahadure, Rajashree Kotharkar
      Sustainable development tries to provide suitable physical and economical base to human environment with minimal adverse effect on environment. In an urban context measuring sustainability becomes crucial due to its varying and vast dimensions. This study tries to develop a framework to measure sustainability at the neighbourhood level in an urban context Nagpur, India. The framework is developed based on composite indicators. Twenty sub-indicators are selected under different domains as demography, environmental and transport (accessibility, infrastructure, speed and safety). The theoretical base is studied and experimented for twelve neighbourhoods with varying commercial and residential land-use mix. The indicators' values are computed. A performance benchmarking is determined through literature study. Weights are assigned through expert opinion survey. Linear aggregation facilitated sustainability performance based index for the neighbourhood. This framework can facilitate the policy maker and stakeholders for effective decision making and raising awareness concerning the need to develop and maintain sustainability of urban area.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • Performance analysis of pulsed flow control method for radiant slab system
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Haida Tang, Paul Raftery, Xiaohua Liu, Stefano Schiavon, Jonathan Woolley, Fred S. Bauman
      We present a novel pulsed flow control method (PFM) using a two-position valve to regulate the capacity of radiant slab systems. Under PFM, the on-time duration of the valve is short (compared to all prior work, e.g. 4-minute), and fixed, while the off-time varies. We present a novel, open-source, finite difference model that assesses three-dimensional transient slab heat transfer, accounting for the transient heat storage of the pipe fluid. Sensitivity analysis results indicate the dominant factors influencing energy performance of the PFM are: on-time duration; pipe diameter; and spacing. We experimentally validated both the new control strategy and model in full-scale laboratory experiments. Compared with previous intermittent control strategies (with on-time durations over 30 min), at 50% part load the PFM reduces 27% required water flow rate and increases supply to return water temperature differential. Compared with the variable temperature control method, at 50% part load the PFM reduces 24% required water flow rate. The energy performance of PFM is comparable to that of a conventional variable flow rate control. However, it has more accurate capacity control, achieves a more uniform surface temperature distribution, and reduces initial investment by substituting two-position for modulating valves, thus showing promise for engineering applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • IFC - Ed. Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126


      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • Enhancement of formaldehyde removal by activated carbon fiber via in situ
           growth of carbon nanotubes
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Shen Yang, Zhenxing Zhu, Fei Wei, Xudong Yang
      Formaldehyde is a known gaseous pollutant that has a carcinogenic effect on human health. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are herein proposed as a potentially new technology for the removal of formaldehyde from indoor air. A CNT/activated carbon fiber (ACF) filter medium was fabricated via in situ growth of CNTs on a pristine ACF by using the chemical vapor deposition method. The formaldehyde removal efficiencies of the CNT/ACF and the ACF filter media were tested with a low inlet formaldehyde concentration. The amounts of formaldehyde adsorbed on the materials were calculated and compared, and the pressure resistances of the two filter media were also determined. The results showed that the CNT/ACF material had a higher initial formaldehyde removal efficiency and removed three times more formaldehyde per filter weight than the ACF, while the pressure resistance of the former was only 50% higher than that of the latter. Compared with the recently reported fiber filter media in the literature, the CNT/ACF material exhibited a higher formaldehyde adsorption capacity. In comparison with the previously reported carbon nanotube/quartz fiber film-based gas filter medium, the CNT/ACF material demonstrated superior formaldehyde adsorption capacity and a significantly lower pressure resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • Impact of surgical lights on the velocity distribution and airborne
           contamination level in an operating room with laminar airflow system
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Amar Aganovic, Guangyu Cao, Liv-Inger Stenstad, Jan Gunnar Skogås
      The presence of surgical lights disturbs the flow of ultraclean air in operating rooms (ORs) with vertical laminar airflow systems (LAF) by creating a wake downstream of the lights. The wake may be characterised by velocities low enough to directly influence the level of airborne microbe-carrying particles (MCP) close to the surgical site in an OR, eventually leading to surgical site infections (SSIs). The influence of surgical lights on airflow distribution during non-operating conditions and on airborne contamination level close to the operating table during mock surgeries was analysed in ORs with vertical LAF systems. The velocity and turbulence intensity (TI) distributions were recorded through a cross-sectional grid of points under surgical lights during non-operating conditions. In order to detect microbiological contamination during operating conditions, four mock surgeries were performed mimicking real surgeries on a porcine tissue. Three of the surgeries were performed under different types of surgical lights and one surgery did not include surgical lights at all. The mean velocity under all three surgical lights was significantly lower (≤0.07 m/s) compared with the mean velocity measured when the LAF was not obstructed by lights (0.24 m/s). At several points in the grid under all three lights, velocities as low as ≤0.02 m/s were measured. Air sampling during mock surgeries recorded at least 1 CFU/m3 for 43% of the samples (n = 16; mean = 1.25; range 0–4) using surgical lights, while not a single bacteria count was recorded without the use of lights (n = 7).

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • Indoor environmental quality index for conservation environments: The
           importance of including particulate matter
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 126
      Author(s): Andrea Marchetti, Sanaz Pilehvar, Lucy 't Hart, Diana Leyva Pernia, Olivier Voet, Willemien Anaf, Gert Nuyts, Elke Otten, Serge Demeyer, Olivier Schalm, Karolien De Wael
      It is commonly known that the conservation state of works of arts exhibited inside museums is strongly influenced by the indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Heritage institutions traditionally record and evaluate their IEQ by monitoring temperature, relative humidity, and -more rarely-light. However, smart use of technology enables monitoring other parameters that give a more complete insight in environmental ‘air aggressiveness’. One of this parameters is particulate matter (PM) and especially its concentration, size distribution and chemical composition. In this work, we present a selection of data sets which were obtained in a measuring campaign performed in the War Heritage Institute in Brussels, Belgium. A continuous monitoring of PM concentration with a light scattering based particle counter was performed. In addition the daily mass concentration and size distribution of airborne PM was monitored by means of Harvard impactors. The chemical composition of sampled PM was inferred from the results of XRF and IC analysis. The insights from these datasets are combined with the results of traditional environmental monitoring (temperature, relative humidity and light intensity), and assessed against the recommended guidelines for conservation environments. By using an integrated approach based on the calculation of an IEQ-index, we present a straightforward methodology to evaluate and visualize the IEQ including also continuous PM monitoring. It is clear from the results of this study how including PM in IEQ analysis allows to identify potential risks for museum collections that remain invisible when only traditional parameters are considered.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T00:09:17Z
       
  • A new simplified modeling method for model predictive control in a
           medium-sized commercial building: A case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Junhua Zhuang, Yimin Chen, Xiangguang Chen
      Model predictive control (MPC) methods for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems have been studied to improve the control accuracy and reduce energy consumption in recent years. The accuracy of the model for building thermal dynamics in MPC plays a critical role to accurately control the system. The modeling method also impacts on the real practice of MPC in buildings due to its cost and scalability. Studies have shown that an appropriate simplification of modeling procedure has minor impacts on the model accuracy, but increases the modeling efficiency. In this article, variables including weather conditions, occupancy and electricity are divided into two categories: manipulated variables and random variables. A novel two-step modeling strategy is proposed for simplifying modeling procedure and increasing model accuracy. Manipulated variables are used in step response method to develop system model. A low order system is obtained after the model simplification by observing the response curve. Random variables are used in the power spectral density (PSD) method for modeling. Transfer function is obtained through calculating the cross-power spectral density (CPSD) of the system output and input, the PSD of the input, and the ratio of CPSD and PSD. A MPC strategy with feedforward control structure is proposed to utilize the obtained dynamic characteristics of random variables and effectively compensate the errors caused by these variables. Field test in a medium-sized commercial building is implemented to evaluate the MPC strategy. The result shows that a considerable amount of energy saving is achieved through the proposed MPC.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T14:31:17Z
       
  • Thermal comfort expectations and adaptive behavioural characteristics of
           primary and secondary school students
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 127
      Author(s): Jungsoo Kim, Richard de Dear
      This study aims to better understand thermal comfort perception and related behavioural characteristics of school children. Statistical analyses were performed on the thermal comfort survey database consisting of 4866 responses collected from primary- and secondary school classrooms in Australia across two summer seasons. The students generally preferred ‘cooler-than-neutral’ sensations, with the preferred temperature being estimated to be 2–3 K below the neutrality predicted for adults under the same thermal environmental exposures. The students' 80% acceptability zone empirically derived from group mean thermal sensations, was significantly wider than the band of ±0.85 thermal sensation votes assumed in the PMV-PPD model. The school children indicated air-conditioning as their favoured thermoregulatory method, among many other adaptive options including windows, fans, blinds or clothing adjustments. The results indicated that those students already placed in air-conditioning classrooms were more likely to prefer air-conditioning for the maintenance of their comfort, compared to those accommodated in classrooms without air-conditioning.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T14:31:17Z
       
 
 
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