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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2358 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (201 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (107 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1240 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (394 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (72 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (96 journals)

CIVIL ENGINEERING (192 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 194 of 194 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover Building and Environment
  [SJR: 2.121]   [H-I: 86]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0360-1323
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • The CPMV index for evaluating indoor thermal comfort in buildings with
           solar radiation
    • Authors: Huan Zhang; Ruiqiao Yang; Shijun You; Wandong Zheng; Xuejing Zheng; Tianzhen Ye
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2018
      Source:Building and Environment
      Author(s): Huan Zhang, Ruiqiao Yang, Shijun You, Wandong Zheng, Xuejing Zheng, Tianzhen Ye
      The Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) developed by Fanger is the most widely used thermal comfort index for assessing indoor thermal environments. As the extensive use of the glass envelope in building design, the indoor thermal comfort is increasingly affected by the solar radiation. However, the original PMV has deviation in assessing the thermal comfort of solar radiation conditions, due to its neglect of solar radiation. Based on this defect, the Corrected Predicted Mean Vote (CPMV) index is proposed in this paper to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort in solar conditions. To validate the accuracy of CPMV, experimental studies have been conducted in three different types of transparent envelope buildings in Tianjin, North China. A total of 998 thermal responses from subjects were obtained in the summer and early autumn of 2017. The Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) obtained from the subjects was used as the true value of thermal sensation. Data analysis reveals that the agreement between the PMV and TSV is poor, while the predicted values of CPMV agree quite well with the TSV. Compared with the PMV, the maximum deviation can be decreased by 79.5% with the CPMV method in evaluating the thermal comfort of solar conditions. Therefore, CPMV is validated to be applicable in evaluating the indoor thermal comfort in buildings with solar radiation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.037
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • Interaction of multiple urban heat island circulations under idealised
           settings
    • Authors: Yifan Fan; Yuguo Li; Shi Yin
      Pages: 10 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2018
      Source:Building and Environment
      Author(s): Yifan Fan, Yuguo Li, Shi Yin
      Urban heat island circulation (UHIC), commonly established under calm background conditions, is important for understanding the accumulation of pollutants and heat in a city. In a city cluster in which multiple cities exist in proximity, the resulting multiple UHICs can interact. As many city clusters continue to grow in size and in number, particularly in rapidly developing Asia, it is necessary to understand the interactions of multiple UHICs. In this study, the development of a single UHIC, interaction between two identical UHICs, and that of three different UHICs were investigated by water tank modelling experiments. UHIC is characterised as convergent inflow at lower levels, upward flow over the urban area and divergent outflow at upper levels. Stagnant zones were found between two adjacent cities due to competition between their inflows. If the vertical sizes (mixed heights) of two adjacent UHICs are different, the outflow of the smaller UHIC will be lower than that of the larger one and will join the inflow of the larger one; thus, the pollutants will be transported from the smaller to the larger UHIC. Because the outflow of the larger UHIC is higher than that of the smaller one, the outflow of the larger UHIC can shelter the smaller one and thus limit the vertical pollutant dispersion within the smaller one. These findings are useful to explain the haze accumulation phenomenon in major haze episodes such as those occurring in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in China.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.028
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • Characterization and thermal performance evaluation of infrared reflective
           coatings compatible with historic buildings
    • Authors: Francesca Becherini; Elena Lucchi; Alessandra Gandini; Maria Casado Barrasa; Alexandra Troi; Francesca Roberti; Maria Sachini; Maria Concetta Di Tuccio; Leire Garmendia Arrieta; Luc Pockelé; Adriana Bernardi
      Pages: 35 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2018
      Source:Building and Environment
      Author(s): Francesca Becherini, Elena Lucchi, Alessandra Gandini, Maria Casado Barrasa, Alexandra Troi, Francesca Roberti, Maria Sachini, Maria Concetta Di Tuccio, Leire Garmendia Arrieta, Luc Pockelé, Adriana Bernardi
      Two infrared reflective coatings recently developed as part of the EFFESUS European research project are characterized and evaluated in this paper. Thermal performance, durability, compatibility with historic fabric, and reversibility are all analysed. The results of extensive research that include laboratory analysis of selected substrates, measurements on a large-scale traditional masonry mock-up, thermodynamic simulations, and finally application in to a real historic building in Istanbul, all support the potential of the new coatings to improve the thermal performance of historic buildings, in keeping with their visual integrity and cultural value. Besides their reflective properties, proven by the thermal stress reductions on the treated surfaces, the new coatings are characterized by low visual impact, easy application, material compatibility, and reversibility after application, as well as durability over time.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.034
      Issue No: Vol. 134 (2018)
       
  • Dermal exposure to phthalates in home environment: Handwipes, influencing
           factors and implications
    • Authors: Zhongming Bu; Jiahui Wang; Wei Yu; Baizhan Li
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Zhongming Bu, Jiahui Wang, Wei Yu, Baizhan Li
      Abundances of six commonly used phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) on hand surfaces were measured from 30 participants in Chongqing residences. Target phthalates were frequently detected (more than 70%) except for DMP and BBzP (roughly 30%). DEHP was detected in all samples and had the greatest abundance. DEHP levels in the palms were significantly higher for times since the last handwashing >2 h. Living room gas-phase concentrations of DnBP and DEHP were significantly correlated with those in handwipes. DEHP did not appear to equilibrate between gas and hand skin surface lipids. The median dermal uptakes based on direct gas-phase absorption were 0.64, 0.35, 0.50 μg/day/kg-bw for DiBP, DnBP and DEHP, respectively. The median dermal uptakes estimated from skin wipes were 0.18, 0.34 and 0.32 μg/day/kg-bw, respectively, which were 2.0–6.8 times higher than the inhaled doses.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • An experimental study on using a mass radiant floor with geothermal system
           as thermal battery of the building
    • Authors: Mohammad Tahersima; Paul Tikalsky; Roshan Revankar
      Pages: 8 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Mohammad Tahersima, Paul Tikalsky, Roshan Revankar
      Storing thermal energy in mass concrete floors would have a major impact on the stability of the temperature in buildings. The concept of a thermal battery refers to storing the supplied radiant heat and releasing this heat the next day through radiation and convection. In this study, an approach is introduced to examine the idea of thermal battery in thick concrete flooring (1.22 m) using the earth as a heat source. Controlled experiments were built and conducted on an instrumented 3000 m2 industrial facility. The heating radiant floor combining with ground source system was operated during off-peak hours and the air conditioning system was disabled for 24 h during the test period. The heat pumps were operated in single stage using less power compared to when operated on demand. Indoor air temperature showed that 100 °F (37.78 °C) supply temperature at the ground source heat pump would be enough to maintain a stable warm temperature during cold days. Two weather conditions in the winter were selected to do the tests. The second test had a colder ambient temperature to verify the procedure. The indoor air temperature showed that the night heating system performs well for both cases because it maintained a constant temperature for the entire operational day even in the daytime when every heating unit was off. This approach of applying the heating at nighttime with lower electricity rates would lead to significant operational cost savings in the building.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • How green building rating systems affect designing green
    • Authors: Yueer He; Thomas Kvan; Meng Liu; Baizhan Li
      Pages: 19 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Yueer He, Thomas Kvan, Meng Liu, Baizhan Li
      This research investigates sustainable building design from a new perspective – green design in relation to green building rating systems. We examine the potential influence of Green Star (GS) in Australia on the design of a project and compare this with the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) in America and Assessment Standard for Green Buildings (ASGB) in China. The comparison is conducted using a typical case study of a GS Six Stars certified example, the Melbourne School of Design building. A critical review concludes that LEED and ASGB are design-guide schemes while GS is a performance-based rating system and this affects the project outcome. We note that LEED is oriented to energy efficiency while GS and ASGB holistically consider energy and indoor environment quality. GS, additionally, emphasizes project process management. Potential LEED and ASGB certification levels for the case are calculated; possible changes to the design are indicated to achieve the highest LEED and ASGB levels. The predicted results demonstrate the influence of different environmental concerns and assessment approaches of the three on the green design and the performance of buildings themselves. Based on this finding, the paper argues that a performance-based rating system (e.g. GS) is more beneficial to the practice of designing green, compared with other measure-based systems.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • A study on influential factors of occupant window-opening behavior in an
           office building in China
    • Authors: Song Pan; Yingzi Xiong; Yiye Han; Xingxing Zhang; Liang Xia; Shen Wei; Jinshun Wu; Mengjie Han
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Song Pan, Yingzi Xiong, Yiye Han, Xingxing Zhang, Liang Xia, Shen Wei, Jinshun Wu, Mengjie Han
      Occupants often perform many types of behavior in buildings to adjust the indoor thermal environment. In these types, opening/closing the windows, often regarded as window-opening behavior, is more commonly observed because of its convenience. It not only improves indoor air quality to satisfy occupants' requirement for indoor thermal comfort but also influences building energy consumption. To learn more about potential factors having effects on occupants' window-opening behavior, a field study was carried out in an office building within a university in Beijing. Window state (open/closed) for a total of 5 windows in 5 offices on the second floor in 285 days (9.5 months) were recorded daily. Potential factors, categorized as environmental and non-environmental ones, were subsequently identified with their impact on window-opening behavior through logistic regression and Pearson correlation approaches. The analytical results show that occupants' window-opening behavior is more strongly correlated to environmental factors, such as indoor and outdoor air temperatures, wind speed, relative humidity, outdoor PM2.5 concentrations, solar radiation, sunshine hours, in which air temperatures dominate the influence. While the non-environmental factors, i.e. seasonal change, time of day and personal preference, also affects the patterns of window-opening probability. This paper provides solid field data on occupant window opening behavior in China, with high resolutions and demonstrates the way in analyzing and predicting the probability of window-opening behavior. Its discussion into the potential impact factors shall be useful for further investigation of the relationship between building energy consumption and window-opening behavior.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • Field investigation on characteristics of passenger flow in a Chinese hub
           airport terminal
    • Authors: Xiaochen Liu; Lingshan Li; Xiaohua Liu; Tao Zhang; Xiangyang Rong; Ling Yang; Dizhan Xiong
      Pages: 51 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Xiaochen Liu, Lingshan Li, Xiaohua Liu, Tao Zhang, Xiangyang Rong, Ling Yang, Dizhan Xiong
      The occupants are one of the major factors influencing indoor environment and building energy consumption. As for airport terminal buildings, the passenger flow distinguishes them from other common public buildings. Thus, the relevant researches are of significant necessity, especially in the recent airport construction boom in China. This paper describes the field investigations of passenger flow in each public area (i.e., check-in hall, departure hall, arrival hall, baggage claim area, arrival passage and transfer hall) of a Chinese hub airport terminal in typical three months of three different seasons. The passengers' dwell time and the total occupant number are two mainly surveyed parameters. The results show large differences in the characteristics of passenger flow between various areas in the terminal building. Furthermore, based on the surveyed dwell time distributions of passengers and the real-time data of passenger flow intensities, the total number of occupants in the check-in hall and the departure hall can be estimated separately. This prediction model will be useful both in design and operation processes of an airport terminal.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • Impacts of humidification process on indoor thermal comfort and air
           quality using portable ultrasonic humidifier
    • Authors: Zhuangbo Feng; Xiaoqing Zhou; Shihan Xu; Junwei Ding; Shi-Jie Cao
      Pages: 62 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Zhuangbo Feng, Xiaoqing Zhou, Shihan Xu, Junwei Ding, Shi-Jie Cao
      Human exposed to low level of indoor humidity will have dryness (for skin, pharyngeal, eye etc.) or respiratory symptoms, which are closely related with indoor thermal comfort and air quality. To increase indoor humidity, portable humidification facilities (e.g., ultrasonic humidifiers) are widely applied in residential buildings due to their economy and convenience. Most of the available indoor humidity-related studies were associated with health issues induced by humidity and airborne pollutants generated by humidifier. However, the studies are rarely focusing on the effects of unsteady humidification (water vapor and droplet-induced from portable humidifier) on indoor thermal environment (i.e., air temperature, humidity, thermal comfort) and indoor air quality (e.g., TVOC, particles). Thus, this work aimed to investigate the impacts of humidification process on indoor environment by experiments in an isothermal chamber. The results show that portable ultrasonic humidifier increased humidity and decreased temperature simultaneously. The unsteady air temperature curve had “ladder-like” pattern. If RH increased from 34% to 60%, air temperature and PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) were decreased by 1.5 °C and 0.2 respectively. The obvious spatial stratification phenomenon was observed for both temperature and humidity field. We also found the obvious decrease of PM and TVOC concentrations during the entire humidifying process. Compared to traditional steam humidification system, indoor portable ultrasonic humidifier could save 70% of energy consumption and 18% of exergy loss. These qualitative characteristics of indoor humidification process would facilitate for indoor humidity control in the perspectives of human health and thermal comfort.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • Field study on adaptive thermal comfort in typical air conditioned
           classrooms
    • Authors: Zhaosong Fang; Sheng Zhang; Yong Cheng; Alan M.L. Fong; Majeed Olaide Oladokun; Zhang Lin; Huijun Wu
      Pages: 73 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Zhaosong Fang, Sheng Zhang, Yong Cheng, Alan M.L. Fong, Majeed Olaide Oladokun, Zhang Lin, Huijun Wu
      This study investigates adaptive thermal comfort in air conditioned classrooms in Hong Kong. A field survey was conducted in several typical classrooms at the City University of Hong Kong. This survey covered objective measurement of thermal environment parameters and subjective human thermal responses. A total of 982 student volunteers participated in the investigation. The results indicate that students in light clothing (0.42 clo) have adapted to the cooler classroom environments. The neutral temperature is very close to the preferred temperature of approximately 24 °C. Based on the MTSV ranging between −0.5 and + 0.5, the comfort range is between 21.56 °C and 26.75 °C. The lower limit is below that of the ASHRAE standard. Of the predicted mean vote (PMV) and the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) model, the UCB model predictions agree better with the mean thermal sensation vote (MTSV). Also, the respective fit regression models of the MTSV versus each of the following: operative temperature (T op ), PMV, and UCB were obtained. This study provides a better understanding of acceptable classroom temperatures.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • Indoor temperature, relative humidity and CO2 levels assessment in
           academic buildings with different heating, ventilation and
           air-conditioning systems
    • Authors: Ayesha Asif; Muhammad Zeeshan; Muhammad Jahanzaib
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Ayesha Asif, Muhammad Zeeshan, Muhammad Jahanzaib
      Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a matter of immense concern for human health as people spend major portion of their lifetime indoor. Keeping in view, this study was aimed to investigate and compare the IAQ and thermal comfort in classrooms of four buildings of an educational institute having different types of heating ventilation and air conditioning system. On-site continuous measurements of indoor levels of CO2, temperature and relative humidity were recorded at an interval of 1 min for both weekdays, including occupational and non-occupational hours as well as weekends. Simultaneous outdoor temperature and relative humidity measurements were also used in the analysis. Statistical analysis of mean hourly values of each studied classroom showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in CO2 levels over the weekday and also among different buildings. Similarly, variation in hourly mean levels of thermal comfort parameters was also found significant (p < 0.05) among the buildings as well as over the weekday. However, variation in hourly mean temperature over weekday for one particular building and all three parameters over weekends for all buildings was not significant (p > 0.05). Exceedance in levels of CO2 from ASHRAE standards was found to be more in buildings with non-centralized systems as compared to buildings with centralized systems during the occupational period. Moreover, thermal comfort parameters were found to be influenced by outdoor climatic conditions and buildings orientation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.042
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • Influence of outdoor and indoor microclimate on human thermal adaptation
           in winter in the severe cold area, China
    • Authors: Zhaojun Wang; Yuchen Ji; Xiaowen Su
      Pages: 91 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Zhaojun Wang, Yuchen Ji, Xiaowen Su
      Harbin is in the severe cold climate zone in China, where the outdoor air temperature is low in winter. The central heating system without terminal control is used in buildings in the area. A field study on thermal comfort was conducted in four types of buildings in Harbin during a same winter. Due to the broad range of outdoor air temperatures and the long heating period in Harbin winter, the heating period was divided into three stages. We focused on indoor thermal environment and human adaptability during the three phases. Some environmental parameters were measured together with subjective investigation, and totally 1747 valid questionnaires were collected. The results show that indoor temperature over 24 °C often occurred in the buildings during the heating period. The occupants felt warm but they expected the indoor temperature no change. The participants were more sensitive to temperature variations at the early heating phase (EH). They adapted to warm environment gradually from EH to LH. The occupants would open windows when indoor temperatures were high. Great energy savings could be achieved by reducing indoor air temperature in winter. The neutral temperatures were lower than the indoor air temperatures in the buildings, indicating that indoor temperatures were sometimes overheated. The indoor temperature should be reduced to the lower limit at EH and increased gradually in winter. The neutral temperatures in offices and university classrooms were lower than those in apartments and dormitories. Therefore, lower indoor air temperatures are recommended in design of public buildings for space heating.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • Sustainable social housing: The comparison of the Mexican funding program
           for housing solutions and building sustainability rating systems
    • Authors: Héctor Saldaña-Márquez; José M. Gómez-Soberón; Susana P. Arredondo-Rea; Diana C. Gámez-García; Ramón Corral-Higuera
      Pages: 103 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Héctor Saldaña-Márquez, José M. Gómez-Soberón, Susana P. Arredondo-Rea, Diana C. Gámez-García, Ramón Corral-Higuera
      In the last decade, Mexico has been prominent among the Upper-middle-income countries (UMC) due to the application of its Funding Program for Housing Solutions (FPHS) in dealing with social housing. This paper shows the results of the evaluations carried out, through the internationally recognized Building Sustainability Rating Systems (BSRS), on different housing units built under this program. It was necessary to carry out a normalization criteria process (NCP) due to the particular characteristics of each BSRS and the complexity they presented in carrying out a comparative analysis. Case studies indicate that housing developed by the FPHS obtained low qualifications according to internationally focused BSRS, with significant deficiencies concerning materials, energy efficiency, indoor environmental quality, and management. However, this study provides indicators of its possible integration in the social housing of countries with characteristics analogous to those of Mexico. Among all indicators, that those referring to the urban environment are capable of being integrated into the social housing. Among the findings, some aspects of the FPHS evaluation process impede the integration of sustainable characteristics in Mexican social housing. On the other hand, the FPHS evaluation model, which gives priority to urban environment aspects above all else, may represent a new paradigm towards the achievement of the sustainable social housing (SSH).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • A systematic review of human perceptual dimensions of sound: Meta-analysis
           
    • Authors: Kuen Wai Ma; Hai Ming Wong; Cheuk Ming Mak
      Pages: 123 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Kuen Wai Ma, Hai Ming Wong, Cheuk Ming Mak
      People spend most of their lives in buildings and unavoidably perceive the sound in their surroundings. The understanding of the human perceptual dimensions of sound is important for obtaining the occupant-oriented decision-making in future building designs. This paper presented a systematic review of the studies analyzing the human perceptual dimensions of sound. Studies that used of principal component analysis (PCA) or factor analysis (FA) for the semantic differential method (SDM) applications of the subjective measurements of the human perceptions of sound were identified in the study selection process and included in the quantitative analysis. Forty-five eligible studies covered a wide range of sounds in the general indoor environment, including machines, building facilities, human voices, human activities, transportations, and the urban environment. The meta-analysis of the factor analysis integrated the data from the 39 individual studies and generated the evidence-based results of the review. Three major perceptual dimensions of sound were found to be ”Evaluation,” ”Potency,” and ”Activity” which referred to the human general judgment, the sensitivity to the magnitude, and the sensation of the temporal and spectral compositions of the perceived sound respectively. It implied that not only the energy level but also the energy distribution of the stimulations in the environment affects our perceptions. The review also provided insights into the selection of the suitable perceptions, the suggestions on the SDM applications, and the acoustics index development for the quantification of the psychological impacts of sound on the occupants in the indoor and outdoor environment. This research provides directions for future psychoacoustics studies to analyze the correlations between the objective stimulations and the human perceptions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • Adaptive-model predictive control of electronic expansion valves with
           adjustable setpoint for evaporator superheat minimization
    • Authors: Mehari Tesfay; Fadi Alsaleem; Parthiban Arunasalam; Arvind Rao
      Pages: 151 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Mehari Tesfay, Fadi Alsaleem, Parthiban Arunasalam, Arvind Rao
      In many refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, the automatic controller in electronic expansion valves have been employed as a component responsible for controlling the valve opening so that the superheat at the outlet of the evaporator remains within the desired limits. In some of these controllers, the control parameters are tuned once for a certain operating point and remain unaltered, even when the operating conditions change, unless the operator changes it manually. For a strongly nonlinear plant with a dramatically time varying characteristics, linear time invariant (LTI) prediction accuracy might degrade significantly that the performance of traditional Model Predictive Controller (MPC) becomes unacceptable. This work presents an Adaptive-Model Predictive Control (AMPC) mechanism to address this degradation where the parameters are tuned continuously through recursive estimation and update approaches, making the MPC insensitive to prediction errors and to achieve the optimal superheat response. Moreover, an adaptive setpoint hunting algorithm is implemented so that the system achieves stability and improves energy efficiency simultaneously.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • Comparison study on air flow and particle dispersion in a typical room
           with floor, skirt boarding, and radiator heating systems
    • Authors: Mohammad Hadi Dehghan; Morteza Abdolzadeh
      Pages: 161 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): Mohammad Hadi Dehghan, Morteza Abdolzadeh
      In the present study, air flow and particle dispersion were simulated in a room using a three dimensional model when a thermal manikin was present in the room. The room was tested with three heating systems: floor heating, skirt boarding heating, and radiator heating systems. Airflow velocity and temperature distributions were obtained in terms of room's height in different places of the room. Three particle sizes as well as two locations of particle injection were studied. An Eulerian-Lagrangian model was used to predict the characteristics of air and particle phases. In the Lagrangian particle model, the effects of drag, lift, thermophoretic, and Brownian forces were considered. Results showed that the skirt boarding heating system due to uniform heat distribution and lower heat losses as well as providing a better thermal comfort condition, has the best performance among all the studied heating systems. The results of particle phase showed that the skirt boarding heating system has the lowest particle concentration in the breathing zone of the manikin. Furthermore, it was shown that due to the presence of thermal sources in the room, the particles have a small tendency to leave the room and they mostly settled on walls and ceiling or stayed at lower heights of the room.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2018)
       
  • Experimental and numerical study on mean pressure distributions around an
           isolated gable roof building with and without openings
    • Authors: Fengda Xing; Damith Mohotti; Kapil Chauhan
      Pages: 30 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 132
      Author(s): Fengda Xing, Damith Mohotti, Kapil Chauhan
      In this study, the influence of opening position and wind direction on pressure distribution around isolated gable roof buildings with and without openings were investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed and compared with wind tunnel experimental results. One of the aims of this study was to develop well-defined design guidelines for typical gable roof structures, identifying critical localised pressure rises due to different wind attack angles. Existing international standards provide limited design guidelines for localised wind pressure distribution of such buildings, especially in cases where there are openings. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to obtain mean pressure distributions of critical areas of the building under different wind directions with four different opening configurations, namely, an enclosed building, a building with one windward opening, a building with one windward opening and one sidewall opening, and a building with one windward opening and two sidewall openings. A CFD-based numerical simulation approach was used to create a virtual wind tunnel in the computational domain. Sensitivity analyses for grid resolutions and turbulence models of simulations were performed for the building with a windward opening. Results from the numerical simulations show good agreement with the experimental results on pressure distribution. The validated models were used to identify critical areas of the buildings that must be considered in the design stage. The relevant pressure coefficients are presented and compared with the standards. The importance of performing a comprehensive wind study using a numerical approach or wind tunnel tests is highlighted.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.027
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of a multi-nodal thermal regulation model for assessment of
           outdoor thermal comfort: Sensitivity to wind speed and solar radiation
    • Authors: Yongxin Xie; Taiyang Huang; Jianong Li; Jianlin Liu; Jianlei Niu; Cheuk Ming Mak; Zhang Lin
      Pages: 45 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 132
      Author(s): Yongxin Xie, Taiyang Huang, Jianong Li, Jianlin Liu, Jianlei Niu, Cheuk Ming Mak, Zhang Lin
      People's outdoor thermal sensation varies from that indoors. The highly asymmetric solar radiation and transient wind environment are the main causes. The University of California-Berkeley developed a multi-nodal human body thermal regulation model (the UCB model) to predict human thermal sensation and comfort in asymmetric and transient indoor environments. However, few studies compared its predictions with the survey responses outdoors. In this study, subjects' thermal sensations outdoors were surveyed and compared with the UCB model predictions. Meteorological parameters were monitored using a microclimate station, and over a thousand human subjects were surveyed. Results point out that subjects were highly sensitive to the changes in wind speed, especially under low-radiation conditions. However, the UCB model failed to predict such a high sensitivity. Besides, subjects had a higher tolerance to high air temperatures in outdoor environments when the solar radiation was acceptable, but the UCB model over-predicted the TSV (thermal sensation vote) in such conditions. Both the on-site results and the predictions by UCB model showed that subjects were more sensitive to wind speed in hotter environments while they were least sensitive to solar radiation in neutral thermal conditions. This study helps to reveal the potential of a multi-nodal thermal regulation model to address the asymmetric and transient features of outdoor environments and indicates the need to further refine the model for better quantitative prediction of outdoor thermal sensations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
       
  • Human-building interaction at work: Findings from an interdisciplinary
           cross-country survey in Italy
    • Authors: Simona D'Oca; Anna Laura Pisello; Marilena De Simone; Verena M. Barthelmes; Tianzhen Hong; Stefano P. Corgnati
      Pages: 147 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 132
      Author(s): Simona D'Oca, Anna Laura Pisello, Marilena De Simone, Verena M. Barthelmes, Tianzhen Hong, Stefano P. Corgnati
      This study presents results from an interdisciplinary survey assessing contextual and behavioral factors driving occupants' interaction with building and systems in offices located across three different Mediterranean climates in Turin (Northern), Perugia (Central), and Rende (Southern) Italy. The survey instrument is grounded in an interdisciplinary framework that bridges the gap between building physics and social science environments on the energy- and comfort-related human-building interaction in the workspace. Outcomes of the survey questionnaire provide insights into four key learning objectives: (1) individual occupant's motivational drivers regarding interaction with shared building environmental controls (such as adjustable thermostats, operable windows, blinds and shades, and artificial lighting), (2) group dynamics such as perceived social norms, attitudes, and intention to share controls, (3) occupant perception of the ease of use and knowledge of how to operate control systems, and (4) occupant-perceived comfort, satisfaction, and productivity. This study attempts to identify climatic, cultural, and socio-demographic influencing factors, as well as to establish the validity of the survey instrument and robustness of outcomes for future studies. Also, the paper aims at illustrating why and how social science insights can bring innovative knowledge into the adoption of building technologies in shared contexts, thus enhancing perceived environmental satisfaction and effectiveness of personal indoor climate control in office settings and impacting office workers' productivity and reduced operational energy costs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.039
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2018)
       
  • Purifier or fresh air unit' A study on indoor particulate matter
           purification strategies for buildings with split air-conditioners
    • Authors: Yuchen Shi; Xiaofeng Li
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Yuchen Shi, Xiaofeng Li
      Buildings with split air-conditioners (referred to as SAC buildings) are not equipped with mechanical ventilation systems. The fresh air supply in these buildings primarily relies on natural ventilation and air infiltration, both of which can introduce outdoor particulate matter (PM) pollutants into the indoor environment. To simultaneously satisfy fresh air and indoor PM concentration requirements, two indoor air purification strategies can be employed, including air purifiers (APs) combined with open-window ventilation (AP-Mode) and fresh air units (FAUs) combined with positive pressure control (FAU-Mode). Accordingly, an investigation is required in order to determine which of the two strategies is more suitable for various types of SAC buildings. In this study, firstly, a new method for calculating the mechanical fresh air supply rate needed to maintain a positive room pressure is proposed for SAC buildings. It is concluded that positive room pressure can be maintained if the mechanical fresh air supply rate is more than 3.2 times the natural air infiltration rate (i.e., air infiltration rate when a room is not supplied with mechanical fresh air). Then, based on the mass balance principle of indoor particulate matter, the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) are calculated for APs used in the AP-Mode and FAUs used in the FAU-Mode under different PM2.5 I/O ratios and fresh air supply rates, and the annual energy consumptions of the two strategies are compared. Consequently, it is determined that in most cases, the FAU-Mode has a lower annual energy consumption when used in SAC buildings in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Finally, considering the room airtightness requirement for positive pressure control and the indoor PM2.5 concentration upper limit of 35 μg/m3, the AP-Mode should be used in rooms with fresh air requirements lower than 1 h−1, whereas the FAU-Mode should be used in other cases.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.033
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • A technical note on simplified modeling of turbulent mixing in wind-driven
           single sided ventilation
    • Authors: Guilherme Carrilho da Graça
      Pages: 12 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Guilherme Carrilho da Graça
      Single sided ventilation is a commonly used room natural ventilation strategy. Small, single occupant offices, often use single sided ventilation through a single opening (SS1). In most multistory buildings, the ratio between building façade and SS1 window opening area is 0.1% or less. In these cases, wind driven SS1 flows are caused by entrainment of room air that contacts outdoor airflow along the building opening plane. The turbulent mixing layer that develops in this region is central to the room airflow development process. The existing theoretical analysis of these flows was developed in 1977 and preceded several experimental studies of turbulent mixing layers that revealed new flow features that impact the resulting airflow estimate. This technical note presents a simple analytic calculation of turbulent mixing in SS1 flows that incorporates these developments. The proposed approach can predict the bulk ventilation flow rates measured in wind tunnel studies with an over prediction of 21%, a significant improvement over the existing analysis that resulted in an average under-prediction of 70%.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Numerical simulation, PIV measurements and analysis of air movement
           influenced by nozzle jets and heat sources in underground generator hall
    • Authors: Angui Li; Tong Ren; Changqing Yang; Jing Xiong; Pengfei Tao
      Pages: 16 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Angui Li, Tong Ren, Changqing Yang, Jing Xiong, Pengfei Tao
      A research project was undertaken, using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) numerical simulations and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental techniques, to investigate air movement influenced by nozzle jets and heat sources in large generator hall of underground hydropower station. The interaction between supply nozzle air jet (inertia force) and thermal plume from heat source (thermal buoyancy) was studied under the design heat source and five different nozzle jet modes: Case1 = V/V 0  = 0.5, Case2 = V/V 0  = 0.75, Case3 = V/V 0  = 1, Case4 = V/V 0  = 1.25 and Case5 = V/V 0  = 1.5 (V is the actual velocity of the nozzle jets, V 0 is the design nozzle jet velocity). The air distribution was assessed based on the evaluation indexes. The accuracy and reliability of the CFD prediction was verified by the theoretical formula and PIV experiment. The results show that the first three cases ( A r ≤ 0.00048 ) could meet the requirements of industry standards. After comparing with Case1 and Case2, Case3's velocity uniformity coefficient can be reduced by 24.96% and 13.63%; temperature uniformity coefficient can be decreased by 5.10% and 3.77%; energy efficiency coefficient can be raised by 22.61% and 6.83%; the average value of Air Diffusion Performance Index can be raised by 34.51% and 3.98% respectively. It is found that a larger jets velocity does not always ensure better replacement of the indoor air, and vice versa.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.034
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Thermal buoyancy driven canyon airflows inside the compact urban blocks
           saturated with very weak synoptic wind: Plume merging mechanism
    • Authors: Shuo-Jun Mei; Jiang-Tao Hu; Di Liu; Fu-Yun Zhao; Yuguo Li; Han-Qing Wang
      Pages: 32 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Shuo-Jun Mei, Jiang-Tao Hu, Di Liu, Fu-Yun Zhao, Yuguo Li, Han-Qing Wang
      During the sunny days with very weak wind, thermal buoyancy forces will play a crucial role in the airflow and urban thermal environment. The merging effect of urban building plumes is particularly investigated by the use of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) methodology. After testing against benchmark theoretical results, the SST k-ω model showing better performance in capturing the near wall processes and it was adopted to simulate the urban turbulent flows. The airflow patterns and temperature fields are analyzed for seven urban sizes ranging from 3 to 10 rows of buildings and six aspect ratios ranging from 0.5 to 3.0. The merging of thermal plumes induces a horizontal convergence flow, resulting in stagnant region at the urban center. A typical urban heat island temperature distribution with a peak value at the urban center is then found. Additionally, with the increase of urban size, the averaged velocity with the canyon decreases and averaged temperature increases. The average velocity within the street canyon decreases monotonously and the vortices number increases with the aspect ratio (building height H to the street width W). The average temperature also increases with aspect ratio, except when the aspect ratio increases from 2.0 to 2.5, where the flow structure within the street canyon changes from a three vortices structure into a four vortices structure. This research could provide a new idea about how urban heat island is formed and the relation between its intensity with urban size and geometry.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.035
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Human metabolic rate and thermal comfort in buildings: The problem and
           challenge
    • Authors: Maohui Luo; Zhe Wang; Kevin Ke; Bin Cao; Yongchao Zhai; Xiang Zhou
      Pages: 44 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Maohui Luo, Zhe Wang, Kevin Ke, Bin Cao, Yongchao Zhai, Xiang Zhou
      Of the six fundamental parameters in the classic heat balance model of human thermal comfort, metabolic rate is probably the most important and yet it is the most crudely assessed in both research and practice. Most studies in thermal comfort domain to date have relied on simple activity diaries to estimate metabolic rate. To better understand the pros and cons of this convenient approach, a literature review of cognate disciplines was conducted with the aim of transferring developments in human metabolic science to the built environmental context. This review leads to the conclusion that the dairy methods prevalent in thermal comfort research and practice are probably not accurate enough to sustain common thermal comfort modeling with any semblance of precision. Additional research effort is needed to develop better metabolic rate estimation methods for building occupants, especially accommodating individual differences in BMI, sex, age, pregnancy and menopause status, and non-steady state scenarios. In particular, three avenues of future research topics hold promise for improving practical metabolic estimation and thermal comfort in buildings were discussed:1) development and validation of new metabolic rate instrumentation, 2) field measurement of human metabolic rate characteristics, 3) determine comfort zones for buildings with specific metabolic rate features.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Human responses to high air temperature, relative humidity and carbon
           dioxide concentration in underground refuge chamber
    • Authors: Yong Li; Yanping Yuan; Chaofeng Li; Xu Han; Xiaosong Zhang
      Pages: 53 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Yong Li, Yanping Yuan, Chaofeng Li, Xu Han, Xiaosong Zhang
      In underground confined spaces with a crowded population, the thermal environment will be hot-humid and occurred with high CO2 concentration. Investigating the combined effect of increased temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration on human responses is important for confined spaces. In this paper, 32 subjects were exposed to different combinations of air temperature (T a ), relative humidity (RH) and CO2 concentrations in an underground climate chamber, with thermal response, physiological response and acute health symptoms being investigated. Results show that: at a T a of 28 °C, RH of 65% and CO2 level of 12,000 ppm, thermal sensation votes (TSV) and thermal acceptability (TA) did not significantly changed, while a significant change was recorded with a RH of 85%. When CO2 concentration increased to 8000 ppm, the subjects' perceived air quality acceptability significantly decreased at T a of 33 °C, however it did not significantly change at T a of 28 °C and RH of 65%. Maximum mean skin temperature and wetness difference did not exceed 0.3 °C and 0.15 units between the different exposure conditions, respectively. Significant changes of headaches were observed when CO2 concentrations increased to 12,000 ppm at a RH of 85%, but the difference was not statistically significant at a RH of 65%. This indicated that the combined effects of high T a , RH and CO2 concentration lead to different human responses.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.038
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Subjective survey &amp; simulation analysis of time-based visual
           comfort in daylit spaces
    • Authors: Yu Bian; Yuan Ma
      Pages: 63 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Yu Bian, Yuan Ma
      Based on the fundamental of instantaneous assessment of visual comfort evaluations, the novelty of this research is the idea to go beyond the instantaneous assess approach and to consider the duration time in predicting visual comfort issues, aims to explore the relationship between human discomfort perceptions and glare integral in time. Subjective survey and 6-min time interval glare metric simulations were taken place in four east-facing test rooms in Guangzhou, China. 16 volunteers participated in this survey from July 6th to Sep 3rd, 2017, all participants ranked the visual discomfort condition three times a day in morning/midday/afternoon. The metric calculation method used in this research was validated in the test room in Guangzhou. The results of this survey illustrated that enhanced simplified DGP (eDGPs) is capable to replace full-rendered DGP in predicting time-based visual comfort issues, and eDGPs has the advantage of being able to be rapid calculated in long-term survey or analysis. Moreover, there existed a strong correlation between the duration time above certain visual comfort thresholds with reported time-based visual comfort. The trigger duration time of 0.45 > eDGPs ≥ 0.40 is 12 min that occupant could evaluate the space visual intolerable and the corresponding median duration time is no less than 24 min. Meanwhile, the median duration time of 0.40 > eDGPs ≥ 0.35 is 6 min that a subject could rank the office space visual disturbing. The trigger duration time of 0.35 > eDGPs ≥ 0.30 is 6 min and the median value is 18 min that subject could probably evaluate the room space as glare perceptible.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • The modelling gap: Quantifying the discrepancy in the representation of
           thermal mass in building simulation
    • Authors: Eirini Mantesi; Christina J. Hopfe; Malcolm J. Cook; Jacqueline Glass; Paul Strachan
      Pages: 74 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Eirini Mantesi, Christina J. Hopfe, Malcolm J. Cook, Jacqueline Glass, Paul Strachan
      Enhanced fabric performance is fundamental to reduce the energy consumption in buildings. Research has shown that the thermal mass of the fabric can be used as a passive design strategy to reduce energy use for space conditioning. Concrete is a high density material, therefore said to have high thermal mass. Insulating concrete formwork (ICF) consists of cast in-situ concrete poured between two layers of insulation. ICF is generally perceived as a thermally lightweight construction, although previous field studies indicated that ICF shows evidence of heat storage effects. There is a need for accurate performance prediction when designing new buildings. This is challenging in particular when using advanced or new methods (such as ICF), that are not yet well researched. Building Performance Simulation (BPS) is often used to predict the thermal performance of buildings. Large discrepancies can occur in the simulation predictions provided by different BPS tools. In many cases assumptions embedded within the tools are outside of the modeller's control. At other times, users are required to make decisions on whether to rely on the default settings or to specify the input values and algorithms to be used in the simulation. This paper investigates the “modelling gap”, the impact of default settings and the implications of the various calculation algorithms on the results divergence in thermal mass simulation using different tools. ICF is compared with low and high thermal mass constructions. The results indicated that the modelling uncertainties accounted for up to 26% of the variation in the simulation predictions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Optimisation of lightweight green wall media for greywater treatment and
           reuse
    • Authors: Veljko Prodanovic; Kefeng Zhang; Belinda Hatt; David McCarthy; Ana Deletic
      Pages: 99 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Veljko Prodanovic, Kefeng Zhang, Belinda Hatt, David McCarthy, Ana Deletic
      Green walls are increasingly being considered as a suitable greywater treatment technology. Nevertheless, until now there have been no clear recommendations for the use of effective lightweight media in greywater treating green walls. Previous studies of potentially suitable growing media have suggested that a combination of perlite and coco coir might be the most effective for these novel systems. However, there is no clear understanding of what proportion of perlite and coir should be used and how different mixes would affect greywater treatment. This work tested the hydraulic and pollutant removal performance of six different perlite and coco coir media mixes in an unvegetated column experiment. The results suggested that there is a point between 2:1 and 3:1 ratios of perlite to coir where the infiltration rate significantly increases, as the result of perlite dominance. As the infiltration rate increases, the mix gets less prone to clogging, but this negatively affects pollutant removal performance, with insufficient time for biological processes. We therefore optimised the mix for effective long-term treatment of total suspended solids, total nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand and Escherichia coli. Unfortunately, total phosphorus removal from greywater was limited for all tested mixes. This study also showed that attention should be given to greywater inflow dynamics and expected daily water treatment capacity; e.g. systems with a lower hydraulic loading were able to use greater proportion of coir in the mix achieving greater water treatment performance, while systems with higher hydraulic loadings require faster flowing mixes with lower coir proportion.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of relative weights for temperature, CO2, and noise in the
           aircraft cabin environment
    • Authors: Susu Jia; Dayi Lai; Jian Kang; Jiayu Li; Junjie Liu
      Pages: 108 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Susu Jia, Dayi Lai, Jian Kang, Jiayu Li, Junjie Liu
      As people are increasingly traveling by air, the aircraft cabin environment has received considerable attention in recent years. Temperature, CO2, and noise can influence the cabin environment, but their relative importance is unknown. This paper combined data from an objective mental performance test and a subjective questionnaire survey to obtain the relative weights of these three parameters in the aircraft cabin environment. Our analyses indicated that the relative weights of temperature, CO2, and noise in the cabin environment were 0.4717, 0.2010, and 0.3273 respectively, under summer conditions and 0.5854, 0.1737, and 0.2409, respectively, under winter conditions. In different temperature conditions, the mental performance test results were better in colder temperature. Since we observed a warmer thermal sensation under higher levels of CO2 and noise, we have proposed an adjusted comfort zone for the aircraft cabin. The new zone has a lower temperature than that of the traditional thermal comfort zone. The results of this study provide useful information for engineers and designers as they seek to improve the cabin environment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Rising damp in historical buildings: A Venetian perspective
    • Authors: Laura Falchi; Debora Slanzi; Eleonora Balliana; Guido Driussi; Elisabetta Zendri
      Pages: 117 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Laura Falchi, Debora Slanzi, Eleonora Balliana, Guido Driussi, Elisabetta Zendri
      Considering several real case studies, moisture distribution due to rising damp in Venetian brick masonries is discussed and empirical models are developed. Moisture content and soluble salt data of 25 historical buildings in Venice are analysed. Data are scrutinized using statistical methods, obtaining contour plots and estimating the validity of linear and non-linear models. The models confirm that masonries are usually soaked with water till 120–150 cm over sea level, while the evaporation zone ranges in height from 200 cm to 350 cm. In the perpendicular section, moisture distribution depends on several contingent factors such as, among them, the proximity and the exposition of the external façades to the water action.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • CFD simulations of near-field pollutant dispersion with different plume
           buoyancies
    • Authors: Yoshihide Tominaga; Ted Stathopoulos
      Pages: 128 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Yoshihide Tominaga, Ted Stathopoulos
      This study performs computational fluid dynamics simulations for flow and dispersion fields around an isolated cubic building model with tracer gases being exhausted from an exit behind the building. The tracer gases have three different buoyancies according to the difference in density with ambient air and, therefore, behave as neutral, light, and heavy gases. The performance of steady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations with the Boussinesq approximation is examined herein by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results for different plume buoyancies. The steady RANS computations can generally reproduce the impact of plume buoyancy on the mean concentration in the experimental results even if the model performance for heavy gases is better than that for light gases and worse than that for neutral gases. This tendency is closely related to the prediction accuracy of the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy behind the building, which is restricted by the steady RANS simulations. The study also confirmed that the buoyancy modeling in the ε equation shows a negligible influence on the results.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigations of thermal performance of a Hemp
           Lime external building insulation
    • Authors: Georges Costantine; Chadi Maalouf; Tala Moussa; Guillaume Polidori
      Pages: 140 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Georges Costantine, Chadi Maalouf, Tala Moussa, Guillaume Polidori
      Hemp-concrete is a green material which has become nowadays highly recommended in the construction field. It finds applications as internal or external thermal insulator in wooden frame walls. At wall scale, studies proved that using Hemp-concrete in building envelope can improve indoor hygrothermal comfort. However, at building scale, hemp-concrete is scarcely studied. In that context, a French building in Grand-Est region, Champagne-Ardennes, employing hemp-concrete as external insulator is selected and studied. An apartment is monitored for several months. Indoor temperatures, relative humidities, thermal heat flux as well as external weather conditions are measured using sensors installed inside the apartment and a weather station at the building roof. Measurements underline the hemp-concrete ability to dampen external weather conditions by showing good results for both indoor temperature and relative humidity. Experimental approach is then coupled with a numerical validation at the wall and room scales using SPARK simulation tool. Investigations are conducted on thermal heat flux through the wall, indoor office air temperature, and relative humidity. Results show a good agreement between numerical values and experimental measurements.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.037
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Contributions of indoor and outdoor sources to airborne polycyclic
           aromatic hydrocarbons indoors
    • Authors: Shanshan Shi
      Pages: 154 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Shanshan Shi
      Exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) leads to adverse health outcomes of human beings. Both indoor and outdoor sources contribute to airborne PAHs concentration indoors. In this study, a theoretical model considering the kinetic partition process between gas- and particle-phases PAHs was developed to analyze contributions of indoor and outdoor sources to indoor airborne PAHs. Seasonal contributions of indoor and outdoor sources to indoor pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were estimated in a typical Beijing residence as a model application for the closed-window, open-window and normal ventilation scenarios. For Pyr, the seasonal contribution of the indoor source to indoor concentration is 50.6%, 69.0%, 70.6% and 51.2% in spring, summer, autumn and winter. For BaP, the seasonal contribution of the indoor source to indoor concentration is 27.7%, 39.7%, 34.8% and 17.1% from spring to winter. The modeled results are in good agreement with the implications derived from the previously measured I/O ratios in other studies. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for indoor and outdoor source strengths and air exchange rates. It turned out that the contribution of the indoor source to indoor Pyr and BaP substantially increases with the increase of the indoor source strength and decreases with the increases of the air exchange rate. The model can be simply utilized to quantitatively predict the contributions of indoor and outdoor sources, which has directive significance in making the appropriate controlling measures of indoor airborne PAHs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Accurate assessment of exposure using tracer gas measurements
    • Authors: Wojciech Kierat; Mariya Bivolarova; Eva Zavrl; Zbigniew Popiolek; Arsen Melikov
      Pages: 163 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Wojciech Kierat, Mariya Bivolarova, Eva Zavrl, Zbigniew Popiolek, Arsen Melikov
      Room airflow interaction, particularly in the breathing zone, is important to assess exposure to indoor air pollution. A breathing thermal manikin was used to simulate a room occupant with the convective boundary layer (CBL) generated around the body and the respiratory flow. Local airflow against the face of the manikin was applied to increase the complexity of the airflow interaction. CO2 was released at the armpits and N2O at the groin to simulate the respective bio-effluents generated at these two body sites. The tracer gas concentration at the mouth/nose of the manikin was measured with gas analyzers with short and long response times, respectively. The tracer gas concentration was characterized by the mean, standard deviation and 95th percentile values. The results revealed that the measurement time needed to determine, with sufficient accuracy, these parameters decreased substantially with a decrease in the response time of the gas analyzer. When only CBL was present, shorter measurement time was needed for the accurate concentration measurement of the tracer gas released close to the breathing zone. For more complex flow, as a result of CBL interaction with the exhalation flow, the needed measurement time was longer. It has been concluded that the accurate exposure assessment requires that the concentration measurements are performed only during the inhalation period. Therefore, gas analysers with low response time and sampling time that is considerably shorter than the inhalation period have to be used.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Modeling the reduction of urban excess heat by green roofs with respect to
           different irrigation scenarios
    • Authors: Jannik Heusinger; David J. Sailor; Stephan Weber
      Pages: 174 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Jannik Heusinger, David J. Sailor, Stephan Weber
      Urban heat reduction by evaporative cooling from extensive green roofs is explored by applying irrigation scenarios to green roofs located in different climate zones using a coupled atmosphere-vegetation-substrate green roof model. The model, which is integrated in the building energy simulation software EnergyPlus, is validated with eddy covariance surface energy fluxes from a green roof in Berlin, Germany. The original model was modified to include interception and an improved runoff calculation. Three irrigation scenarios were defined (no irrigation, sustainable irrigation by harvested runoff water, unrestricted irrigation) to study the heat reduction potential in terms of surface energy partitioning and sensible heat fluxes (QH). The irrigation scenarios are compared to two white roofs (albedo equal to 0.35 and 0.65) and a black roof. High correlation of sensible and latent heat (QE) fluxes between measured and modelled data for the original and the modified version of the green roof model were observed (for the original model, R2 = 0.91 and 0.81 for QH and QE, respectively, while for the modified version R2 = 0.91 and 0.80, respectively). The modified version was applied to study irrigation, due to lower systematic errors for QH, QE and better performance for the substrate moisture content. In comparison to a black roof the green roof reduces urban excess heat by 15%–51% with sustainable irrigation, by 48%–75% with unrestricted irrigation, but drops to 3% for unirrigated roofs in the different cities. Sustainable irrigation can be effective in climates with high annual (or summerly) precipitation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Inverse hygric property determination based on dynamic measurements and
           swarm-intelligence optimisers
    • Authors: Evy Vereecken; Staf Roels; Hans Janssen
      Pages: 184 - 196
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Evy Vereecken, Staf Roels, Hans Janssen
      To accelerate the hygric characterisation of porous building materials, dynamic flow and storage measurements in combination with inverse parameter estimation show a lot of promise. Therein though, the processing and interpretation of the experimental output can be challenging. This paper demonstrates the applicability of two swarm-intelligence (SI) optimisers, i.e. the Particle Swarm Optimiser (PSO) and the Grey Wolf Optimiser (GWO), for determining the vapour resistance factor and the sorption isotherm of porous building materials. The methodology is presented for a fictitious dynamic vapour sorption experiment on a calcium silicate insulation sample. The identifiability of the unknown parameters and the reliability of the estimated properties is investigated via a profile likelihood (PL) analysis. By use of the proposed methodology, the measurement time required to determine the hygric properties is reduced strongly compared to standard techniques such as the steady-state cup and sorption tests, and at the same time the uncertainty propagated in the parameter estimation can be characterised. A close agreement with the target values is obtained. Though, to avoid an unreliable parameter estimation it is recommended to not limit the optimisation process to a single run. Furthermore, also the results obtained during the PL analysis can help improving the estimation. Finally, for the current case study, the SI optimisers are found to outperform the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES).

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.030
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Dynamic experimental method for identification of hygric parameters of a
           hygroscopic material
    • Authors: Thomas Busser; Julien Berger; Amandine Piot; Mickael Pailha; Monika Woloszyn
      Pages: 197 - 209
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Thomas Busser, Julien Berger, Amandine Piot, Mickael Pailha, Monika Woloszyn
      The standard methods to determine the vapour permeability and the moisture sorption curve may lack of accuracy since discrepancies are observed when comparing numerical predictions to experimental data. Moreover, these properties are determined in steady state conditions while the numerical predictions are carried in transient regime. Thus, this paper presents an experimental design to estimate these properties using dynamic measurements and identification method. The experimental facility is presented, enabling to measure at the same time the relative humidity within the material and the total moisture content. The performance of the facility and protocol in terms of reproducibility, uncertainty and direction of heat and moisture transfers are checked, confirming the abilities of the set-up. Then, experimental results are used to determine the hygrothermal material properties using a trust-region algorithm. Investigations are done to analyse important issues as the choice of the observation: relative humidity and/or mass measurements, to solve the parameter estimation problem. The estimated properties are finally validated by comparing the numerical predictions with experimental data for other boundary conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • PM collection performance of electret filters electrospun with different
           dielectric materials-a numerical modeling and experimental study
    • Authors: Rong-Rong Cai; Li-Zhi Zhang; Ai-Bing Bao
      Pages: 210 - 219
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Rong-Rong Cai, Li-Zhi Zhang, Ai-Bing Bao
      Electrospun electret filter has been regarded as a promising medium to remove particulate matter (PM) from air stream because it could fulfill the requirements for both high filtration efficiencies and low pressure drops. The physico-chemical characteristics of the polymer material have significant effects on the PM collection performance of the electret filter. In this study, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) electret filters with similar structures are electrospun using polymers of different permittivity and their collection efficiencies for neutral particles are evaluated experimentally. Then the lattice Boltzmann coupled with discrete element method (DEM) is applied to simulate the particle transport and deposition through the virtual 3-D electret filters, to give further insight into the particle capture mechanisms due to the PM-fiber interaction and the dielectrophoretic attraction. The simulation results compare favorably with the experimental data. Results indicate that the PM collection efficiency of PVC electret filter is the highest, and followed by the PAN, PC and PEI electret filters. It is revealed that the dielectric property of the polymer material is an influential factor shaping the interaction of particles and fiber surfaces, as well as the charge storage abilities of the electrospun electret filters. A higher polymer permittivity would lead to a larger PM-fiber adhesion energy, a larger fiber charge density and then a better PM collection performance.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.036
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • An experimental study of the flow induced by the motion of a hinged door
           separating two rooms
    • Authors: Ilias G. Papakonstantis; Elizabeth Abigail Hathway; Wernher Brevis
      Pages: 220 - 230
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Ilias G. Papakonstantis, Elizabeth Abigail Hathway, Wernher Brevis
      The indoor air flow and mass exchange induced by the rotating motion of a hinged door separating two rooms is investigated. Experiments were conducted in a scale model based on Reynolds number matching. Flow visualisations show the transport mechanism associated with the open and close phases of the door motion. In the room into which the door is opened a large-scale vortex is formed during opening, which is advected along the walls. In the adjacent room, a volume of fluid spreads both longitudinally and transversely. Concentration measurements were carried out to quantify the mass exchange generated by these flow patterns. Results are presented in dimensionless form for the volume of fluid exchanged and are compared to earlier data. The effects of hold open time and door speed on the exchanged fluid volume are investigated. The exchange volume increases with hold open time, but it does not vary considerably with door speed for a constant hold open time. Further, three-dimensional velocity measurements were carried out near the doorway and the characteristics of the velocity field developed are also presented.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.026
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Indoor environmental quality in social housing: A literature review
    • Authors: Ernesto Diaz Lozano Patino; Jeffrey A. Siegel
      Pages: 231 - 241
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Ernesto Diaz Lozano Patino, Jeffrey A. Siegel
      The unprecedented levels of urbanization in the last century have led to significant social housing populations in cities across the world. Housing conditions in social housing units are usually substandard, which often correlates with higher exposure to indoor pollutants, and ultimately negative health effects. We reviewed 49 articles in the literature documenting indoor environmental quality (IEQ) conditions in social housing which were focused on air pollutant concentrations, thermal comfort, or health effects associated with living in these units. We found evidence that social housing residents may be disproportionately exposed to higher levels of PM2.5, which is heavily influenced by the presence of cigarette smoking in the building. However, we found no evidence that they are disproportionately exposed to higher levels of other pollutants such as formaldehyde and dampness. Poor thermal comfort was also found to be a prevalent issue in social housing, but there are not enough data on comparable non-social housing to make a definitive statement about relative prevalence. We also found that there are strong indicators that residing in social housing is associated with negative health effects, with high prevalence of respiratory problems. Lastly, we found that green retrofits have the potential to improve the IEQ conditions, but these retrofits must be tailored to the specific context of each building. Given the increasing importance of social housing to most urban areas, and the potential vulnerability of social housing inhabitants, it is imperative that we maintain healthy environments for these occupants.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Application of a multi-variable optimization method to determine lift-up
           design for optimum wind comfort
    • Authors: Yaxing Du; Cheuk Ming Mak; Yantong Li
      Pages: 242 - 254
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Yaxing Du, Cheuk Ming Mak, Yantong Li
      The lift-up building design has been demonstrated to provide favorable wind comfort, but there is a lack of investigation on optimum wind comfort condition. This study coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique and response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the most desirable wind comfort around an isolated building with lift-up design. A multi-variable optimization method is proposed to determine optimum wind comfort and the corresponding lift-up design variables, namely, lift-up height ( H L ), core aspect ratio ( A R ) and core number ( N ). To better illustrate wind comfort around the building, the wind comfort in the lift-up area and the podium area are investigated separately. The Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach is employed throughout the whole CFD simulation process. The quality and goodness of the established RSM models are examined by analysis of variance and genetic algorithm is applied to generate optimal design solution. The generated results illustrate good performance of the established RSM model. Results show that the optimum wind comfort is obtained when H L is 8 m, A R is 10%, and N is 6. The lift-up core aspect ratio is subsequently found to have greatest effect on wind comfort among the three design variables in both the lift-up area and the podium area. In addition, the proposed method is applicable to other similar environmental design conditions and the outcomes of study can also be of great value in the improvement of wind comfort in compact urban cities.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • A preliminary study on the performance of an awning system with a built-in
           light shelf
    • Authors: Heangwoo Lee; Hyang-In Jang; Janghoo Seo
      Pages: 255 - 263
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Heangwoo Lee, Hyang-In Jang, Janghoo Seo
      Increased energy consumption is an ongoing research concern worldwide. In particular, uses of ongoing studies are focusing on improving indoor comfort via the development of double-skin facades that combine various skin element technologies. In light of this, this study aims to develop an awning system with a built-in light shelf, which is a new type of system combining an awning and a light shelf. It also confirms the effectiveness of this system based on a full-scale test bed by deriving the energy reduction performance and improvements in the comfort of the indoor lighting. The awning system proposed in this study has a built-in light shelf below the awning, and there is a cut-out hole in the cover of the awning so that natural light can hit the shelf. As a result, the system successfully prevents an increase in the indoor temperature by blocking the incoming sunlight and introduces natural light deep within the interior, improving the light uniformity and reducing the lighting energy consumption. The effectiveness of the system was demonstrated by analyzing the improvement in the indoor illumination uniformity and the cooling and lighting energy savings provided by the proposed system compared with existing awning and light shelf systems.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Thermal inertia assessment of an experimental extensive green roof in
           summer conditions
    • Authors: Piero Bevilacqua; Domenico Mazzeo; Natale Arcuri
      Pages: 264 - 276
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): Piero Bevilacqua, Domenico Mazzeo, Natale Arcuri
      Passive solutions for building envelopes such as green roofs are regarded as promising tools to reduce the energy demand for buildings air-conditioning and to improve the thermal comfort of indoor spaces. It is therefore necessary to quantify and assess properly the summer thermal performance and to determine how a green roof cover can attenuate and delay the temperature and heat flux acting on its surface. The paper deals with an experimental investigation of the dynamic thermal characteristics of a vegetated roof situated on a university building roof in south Italy. An analysis of the daily values of dynamic parameters showed a quite stable trend of the decrement factor with variation in the range 0.0982–0.1920. The time lag exhibited a trend ranging from 7.2 h to 8.5 h. A successive analysis was developed decomposing the trends of temperature into Fourier series to assess the response of the vegetated systems to solicitations of different frequencies and to assess the deviations, in the calculation of the dynamic parameters, arising from considering a sinusoidal variation with a 24 h period of the external forcing, in accordance with the International Standard EN ISO 13786, compared to the experimental values. The green roofs showed a behaviour similar to a high-pass frequency system, and relative errors, by using only the fundamental harmonic under 10% were found for 72.9% of the cases for the decrement factor and for 93.8% of the data for the time lag. Results demonstrated that when climatic conditions of the location are more irregular then the predictions of the dynamic parameters considering only the fundament harmonic instead of the real trend of the forcing can provide more relevant errors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.11.033
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Analysing urban ventilation in building arrays with the age spectrum and
           mean age of pollutants
    • Authors: G.E. Lau; K. Ngan
      Pages: 288 - 305
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): G.E. Lau, K. Ngan
      This study investigates the applicability and relevance of the Green's function and age spectrum to urban ventilation. Ventilation in an idealised urban environment is examined by characterising pollutant dispersion from the urban canopy layer. Air flow over regular uniform and non-uniform building arrays is computed using large-eddy simulation and pollutant removal is analysed via the age spectrum for localised sources. The age spectrum represents the probability distribution function of pollutant or tracer ages. Since the age spectrum is obtained directly from the evolution equation for the passive scalar, it is more effective for flows with high intermittency. This should be beneficial for studies of extreme pollution events in the urban environment such as accidental release of toxic gases and dust storms. It is demonstrated that the age spectrum is sensitive to the source release location, implying that pollutant removal depends on the initial conditions. Mean ages calculated using the homogeneous emission method and the age spectrum show qualitative similarities; however, there are quantitative differences in regions where the flow is highly unsteady and intermittent. The age spectrum indicates that ventilation decreases by ∼70% when the aspect ratio (building height/street width) is increased from 1 to 4. Furthermore, the effect of fresh air entrainment increases by ∼80% when the building heights are non-uniform.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Keeping your cool – A multi-stakeholder look at AC sizing
    • Authors: B. Amoroso; E. Hittinger; K. McConky
      Pages: 306 - 329
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 131
      Author(s): B. Amoroso, E. Hittinger, K. McConky
      Selecting the capacity of a central air conditioning (AC) system is based on a long list of structural factors within a home, but is normally chosen without considering effects on stakeholders outside of the home. Energy use by residential air conditioners is relevant to consumers as an expense, but also to utilities as a contributor to peak demand and to society by the resultant emissions. In this article, we investigate how size and operational patterns of central residential air conditioners interact with stakeholder benefits and costs. The case study analyzes energy use for systems sized from 3.0 to 5.5 tons in single family homes in Phoenix, Arizona and quantifies the costs and benefits to homeowners, electric utilities, and society. For homeowners, larger systems are preferred due to lower energy consumption, leading to lower net costs, and the ability to cool the house quickly. However, under the same conditions, a smaller AC system provides double the potential profit to the utility from reduced generation and peak load costs. Because of lower energy consumption, larger systems have lower environmental externality costs from carbon and criteria pollutant emissions. However, a social perspective that considers homeowner, utility and externality costs together results in an overall preference for smaller systems with setback schedules, driven by the value of peak demand reduction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.028
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2018)
       
  • Thermal and moisture monitoring of an internally insulated historic brick
           wall
    • Authors: Walker
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Building and Environment, Volume 133
      Author(s): R. Walker, S. Pavía
      Internally insulating walls is an effective method of energy retrofitting buildings. However insulation changes the hygric behaviour of a wall and can increase the risk of wall decay by moisture accumulation. This paper investigates thermal and moisture behaviour of internal insulations applied to a brick wall over a two and a half year period with probes positioned near the interface between the leveling plaster and brick wall. The in-situ performance of the insulations agrees with their laboratory measured thermal and moisture properties. It is consistently evidenced that the vapour permeability of the insulation has a large impact on the wall moisture. Walls with vapour permeable insulations closely reflect internal room relative humidity (RH) conditions and show the greatest response and the shortest lag time in reflecting changes in room RH. Conversely, the walls with low vapour permeable insulations display lower RH fluctuations and longer lag periods as moisture movement is impeded. There is a reduction in the wall's RH for all insulations when room heating is applied with the walls with vapour permeable insulations showing the largest reduction in RH due to wall moisture drying and raising wall temperatures while the less vapour permeable insulation lowered RH mostly on account of rising wall temperatures. The results suggest that vapour permeable insulations are suitable in moisture environments with periods of low RH that provide the wall with an opportunity to dry. The thermal performance of an insulation must be counterbalanced against moisture performance and the resultant longterm durability of the building.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
       
  • Experimental study on airflow characteristics with asymmetrical heat load
           distribution and low-momentum diffuse ceiling ventilation
    • Authors: Sami Lestinen; Simo Kilpeläinen; Risto Kosonen; Juha Jokisalo; Hannu Koskela
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2018
      Source:Building and Environment
      Author(s): Sami Lestinen, Simo Kilpeläinen, Risto Kosonen, Juha Jokisalo, Hannu Koskela
      Airflow characteristics were studied with asymmetrically distributed heat load and diffuse ceiling ventilation. The heat load was gradually increased from 40 to 80 W/floor-m2 while the target temperature of exhaust air was kept at 26 ± 0.5 °C. Experiments were carried out in a test room by conducting measurements with omnidirectional anemometers, data loggers and marker-smoke visualizations. The heat load consisted of two opposite workstations next to heated window panels in the perimeter area. The other side of the room was an open area describing a corridor zone. The workstation had a seated test dummy with laptop and monitor. The results indicate that asymmetrical heat load distribution creates a large-scale circulating airflow pattern from the heat sources to the opposite side of the room. Furthermore, the mean air speed and the airflow fluctuation increased with heat load and supply airflow rate. Consequently, also the turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulence dissipation increased. However, heat load had only a small effect on the turbulence intensity and the fluctuation energy ratio. Therefore, draught rate increased significantly with mean air speed. The observed results agree mainly with the symmetrical results otherwise, except for the systematic large-scale circulation that was not found in the symmetrical test case. The maximum draught rate was 18–21% indicating the category B-C of thermal environment defined by the European Standard EN ISO 7730:2005. The thermal conditions at the investigated heat loads of 40–80 W/floor-m2 were not able to fulfill the category A.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:52:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.02.029
       
 
 
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