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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2268 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (103 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1201 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (380 journals)
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    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (67 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 183 of 183 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
  [SJR: 0.377]   [H-I: 6]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2040-2317 - ISSN (Online) 2040-2317
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Effect of different air settings over fire-induced condition in a
           stairwell
    • Pages: 440 - 458
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Volume 8, Issue 4, Page 440-458, December 2017.
      Purpose This work aims to report the effect of different inlet air velocity settings, and the position of the inlet areas under fire-induced conditions in stairwells. Design/methodology/approach The results are evaluated both experimentally and numerically. In sequence, the study also describes the results of three tests under different ventilation conditions, which were performed by simulating a fire of 0.9 m diameter in a stairwell access door. Detailed transient measurements of air temperature in the walls, air velocity settings at the ventilation outlet, smoke temperature through the fans and pressure through the exhaust fans were recorded for the study. Findings These data could be used as benchmark for future numerical validation studies. Based on computational fluid dynamics, the tests were performed using fire dynamics simulator codes, to compare the results of tests and simulations. Originality/value The numerical study was performed in confined floors close to the test areas of a typical stairwell, with different vents and a source of fire. The results show that the lack of symmetry in the air vents settings has greater influence on the plume than the total area of the air inlet.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T01:02:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-08-2017-0038
       
  • High temperature mechanical properties of steel bars available in Pakistan
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the results of experimental testing of steel rebars at elevated temperatures. Three types of bars available in the local market in Pakistan were used. These data are not available in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach Three types of bars were used, which included cold-twisted ribbed (CTR), hot-rolled deformed (HRD) and thermo-mechanically treated (TMT) bars. The diameter of the bar of each type was 16 mm. The bars were heated in an electrical furnace at temperatures which were varied from 100°C to 900°C in increment of 100°C. Bars of each type were also tested at ambient temperature as control specimens. The change of strength, strain and modulus of elasticity of the bars at high temperatures were determined. Findings The mechanical properties of the bars were nearly unaffected by the temperatures up to 200°C. CTR bars did not show yield plateau and strain hardening both at ambient and high temperatures. The high temperature yield strength and elastic modulus for all the three types of bars were similar at all temperatures. The yield plateau of both the HRD and TMT bars disappeared at temperatures greater than 300°C. The ultimate strength at high temperature of the HRD and TMT bars was also similar. The behaviours of the HRD and TMT bars changed to brittle beyond 400°C as compared to their behaviours at ambient temperature. The CTR bars exhibited ductile characteristics at failure at all the exposure temperatures relative to their behaviour at ambient temperature. Research limitations/implications The parameters of the paper included the rebar type and heating temperature and the effects of temperature on strength and stiffness properties of the steel bars. Practical implications Building fire incidents have increased in Pakistan. As reinforced concrete (RC) buildings exist in the country in significant numbers, the data related to elevated temperature properties of steel is required. These data are not available in Pakistan presently. The presented paper aims at providing this information for the design engineers to enable them to assess and increase fire resistance of RC structural members. Originality/value The presented paper is unique in its nature in that there is no published contribution to date, to the best of authors’ knowledge, which has been carried out to assess the temperature-dependent mechanical properties of steel reinforcing bars available in Pakistan.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T01:38:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2017-0035
       
  • Cold-formed steel columns at both ambient and fire conditions
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The use of cold-formed steel members has increased significantly in the past few years; however, its design is only briefly addressed in the current design codes, such as the EN 1993-1-3. To evaluate the compressive behavior of single and built-up cold-formed steel members, at ambient and simulated fire conditions with restrained thermal elongation, experimental and numerical tests were undertaken. Design/methodology/approach Four cross-section shapes were tested, namely, one single (lipped channel), one open built-up (I) and two closed built-up (R and 2R), considering two end support conditions, pinned and fixed. Two test set-ups were specifically developed for these tests. Based on the experimental results finite element models were developed and calibrated to allow future parametric studies. Findings This paper showed that increasing the level of restraint to thermal elongation and the initially applied load led to lower critical temperatures. Increasing the level of restraint to thermal elongation, the failure is governed by the generated axial restraining forces, whereas for lower levels of restraint to thermal elongation, the failure is controlled by the temperature increasing. Originality/value This paper is a contribution to the knowledge on the behavior of cold-formed steel columns subjected to fire, especially on the ones with a built-up cross-section, where results on thermal restrained ones are still scarce. It presented a set of experimental and numerical results useful for the development of numerical and analytical analysis concerning the development of new simplified calculation methods.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T01:25:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0018
       
  • Experimental study of two-way post-tensioned flat slabs in fire
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to investigate the influence of tendon layout, pre-stressing force, bond condition and concrete spalling on the structural behaviour of two-way post-tensioned flat slabs at elevated temperatures. Design/methodology/approach Fire tests of four scale specimens of two-way post-tensioned concrete flat slabs were performed and analysed. Three of them were provided with bonded tendons, while the other was unbonded for comparison. The fabrication of specimens, phenomena observed during testing, temperature distributions, deflections and occurrence of concrete spalling were examined. Findings Different degrees of concrete spalling observed at the soffit had significant effects on the temperature distribution and stress redistribution. This was the major reason for the progressive concrete spalling observed, resulting in loss of structural integrity and stiffness. Originality/value The structural behaviour of two-way post-tensioned concrete flat slabs at elevated temperatures is less understood compared to their one-way counterparts. Therefore, the present study has focused on the structural behaviour of two-way post-tensioned concrete flat slabs with bonded tendons in fire, a field in which relatively little information on experimental work can be found.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:39:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0016
       
  • Timber under real fire conditions – the influence of oxygen content and
           gas velocity on the charring behavior
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the influencing factors on the charring behaviour of timber, the char layer and the charring depth in non-standard fires. Design/methodology/approach This paper summarizes outcomes of tests, investigating the influences on the charring behavior of timber by varying the oxygen content and the gas velocity in the compartment. Results show that charring is depending on the fire compartment temperature, but results show further that at higher oxygen flow, char contraction was observed affecting the protective function of the char layer. Findings In particular, in the cooling phase, char contraction should be considered which may have a significant impact on performance-based design using non-standard temperature fire curves where the complete fire history including the cooling phase has to be taken into account. Originality/value Up to now, some research on non-standard fire exposed timber member has been performed, mainly based on standard fire resistance tests where boundary conditions as gas flow and oxygen content especially in the decay phase are not measured or documented. The approach presented in this paper is the first documented fire tests with timber documenting the data required.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0013
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigations of the composite behaviour in
           concrete-filled tubular columns with massive steel core at high
           temperatures
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper deals with experimental and numerical investigations of the composite behaviour within concrete-filled tubular columns with embedded massive steel core (CFTES columns). As the inner profile provides the main load-bearing capacity, the load introduction and transfer is of particular interest for the structural detailing of CFTES columns. Currently, no specific design regulations are available – neither for room temperature nor fire design. The presented investigations provide a basis for design recommendations and numerical approaches on reliable shear stresses. Design/methodology/approach Three series of push-out tests at room temperature and high temperatures are analysed in terms of ultimate shear strength, bond strength and shear strength-displacement-curve shape. The test parameters involve the steel core diameter and concrete cover, applying normal strength steel and concrete. Furthermore, a three-dimensional finite element model of the push-out tests is set up in Abaqus. The model implies temperature-dependent contact properties derived from the experimental tests using the cohesive behaviour method. Findings The test data reveal a distinctive reduction in both ultimate shear and bond strength for high temperatures. For high temperatures, the thermal expansion coefficients dominate the composite behaviour. Using the 3D numerical model and applying a temperature-dependent joint stiffness, maximum shear stress criterion and damage evolution, the observed composite behaviour can be described in a realistic manner. Originality/value The presented experimental investigations are unique, both concerning the investigated column type and performing push-out tests at high temperatures. For the first time, a temperature-dependent reduction of capable shear stresses is identified, which is crucial for the design of structural components.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T01:11:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0010
       
  • Performance comparison of fiber sheet strengthened RC beams bonded with
           geopolymer and epoxy resin under ambient and fire conditions
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to present performance comparison of fiber sheet-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beams bonded with geopolymer and epoxy resin under ambient and fire conditions. Design/methodology/approach This study presents experimental results of bending tests at ambient temperature and fire resistance tests on two control beams and eight fiber sheet-strengthened RC beams. The test variables include fiber sheet type (carbon fiber [CF] and basalt fiber [BF] sheet), number of layers of fiber sheet (one and two layers) and adhesive agent type (geopolymers and epoxy resin). Data generated from these tests were used to evaluate and compare the strengthening effectiveness of CF-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and CF-reinforced geopolymer (CFRG) at ambient temperature and under fire exposure conditions. Findings Test results clearly show that the CFRG system can provide good strengthening effectiveness on RC beams at ambient temperature, as the CFRP system, owing to excellent bond properties of geopolymers. Although geopolymers possess better bonding properties at high temperature than organic matrix, the strengthened beams bonded with geopolymer do not exhibit better fire resistance than that those bonded with epoxy resin, owing to early falling-off of fire insulation. Thus, in CFRG-strengthened beams, relevant measures are to be taken to minimize falling-off of fire insulation to achieve good fire resistance. Originality/value The presented results are from unique fire tests and provide valuable insight (and information) on the performance of fiber sheet-strengthened RC beams bonded with geopolymer and epoxy resin under ambient and fire conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T12:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0023
       
  • Experimental validation of the damage-plasticity modeling concept for
           normal strength concrete in fire
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to investigate with strain-rate controlled uniaxial cyclic compression tests the softening behavior of concrete and its elastic stiffness degradation with increasing plastic straining. Design/methodology/approach Such tests at ambient temperature show that concrete exhibits the phenomenon of elastic stiffness degradation, which can be captured by damage-plasticity models. Findings The experimentally derived evolutions of the elastic stiffness with plastic strain confirm the suitability of the damage-plasticity modeling concept for concrete in compression at elevated temperatures and provide novel calibration data. Originality/value Temperature-dependent concrete models implementing this modeling concept are often used presently in structural fire engineering, despite the lack of experiment-based validation data.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T12:21:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0001
       
  • Finite element analysis of tension-loaded ASTM A325 bolts under simulated
           fire loading
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Nuts and bolts have been used as fasteners of steel structures for many years. However, these structures remain susceptible to fire damage. While conducting fire experiments on steel structures is sometimes necessary, to better understand their behavior, such experiments remain costly and require specialized equipment and testing facilities. This paper aims to present a highly accurate three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of ASTM A325 bolt subjected to tension loading under simulated fire conditions. The FE model is compared to the results of experimental testing for verification purposes and is proven to predict the response of similar bolts up to certain temperatures without the need for repeated testing. Design/methodology/approach A parametric 3D FE model simulating tested specimens was constructed in the ANSYS Workbench environment. The model included the intricate details of the bolt and nut threads, as well as all the other components of the specimens. A pretension load, a tension force and a heat profile were applied to the model, and a nonlinear analysis was performed to simulate the experiments. Findings The results of the FE model were in good agreement with the experimental results, deviations of results between experimental and FE results were within acceptable range. This should allow studying the behavior of structural bolts without the need for expensive testing. Originality/value Detailed 3D FE models have been created by the authors have been created to study the behavior of structural bolts and compared with experiments conducted by the authors.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T10:24:24Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2016-0006
       
  • Behavior of structural tunnel elements exposed to fire and mechanical
           loading
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Incidents like the fire in the Channel Tunnel, where severe concrete spalling was determined, have led to requirements in limiting the spalling depth and involved zone to local and compatible magnitudes. Because the prevention of critical concrete spalling was also significant for the validity of the load-carrying capacity calculation for an existing railway tunnel, this paper aimed to investigate the spalling behavior of two contemplable concrete mixtures. The large-scale tests should show the load-carrying capacity over the whole duration of the fire exposure respecting all thermal and mechanical loads considered in the calculations. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the fire behavior of two concrete mixtures for an existing railway tunnel are investigated. Small-scale tests prior to the main tests were conducted to identify an appropriate concrete mixture for the large-scale tests. During the large-scale tests, a tunnel segment is loaded with horizontal and vertical loads derived from a calculation taking into account the existing boundary conditions. Resulting restraint forces were calculated using the soil stiffness and tunnel fire design curve as fire scenario and applied via hydraulic jacks. To avoid additional restraint forces during the experiment, thermal strains due to fire exposure were allowed. Findings The results of the small-scale tests did not allow for a clear statement whether one concrete mixture would perform better regarding the spalling behavior. The two large-scale tests showed different results regarding the spalling behavior. Over the whole duration of fire exposure, the first test specimen remains nearly undamaged. During the test of the second specimen, spalling started about 3 min after burner activation. Because of the results, a suggestion for the concrete mixture of the first test was made, and this mixture was then used for the redevelopment of the existing railway tunnel. Originality/value The test setup was capable of incorporating all relevant boundary conditions for the analysis of an existing railway tunnel as part of an important north – south connection. The results have shown that a fire-proof construction is possible by adding polypropylene fibers to the concrete mixture. Additionally, it was possible to avoid the mounting of expensive and time-consuming fire protection measures like the installation of thermal insulation boards.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T08:03:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0020
       
  • Effect of different additives on high temperatures of concrete
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of different additives (individual effects) in improving the strength of concrete to resist temperatures of up to 60ºC. Design/methodology/approach In all, 13 different mixtures with a constant water/binder ratio of 0.36 and grade M40 were prepared by using ordinary Portland concrete alone, or with partial replacement by fly ash (FA), blast-furnace slag, silica fume (SF) and a combination of all three. After 7 and 28 days under water, their strength and residual strength were measured. Findings The results of testing revealed that the addition of 10 per cent SF was found to result in the greatest increase in compressive strength and flexural strength along with decreased the residual strengths. The addition of FA increased the compressive strength and enhanced the residual compressive strength. However, it also decreased the residual flexural strength. Originality/value The addition of slag achieved better flexural strength and the best residual compressive strength. The combination of additives also enhanced the compressive strength but was not found to be better than using SF alone.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T12:16:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0021
       
  • Development of wood structural elements for fire resistant buildings
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose As forestry contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gases by CO2 fixation, in recent years, use of wood in buildings has attracted all over the world more attention. However, construction of large wood structures is almost inexistent within urban areas in Japan. This is due to the Japanese law on fire protection of wood buildings in cities, which is considered very strict with severe requirements. This paper aims to present a research work relative to the development of one-hour fire-resistant wood structural elements for buildings in cities. The developed elements are composed of three layers made of laminated timber. Design/methodology/approach These wood structural elements, made of glued laminated timber with self-charring-stop, have sufficient fire resistance during and after a fire and comply with the strict Japanese standard for wood structural elements, which stipulates that such elements have to withstand the whole dead-load of concerned buildings after fire. To comply with such requirements, new elements of glued laminated timber with self-charring-stop layer were developed, and their performance was confirmed. Several fire-resistant tests conducted on columns, beams, column-beam joints, connections between beams and walls and beams with holes were carried out. Findings All tests proved that the elements have sufficient fire resistance. No damage was found out at the load-bearing part of the elements after testing. As the developed elements have two layers protecting the load-bearing part, the temperature in the load-bearing part could be retained below 260°C (carbonization temperature) and provide the elements with a sufficient fire resistance for 1 h. Practical implications These wood structural elements have already been applied in six projects, where large-size wooden buildings were constructed in urban areas in Japan. Originality/value The proposed structural elements use a novel technique. Every wooden element is composed of three layers made of glued laminated timber. The elements have a typical performance of self-charring-stop after fire without need for water of firefighters. More technologies related to these elements, including column-beam joints and beams with holes and effect of crack, were also developed to design and construct safe wooden buildings.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T12:11:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-11-2016-0019
       
  • Predicting the behavior of welded angle connections in fire using
           artificial neural network
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to predicting the behavior of welded angle connections (moment-rotation-temperature) in fire using artificial neural network 10. Design/methodology/approach An artificial neural networking model is described to predict the moment-rotation response of semi-rigid beam-to-column joints at elevated temperature. Findings Data from 47 experimental fire tests and verified finite element model are used for training and testing and validating the neural network models. The model’s predicted values are compared with actual test results. The results indicate that the models can predict the moment-rotation-temperature behavior of semi-rigid beam-to-column joints with very high accuracy. The developed model can be modified easily to investigate other parameters that influence the performance of joints in fire. Originality/value The results indicate that the models can predict the moment-rotation-temperature behavior of semi-rigid beam-to-column joints with very high accuracy. The developed model can be modified easily to investigate other parameters that influence the performance of joints in fire.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T09:33:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-07-2016-0011
       
  • Some considerations on shear and torsion in R/C structural members in fire
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to provide a factual justification of the extension to fire conditions of the well-known design models for the calculations of R/C members at the ultimate limit state in shear and torsion. Both solid and thin-walled sections are considered. In the latter case, the little-known topic of shear-transfer mechanisms at high temperature is introduced and discussed. Design/methodology/approach Both the effective-section method and the zone method are treated, as well as the strut-and-tie models required by the analysis of the so-called D zones (discontinuity zones), where heat-enhanced cracking further bears out the phenomenological basis of the models. Findings The increasing role played by the stirrups in shear and by the rather cold concrete core in torsion stand out clearly in fire, while high temperatures rapidly reduce the contributions of such resisting mechanisms as concrete-teeth bending, aggregate interlock and dowel action. Originality/value On the whole, beside quantifying the side contributions of web mechanisms and section core in fire conditions, this study indicates a possible approach to extend to fire the available models on the coupling of shear and bending, and shear and torsion in R/C members.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-13T08:46:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0019
       
  • Response of fire exposed composite girders under dominant flexural and
           shear loading
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to present results from numerical studies on the response of fire exposed composite girders subjected to dominant flexural and shear loading. A finite element-based numerical model was developed to trace the thermal and structural response of composite girders subjected to simultaneous structural loading and fire exposure. This model accounts for various critical parameters including material and geometrical nonlinearities, property degradation at elevated temperatures, shear effects, composite interaction between concrete slab and steel girder, as well as temperature-induced local buckling. To generate test data for validation of the model, three composite girders, each comprising of hot-rolled (standard) steel girder underneath a concrete slab, were tested under simultaneous fire and gravity loading. Design/methodology/approach The validated model was then applied to investigate the effect of initial geometric imperfections, load level, thickness of slab and stiffness of shear stud on fire response of composite girders. Findings Results from experimental and numerical analysis indicate that the composite girder subjected to flexural loading experience failure through flexural yielding mode, while the girders under shear loading fail through in shear web buckling mode. Further, results from parametric studies clearly infer that shear limit state can govern the response of fire exposed composite girders under certain loading configuration and fire scenario. Originality/value This paper presents results from numerical studies on the response of fire exposed composite girders subjected to dominant flexural and shear loading.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T08:41:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0022
       
  • Influence of high temperature on the stability performance of high density
           polyethylene and crumb rubber powder modified HMA mixture
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose In high-temperature regions (tropical regions) temperatures rises in summer, which affects the performance of asphalt pavement. Therefore, we must consider the conditions of asphalt pavement, especially in these regions. This study aims to investigate the influence of high temperature on the stability performance of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and crumb rubber powder (CRP) modified hot mix asphalt (HMA) using Marshall design parameters and rutting test. Design/methodology/approach In this study, three HMA mixtures with 4 per cent HDPE and 15 per cent CRP, 5 per cent HDPE and 10 per cent CRP, and 6 per cent HDPE and 5 per cent CRP concentrations were used for the Marshall stability test and dynamic stability (rutting test) at 60-75°C, and water stability test at 60°C. Findings The results showed that when test temperature was increased from 60°C to 75°C, the Marshall stability and dynamic stability of three HDPE- and CRP-modified HMA mixtures decreased, and these three HDPE- and CRP-modified HMA mixtures have a good moisture damage resistance. Of the three HMA mixtures with different HDPE and CRP concentrations, HMA mixtures with 5 per cent HDPE and 10 per cent CRP concentration exhibit optimal Marshall stability, dynamic stability and water stability. Originality/value This study showed the effects of high-temperatures changes on the stability performance of HDPE- and CRP-modified HMA mixtures.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T08:36:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-12-2016-0021
       
  • Advanced analyses of the membrane action of composite slabs under natural
           fire scenarios
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to detail the advanced natural fire simulations that were carried out for the composite steel-reinforced concrete structure of the JTI Building in Geneva, Switzerland. The results of these analyses led to a significant reduction of in the fireproofing of the steel floor framing. Design/methodology/approach Several scenarios were studied considering different thermal behaviours of the peripheral cladding. Despite the small thickness of the resisting slabs, the performed with SAFIR software showed that the typical wide storey bay (12 × 15.86 m) can resist to the design’s fire temperatures without the protection of the main and secondary beams while the spandrels remain protected. For study completeness, the composite frame-membrane model was also simulated with Hasemi-localized fire routines on SAFIR. Findings The analyses have showed that the membrane behaviour of composite slabs under fire allows a significant reduction of the fire protection, even in case of small thickness of the concrete topping. The increase of the reinforcement ratio to sustain the membrane forces is widely compensated by the savings related to the fireproofing of the steel framing. Practical/implications A natural fire approach is particularly advisable in case of fully glazed buildings. In fact when the façade collapses, the entry of a large cold air quantity limits the increase of the gas temperature inside the compartment. Originality/value The analyses were carried out with recent SAFIR routines for localized fires (Hasemi fire model) and represent one of the first applications in practice. The issue of the rebar orientation in mesh is raised out. The latest SAFIR release allows the definition of a global orientation of the rebars and amends the issue.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T08:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-12-2016-0020
       
  • Simulation of charring depth of timber structures when exposed to
           non-standard fire curves
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The fire resistance of wooden structures is commonly based on the calculation or measurement of the char layer. Designers usually estimate the char layer at the surface of a structural element by using analytical models. Some of these charring models can be found in regulations, as Eurocode 5. These analytical models, quite simple to use, are only reliable for the standard fire curve. In that case, the design of the structure is qualified as “prescriptive-based design” and can lead to oversizing the structure. Optimization of a structure can be achieved by using a “Performance-based design”, where realistic fire scenarios are taken into account by means of more or less complex models [parametric fires, two-zones models, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)]. For these so-called “natural fires”, no model for charring is available. The purpose of this paper is to present a novel methodology for applying a performance-based design to a simple timber structure. Design/methodology/approach This paper presents the development of a numerical model aiming to simulate the thermal transfer and charring in wood, under any type of thermal exposure, including non-standard fire curves. After presenting the physical background, the model is calibrated and compared to existing experimental studies on wood samples exposed to different fire curves. The model is then used as a tool for assessing the fire resistance of a common wooden structure exposed to standard and non-standard fire curves. Findings The results show that the fire resistance is obviously dependent on the choice of the thermal exposure. The reliability of the model is also discussed and the importance of taking into account particular reactions in wood during heating is underlined. Originality/value One aim of this paper is to show the opportunity to apply a performance-based approach when designing a wooden structure. It shows that more knowledge of the material behaviour under non-standard fires is still needed, especially during the decay phase.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T08:26:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0011
       
  • Fire resistance of DELTABEAM® composite beams: a numerical
           investigation
    • First page: 338
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The DELTA® beam composite floor system is a recently developed shallow floor type that has seen many applications in contemporary construction. It involves partially encasing DELTA® steel beams in concrete, with the lower flange remaining exposed. Besides the satisfactory behavior of the system at ambient conditions, understanding its response under elevated temperatures is critical in evaluating its overall performance. Despite certification from the manufacturing company that the system has adequate fire resistance, its behavior under fire conditions has neither been investigated to depth nor reported in detail. The purpose of this paper is the detailed numerical investigation of their behavior in fire. For this reason, the finite element method was implemented in this paper to simulate the response of such beams subjected to fire. Material properties were modeled according to the Eurocodes. The coupled thermal-structural parametric analyses involved four different variations of the “shortest” and “deepest” cross-section (eight case studies in total) specified by the manufacturing company. Other simulations of these cross-sections, in which either the thermal expansion or the structural load were not taken into account, were carried out for comparison purposes. Design/methodology/approach The methodology for simulating such systems, which has been successfully implemented and validated against fire test results elsewhere (Maraveas et al., 2012) was also followed here. To investigate the statement made by Maraveas et al. () and the equations proposed by Zaharia and Franssen () that the insulation is not so effective for “short” cross-sections, two beams, one with a D20-200 (Deltabeam Technical Manual, ) cross-section (shallowest section) and one with a D50-600 (Deltabeam Technical Manual, ) cross-section (deepest section), were simulated in this paper for comparison purposes. Additionally, reasonable assumptions were made for the cross-sectional dimensions not specified by the manufacturer (Deltabeam Technical Manual, ) and parametric analyses were carried out to investigate their effect on the structural response of the system. Findings Composite DELTA® beams can achieve fire resistances ranging from 120 to 180 min, depending on the depth and geometry of their cross-section, with deeper sections displaying a better fire response. The intense thermal bowing that occurs when these beams are heated from below has a more pronounced effect, in terms of thermally induced deflections for deeper sections. The satisfactory fire resistance of these beams is achieved due to the action of the concrete encased web and the reinforcement which compensate for the loss of the exposed lower flange. Increasing the thickness of the web in deeper sections improves their fire rating up to 180 min. The thickness of the lower flange affects the fire rating of the beams only in a minor way. Practical/implications The paper describes a numerical methodology to estimate the fire resistance of complex flooring systems.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T09:07:48Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-05-2016-0003
       
  • Investigating the fire performance of LSF wall systems using finite
           element analyses
    • First page: 354
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This research was aimed at investigating the fire performance of LSF wall systems by using 3-D heat transfer FE models of existing LSF wall system configurations. Design/methodology/approach This research was focused on investigating the fire performance of LSF wall systems by using 3-D heat transfer finite element models of existing LSF wall system configurations. The analysis results were validated by using the available fire test results of five different LSF wall configurations. Findings The validated finite element models were used to conduct a parametric study on a range of non-load bearing and load bearing LSF wall configurations to predict their fire resistance levels (FRLs) for varying load ratios. Originality/value Fire performance of LSF wall systems with different configurations can be understood by performing full-scale fire tests. However, these full-scale fire tests are time consuming, labour intensive and expensive. On the other hand, finite element analysis (FEA) provides a simple method of investigating the fire performance of LSF wall systems to understand their thermal-mechanical behaviour. Recent numerical research studies have focused on investigating the fire performances of LSF wall systems by using finite element (FE) models. Most of these FE models were developed based on 2-D FE platform capable of performing either heat transfer or structural analysis separately. Therefore, this paper presents the details of a 3-D FEA methodology to develop the capabilities to perform fully-coupled thermal-mechanical analyses of LSF walls exposed to fire in future.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T07:29:05Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-04-2016-0002
       
  • Behavior of ASTM A325 bolts under simulated fire conditions: experimental
           investigation
    • First page: 377
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Heavy hex structural bolts have been used in a wide range of steel structures for many years. However, these structures remain susceptible to fire damage. Conducting fire experiments on full-scale steel structures is costly and requires specialized equipment. The main purpose of this research is to test, analyze and predict the behavior of ASTM A325 bolts under tension loading in simulated fire conditions and develop a reliable finite element model that can predict the response of similar bolts without the need for repeated testing. Design/methodology/approach The experimental work was conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where an electric furnace was custom-built to test a bolted specimen in tension under elevated temperatures. A transient-state testing method was adopted to perform a group of tests on 12.7 mm (½”) – diameter A325 bolts. The tests were divided into two groups: the first one was used to calibrate the equipment and choose a final testing arrangement and the second group, consisting of four identical tests, was used to validate a finite element model. Findings The temperature-displacement and load-displacement response was recorded. The tested bolts exhibited a ductile fracture in which a cup-and-cone shaped failure surface was formed in the threaded section at the root of the nut. ASTM A325 bolts are widely used by engineers in building and bridge construction, the results of this research enable engineers to determine the behavior and strength of ASTM A325 bolts when such bolts when exposed to fire event. Research limitations/implications Structural bolts are used to connect structural members, and they are part of structural assembly. To study the behavior of the bolts, the bolts only were investigated in a fire simulated in a furnace. The bolts studied were not part of a structural assembly. Practical implications The results of this study enable engineers to evaluate the condition of ASTM A325 bolts when subjected to fire loading. Originality value Tests were conducted at the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee's structures laboratory to study the effect of fire on an ASTM A325 bolts. Many tests under fire loading have been performed by researchers on different components of steel structures, this study focuses on studying the behavior of ASTM A325 bolts which are widely used in the USA.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T12:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2016-0005
       
  • The ability of high performance concrete to resist high temperature
    • First page: 392
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to focus on the resistance to elevated temperatures of up to 700ºC of high-performance concrete (HPC) compared to ordinary Portland concrete (OPC) with regards to mass loss and residual compressive and flexural strength. Design/methodology/approach Two mixtures were developed to test. The first mixture, OPC, was used as the control, and the second mixture was HPC. After 28 days under water (per Chinese standard), the samples were tested for compressive strength and residual strength. Findings The test results showed that at elevated temperatures of up to 500ºC, each mixture experienced mass loss. Below this temperature, the strength and the mass loss did not differ greatly. Originality/value When adding a 10 per cent silica fume, 25 per cent fly, 25 per cent slag to HPC, the compressive strength increased by 17 per cent and enhanced the residual compressive strength. A sharp decrease was observed in the residual flexural strength of HPC when compared to OPC after exposure to temperatures of 700ºC.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T12:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2016-0008
       
  • Thermal behaviour of unstressed and stressed high strength concrete
           containing polypropylene fibers at elevated temperature
    • First page: 402
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate high strength concrete (HSC) containing polypropylene fibers (PP-fibers) at high temperature under a compressive load. Design/methodology/approach The use of PP fibers in HSC is known to reduce and at times eliminate the risk of spalling. HSC containing 0, 1 and 2 kg/m3 of PP-fibers were subjected to various temperatures from 20°C to 150°C, 300°C and 450°C and evaluated in a “hot condition”. One group of specimens was in a non-stressed condition during heating (unstressed hot), while a second group was subjected to an initial preload of 40 per cent of the room temperature compressive strength during the heating (stressed hot). Findings Results showed that stressed concrete containing PP-fibers had lower thermal gradients (the temperature difference between the surface and center temperatures as a function of radial distance) and a decrease in relative porosity. However, the compressive strength of stressed specimens was improved with or without fibers as compared to that of the unstressed HSC. The increased stress levels due to concrete expansion at elevated temperature were also reported. The PP-fibers did not have a significant effect on the compressive strength of stressed concrete as compared to the unstressed state. Originality/value This paper reports the compressive strength of PP-fibers in HSC at elevated temperature with and without a pre-load.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T08:28:36Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-07-2016-0014
       
  • Mechanical properties of low-strength concrete at exposure to elevated
           temperatures
    • First page: 418
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to present the results of testing of low-strength concrete specimens exposed to elevated temperatures. These data are limited in the existing literature and do not exist in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach An experimental testing programme has been employed. Cylindrical specimens of 100 × 200 mm were used in the testing programme. These were heated at temperatures which were varied from 100°C to 900°C in increment of 100°C. Similar specimens were tested at ambient temperature as control specimens. The compressive and tensile properties of heat treated specimens were determined. Findings The colour of concrete started to change at 300°C and hairline cracks appeared at 400°C. Explosive spalling was observed in few specimens in the temperature range of 400°C-650°C which could be attributed to the pore pressure generated by steam. Significant loss of concrete compressive strength occurred on heating temperatures larger than 600°C, and the residual compressive strength was found to be 15 per cent at 900°C. Residual tensile strength of concrete became less than 10 per cent at 900°C. The loss of concrete stiffness reached 85 per cent at 600°C. Residual Poisson’s ratio of concrete increased at high temperatures and became nearly six times larger at 900°C as compared to that at ambient temperature. Research limitations/implications The parameters of the study included heating temperature and effects of temperature on strength and stiffness properties of the concrete specimens. Practical implications Building fire incidents have increased in Pakistan. As a large number of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings exist in the country, the data related to elevated temperature properties of concrete are required. These data are not available in Pakistan presently. The study aims at providing this information for the design engineers to enable them to assess and increase fire resistance of RC structural members. Originality/value The presented study is unique in its nature in that there is no published contribution to date, to the best of authors’ knowledge, which has been carried out to assess the temperature-dependent mechanical properties of concrete in Pakistan.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T01:14:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-11-2016-0017
       
 
 
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