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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2431 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (210 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (203 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (112 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1271 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (402 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (57 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (77 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (203 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 203 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Agregat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 282)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indonesian Journal of Urban and Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Research in Water and Wastewater     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 78)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access  
Journal of Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Water and Wastewater / Ab va Fazilab     Open Access  
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Promet : Traffic &Transportation     Open Access  
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teknik     Open Access  
Territorium : Revista Portuguesa de riscos, prevenção e segurança     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.446
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2040-2317 - ISSN (Online) 2040-2317
Published by Emerald Homepage  [341 journals]
  • Linear and non-linear analysis on two-dimensional steel frame under
           different temperatures
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Progressive collapse because of high temperatures arising from an explosion, vehicle impact or fire is an important issue for structural failure in high-rise buildings. Design/methodology/approach The present study, using ABAQUS software for the analysis, investigated the progressive collapse of a two-dimensional, three-bay, four-storey steel frame structure from high-temperature stresses. Findings After structure reaches the temperature results like displacement, stress axial load and shear force are discussed. Research limitations/implications Different temperatures were applied to the columns at different heights of a structure framed with various materials. Progressive collapse load combinations were also applied as per general service administration guidelines. Originality/value This study covered both steady-state and transient-state conditions of a multistorey-frame building subjected to a rise in temperature in the corner columns and intermediate columns. The columns in the framed structure were subjected to high temperatures at different heights, and the resulting displacements, stresses and axial loads were obtained, analysed and discussed.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-06-22T08:02:48Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-12-2017-0047
       
  • Deflection behavior and load-bearing period of structural glued laminated
           timber beams in fire including cooling phase
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to discuss the fire performance of glulam timber beams based on their deflection behavior and load-bearing period, which were obtained from load-bearing fire tests under constant load conditions. Design/methodology/approach In this report, the fire performance, primarily deflection behavior and load-bearing period of glued laminated (glulam) timber beams will be discussed from the standpoint of load-bearing fire tests conducted during the cooling phase under constant load conditions. Then, based on the charring depth and the per section temperature transformation obtained from loading test results, the load-bearing capacity of the glulam timber beams will be discussed using the effective section method and the strength reduction factor, which will be calculated in accordance with the European standards for the design of timber structures (Eurocode 5). Findings In the cooling phase, the charring rate is decreases. However, as the temperature in the cross section rises, the deflection is increases. The failure mode was bending failure because of tensile failure of the lamina at the bottom of the beam. Moreover, a gap caused by shear failure in a growth ring in the beam cross-section in the vicinity of the centroid axis was observed. Shear failure was observed up until 1 to 3 h before end of heating. The calculated shear strength far exceeded the test results. Shear strength for elevated temperature of glued laminated timber is likely to decrease than the shear strength in Eurocode 5. Originality/value Unlike other elements, a characteristic problem of timber elements is that their load-bearing capacity decreases as they are consumed in a fire, and their bearing capacities may continue to degrade even after the fuel in the room has been exhausted. Therefore, the structural fire performance of timber elements should be clarified during not only the heating phase but also the subsequent cooling phase. However, there are few reports on the load-bearing capacity of timber elements that take the cooling phase after a fire into consideration.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-04-18T10:14:27Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0009
       
  • Fire resistance of concrete walls with light aggregate
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the design methods for fire-exposed concrete columns and walls. In addition, it presents analyses and tests showing that the methods are applicable for designing columns and walls of lightweight aggregate concrete based on expanded clay aggregate as well as heavy normal weight concrete and that the methods fit smoothly with cold design, when the fire exposure varies towards no fire. Design/methodology/approach During the 1990s, some of these design methods were included in the Eurocode as “the zone method”. They are still a part of the code. The rest of the methods, which were not included, served in practice, teaching and research. The present paper derives calculation methods proving their connection with common design for load cases without fire exposure. Furthermore, the paper presents full-scale tests proving the validation of the design methods for structural members of light aggregate concrete in addition to the full-scale tests of heavy concrete members. Findings The design methods give correct estimates of the load-bearing capacity of eccentric loaded concrete columns. An extended version of the methods estimates load-bearing capacity for walls with fire exposure on one side with sufficient accuracy for the purpose of design. Originality/value The author developed the main parts of the design methods in the 1980s and 1990s and others have from time to time referred to some parts of them mainly the minor parts published in the Eurocodes. However, owing to work overload, the author has not published the derivation and verification of them before. This paper provides in particular a verification against full-scale tests of light-aggregate concrete walls not published before.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-04-17T12:03:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-11-2017-0043
       
  • Parametric study on load ratio effect on the flexural bending behaviour of
           axially-restrained HSS steel beams subjected to fire
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose In fire condition, the limiting temperature of a restrained steel beam depends on a few parameters, e.g. temperature distributions along and across the beam, beam’s load ratio and span length. The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural fire behaviour of axially restrained steel beams under different beam’s load ratios, taking into consideration the effect of the beam’s end connections configuration. Design/methodology/approach A three-dimensional finite element (FE) computer model has been developed to simulate the structural fire behaviour of axially restrained steel beams and their end connections. After successfully validating the developed model against the outcomes of the available large-size fire resistance experiments, the FE model has been used in a parametric study to investigate the beam’s load ratio effect on the behaviour of the axially restrained steel beams and their end connections. Findings The parametric study showed that increasing the beam loading level significantly increased the beam deflections at elevated temperatures; where, increasing the beam’s load ratio from 0.5 to 0.9 reduced the beam fire resistance by about 100 s. In contrast, decreasing the beam’s load ratio from 0.5 to 0.3 allowed the beam to easily achieve a 30-min fire resistance rating with no fire protection applied. Originality/value Experimental parametric studies are difficult to control in a laboratory setting and are also expensive and time consuming. Therefore, the reasonable accuracy of the validated FE model in reproducing the experimental fire behaviour of steel beams and their end connections makes it a very useful tool for both numerical and analytical studies.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-03-29T12:28:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-10-2017-0042
       
  • Numerical analysis on circular concrete-filled tubular columns subjected
           to fire
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Nowadays, circular concrete-filled tubular (CFT) columns are largely used in construction because of structural and architectural advantages such as high load bearing capacity and aesthetic appearance. The behavior of CFT columns at ambient and high temperatures is good; however, there are problems related to their behavior in fire when inserted in a real building structure, as for example, the influence of the restraining to thermal elongation that have to be addressed in order to improve their design. This study aims to present the results of a numerical study on the behavior of CFT columns with restrained thermal elongation in case of fire. Design/methodology/approach The parameters tested in the numerical simulations included column slenderness, load level, surrounding structure stiffness and steel reinforcement ratio. A sequentially coupled thermal stress analysis was carried out. The numerical model was validated with results from a large series of fire resistance tests carried out at Coimbra University, in Portugal. From these, simple equations to evaluate CFT column critical times were derived. Findings The results were also compared with the ones obtained from the current EN 1994-1-2:2005 simplified calculation and tabulated data methods. For the analyzed cases, it was verified that, while the simplified calculation method led to safe results on the evaluation of the fire resistance of CFT columns with restrained thermal elongation, the tabulated data method led, in certain cases, to unsafe results. This research showed also lower critical times than those from literature on similar type of columns. Originality/value The influence of the stiffness of the surrounding structure on the behavior of CFT columns subjected to fire was not yet clear in the major part of the studies already carried out. So, this paper has the originality to consider this parameter in the numerical simulations of this type of columns.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-03-26T01:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2017-0036
       
  • Hybrid fire testing
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for hybrid fire testing (HFT) which is unconditionally stable, ensures equilibrium and compatibility at the interface and captures the global behavior of the analyzed structure. HFT is a technique that allows assessing experimentally the fire performance of a structural element under real boundary conditions that capture the effect of the surrounding structure. Design/methodology/approach The paper starts with the analysis of the method used in the few previous HFT. Based on the analytical study of a simple one degree-of-freedom elastic system, it is shown that this previous method is fundamentally unstable in certain configurations that cannot be easily predicted in advance. Therefore, a new method is introduced to overcome the stability problem. The method is applied in a virtual hybrid test on a 2D reinforced concrete beam part of a moment-resisting frame. Findings It is shown through analytical developments and applicative examples that the stability of the method used in previous HFT depends on the stiffness ratio between the two substructures. The method is unstable when implemented in force control on a physical substructure that is less stiff than the surrounding structure. Conversely, the method is unstable when implemented in displacement control on a physical substructure stiffer than the remainder. In multi-degrees-of-freedom tests where the temperature will affect the stiffness of the elements, it is generally not possible to ensure continuous stability throughout the test using this former method. Therefore, a new method is proposed where the stability is not dependent on the stiffness ratio between the two substructures. Application of the new method in a virtual HFT proved to be stable, to ensure compatibility and equilibrium at the interface and to reproduce accurately the global structural behavior. Originality/value The paper provides a method to perform hybrid fire tests which overcomes the stability problem lying in the former method. The efficiency of the new method is demonstrated in a virtual HFT with three degrees-of-freedom at the interface, the next step being its implementation in a real (laboratory) hybrid test.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-01-12T09:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0017
       
  • On the fire performance of unbraced composite frames
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the structural behaviour of fire-exposed unbraced composite frames. Designers to date paid little attention to unbraced one-bay composite frames as structural system. There are two main reasons for this. First, codes lack simplified methods for the fire design of these frames due to their sway and the linked P-Δ effects when subjected to fire, which complicates the design. Second, it is demanding to construct external composite joints for the regarded one-bay frames. Thus, external joints in composite constructions are mostly constructed as steel joints. Nevertheless, these frames offer advantages. These include increased usable space and flexibility in the building’s use, large spans, fast construction times and inherent fire resistance. Design/methodology/approach To profit from these benefits, two different external semi-rigid composite joint were developed for the considered one-bay composite frames. The first solution based on concrete-filled steel tube columns and the second on concrete-filled double skin tube columns. Furthermore, a numerical model was established to study the fire performance of unbraced composite frames. The model was validated against four fire tests on isolated composite joints and two large-scale fire tests on unbraced composite frames. Findings Overall, the predictions of the numerical model were in good agreement with the test results. Thus, the numerical model is appropriate for further investigations on the fire performance of unbraced composite frames. Originality/value The sequence of construction results in significant stresses in the steel section, which creates difficulties in numerical modelling and may account for the relatively few studies carried out at room temperature. For the fire design, there was, to the best knowledge of the author, to date no numerical model available that was capable of considering the sequence of construction.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:24:19Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-03-2017-0030
       
  • Practical method to predict the axial capacity of RC columns exposed to
           standard fire
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Existing analytical methods for the evaluation of fire safety of reinforced concrete (RC) structures require extensive knowledge of heat transfer calculations and the finite element method. This paper aims to propose a rational method to predict the axial capacity of RC columns exposed to standard fire. Design/methodology/approach The average temperature distribution along the section height is first predicted for a specific fire scenario. The corresponding distribution of the reduced concrete strength is then integrated to develop expressions to calculate the axial capacity of RC columns exposed to fire from four faces. Findings These expressions provide structural engineers with a rational tool to satisfy the objective-based design clauses specified in the National Code of Canada in lieu of the traditional prescriptive methods. Research limitations/implications The research is limited to standard fire curves and needs to be extended to cover natural fire curves. Originality/value This paper is the first to propose an accurate yet simple method to calculate the axial capacity of columns exposed to standard fire curves. The method can be applied using a simple Excel sheet. It can be further developed to apply to natural fire curves.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T09:37:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-08-2016-0015
       
  • Some considerations on shear and torsion in R/C structural members in fire
    • Pages: 94 - 107
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 94-107, June 2018.
      Purpose This study aims to provide a factual justification of the extension to fire conditions of the well-known design models for the calculations of R/C members at the ultimate limit state in shear and torsion. Both solid and thin-walled sections are considered. In the latter case, the little-known topic of shear-transfer mechanisms at high temperature is introduced and discussed. Design/methodology/approach Both the effective-section method and the zone method are treated, as well as the strut-and-tie models required by the analysis of the so-called D zones (discontinuity zones), where heat-enhanced cracking further bears out the phenomenological basis of the models. Findings The increasing role played by the stirrups in shear and by the rather cold concrete core in torsion stand out clearly in fire, while high temperatures rapidly reduce the contributions of such resisting mechanisms as concrete-teeth bending, aggregate interlock and dowel action. Originality/value On the whole, beside quantifying the side contributions of web mechanisms and section core in fire conditions, this study indicates a possible approach to extend to fire the available models on the coupling of shear and bending, and shear and torsion in R/C members.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-13T08:46:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0019
       
  • Response of fire exposed composite girders under dominant flexural and
           shear loading
    • Pages: 108 - 125
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 108-125, June 2018.
      Purpose This paper aims to present results from numerical studies on the response of fire exposed composite girders subjected to dominant flexural and shear loading. A finite element-based numerical model was developed to trace the thermal and structural response of composite girders subjected to simultaneous structural loading and fire exposure. This model accounts for various critical parameters including material and geometrical nonlinearities, property degradation at elevated temperatures, shear effects, composite interaction between concrete slab and steel girder, as well as temperature-induced local buckling. To generate test data for validation of the model, three composite girders, each comprising of hot-rolled (standard) steel girder underneath a concrete slab, were tested under simultaneous fire and gravity loading. Design/methodology/approach The validated model was then applied to investigate the effect of initial geometric imperfections, load level, thickness of slab and stiffness of shear stud on fire response of composite girders. Findings Results from experimental and numerical analysis indicate that the composite girder subjected to flexural loading experience failure through flexural yielding mode, while the girders under shear loading fail through in shear web buckling mode. Further, results from parametric studies clearly infer that shear limit state can govern the response of fire exposed composite girders under certain loading configuration and fire scenario. Originality/value This paper presents results from numerical studies on the response of fire exposed composite girders subjected to dominant flexural and shear loading.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T08:41:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0022
       
  • Development of wood structural elements for fire resistant buildings
    • Pages: 126 - 137
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 126-137, June 2018.
      Purpose As forestry contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gases by CO2 fixation, in recent years, use of wood in buildings has attracted all over the world more attention. However, construction of large wood structures is almost inexistent within urban areas in Japan. This is due to the Japanese law on fire protection of wood buildings in cities, which is considered very strict with severe requirements. This paper aims to present a research work relative to the development of one-hour fire-resistant wood structural elements for buildings in cities. The developed elements are composed of three layers made of laminated timber. Design/methodology/approach These wood structural elements, made of glued laminated timber with self-charring-stop, have sufficient fire resistance during and after a fire and comply with the strict Japanese standard for wood structural elements, which stipulates that such elements have to withstand the whole dead-load of concerned buildings after fire. To comply with such requirements, new elements of glued laminated timber with self-charring-stop layer were developed, and their performance was confirmed. Several fire-resistant tests conducted on columns, beams, column-beam joints, connections between beams and walls and beams with holes were carried out. Findings All tests proved that the elements have sufficient fire resistance. No damage was found out at the load-bearing part of the elements after testing. As the developed elements have two layers protecting the load-bearing part, the temperature in the load-bearing part could be retained below 260°C (carbonization temperature) and provide the elements with a sufficient fire resistance for 1 h. Practical implications These wood structural elements have already been applied in six projects, where large-size wooden buildings were constructed in urban areas in Japan. Originality/value The proposed structural elements use a novel technique. Every wooden element is composed of three layers made of glued laminated timber. The elements have a typical performance of self-charring-stop after fire without need for water of firefighters. More technologies related to these elements, including column-beam joints and beams with holes and effect of crack, were also developed to design and construct safe wooden buildings.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T12:11:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-11-2016-0019
       
  • Behavior of structural tunnel elements exposed to fire and mechanical
           loading
    • Pages: 138 - 146
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 138-146, June 2018.
      Purpose Incidents like the fire in the Channel Tunnel, where severe concrete spalling was determined, have led to requirements in limiting the spalling depth and involved zone to local and compatible magnitudes. Because the prevention of critical concrete spalling was also significant for the validity of the load-carrying capacity calculation for an existing railway tunnel, this paper aimed to investigate the spalling behavior of two contemplable concrete mixtures. The large-scale tests should show the load-carrying capacity over the whole duration of the fire exposure respecting all thermal and mechanical loads considered in the calculations. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the fire behavior of two concrete mixtures for an existing railway tunnel are investigated. Small-scale tests prior to the main tests were conducted to identify an appropriate concrete mixture for the large-scale tests. During the large-scale tests, a tunnel segment is loaded with horizontal and vertical loads derived from a calculation taking into account the existing boundary conditions. Resulting restraint forces were calculated using the soil stiffness and tunnel fire design curve as fire scenario and applied via hydraulic jacks. To avoid additional restraint forces during the experiment, thermal strains due to fire exposure were allowed. Findings The results of the small-scale tests did not allow for a clear statement whether one concrete mixture would perform better regarding the spalling behavior. The two large-scale tests showed different results regarding the spalling behavior. Over the whole duration of fire exposure, the first test specimen remains nearly undamaged. During the test of the second specimen, spalling started about 3 min after burner activation. Because of the results, a suggestion for the concrete mixture of the first test was made, and this mixture was then used for the redevelopment of the existing railway tunnel. Originality/value The test setup was capable of incorporating all relevant boundary conditions for the analysis of an existing railway tunnel as part of an important north – south connection. The results have shown that a fire-proof construction is possible by adding polypropylene fibers to the concrete mixture. Additionally, it was possible to avoid the mounting of expensive and time-consuming fire protection measures like the installation of thermal insulation boards.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T08:03:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0020
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigations of the composite behaviour in
           concrete-filled tubular columns with massive steel core at high
           temperatures
    • Pages: 147 - 160
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 147-160, June 2018.
      Purpose This paper deals with experimental and numerical investigations of the composite behaviour within concrete-filled tubular columns with embedded massive steel core (CFTES columns). As the inner profile provides the main load-bearing capacity, the load introduction and transfer is of particular interest for the structural detailing of CFTES columns. Currently, no specific design regulations are available – neither for room temperature nor fire design. The presented investigations provide a basis for design recommendations and numerical approaches on reliable shear stresses. Design/methodology/approach Three series of push-out tests at room temperature and high temperatures are analysed in terms of ultimate shear strength, bond strength and shear strength-displacement-curve shape. The test parameters involve the steel core diameter and concrete cover, applying normal strength steel and concrete. Furthermore, a three-dimensional finite element model of the push-out tests is set up in Abaqus. The model implies temperature-dependent contact properties derived from the experimental tests using the cohesive behaviour method. Findings The test data reveal a distinctive reduction in both ultimate shear and bond strength for high temperatures. For high temperatures, the thermal expansion coefficients dominate the composite behaviour. Using the 3D numerical model and applying a temperature-dependent joint stiffness, maximum shear stress criterion and damage evolution, the observed composite behaviour can be described in a realistic manner. Originality/value The presented experimental investigations are unique, both concerning the investigated column type and performing push-out tests at high temperatures. For the first time, a temperature-dependent reduction of capable shear stresses is identified, which is crucial for the design of structural components.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T01:11:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0010
       
  • Effect of different additives on high temperatures of concrete
    • Pages: 161 - 170
      Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 161-170, June 2018.
      Purpose This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of different additives (individual effects) in improving the strength of concrete to resist temperatures of up to 60ºC. Design/methodology/approach In all, 13 different mixtures with a constant water/binder ratio of 0.36 and grade M40 were prepared by using ordinary Portland concrete alone, or with partial replacement by fly ash (FA), blast-furnace slag, silica fume (SF) and a combination of all three. After 7 and 28 days under water, their strength and residual strength were measured. Findings The results of testing revealed that the addition of 10 per cent SF was found to result in the greatest increase in compressive strength and flexural strength along with decreased the residual strengths. The addition of FA increased the compressive strength and enhanced the residual compressive strength. However, it also decreased the residual flexural strength. Originality/value The addition of slag achieved better flexural strength and the best residual compressive strength. The combination of additives also enhanced the compressive strength but was not found to be better than using SF alone.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T12:16:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0021
       
  • Design criteria for insulation materials applied in timber frame
           assemblies
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Insulation materials’ contribution to the fire resistance of timber frame assemblies may vary considerably. At present, Eurocode 5 provides a model for fire design of the load-bearing function of timber frame assemblies with cavities completely filled with stone wool. Very little is known about the fire protection provided by other insulation materials. An improved design model which has the potential to consider the contribution of any insulation material has been introduced by the authors. This paper aims to analyze the parameters that describe in a universal way the protection against the charring given by different insulations not included in Eurocode 5. Design/methodology/approach A series of model-scale furnace tests of floor specimens for three different insulation materials were carried out. An analysis on the charring depth of the residual cross-sections was conducted by means of a resistograph device. Findings The study explains the criteria and procedure followed to derive the coefficients for the improved design model for three insulations involved in the study. Originality/value This research study involves a large experimental work which forms the basis of the proposed design model. This study presents an important step for fire resistance calculations of timber frame assemblies.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T02:29:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0015
       
  • High temperature mechanical properties of steel bars available in Pakistan
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the results of experimental testing of steel rebars at elevated temperatures. Three types of bars available in the local market in Pakistan were used. These data are not available in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach Three types of bars were used, which included cold-twisted ribbed (CTR), hot-rolled deformed (HRD) and thermo-mechanically treated (TMT) bars. The diameter of the bar of each type was 16 mm. The bars were heated in an electrical furnace at temperatures which were varied from 100°C to 900°C in increment of 100°C. Bars of each type were also tested at ambient temperature as control specimens. The change of strength, strain and modulus of elasticity of the bars at high temperatures were determined. Findings The mechanical properties of the bars were nearly unaffected by the temperatures up to 200°C. CTR bars did not show yield plateau and strain hardening both at ambient and high temperatures. The high temperature yield strength and elastic modulus for all the three types of bars were similar at all temperatures. The yield plateau of both the HRD and TMT bars disappeared at temperatures greater than 300°C. The ultimate strength at high temperature of the HRD and TMT bars was also similar. The behaviours of the HRD and TMT bars changed to brittle beyond 400°C as compared to their behaviours at ambient temperature. The CTR bars exhibited ductile characteristics at failure at all the exposure temperatures relative to their behaviour at ambient temperature. Research limitations/implications The parameters of the paper included the rebar type and heating temperature and the effects of temperature on strength and stiffness properties of the steel bars. Practical implications Building fire incidents have increased in Pakistan. As reinforced concrete (RC) buildings exist in the country in significant numbers, the data related to elevated temperature properties of steel is required. These data are not available in Pakistan presently. The presented paper aims at providing this information for the design engineers to enable them to assess and increase fire resistance of RC structural members. Originality/value The presented paper is unique in its nature in that there is no published contribution to date, to the best of authors’ knowledge, which has been carried out to assess the temperature-dependent mechanical properties of steel reinforcing bars available in Pakistan.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T01:38:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-06-2017-0035
       
  • Cold-formed steel columns at both ambient and fire conditions
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The use of cold-formed steel members has increased significantly in the past few years; however, its design is only briefly addressed in the current design codes, such as the EN 1993-1-3. To evaluate the compressive behavior of single and built-up cold-formed steel members, at ambient and simulated fire conditions with restrained thermal elongation, experimental and numerical tests were undertaken. Design/methodology/approach Four cross-section shapes were tested, namely, one single (lipped channel), one open built-up (I) and two closed built-up (R and 2R), considering two end support conditions, pinned and fixed. Two test set-ups were specifically developed for these tests. Based on the experimental results finite element models were developed and calibrated to allow future parametric studies. Findings This paper showed that increasing the level of restraint to thermal elongation and the initially applied load led to lower critical temperatures. Increasing the level of restraint to thermal elongation, the failure is governed by the generated axial restraining forces, whereas for lower levels of restraint to thermal elongation, the failure is controlled by the temperature increasing. Originality/value This paper is a contribution to the knowledge on the behavior of cold-formed steel columns subjected to fire, especially on the ones with a built-up cross-section, where results on thermal restrained ones are still scarce. It presented a set of experimental and numerical results useful for the development of numerical and analytical analysis concerning the development of new simplified calculation methods.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T01:25:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0018
       
  • Experimental study of two-way post-tensioned flat slabs in fire
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A study on the structural behaviour of the two-way post-tensioned flat slabs in fire shows that different degrees of concrete spalling observed at the soffit have significant effects on the temperature distribution and stress redistribution. Purpose This study aims to investigate the influence of tendon layout, pre-stressing force, bond condition and concrete spalling on the structural behaviour of two-way post-tensioned flat slabs at elevated temperatures. Design/methodology/approach Fire tests of four scale specimens of two-way post-tensioned concrete flat slabs were performed and analysed. Three of them were provided with bonded tendons, while the other was unbonded for comparison. The fabrication of specimens, phenomena observed during testing, temperature distributions, deflections and occurrence of concrete spalling were examined. Findings Different degrees of concrete spalling observed at the soffit had significant effects on the temperature distribution and stress redistribution. This was the major reason for the progressive concrete spalling observed, resulting in loss of structural integrity and stiffness. Originality/value The structural behaviour of two-way post-tensioned concrete flat slabs at elevated temperatures is less understood compared to their one-way counterparts. Therefore, the present study has focused on the structural behaviour of two-way post-tensioned concrete flat slabs with bonded tendons in fire, a field in which relatively little information on experimental work can be found.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:39:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0016
       
  • Timber under real fire conditions – the influence of oxygen content and
           gas velocity on the charring behavior
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An investigation of the influencing factors of timber under real fire conditions on the charring behaviour shows that the char contraction is observed affecting the protective function of the char layer, at higher oxygen flow. Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the influencing factors on the charring behaviour of timber, the char layer and the charring depth in non-standard fires. Design/methodology/approach This paper summarizes outcomes of tests, investigating the influences on the charring behavior of timber by varying the oxygen content and the gas velocity in the compartment. Results show that charring is depending on the fire compartment temperature, but results show further that at higher oxygen flow, char contraction was observed affecting the protective function of the char layer. Findings In particular, in the cooling phase, char contraction should be considered which may have a significant impact on performance-based design using non-standard temperature fire curves where the complete fire history including the cooling phase has to be taken into account. Originality/value Up to now, some research on non-standard fire exposed timber member has been performed, mainly based on standard fire resistance tests where boundary conditions as gas flow and oxygen content especially in the decay phase are not measured or documented. The approach presented in this paper is the first documented fire tests with timber documenting the data required.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:17:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0013
       
  • Performance comparison of fiber sheet strengthened RC beams bonded with
           geopolymer and epoxy resin under ambient and fire conditions
    • Abstract: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents performance comparison of fiber sheet-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beams bonded with geopolymer and epoxy resin under ambient and fire conditions showing that the carbon fiber reinforced geopolymer system provides strengthening effectiveness on RC beams at ambient temperature. Purpose This paper aims to present performance comparison of fiber sheet-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beams bonded with geopolymer and epoxy resin under ambient and fire conditions. Design/methodology/approach This study presents experimental results of bending tests at ambient temperature and fire resistance tests on two control beams and eight fiber sheet-strengthened RC beams. The test variables include fiber sheet type (carbon fiber [CF] and basalt fiber [BF] sheet), number of layers of fiber sheet (one and two layers) and adhesive agent type (geopolymers and epoxy resin). Data generated from these tests were used to evaluate and compare the strengthening effectiveness of CF-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and CF-reinforced geopolymer (CFRG) at ambient temperature and under fire exposure conditions. Findings Test results clearly show that the CFRG system can provide good strengthening effectiveness on RC beams at ambient temperature, as the CFRP system, owing to excellent bond properties of geopolymers. Although geopolymers possess better bonding properties at high temperature than organic matrix, the strengthened beams bonded with geopolymer do not exhibit better fire resistance than that those bonded with epoxy resin, owing to early falling-off of fire insulation. Thus, in CFRG-strengthened beams, relevant measures are to be taken to minimize falling-off of fire insulation to achieve good fire resistance. Originality/value The presented results are from unique fire tests and provide valuable insight (and information) on the performance of fiber sheet-strengthened RC beams bonded with geopolymer and epoxy resin under ambient and fire conditions.
      Citation: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T12:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JSFE-01-2017-0023
       
 
 
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