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CIVIL ENGINEERING (186 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 186 of 186 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 257)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)


Journal Cover KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering
  [SJR: 0.355]   [H-I: 15]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1226-7988 - ISSN (Online) 1976-3808
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Experimental study on shear behavior of the interface between new and old
           concrete with reinforced
    • Authors: Cheng Maili; Ma Jing
      Abstract: Abstract In order to investigate the shear behavior of the new and old concrete interface, three kinds of reinforced concrete models with new-old concrete anchorage reinforcement were designed and fabricated. The semi-cyclic loading test was carried out. The failure mode, shear bearing capacity, interfacial shear slip and stress distribution of steel bars were analyzed. The test results show that the failure mode of the old and new concrete reinforcement at the interface was split type shear failure. The shear bearing capacity of reinforced concrete is mainly related to the shear resistance of concrete and the dowel pin shear, and the maximum value is about 1.186 × 104 kN/m2. The shear bearing capacity of stirrups reinforced concrete is increased by 28.5%. According to the obvious interface slip, the working state of the interface between rebar bolt and concrete can be divided into the stage of interface bonding and the stage of the friction. The lower part of the tendons is mainly cut and its upper part is shear-based. The largest stress is obtained at the interface and it decreases gradually to both ends. By analyzing the test results and relevant research, the formulas for calculating the shear capacity of the new and old concrete interface are derived. The results show that the formula of shear capacity is correct and feasible.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-2007-6
  • Force mechanism and progressive collapse of steel tube-coupler scaffold
           under local load
    • Abstract: Abstract The force mechanism and progressive collapse of steel tube-coupler scaffolds were studied under a local load. A distributed optical fiber system was used to conduct experiments on four different scaffold erections. The stresses of the vertical rods, horizontal rods and braces had ladder-like distributions; braces sustained most of the axial force, whereas vertical and horizontal rods sustained an axial force and bending moment. A reasonable numerical analysis strategy is established on the basis of this research and a comparison with experiments, and the progressive collapse process is simulated using ANSYS software. Horizontal rods and braces not only provide auxiliary support for the vertical rods, but also contribute to forces throughout the scaffold; internal forces pass through the two types of bar and are redistributed in each vertical rod such that all vertical rods are associated with forces in the scaffold. Braces block the spread of local collapse within the same floor while bottom horizontal rods block that from one floor to another. The addition of braces and bottom horizontal rods can therefore effectively prevent progressive collapse.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-1022-y
  • Mechanical analysis of secondary lining of high-speed railway tunnel
    • Abstract: Abstract To investigate the mechanical responses of secondary lining of high-speed railway tunnel, two numerical models for simulating Reinforced Concrete Secondary Lining (RCSL) and Plain Concrete Secondary Lining (PCSL) are built respectively based on the principle of soil-structure interaction. The simulations are performed under different values of coefficient of lateral pressure (λ). The numerical results indicate that the embedded reinforcement enhances the strength of secondary lining. The coefficient of lateral pressure has significant influence on the secondary lining strength.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-1524-7
  • Enhancement of prediction accuracy for home sales index prediction model
           based on integration of multiple regression analysis and genetic algorithm
    • Abstract: Abstract The Home Sales Index (HSI) is considered one of the most crucial factors for predicting economic trends in the real estate and construction industries. Accordingly, numerous studies have investigated the precise estimation and prediction of the HSI. However, previous studies have shown limitations in collecting valuable data that can be used for such estimations and predictions. Several studies have shown that web search data have a significant relationship with various social trends, including the HSI. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between the HSI and feasible web search data and suggest an HSI prediction model based on the results. Our analysis includes a method for enhancing the prediction accuracy using principal component analysis. The varimax rotation method is used to find significant factors, and a genetic algorithm is used for optimization. Our results demonstrate that the prediction accuracy of the proposed model is enhanced compared to previous studies, and its capability is increased for practical field applications.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-1648-9
  • Application of enzyme to clay brick and its effect on mechanical
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, the application of an enzyme to clay bricks with different clay contents is described. The compressive strength test results for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days curing time, water absorption and dry density are reported. The enzyme brick with an 85/15 clay/silt ratio by weight exhibited higher strength in the 28-day test, with an average value of 6.89 MPa. Clay soil with a more specific surface area had a better chance of undergoing an ionic reaction with the enzyme to increase density and strength. Less water absorption, less porosity and higher density were also observed in brick with a higher clay proportion. Generally, the average compressive strength of the enzyme clay brick was over 5.50 MPa after a 28 day curing period and thus satisfied the specific limit of 5 MPa, which is the minimum standard for British common brick. SEM-EDX with the help of Matlab image processing verified that the enzyme facilitated the formation of bonds and a cross-link structure that benefited the strength and stability of clay brick.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0533-x
  • Application of a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm motivated by a
           vision correction procedure for civil engineering problems
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, a metaheuristic optimization algorithm inspired by a vision correction procedure is applied to civil engineering problems. The Vision Correction Algorithm (VCA) has the ability to solve various problems related to mathematical benchmark functions and civil engineering. Vision correction processes have three main steps: myopic/hyperopic correction, brightness adjustment/compression enforcement, and astigmatic correction. This procedure is essential for increasing the usability of glasses and obtaining high-quality vision in humans. Unlike conventional meta-heuristic algorithms, VCA automatically adjusts the global/ local search probability and global search direction based on accumulated optimization results. In VCA, all decision variables have their own search probabilities and require different processes according to whether a global search or local search is required. The proposed algorithm is applied to representative optimization problems, and the results are compared with those of existing algorithms. In civil engineering problems including design problem of water distribution network, VCA shows respectable results compared with those of existing algorithms. In all benchmark problems and civil engineering problems, VCA shows good results and it showed the applicability to other civil engineering problems.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0021-3
  • Evaluation of hydrodynamic consequences for horseshoe vortex system
           developing around two eccentrically arranged identical piers of diverse
    • Abstract: Abstract This research provides experimental outcomes of hydrodynamic flow formations around two square piers of same width positioned in inline front and eccentric rear arrangement with a constant longitudinal spacing and eccentricity. Measurements of instantaneous velocities in polar coordinate system were taken by a Doppler type acoustic velocimeter. The distributions and contour profiles of time mean tangential, radial and vertical velocities, kinetic energy and intensities due to turbulence are presented at five azimuth angles 0°, -45°, 45°, -90° and 90° in vertical planes. From time mean velocity fields, velocity vectors were determined and utilised to explain added flow features. Horseshoe vortices vorticity and the strength (circulation) are resolved by using computational hydrodynamics method. The preset outcomes are compared with previous researches where cylindrical and triangular shaped piers were used at same experimental conditions. The arrangement of square piers and the interfering among wake and horseshoe vortices for inline-front and eccentric-rear piers, respectively - take part in a major role for making and forming bigger depth of scour near eccentrically positioned rear pier. Due to bluff body existence, friction drag becomes less effective than the pressure drag. Horseshoe vortex strength for eccentric-rear pier is observed greater than strength for inline-front pier.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-1842-9
  • Durability properties of coconut shell aggregate concrete
    • Abstract: Abstract An experimental investigation was carried out to study the durability properties of Coconut Shell (CS) aggregate concrete. Effect of mineral admixtures such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) as partial replacement of cement on durability properties of CS aggregate concrete was also verified. Specimens were cast and tested for durability characteristics such as water absorption, volume of pore voids, sorptivity, bulk diffusion, rapid chloride penetration, abrasion resistance and chemical attack tests. Four concrete mixes were considered for the study. Control mix, mix with18.5% coarse aggregate replaced by CS by weight, mix with 18.5% CS and 30% cement replaced by fly ash, and mix with 18.5% CS and 15% cement replaced by GGBFS. Test results showed that durability properties of all the mixes were comparable to normal concrete and some durability properties were enhanced by the addition of mineral admixtures.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0063-6
  • Evaluation of in-situ NOx removal efficiency of photocatalytic concrete in
    • Abstract: Abstract In areas of high-volume traffic, such as the proximities of expressways in large urban areas, the amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted into the atmosphere significantly contribute to air pollution. As NOx gas is a major cause of smog and acid rain, this pollutant is considered to be particularly harmful, and therefore, increasing attention has been focused worldwide on the elimination of NOx from the air. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a photocatalytic reaction material, is particularly effective in the removal of NOx. As the solar photocatalytic reaction of TiO2 is the mechanism that eliminates NOx, the TiO2 in concrete road structures needs to be exposed to the ultraviolet rays (UV) of sunlight to be activated. Generally, TiO2 concrete is produced by replacing a portion of the concrete binder with TiO2. However, a considerable amount of the TiO2 in the concrete is not exposed to either the air pollutants or the UV. Therefore, as an alternative method, surface penetration agents are used to add TiO2 to the surface of the concrete structure. This study aims to evaluate the in-situ NOx removal efficiency of the TiO2 penetration method in a field application. Accordingly, the TiO2 penetration method was tested on the retaining wall of the Gyeongbu expressway in Korea. The results of this study indicated that the quantity of sunlight influenced the NOx removal efficiency rate. Furthermore, it was c that the TiO2 penetration method can be an alternative to the existing TiO2 concrete, which produced by replacing a portion of the concrete binder with TiO2, for removing NOx gas from the air.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0028-9
  • Importance of bubble bed characteristics in Dissolved-air-flotation
    • Abstract: Abstract Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) is a water treatment process widely employed in various facilities such as water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, and seawater desalination plants. In this process, tiny bubbles are released, which adhere to suspended particulates causing them to float to the surface where they may then be removed by a skimming device. Although the removal efficiency of DAF can be improved by increasing bubble bed depth, not much is known about the effect of the characteristics of the bubble bed on the removal efficiency. Therefore, the effect of bubble bed depth and compactness on the removal efficiency was investigated in this study. The results showed a trend of increasing bubble bed depth and compactness with increases in pressure and recycle ratio. In particular, the change in depth was mainly attributable to recycle ratio, and that in compactness was mostly due to pressure. As the depth and the compactness of bubble bed increased, the removal efficiency also increased up to 99% at maximum and there was a large difference in the removal efficiency of tiny particulates < 30 μm. At the same depth, removal efficiency increased with increases in compactness. At higher loading rates (over 10 m3/m2·h), greater removal efficiency was obtained with deep beds. The depth of the bubble bed however did not play a significant role at lower loading rates (5 m3/m2·h). Under this experimental condition, when the loading rate doubled, the bubble bed also needed to be doubled to achieve the same removal efficiency. In cases where it was difficult to increase the bubble bed, the compactness was increased instead by increasing pressure.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-1540-7
  • Roadway engineering mechanical properties and roadway structural
           instability mechanisms in deep wells
    • Abstract: Abstract We proposed a new classification method for stress-bearing structures in very-deep roadways. We conducted tests for roadwayengineering mechanical properties, including rock mechanical tests and ground stress measurement of two caverns in very-deep wells. We suggested a classification method for stress-bearing structures based on shear stress. Tests revealed that rock strength in the shear direction was the lowest; the stress distributions of acoustic emission and hollow inclusion were highly similar. Based on the roadway-engineering mechanical properties of two caverns and numerical simulation and in-situ tests, the key bearing structures were classified based on the concentrated shear stress. In deep caverns, shear stress was more concentrated on the softer surrounding rock, the key bearing structure areas, and the more seriously fractured surrounding rocks. Using the loose circle in-situ test, we compared the classification method of the key bearing structures with other classification methods. The results revealed agreement with the classification methods used for the key bearing structures. The deformation in-situ test showed that the strata convergence of concentrated shear stress areas developed quickly. Therefore, the phenomena of concentrated shear stress and the expanded range of key bearing structures are the structural instability mechanisms of deep roadways.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-1298-y
  • 3D Dynamic Finite Element Analyses and 1 g Shaking Table Tests on Seismic
           Performance of Connected and Nonconnected Piled Raft Foundations
    • Abstract: Abstract Connected and disconnected piled raft foundations have been evaluated under lateral cyclic loading in this study. Connected Piled Raft (CPR) and nonconnected piled (NPR) foundations were considered and evaluated in 1-g shaking table tests. FEM numerical modelling also was employed to evaluate the results. The responses were evaluated and compared using lateral movement of caps, moments and lateral loads along the piles and ground settlements. The results indicate that both nonconnected and connected piled raft foundations effectively reduce the ground settlements, however, connected piled rafts have much higher lateral stiffness and piles contribute to lateral load bearing mechanism more effectively; in connected piled raft, piles bear higher moments and lateral loads and reduce lateral movements more effectively. The cap weight and superstructure (central mass height) effect has been considered through supplementary numerical assessments for CPR case. Superstructure addition tends to increase the pile moment and raft inclination where the frequency effect is also critically important. Also heavier cap experiences higher rotations and associated with higher induced loads to piles.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0379-2
  • Risk assessment model for water and mud inrush in deep and long tunnels
           based on normal grey cloud clustering method
    • Abstract: Abstract In terms of the frequent occurrence and much trouble in governance of the disaster caused by water and mud inrush in deep and long tunnels, the risk assessment model based on normal grey cloud clustering method was proposed. Taking the Jigongling Tunnel of Fanba Expressway as an example, firstly the evaluation target was divided into 8 clustering indices and 4 grey categories according to the grey clustering method. In order to avoid the defects that the traditional whitenization weight functions could not give a good description of system's randomness and ambiguity, the cloud model was introduced to improve it. Then the whitenization weight values were discretized by using the one-dimensional forward cloud generator to simulate the uncertainties in engineering, and the normal grey cloud whitenization weight functions were established. Afterwards, combined with the engineering data of Jigongling Tunnel collected on site, the clustering weight of each clustering index was analyzed under specific engineering and the clustering coefficient of the target was determined. Lastly the risk of water and mud inrush in Jigongling Tunnel was evaluated using the model. The results, which showed that the risk of water and mud inrush in target D 1, D 2 and D 3 was respectively medium, extremely high and high, were compared with the excavation data. The two coincided with each other well which indicated that the model had a certain engineering value and could provide reference for related engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0553-6
  • Principal stress rotation under bidirectional simple shear loadings
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous researches have indicated the non-coaxiality of sand in unidirectional simple shear tests, in which the direction of the principal axes of stresses does not coincide with the corresponding principal axes of strain rate tensors. Due to the limitation of apparatus that most of testing facilities can only add shear stress in one direction, the influence of stress history on the noncoaxiality of sand is not fully considered in previous tests. In this study, the effect of stress history on the non-coaxiality of sand is systematically studied by using the first commercially available Variable Direction Dynamic Cyclic Simple Shear system (VDDCSS). Samples of Leighton Buzzard sand (Fraction B) are first consolidated under a vertical confining stress and consolidation shear stress, and then sheared by a drained monotonic shear stress. Angle (θ) between the consolidation shear stress and the drained monotonic shear stress is varied from 0° to 180°, with an interval of 30°. The change of principal axes of stresses is predicted by well-established equations, and the principal axe of strain rate is calculated using recorded data. Results show that the level of non-coaxiality is increased by the increasing θ, especially at the initial stage of drained shearing.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0822-4
  • Rheological characteristics of wet-mix shotcrete mixtures with crushed
           aggregates and mineral admixtures
    • Authors: Kyong-Ku Yun; Pangil Choi; Jung Heum Yeon
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, implications of various mineral admixtures such as fly ash, silica fume, metakaolin, and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) for the rheological properties of fresh wet-mix shotcrete incorporating crushed aggregates are quantitatively assessed. Laboratory testing was performed using an IBB rheometer, which is proven to suitably measure the Bingham parameters of fresh concrete mixtures. Technical tips to improve the pumpability and shootability are also proposed in terms of the type and replacement level of mineral admixtures based on the results of rheological characterization. The findings from a series of laboratory tests include: (1) incorporating higher dosages of fly ash and silica fume led to an enhancement of both pumpability and shootability for wet-mix shotcrete mixtures; (2) the use of metakaolin and GGBFS was only effective in improving the pumpability, particularly when lower dosages were employed; and (3) a build-up thickness of approximately 240 mm to 390 mm could be achieved by varying the type and replacement level of mineral admixtures.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0198-5
  • Differential settlement and soil dynamic stress of a culvert-embankment
           transition zone due to an adjacent shield tunnel construction
    • Authors: Yao Shan; Shunhua Zhou; Yao Shu
      Abstract: Abstract The effects of shield tunnel construction on the differential settlement and the distribution of soil dynamic stress of an adjacent culvert-embankment transition zone are investigated. A construction project of shield tunnels in Hangzhou (China) beneath an existing railroad culvert-embankment transition zone is employed as a case study. Firstly, the shield tunneling activities in the vicinity of a culvert-embankment transition zone are simulated by a three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method. The differential settlement of the transition zone is calculated to evaluate the influence of the shield tunneling on the safety of the passing train. Secondly, a plane strain model is employed to investigate the discipline of the soil dynamic stress in transition zones, which is induced by the passing train and the shield tunnel beneath the railroad. Results indicate that the reinforcement treatment of the foundation is required since the embankment differential settlement is significantly affected by the shield tunneling. Finally, a recommended treatment is introduced according to the property of the surrounding soil. Numerical simulation reveals that this treatment is appropriate for reducing the differential settlement and soil dynamic stress of the transition zone.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-1592-8
  • An alternative method for internal stability prediction of gravelly soil
    • Authors: Hui Shen; Xian-qi Luo; Jin-feng Bi
      Abstract: Abstract Experimental observations have shown that geometric characteristics of the soil have significant impact on the internal stability. Due to the diversity of grain composition, the degree of correlation between geometric control variables and internal stability for different types of soil may not be the same. Based on the statistical information of 140 different soils collected from the literature, an alternative method is proposed to assess the internal stability of gravelly soil with the maximum grain size reaching 60 mm. According to the values of d 90, all the 140 soils are first classified into three clusters through hierarchical clustering method. Average values of d 90 for cluster I, II and III are 8.16 mm, 58.66 mm and 152.33 mm, respectively. Then, the experimental results are taken as dichotomous variable (0 refers to internally unstable and 1 refers to internally stable). Point-biserial correlation coefficient is introduced to measure the correlation between geometric control variables and internal stability of the soils. The results show that C u (coefficient of uniformity) and (d 15c /d 85f ) max of cluster II present the highest degree of correlation with internal stability of soils among the three clusters. Therefore, an assessing method is suggested which unites two control variables (C u and (d 15c /d 85f ) max ) to identify the internal stability of gravelly soil, and the boundary of the method is proposed as well. At last, laboratory tests are carried out to assess the internal stability of 8 gravelly soil samples which were gathered locally. The proposed method, together with five commonly used criteria, is used for the prediction of internal stability. By comparing the predictive results with the test results, the reliability of the suggested method is verified.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-1570-1
  • Developing a construction duration estimation model to ensure the safety
           in apartment housing construction sites
    • Authors: Jin Ho Lim; Dae Young Kim; Daeyoung Kim; Seong-Chun Jeong; Do-Kyun Seol; Young-Ki Huh
      Abstract: Abstract Construction process acceleration due to the unreasonable construction duration frequently leads to construction accidents. In order to ensure the safety in construction sites and to avoid inevitable construction process acceleration, there is a need for objective standards to determine the appropriate construction duration for each construction process earlier in the process. To achieve the goal, a construction duration estimation model was developed by exploring those factors that affect the construction duration. Various statistical techniques, including multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were also conducted in order to predict proper construction duration for apartment housing projects. The results of the study will make it possible to avoid inevitable construction acceleration, and thus minimize the potential of construction disasters/accident.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0605-y
  • Effect of submerged vanes on scour around a bridge abutment
    • Authors: Abazar Fathi; Seyed Mohammad Ali Zomorodian
      Abstract: Abstract Submerged vanes are small plate structures that create a secondary flow rotation to reduce scouring. This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments investigating how submerged vanes affect scouring around a vertical wall and spill-through abutments under clear water conditions. This study focused on vane distance from the abutment, lateral spacing of the vanes, number of vanes in a row, number of vane rows, the angle of attack with flow, the direction of the vanes, and the position of the first vane relative to the toe of the abutment. An angle of 30° was found to be the best angle of attack and lateral spacing of vanes obtained 2H S - 3H S. In addition the optimal distance of the first vane from the toe and wall of the abutment was L/3 and B/3.2, respectively (in which L is the abutment length and B is the channel width), and the number of vanes in a row was found to be 1 and 2. These results showed that, the maximum scour reduction in a vertical wall and spill-through abutments was 34.2% and 35.6%, respectively. Based on experimental results from changing the direction of the vanes and locating the first vane along the toe of the abutment, the depth of the scour was increased.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-1453-5
  • Negotiation model of design optimization profit distribution with fairness
           concerns in construction projects
    • Authors: An Xiaowei; Li Huimin; Omoleye Ojuri; Wang Zhuofu; Ding Jiyong
      Abstract: Abstract Design optimization is an effective strategy to reduce construction project costs. This study focuses on the benefit of design optimization, which should be allocated to the designer. Furthermore, the distribution ratio can be determined through negotiation. In line with this view, this paper initially analyzed the benefits of engineering design optimization and the basic mechanism of its distribution. Second, we established the negotiation model of design optimization profit distribution by considering the fairness concern behavior of subjects. Finally, we set up the following three experimental scenarios: the designer solely has fairness concern behavior, the owner exclusively has fairness concern behavior, and both negotiators have fairness concern behavior. From the engineering projects perspectives, we further analyzed the effects of the fairness concerns of both negotiators in terms of engineering design optimization and negotiation performance using negotiation simulation experiments. Our experimental scenarios results show that the appropriate behavior of fairness concerns by the two negotiators is valuable in improving their own advantages. However, excessive attention to the behaviors of fairness concerns by the two negotiators may lead to an increase in the negotiation cycle, which is not beneficial in attaining optimization. This study aims to provide references for the construction project management.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0190-0
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