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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2291 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (187 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (105 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1209 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (187 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 187 of 187 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)

           

Journal Cover Structural Concrete
  [SJR: 0.874]   [H-I: 14]   [11 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1464-4177 - ISSN (Online) 1751-7648
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Corrosion of anchorage head system of post-tensioned prestressed concrete
           structures under chloride environment
    • Authors: Fumin Li; Xiaoya Luo, Zhenguo Liu
      Abstract: Corrosion of anchorage head system may lead to severe structural failure. To understand the characteristics of corrosion and the risks of anchoring failure, 11 post-tensioned prestressed concrete specimens with single-hole anchorage-plate system sealed with postcast concrete contaminated by NaCl were fabricated and then corroded for 8 months. By periodically monitoring corrosion current density and breaking the specimens to detect mass loss, the time-varying law of corrosion rate and the influences of chloride concentration and cover layer depth on corrosion rate were found. The mean corrosion rate of each component of anchorage head system varies with effective prestress level in a light growing trend with approximate linear relationship. The plates were corroded most severely and manifested relatively full and uniform corrosion characteristics, whereas the barrels and wedges were corroded slightly and exhibited relatively local and pitting corrosion characteristics. The average corrosion rate of the plates is 50 times and 80 times higher than that of the barrels and wedges, respectively. The interfaces of the contacted components were hardly corroded. Finally, the corrosion risk of the anchorage head system was analyzed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T17:55:55.952271-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600140
       
  • Tests on strengths of steel strand and strand-concrete (or cement slurry)
           bond stress under cryogenic temperatures
    • Authors: Jian Xie; Er-Cong Kang, Jia-Bao Yan, Zhi-Meng Nie
      Abstract: This paper experimentally studied the strengths of the steel strand and strand-concrete (or cement slurry) bond stress under different cryogenic temperatures ranging from 20 to −160 °C. Twenty one tensile tests were firstly carried out to obtain the yield and ultimate strengths of the steel strand under different cryogenic temperatures. The influences of the cryogenic temperatures on the yield strength, ultimate strength, and fracture strain of the steel strand were discussed and analyzed. Sixty six pull-out tests with 3 identical specimens for each parameter were carried out to obtain the ultimate strength behaviors of the strand-concrete (or cement slurry) bond. The failure modes, strand-concrete (or cement slurry) bond stress, and influences of the low temperature and strength of concrete on the bond stress were reported, discussed, and analyzed. Design equations were also developed to predict the yield and ultimate strengths of the steel strand under temperature intervals of 20 to −160 °C, and their accuracies were checked through validations against the test results. Prediction models in the literature were also used to predict the strand-concrete bond stress, and their accuracies were checked by the reported test results. Empirical design equations were also developed to predict the strand-cement slurry bond stress at cryogenic temperatures.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:15:16.035493-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600158
       
  • Nonlinear finite element analyses of fiber-reinforced polymer-strengthened
           steel-reinforced concrete beams under cyclic loading
    • Authors: Prabin Pathak; Y. X. Zhang
      Abstract: A new finite element model is developed for nonlinear finite element analyses of structural behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)-strengthened steel-reinforced concrete (RC) beams under cyclic loading in this paper. All the components of the beam, including concrete, steel rebar, FRP sheet, adhesive, and shear strengthening stirrups, are included in the model. Material nonlinear properties of concrete and steel rebars are accounted for, while the FRP and adhesive are considered to be linearly elastic until rupture. The degradation of each material under cyclic loading is considered and defined using the user-programmable features in ANSYS. The developed finite element model is validated against experimental results, and demonstrated to be effective for structural analyses of FRP-strengthened RC beams under cyclic loading. Furthermore, parametric studies are carried out to learn the effects of types, thickness, and length of FRP on the structural behavior of FRP-strengthened RC beams based on the new model. Research findings are summarized finally.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T11:53:55.883355-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600122
       
  • Degradation in concrete structures due to cyclic loading and its effect on
           transport processes—Experiments and modeling
    • Authors: Robin Przondziono; Jithender J. Timothy, Frank Weise, Enno Krütt, Rolf Breitenbücher, Günther Meschke, Michael Hofmann
      Abstract: According to the objectives of the research group 1498, this paper deals with degradation effects in concrete structures that are caused by cyclic flexural loading. The goal is to determine their influence on the fluid transport processes within the material on the basis of experimental results and numerical simulations. The overall question was, to which extent the ingress of externally supplied alkalis and subsequently an alkali-silica reaction are affected by such modifications in the microstructure. Degradation in the concrete microstructure is characterized by ultrasonic wave measurements as well as by microscopic crack analysis. Furthermore, experiments on the penetration behavior of water into the investigated materials were performed. The penetration behavior into predamaged concrete microstructures was examined by the classical Karsten tube experiment, nuclear magnetic resonance method, and time domain reflectometry techniques. In order to create an appropriate model of the material's degradation on the water transport, the Darcy law was applied to describe the flow in partially saturated concrete. Material degradation is taken into account by an effective permeability that is dependent on the state of degradation. This effective permeability is obtained by the micromechanical homogenisation of the flow in an Representative Elementary Volume (REV) with distributed ellipsoidal microcracks embedded in a porous medium. The data gained in the microscopic crack analysis is used as input for the micromechanical model. Finite element simulations for unsaturated flow using the micromechanical model were compared with the experimental results showing good qualitative and quantitative agreement.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T11:24:02.126291-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600180
       
  • Cover Picture: Structural Concrete 2/2017
    • PubDate: 2017-04-25T21:10:09.849784-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201770021
       
  • Fiber content and curing time effect on the tensile characteristics of
           ultra high performance fiber reinforced concrete
    • Authors: Spyridon Paschalis; Andreas Lampropoulos
      Abstract: Ultra high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is a concrete type with superior mechanical properties and of a relatively high tensile strength. The tensile stress–strain characteristics of UHPFRC are highly affected by the mixture design and the curing regime. In this study, an extensive experimental investigation has been conducted with direct tensile tests on a number of specimens that contained different percentages of steel fibers and different cement types were applied. Also, various curing regimes were investigated. Different models depending on the steel fiber amount were proposed for the simulation of the stress–strain and the stress-crack opening response of UHPFRC, while the fracture energy was also calculated for the different fiber contents. Finally, the effect of fiber content and curing time on the variation of the experimental results are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T00:45:47.257009-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600075
       
  • Safety assessment of in-service reinforced concrete T-girders of bridge
           decks
    • Authors: N. J. Yogalakshmi; K. Balaji Rao, M. B. Anoop
      Abstract: Reinforced concrete bridges located in coastal environment are known to undergo structural degradation due to chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement. In this paper, reliability-based methodologies have been formulated for safety assessment of in-service reinforced concrete T-girders against shear and cracking limit states. The proposed methodologies incorporate the following features: (a) gain in concrete compressive strength with time, (b) the time-dependent diffusion of chlorides into cover concrete, (c) the chloride-induced corrosion of both stirrups and main rebar of pitting type, (d) the corrosion current variation along the span, (e) the reduction in yield strength of stirrups after it starts corroding, and (f) corrosion crack formation due to the accumulation of the corrosion products. The system reliability concept is embedded in the framework of Monte Carlo simulation, for estimating the time-variant failure probabilities. The usefulness of the methodology is demonstrated on a typical in-service Chennai flyover, designed according to MORTH. The girder fails to meet the target reliability index consideration in the case of shear limit state and also fails the required serviceability criteria even before the end of 50 years. This example brings out the need to consider time-variant reliability considerations at the design stage itself.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T00:30:49.821524-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600162
       
  • Investigations on the coefficient of thermal expansion of a low-calcium
           fly ash-based geopolymer concrete
    • Authors: Jianxin Ma; Frank Dehn
      Abstract: In this paper, the deformation of a sealed low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer concrete during heat curing was investigated. The sealed sample underwent thermal deformation due to temperature change and possible autogenous deformation related to alkaline activation of the fly ash. For the separation of the both deformation types the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is a paramount issue. The CTE evolution of the geopolymer concrete from plastic to hardened state was determined by means of a new method proposed in this paper. Based on the experimental results, the CTE is mathematically described as a function of the so-called equivalent time. The thermal dilation during heat curing was then calculated using the CTE equation. The autogenous shrinkage of the fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is comparatively low. The thermal dilation during the heat curing cannot completely reverse, if the concrete is cooled down to its temperature at the beginning of the heating. After the heat curing no further autogenous deformation was observed on sealed samples continuously cured at room temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T20:42:29.914795-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600211
       
  • Experimental investigation of the role of aggregate interlock in the shear
           resistance of reinforced concrete beams
    • Authors: István Völgyi; Andor Windisch
      Abstract: In this study, the coupled shear-bending behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams was investigated. In an experimental study, 12 RC specimens were tested under close to constant shear span-depth ratios but with variable flexural and shear reinforcement ratios. The primary focus was to analyze the effect of the inclination of the failure section and of the aggregate interlock on the shear-bending resistance. Propagation of characteristic crack pattern, the shape, and the behavior of the failure section as well as the relative movements of the failure crack faces were studied. One conventional specimen and 11 special members, where aggregate interlock was eliminated along the web in the failure crack, were tested.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T18:42:48.272722-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600137
       
  • Theoretical calculation of self-compacting concrete plastic viscosity
    • Authors: Mouhcine Benaicha; Yves Burtschell, Adil H. Alaoui, Khaled Elharrouni
      Abstract: During the concrete production, we attempt to adjust its viscosity to allow optimal implementation. In this article, we have proposed a correlation between the plastic viscosity of concrete, the time, and the characteristics of the flow final profile from the V-Funnel coupled to a horizontal channel Plexiglas. The proposed approach, verified by experimental results, represents a simple, economical, and usable tool on building site, and it allows to characterize rheologically the concrete from its flow. The comparison between our approach and the experimental values of the plastic viscosity shows that, in a laboratory or on site, instead of using a rheometer, we can use our approach to characterize the rheological behavior of a self-compacting concrete.
      PubDate: 2017-04-16T20:45:38.989561-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600064
       
  • Size effect tests of stocky reinforced concrete columns confined by
           stirrups
    • Authors: Min Du; Liu Jin, Xiuli Du, Dong Li
      Abstract: The paper deals with an experimental investigation of stocky reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined by stirrups with a slenderness ratio of 3. A total of 24 columns were designed and tested. In the tests, the confining action and the size effect for the columns with circular and square cross sections were studied, and the effects of stirrup ratio and concrete cover were also explored. The maximum structural sizes for the circular and squared columns were respectively 576 mm in diameter and 600 mm in cross-sectional width. The test observations indicate that, increasing the stirrup ratio could make the enhancement of the nominal strength and improvement of ductility capacity. At the same stirrup ratios and cross-sectional sizes, both the nominal strength of the circular columns is higher and the deformation capacity is larger than those of the square columns. Overall, the failure of the RC columns with a lower stirrup ratio, without cover and having square cross section is more brittle, exhibiting a stronger size effect. In addition, the nominal compressive strengths of all the tested columns are in good agreement with the size effect law (SEL) proposed by Bažant.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T19:34:34.166961-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600074
       
  • Influence of flanges on the shear-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete
           beams without web reinforcement
    • Authors: Carlos Rodrigo Ribas González; Miguel Fernández Ruiz
      Abstract: T-beams are acknowledged as economic and efficient structural members widely used for floor slab construction systems. In many cases, according to practice in some countries, the beams do not present transverse reinforcement, and their shear strength is governing for dimensioning the width of the web. Although experimental investigations have shown that the presence of the compression flange enhances the shear capacity with respect to equivalent rectangular cross sections, most current design codes neglect this phenomenon, which leads to the overdesign of these members. In this paper, the role of the compression flange of slender T-beams with concentrated loads is investigated with reference to its influence on the shape of the critical shear crack and to the associated shear transfer actions (STA) of the beam. The flanges are considered elements that allow the smearing of applied loads over a certain length of the web. This consideration, in combination with the mechanical model of the Critical Shear Crack Theory (CSCT), allows a consistent treatment of the phenomenon and leads to simple design expressions accounting for the role of flanges. The results of the proposed model are compared together with design codes (Model Code 2010, Eurocode 2, and ACI 318-11) and other shear design approaches to a database of 239 beams on T-shaped members. The comparison shows that the role of flanges is finely accounted with the proposal based on the CSCT, leading to consistent agreement and to strength predictions that are more suitable for design purposes than the other investigated design models.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T20:05:34.011951-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600172
       
  • Increasing the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams using
           pretensioned stainless steel ribbons
    • Authors: Piero Colajanni; Antonino Recupero, Nino Spinella
      Abstract: In this work, the second part of an experimental campaign investigating the efficiency of an alternative retrofitting method for increasing the flexural and/or shear capacity in reinforced concrete beams, based on the use of prestressed stainless steel ribbons and steel angles, is presented and analytically reproduced. This group of tests focuses on the ability of the adopted retrofitting method to improve the shear strength and ultimate deformation of reinforced concrete structural elements. As described in a companion paper, the adopted retrofitting method is alternative to traditional techniques of reinforced concrete retrofitting, being easy to install and usually reversible, and characterized by high fire resistance and avoiding corrosion. The experimental results obtained from shear tests carried out on nine reinforced concrete beams are presented. The efficiency of stainless steel ribbons as shear reinforcement that wrap a portion of cross-sectional depth are analyzed, and the interaction between existing stirrups and stainless steel ribbons examined. The tests results are critically analyzed, highlighting the ability of the retrofitting method in increasing the shear strength and ductility of reinforced concrete beams. The experimental shear strength was also analytically evaluated by extending the theoretical approach of the fib Model Code 2010 formulation, originally suggested for reinforced concrete beams with or without stirrups.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T18:11:02.098342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600089
       
  • Erratum
    • PubDate: 2017-03-28T18:05:35.737817-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201770031
       
  • Design optimization to increase the (buckling) stability of concrete
           columns
    • Authors: Angela Schmidt; Manfred Curbach
      Abstract: In 2014 and 2015, concrete columns were tested under axial compression in the Otto-Mohr-Laboratory of Dresden University of Technology. In comparison to columns with the same volume and a constant rectangular cross section, a 25% increase in buckling resistance was attained with an optimized shape. The shape of a column can be optimized in both the longitudinal and the transverse direction. Both aforementioned possibilities were tested separately in two experimental series; the results of such tests were used to verify the accuracy of the theoretical calculations. Based on these calculations and considerations, it was determined that an even larger increase of the buckling load is possible, for example, by combining both form influences (cross section and shape in longitudinal direction). A literature review regarding the optimization of axially loaded columns was conducted in 2012 and 2013. First, the current study gives an overview of the mathematical results. Subsequently, it presents the column test results in detail. Both simply supported columns and columns with fixed ends were tested. All columns were designed with ultra-high-performance concrete. The outcomes of the experiments are provided and discussed. Additionally, the measured values are compared with the calculated values.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T19:50:39.542979-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600183
       
  • Expansion behavior of a biaxially reinforced concrete member affected by
           alkali-silica reaction
    • Authors: David Wald; Gloriana Arrieta Martinez, Oguzhan Bayrak
      Abstract: The development and multiaxial distribution of mechanical expansions caused by alkali-silica reaction were quantified for a large-scale reinforced concrete beam containing top and bottom mats of bidirectional reinforcement with no reinforcement through its depth. The effects of different conditioning environments and the influence of reinforcing bar size and layout on the expansion behavior of the beam were also considered. Expansions in the unreinforced direction exceeded those in the reinforced directions at all times. Expansions in the reinforced directions stopped prior to steel yielding and before concrete finished expanding in the unreinforced direction. Expansion behavior in biaxially reinforced beam regions was not influenced by triaxial restraint conditions at adjacent beam ends. Varying moisture exposure conditions along the length affected the time development of expansions but not the distribution of given volumetric expansions among primary directions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T19:01:33.40683-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600143
       
  • Proof load testing of reinforced concrete slab bridges in the Netherlands
    • Authors: Eva Lantsoght; Cor Veen, Ane Boer, Dick A. Hordijk
      Abstract: The bridges built during the development of the Dutch road network after the Second World War are reaching their originally devised service life. A large subset of the Dutch bridge stock consists of reinforced concrete slab bridges. This bridge type often rates insufficient according to the recently introduced Eurocodes. Therefore, more suitable methods are developed to assess reinforced concrete slab bridges to help transportation officials make informed decisions about the safety and remaining life of the existing bridges. Field testing can be used for example when the effect of deterioration on the structural capacity is unknown. A proof load test demonstrates that a given bridge can carry a certain load level. In the Netherlands, a number of existing reinforced concrete slab bridges have been proof loaded, and one bridge has been tested to collapse. Bridges with and without material damage were tested. These bridges were heavily instrumented, in order to closely monitor the behavior of the bridge. Critical positions for bending moment and shear were studied. Based on the proof load tests that were carried out over the past years, a set of recommendations for the systematic preparation, execution, and analysis of proof load test results is compiled. These recommendations will ultimately form the basis of the guideline for proof load testing for the Netherlands, which is currently under development.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T18:51:44.752525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600171
       
  • A model for the simultaneous prediction of the flexural and shear
           deflections of statically determinate and indeterminate reinforced
           concrete structures
    • Authors: Honeyeh Ramezansefat; Joaquim Barros, Mohammadali Rezazadeh
      Abstract: The deformability of the major part of reinforced concrete (RC) structures is the result of the flexural and shear deformations mainly caused by bending and shear diagonal cracking, respectively. However, the evaluation of the shear deformation contribution is relatively difficult due to the complexities involving the shear behavior of cracked RC elements. These complexities are even more complicated when structures are statically indeterminate, since the external and internal forces cannot be determined from direct application of the equilibrium equations. To address these issues, this study aims to develop a novel simplified analytical model based on the flexibility (force) method to predict the deflections of statically indeterminate RC structures up to their failure, which can be in bending or in shear. This analytical model considers the influence of flexural cracks on the shear stiffness degradation of an RC structure after concrete cracking initiation, and has a format adjusted for design practice. The good predictive performance of the analytical model is demonstrated by simulating experimental tests with RC elements where shear deformation has different level of contribution for the total deflection registered in these tests.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19T19:41:29.944213-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600116
       
  • Basic parameters test and 3D modeling of bond between high-strength
           concrete and ribbed steel bar after elevated temperatures
    • Authors: Weiping Zhao; Binrong Zhu
      Abstract: This paper presents basic parameters test and an efficient numerical model for the bond between reinforcing bars and concrete after elevated temperatures. The chemical adhesive and friction coefficient are measured by self-designed setups, and the variation law of the parameters is summarized. In the 3D modeling, bar-to-concrete interface has been modeled by means of an explicit discretization of the bar ribs. Surface-to-surface contact pair elements are employed for the interface, and the tangential contact behavior is elastic-plastic with a Coulomb-type friction model. Comparison between experimental and numerical results shows that the proposed model describes the behavior of steel bar relatively well in the pull-out process after elevated temperatures. The 3D modeling makes up some deficiencies of macro pull-out test, such as the detailed stress distributions and crack patterns.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T22:41:10.967361-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600005
       
  • Deformation analysis of reinforced concrete ties: Representative geometry
    • Authors: Viktor Gribniak; Arvydas Rimkus, Lluis Torres, Ruta Jakstaite
      Abstract: Regardless of the simplicity of the test layout, interpretation of the tensile test results may be inadequate. Typically, a test of the reinforced concrete tie provides measurements of average deformations of the internal reinforcing bar and the concrete surface. The experimental evidence, however, often contradicts with the general assumption of the similarity of mean strains of the reinforcement and concrete. Analysis of the sources influencing the scatter of the experimental results motivated this investigation of the representativeness of the specimens. In this study, the representativeness is understood as a property of a tie to isolate the investigated parameters (e.g., the deformation components) from other uncontrolled effects typical of test with limited sample sizes. This study aims at determining the representative geometry of the test samples that would enable the reduction of the end effect. A consistent procedure is proposed for identifying the cracking parameters of the ties with different testing layouts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T17:58:51.834039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600105
       
  • Alkali–silica reaction in concrete structures due to simultaneous cyclic
           loading and external supply of alkali: Results of the DFG research group
           FOR 1498
    • Authors: Rolf Breitenbücher
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T19:35:31.357551-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600178
       
  • Application of geopolymer paste for concrete repair
    • Authors: Yung-Chin Ding; Ta-Wui Cheng, Yu-Sheng Dai
      Abstract: In this study, ground granulated blast furnace slag and coal fly ash were used as raw materials to prepare geopolymer paste as repair material for concrete structure. The functional properties, such as compressive strength, fluxural strength, and bonding strength between slag/fly ash based geopolymer paste and paste substrate were investigated. The SiO2/Na2O molar ratio of the alkali activator plays an important role on the strength of geopolymer paste. The nature of the geopolymeric reaction product was examined using FTIR and NMR. The compressive strengths and flexural strength of the geopolymer paste were 47 MPa and 16 MPa, respectively. For concrete substrate bonded with geopolymer paste, the compressive strength test shows up to 120% repairing rate can be achieved. By comparing with Portland cement, it can be proved that the slag/fly ash based geopolymer paste has very good potential for further engineering development in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T11:03:51.873572-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600161
       
  • Moment–curvature response of engineered cementitious composites
           under cyclic loading
    • Authors: Wei Zhang; Jia-Bao Yan
      Abstract: The research presented herein describes the testing performed to examine the potential use of engineered cementitious composite (ECC) materials in lieu of traditional materials. Laboratory studies were used to examine the response of ECC materials under cyclic loading. The cyclic testing results indicated that ECC materials have a unique response to cyclic loading; the stiffness of ECC varies with the applied tensile strain and loading history. According to the cyclic response from the moment–curvature relation using cross-sectional analysis, a stress–strain model was proposed to simulate the cyclic response of ECC; the model showed good agreement with the experimental results.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:33:22.830013-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600113
       
  • Bond of deformed steel reinforcement in lightweight foamed concrete
    • Authors: Johannes P. de Villiers; Gideon P.A.G. van Zijl, Algurnon S. van Rooyen
      Abstract: Low weight and thermal insulating properties make lightweight foamed concrete (LWFC) an attractive substitute for normal-weight concrete (NWC). The unfamiliarity and paucity of design guidance challenge the structural use of LWFC. One concern is the bond of steel reinforcement in LWFC. This paper presents the results of pull-out bond tests and beam-end bond tests. The parameters were a reference NWC and LWFC with densities of 1,200, 1,400, and 1,600 kg/m3 and rebar diameters of 10, 12, and 20 mm with embedded lengths of 3, 4, and 5 bar diameters. All concretes were characterized in terms of strength, stiffness, and fracture energy. Clear differences in bond resistance were found from the two tests. The bond in LWFC is lower than that in NWC. The results suggest that the development of LWFC materials to increase fracture energy has the potential to increase the bond.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T03:30:40.613844-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600019
       
  • Progressive collapse assessment of medium-rise reinforced concrete flat
           slab structures
    • Authors: Fatma Attia; Hamed Salem, Nabil Yehia
      Abstract: The progressive collapse resistance of a medium-rise multistory reinforced concrete flat slab structure is evaluated numerically using the applied element method. The case study is designed according to ACI 318 and its progressive collapse is assessed in accordance with the Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) guidelines. The numerical results show that the case study considered generally satisfies the limits of the UFC guidelines except for the case of near-corner interior column loss at the 10th floor and edge shear wall loss at ground, 5th, 8th, and 10th floors. The removal of the edge shear walls on the higher floors caused a partial collapse.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T08:40:56.966357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600051
       
  • Cyclic loading test for columns made with ultra-strength fiber-reinforced
           concrete and trace analyses using finite element analyses
    • Authors: Tadaaki Nozawa; Joon-Ho Choi, Masahiro Hattori, Hisanori Otsuka
      Abstract: First, cyclic loading tests were conducted on scaled-down bridge column models using normal- and ultra-strength fiber-reinforced concrete made with polyvinyl alcohol fibers (PVA-UFC) and normal- and ultrahigh-strength rebars. The experimental results were compared, focusing on the relation between load and displacement, skeleton, crack distribution, and failure modes. Second, in order to evaluate the reproducibility of the cyclic loading test by finite element (FE) analysis, trace analyses were carried out. The FE analyses investigated the applicability of the conventional analytical model of concrete for PVA-UFC. Compared with the experimental results, overall hysteresis loops and maximum strength responses were reproduced with sufficient accuracy by using adequate analytical models. Lastly, parametric analyses were conducted on varying cross-sectional areas of columns, and the extent to which cross-sectional areas could be reduced by using UFC was investigated.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T03:25:48.682111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600053
       
  • Reliability-based approach to the robustness of corroded reinforced
           concrete structures
    • Authors: Eduardo S. Cavaco; Luis A.C. Neves, Joan R. Casas
      Abstract: Currently, decisions on the maintenance and repair of infrastructural assets, structures in particular, are mostly based on the results of inspections and the resulting condition index, neglecting system robustness and therefore not making optimal use of the limited funds available. This paper presents a definition and a measure of structural robustness in the context of deteriorating structures which are compatible with asset management systems for optimal maintenance and repair planning. The proposed index is used to define the robustness of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures to rebar corrosion. Structural performance and the corresponding reliability index are assessed using combined advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques. Structural analysis explicitly includes deterioration mechanisms resulting from corrosion, such as reinforcement area reduction, concrete cracking, and bond deterioration. The first-order reliability method, combined with a response surface algorithm, is used to compute the reliability index for a wide range of different corrosion levels, resulting in a fragility curve. Finally, structural robustness is computed and discussed based on the results obtained. A robustness comparison of different structures can then be used to determine structural types more tolerant to corrosion and these results used for planning maintenance and repairs.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T18:15:29.044273-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600084
       
  • Displacement-based finite layer element analysis on rotational behavior of
           reinforced concrete beam segments containing hinges
    • Authors: Binbin Zhou; Ruoyang Wu, Jian Feng
      Abstract: Rotation capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) beams is a vital property for its relationships with moment redistribution, energy absorbability, and so on. Evaluation of the rotation capacity has been one of the classic and intractable problems in structural engineering over the past decades. The precise prediction about rotational behavior of a RC beam is the primary basis of quantifying its rotation capacity. In this paper a displacement-based finite layer element method considering the factors of flexural cracks, concrete crushing, and pre-and postyield behavior of bond is presented to predict the rotational behavior. In conclusion, it shows good agreement between simulation results, implemented by the proposed method, and the test results in the literature.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T18:10:47.127383-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600100
       
  • Shear capacity of steel fiber-reinforced concrete beams
    • Authors: Deuck Hang Lee; Sun-Jin Han, Kang Su Kim, James M. LaFave
      Abstract: This study proposes a shear strength model for steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams—the so-called dual potential capacity model (DPCM). It can suitably consider the dominant shear failure mode, including the shear contributions of the compression side and the cracked tension side, at the section considered. In the proposed approach, the direct tension force transfer model (DTFTM), which can consider the random orientation and bond characteristics of steel fibers at a crack surface, has been introduced to calculate the shear contribution of the steel fibers. Shear test results of SFRC beams have been collected from various references and compared with the analysis results of the proposed DPCM. A simplified version of the DPCM was also developed for practical applications by reducing the iterative computational procedures.
      PubDate: 2017-02-26T19:35:42.56358-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600104
       
  • Numerical study of reinforced and prestressed concrete components under
           biaxial tensile stresses
    • Authors: Robert Zobel; Manfred Curbach
      Abstract: The focus of this study was the numerical investigation of reinforced and prestressed concrete components under biaxial tensile stresses in ANSYS in order to display the state of stress in a containment wall. Solid elements were used for concrete, whereas beam elements were used for reinforcing steel. The description and representation of the nonlinear material behavior and the fundamental phenomena of the damage of the concrete was implemented by using an elastoplastic material model. As crack width, crack spacing, and the deformation behavior of components largely depend on the bond behavior, a node-to-node contact between reinforcement and concrete was used. Therefore, a specific bond model was implemented. In the longitudinal reinforcement direction, the bond model implemented defines the bond resistance as a function of the relative displacements between concrete and reinforcement.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T18:40:53.636607-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600077
       
  • Residual compressive stress-strain relation of recycled aggregate concrete
           after exposure to high temperatures
    • Authors: Haifeng Yang; Liangsheng Lv, Zhiheng Deng, Wenwu Lan
      Abstract: The complete compressive stress-strain curve of recycled aggregate concrete (RC) after exposure to high temperatures improves to assess the post-fire behavior of reinforced RC structures. In this paper, 60 specimens containing different levels of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA; i.e., 0, 30, 50, 70 and 100%) were produced to study the residual compressive stress-strain relation of RC after exposure to high temperatures. Those specimens designed for thermal temperatures were initially heated to temperatures of 300, 400 and 500°C for 6 hr and then being submitted to test the compressive stress-strain curves after cooling to ambient temperature. The test results were compared with specimens tested at room temperature (about 20°C). The effect of RCA and high temperatures on residual compressive strength, peak strain and elastic modulus are discussed and the empirical formulas for these parameters are also established. The recommended equation for the compressive constitutive relation for conventional concrete in the Chinese code for the design of concrete structures (GB50010-2010) was adopted to fit the test data and was shown to be applicable to heated RC for different temperatures.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T19:40:37.136488-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201500153
       
  • Optimization of anchorage corner blisters for posttensioning tendons
    • Authors: Carla Marchão; Válter Lúcio, Hans R. Ganz
      Abstract: The design of anchorage corner blisters for internal continuity posttensioning tendons in bridges built using the cantilever method presents some peculiarities because they are intermediate eccentric anchorages. The simplified formulas for designing the reinforcement required to resist transverse tensile forces due to the application of point loads, as proposed by the current standards, are not sufficient because they do not cover all the effects that require reinforcement. The high density of steel reinforcement in anchorage blisters is the most common reason for problems with concrete cast in situ, resulting in zones with low concrete compactness, which may lead to concrete crushing failures under the anchor plates. The solution to this problem may involve reducing the amount of reinforcement by improving the concrete compressive and tensile strengths. An experimental program was carried out to study the transmission of prestressing force to the slab and web of the box girder, to assess the strut-and-tie models used in design and to investigate the feasibility of using a high-performance fiber-reinforced self-compacting mix (HPFRC) in the blister only, with either in situ or precast solutions. It can be concluded that the use of HPFRC in anchorage blisters is a very interesting solution regarding the savings in materials and the reduction in the steel reinforcement density near the local anchorage zone, with obvious advantages in concrete quality.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T19:36:40.801993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600057
       
  • Structural performance of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete
           beams
    • Authors: Charles Kahanji; Faris Ali, Ali Nadjai
      Abstract: Ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is a relatively new construction material. In comparison with conventional high-strength concrete, UHPFRC does not usually contain coarse aggregates larger than 6–7 mm in size. This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental study of UHPFRC beams subjected to four-point loading. The effect of two parameters was studied, namely, the fiber content and the temperature of the curing water. Eight UHPFRC beams were tested, comprising six beams reinforced with rebars and two beams without rebars. Three fiber contents were investigated in this study (1, 2, and 4% in volume). The study investigated two curing temperatures of water, 20 and 90°C. The results presented in this paper include deflections, toughness energy, and moment capacity and also includes a comparison with calculations according to EC2 provisions. A minor difference was observed in the deformation and flexural behavior of beams with fiber contents of 1 and 2% (in volume). However, beams with 4% (in volume) fibers exhibited a higher flexural capacity. Only flexural failure was observed and no shear-related failure was recorded. Beams with 1% (in volume) fibers for both curing regimes had the highest peak load toughness energy. Beams reinforced with rebars and cured at 20°C had a significantly higher bending resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T18:56:06.554248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600006
       
  • Shear load testing of damaged hollow-core slabs
    • Authors: Gregor Schacht; Steffen Marx, Guido Bolle
      Abstract: As a result of poor-quality sealing, moisture and deicing agents had penetrated into the prestressed hollow-core slabs of the top floor of an uncovered parking deck. The slabs showed especially severe chloride-induced damage in the support regions near the joints. Owing to the damage, the theoretical shear capacity according to the technical approval of these slabs was highly questionable. The influence of the damage on the shear capacity of the slabs with different levels of damage was determined with the help of an experimental in situ loading test. Based on the results, the number of slabs that had to be replaced or repaired could be reduced. For the experimental investigation of the shear capacity of the hollow-core slabs, a combination of photogrammetry, acoustic emission analysis, and curvature measurement for each section was used to determine the initial shear damage on a very low level during the test. The comparison of the results of the different measuring techniques allowed the damage processes to be clearly identified and significantly increased the quality of information about the structural condition of the slabs during the experimental investigation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T20:06:48.562481-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600082
       
  • Experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of basalt
           fiber-reinforced concrete
    • Authors: Sruthi Jalasutram; Dipti Ranjan Sahoo, Vasant Matsagar
      Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of how varying the volume fraction of chopped basalt fibers affects the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC). The fiber content is varied in the range of 0–2%. The main parameters investigated are workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and flexural toughness. Test results showed that the compression strength of concrete decreased marginally with the addition of basalt fibers in comparison with plain concrete. However, the mode of failure of FRC under compression is changed from the brittle to ductile. The splitting tensile strength of concrete is improved by 15% when basalt fibers with 2% volume fraction are added to the concrete mix. A significant increase of up to 75% is noticed in the flexural tensile strength of basalt FRC, with better post-peak residual strength compared with the plain concrete. Furthermore, the flexural toughness of basalt FRC is increased by nearly three times that of the plain concrete based on the round panel tests.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19T18:35:42.934417-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201500216
       
  • Relation between the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of
           concrete with crushed brick and roof tile aggregates
    • Authors: Ivana Miličević; Nina Štirmer, Dubravka Bjegović
      Abstract: This paper presents the results of experimental research into the effect of brick and roof tile aggregates on the values of the modulus of elasticity of concrete made with crushed brick and roof tile aggregates. The main purpose of this paper is to compare the formulae given in the code provisions for estimating the concrete elastic moduli for lightweight and normal-weight concretes with values obtained experimentally. Sixty two different concrete mixes including crushed brick and roof tiles were made and tested experimentally. The differences between the empirical and experimental static moduli of elasticity are shown. In addition, formulae for calculating the static modulus of elasticity over compressive strength are shown and compared with an experimentally estimated formula. As a result of this investigation, a universal equation for estimating the static modulus of elasticity over compressive strength for concretes with crushed brick and roof tile aggregates is proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19T18:30:28.466734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201500207
       
  • Dynamic response assessment in compliance with the Eurocodes for the
           elevated viaducts of the Doha Metro Green Line
    • Authors: Essam Ayoub; Sameh Mehanny, Charles Malek, Gamal Helmy
      Abstract: The double-track elevated viaducts of the Doha Metro Green Line, which is currently under construction, are 2.7-km long and consist of in situ and precast segmental simply supported spans ranging from 20 to 35 m and in situ two- and three-span continuous (39.5–57, 50–51–44, and 37–68–37 m) U-trough decks. The nontypical configuration of the continuous spans was imposed due to utilities and infrastructure requirements. All viaduct decks (in situ and precast) are posttensioned to minimize any concrete cracking. To ensure passenger comfort and traffic safety during train operation, performing a dynamic analysis was vital. The dynamic analysis focused on the vertical accelerations and vertical displacements. The actual train of the project, comprising six vehicles with a total length of 120 m and with actual axle loads (max. axle load = 160 kN, with four axles per vehicle), was adopted in the dynamic analysis. The analysis was carried out using both direct time integration of the equation of motion and modal time history analysis for different train speeds ranging from 60 km/hr to the maximum permissible speed along the metro line (160 km/hr). The maximum vertical accelerations and maximum vertical deflections were monitored for each train speed using the CSiBridge software used in the current project and compared with the allowable values given in EN 1991-2 and EN 1990, Annex 2. According to relevant Eurocodes requirements, the vertical accelerations and the vertical deflections were found to be acceptable.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19T18:25:34.135108-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600072
       
  • Physical–mechanical behavior of concretes exposed to high temperatures
           and different cooling systems
    • Authors: Germán Ercolani; Néstor F. Ortega, Carla Priano, Lilia Señas
      Abstract: Over their lifetime, concrete structures can suffer from different pathologies, one of them is exposure to high temperatures, which diminishes their load-bearing capacity. This study describes how different concrete types were exposed to high temperatures. To simulate fire extinction, where the temperature of the overheated concrete descends suddenly, different cooling systems were applied: slowly cooling in the open air and fast cooling by spraying different water volumes. Several physical–mechanical characteristics were analyzed such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, porosity, capillary suction, and carbonation depth. Ultrasound nondestructive tests were conducted to quantify deterioration. A petrographic study using a stereomicroscope and microscopy of polarization was performed on thin sections to evaluate aggregate composition and concrete characteristics, focusing on interface areas. Physical and mechanical properties were affected by the increase in temperature, with damage worsening through the appearance of cracks and microcracks when water is used as a cooling system.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T18:25:33.870933-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201500202
       
  • Simplification and verification of dual potential capacity model for
           reinforced concrete beams subjected to shear
    • Authors: Deuck Hang Lee; Sun-Jin Han, Jin-Ha Hwang, Hyunjin Ju, Kang Su Kim
      Abstract: In the authors' previous study, the dual potential capacity model (DPCM) was proposed to evaluate the shear strengths of reinforced concrete (RC) members, in which the shear contributions of both the cracked tension zone and the compression zone are considered. In this paper, the main concept and formulations of the proposed DPCM were briefly introduced, and the simplified DPCM was developed for the practical application of the proposed model. A total of 1019 data sets of shear test results on RC members were collected for detailed verifications of the detailed and simplified DPCM. The verification results demonstrated that the proposed models can appropriately assess the effects of key influential factors including compressive strength of concrete, shear span-to-depth ratio, size of coarse aggregate, sizes of members, and shear reinforcement on the shear strengths of RC members.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T18:20:40.698019-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600055
       
  • Investigation of the impact behavior of steel and composite pipes with
           protective layer
    • Authors: Özgür Anil; S. Oğuzhan Akbaş, Onur Gezer, M. Cem Yılmaz
      Abstract: A free-fall impact apparatus was used in this study to examine the behavior of steel and composite pipe systems designed with three different protective layers, considering both the efficiency and the energy adsorption capacity under impact loading. The three protective layers considered in this study are a granular soil layer of constant relative density and sand layers reinforced with geotextile and geogrid layers. The magnitudes of the impact loads as well as the resultant accelerations on the pipes were measured as a function of time during the experiments. Time histories of accelerations recorded in each test were used to calculate the displacements and loads on the pipes, which in turn led to estimates of the level of energy adsorbed by the protective layer systems. This enabled a fair comparison of the relative performance of each protective layer under impact load conditions. It was observed that all three protective systems contributed significantly to pipe safety. However, both the experimental results and the supporting finite element analyses indicate that the most successful pipe performance was achieved through the use of a geotextile-reinforced soil layer. Furthermore, it was observed that the composite pipe has a higher energy adsorption capacity compared with the steel pipe, making it less vulnerable to impact forces under the same protection conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T18:15:47.657037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600128
       
  • Erratum
    • PubDate: 2017-02-16T18:05:27.122668-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201700130
       
  • Engineering field tests for alkali-aggregate reaction
    • Authors: Paulo Helene; Mariana Carvalho, Jéssika Pacheco
      Abstract: The Paulo Guerra Bridge in Recife, Brazil, was constructed in 1977. After about 15 years some pathological symptoms appeared, such as map cracking, concrete expansion, steel corrosion, and leaching stains. This paper presents a discussion of the specific inspections conducted, which included visual observation of the foundation blocks (pile caps), core extraction, ultrasonic pulse velocity tests, carbonation tests, measurements of chloride concentration, electrochemical resistivity, corrosion potential, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity as well as X-ray diffraction and microscopy evaluations. The results of the inspection showed the occurrence of generalized alkali-aggregate reactions (AARs) on the pile caps (foundation blocks) of the bridge. The recommended repair for the pile caps was confinement to resist tensile stresses of 4 MPa.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T18:00:42.853417-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201600090
       
  • Limitations of the use of concrete bulk resistivity as an indicator for
           the rate of chloride-induced macro-cell corrosion
    • Authors: Karla Hornbostel; Bernhard Elsener, Ueli M. Angst, Claus K. Larsen, Mette R. Geiker
      Abstract: An experimental setup was designed to study the impact of concrete bulk resistivity on the rate of chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. Small pieces of mild steel were used to simulate pits (anodes) that form when chlorides come into contact with the reinforcement. The galvanic current was measured between the simulated anodes and a large cathode network. Comparisons were made between the corrosion rates calculated from the galvanic currents and the bulk resistivity. The bulk resistivity was varied using two mortar mixes (made of plain Portland cement and a Portland cement—fly ash blend), which were exposed in different temperature and moisture conditions. Despite a high scatter in the results, it was clear that the relationship between bulk resistivity and corrosion rate depended on the mortars tested. The findings presented in this article and the accompanying work strongly indicate that bulk resistivity alone does not provide sufficient information for assessment of the corrosion rate for chloride-induced macro-cell corrosion.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T17:55:28.558351-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201500141
       
  • Issue Information: Structural Concrete 2/2017
    • Pages: 247 - 248
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T21:10:09.282843-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201770022
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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