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    - ENGINEERING (1110 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (148 journals)                  1 2     

ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access  
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Constructii : Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Geotechnics     Open Access  
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal  
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ingenio Magno     Open Access  
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ISRN Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ISRN Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Fire Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Structural Concrete
   [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1464-4177 - ISSN (Online) 1751-7648
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1603 journals]   [SJR: 0.311]   [H-I: 7]
  • Bond and anchorage of embedded steel reinforcement in the fib Model Code
    • Authors: John Cairns
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The paper describes the changes to design provisions for embedded steel reinforcement in the fib Model Code 2010. The changes introduce new coefficients for steel grade and for clear spacing between bars, and extend the range of concrete strengths covered. The way in which the contribution of hooks or anchorages is determined calculated has been revised and the contribution of end bearing to laps and anchorages of compression bars is recognised. The revised rules represent a move away from a distinction between laps and anchorages per se towards a distinction based on the presence or absence of transverse pressure perpendicular to the bar axis within the bond length. The benefits of staggering of laps with only a proportion of bars lapped at a section are reviewed. Finally, the potential impact of performance of laps and anchorages on structural robustness is discussed, and it is concluded that this can only be achieved if bar yield precedes splitting mode bond failures.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T06:30:07.305539-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400043
  • Experimental investigations on the punching behaviour of reinforced
           concrete footings with structural dimensions
    • Authors: Carsten Siburg; Josef Hegger
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Punching tests on 13 specimens under uniform soil pressure were conducted to evaluate the punching shear behaviour of footings with practical dimensions. The test series included square footings with and without punching shear reinforcement. The dimensions of the footings varied between 1.20 × 1.20 m and 2.70 × 2.70 m and the slab thickness varied between 0.45 and 0.65 m, resulting in shear span‐depth ratios aλ/d between approx. 1.25 and 2.00. In addition to the measured steel strains in the flexural reinforcement and the stirrups, the increase in the slab thickness as well as the saw‐cuts were examined to investigate the internal cracking and failure characteristic. In combination with previous tests conducted at RWTH Aachen University, this test series permits a description of the effect of the main parameters on the punching shear strength of footings. These parameters are the size effect of the effective depth, the concrete compressive strength, the flexural reinforcement ratio and the punching shear reinforcement.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T06:29:00.531401-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300083
  • Stochastic fracture‐mechanical parameters for the
           performance‐based design of concrete structures
    • Authors: Alfred Strauss; Thomas Zimmermann, David Lehký, Drahomír Novák, Zbyněk Keršner
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The experimental results for quasi‐brittle materials such as concrete and fibre‐reinforced concrete exhibit high variability due to the heterogeneity of their aggregates, additives and general composition. An accurate assessment of the fracture‐mechanical parameters of such materials (e.g. compressive strength fc and specific fracture energy Gf) turns out to be much more difficult and problematic than for other engineering materials. The practical design of quasi‐brittle material‐based structures requires virtual statistical approaches, simulations and probabilistic assessment procedures in order to be able to characterize the variability of these materials. A key parameter of non‐linear fracture mechanics modelling is the specific fracture energy Gf and its variability, which has been a research subject for numerous authors although we will mention only [1, 2] at this point. The aim of this contribution is the characterization of stochastic fracture‐mechanical properties of four specific, frequently used classes of concrete on the basis of a comprehensive experimental testing programme.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T06:27:39.802838-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300077
  • Influence of time‐dependent effects on the crack spacing in
           reinforced concrete beams
    • Authors: Arnaud Castel; Raymond Ian Gilbert
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper aims to put into perspective the influence of long‐term effects, such as concrete creep and shrinkage, on concrete cracking. Long‐term experimental results obtained at the Centre for Infrastructure Engineering & Safety (CIES) are reported and compared to design estimates made using the fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010. The influence of factors such as stirrup spacing and concrete cover are discussed. Results show that time‐dependent shrinkage‐induced cracking can considerably modify the cracking patterns obtained in short‐term tests. For crack control in real structures and for the development of models for inclusion in codes of practice, it is strongly recommended that account be taken of time‐dependent effects. Limiting observations to those made in short‐term tests may lead to erroneous conclusions that are simply not applicable for structures that are more than a few weeks old.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T06:25:41.771053-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300065
  • Design of Composite Slabs with Prepressed Embossments Using
           Small‐scale Tests
    • Authors: Josef Holomek; Miroslav Bajer, Jan Barnat, Pavel Schmid
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The load bearing capacity of steel and concrete composite slabs using thin‐walled steel sheeting with prepressed embossments is in most cases determined by its resistance in longitudinal shear. The designing of composite slabs still requires the performance of full‐scale laboratory bending tests. Small‐scale shear tests cannot include all of the influences affecting the bended slab but using an appropriate procedure the shear characteristics obtained from them can be used for determining the bending capacity of the slab. Two such procedures are compared in this paper. End constraints effectively increase the load bearing capacity of the composite slabs. Two different types of easily assembled additional end constraints are also tested and compared in this paper. Small‐scale tests are used to obtain their shear bearing characteristics and to predict the load bearing capacity of bended slabs using these constraints.
      PubDate: 2014-08-07T10:10:23.666635-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400042
  • Minimum flexural reinforcement in rectangular and T‐section concrete
    • Authors: Alberto Carpinteri; Erica Cadamuro, Mauro Corrado
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The prescriptions provided by codes of practice for assessing the minimum reinforcement amount for strength purposes in reinforced concrete beams usually disregard the non‐linear contribution of concrete in tension and size‐scale effects. In the present paper, these phenomena are taken into account correctly in the description of the flexural failure in lightly reinforced concrete beams by means of a numerical algorithm based on non‐linear fracture mechanics. In this context, the application of dimensional analysis permits a reduction in the number of governing parameters. In particular, it is demonstrated analytically that only two dimensionless parameters, referred to as reinforcement brittleness number and stress brittleness number, are responsible for the brittle‐to‐ductile transition in the mechanical response. According to this approach, new formulae suitable for evaluating the minimum reinforcement in practical applications is proposed for both rectangular and T‐sections. A comparison with experimental results demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed model for different reinforcement percentages and beam depths.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T06:05:34.535578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300056
  • Modelling, verification and investigation of behaviour of circular CFST
    • Authors: Pramod K. Gupta; Ashok K. Ahuja, Ziyad A. Khaudhair
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper is an attempt to provide a detailed procedure for the finite element modelling and simulation of concrete‐filled steel tubular (CFST) columns subjected to axial compression using the commercial software package ANSYS 12. A modified material model for modelling the concrete core is described and explained. Composite action is modelled between the concrete core and the steel tube and the procedure is presented with the recommended properties for modelling such behaviour. The proposed model is then validated by comparing its numerical results with selected experimental results available in the literature. The proposed model is used to investigate numerically the load transfer mechanism of CFST columns filled with different grades of concrete in order to study the effect of this parameter – i.e. compressive strength of concrete core – on the load transfer mechanism in such columns. Further, the proposed model has been employed for investigating the confining pressure provided by the steel tube on the concrete core along the length of the CFST column.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T05:51:43.089658-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300045
  • Extension of tabulated design parameters for rectangular columns exposed
           to fire taking into account second order effects and various fire models
    • Authors: Lijie Wang; Robby Caspeele, Ruben Van Coile, Luc Taerwe
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fire, as one of the most severe load conditions, has an important impact on concrete structures. It does not only affect the material strength, but also the structural stiffness and stability. A concrete column, compared to other structural members, has most often to cope both with vertical forces and bending moments transmitted by slabs and beams. Consequently, it is essential to find a reliable and practical way to establish interaction curves for the overall structural behaviour of concrete columns subjected to fire. In this paper, a cross‐section calculation method based on the material models of Eurocode 2 is explained and adopted to calculate interaction curves for a typical rectangular column exposed to the ISO834 standard fire. Subsequently, an iterative approach is introduced to develop interaction curves taking into account second order effects in case of four‐side heated fire exposure. The maximum permitted slenderness ratios of columns under different fire durations are obtained and compared with Eurocode 2 provisions. Finally, this method is applied to calculate the maximum permitted slenderness ratios for columns exposed to hydrocarbon fires and natural fires.
      PubDate: 2014-07-09T03:30:06.313185-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400002
  • Behaviour of fatigue loaded self‐compacting concrete compared to
           vibrated concrete
    • Authors: Sara Korte; Veerle Boel, Wouter De Corte, Geert De Schutter
      Abstract: Fatigue loading and its sometimes inevitable fatigue failure are well known phenomena for many civil engineering constructions. The behaviour of vibrated concrete (VC) under this type of loading is well understood. However, the fracture and fatigue resistance of self‐compacting concrete (SCC) is poorly documented in literature. Considering the substantially different composition of the two concrete types (VC and SCC), it is uncertain whether their mechanical properties are similar or not. This paper describes the results of a series of destructive static and cyclic four‐point bending tests on inverted Tshaped reinforced concrete beams, made from VC and SCC in equal quantities and of equal compressive strength. A comparison of the two concrete types is made, based on deflection, strain, crack width evolution and failure mechanism. The experiments prove that these mechanical properties of VC and SCC, subjected to a fatigue load, in some cases relate differently than in a static loading process. Furthermore, the results reveal a faster concrete strain and crack width development for SCC during the fatigue tests. Regarding the number of cycles to failure, the applied load level is crucial.
      PubDate: 2014-06-18T06:11:33.674643-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300085
  • Building bridges using the Balanced Lift Method
    • Authors: Johann Kollegger; Sara Foremniak, David Wimmer, Dominik Suza, Susanne Gmainer
      Abstract: This article explains the process of developing a new method called the balanced lift method, for the construction of bridges based on an alternative to bridge construction techniques that are used nowadays. The most common methods to build bridges are the ones using falsework or the cantilever method, but a rather uncommon method, the lowering of arches is seen as the origin of the balanced lift method. The idea was to create a method which would allow a bridge to be built in a very fast manner without the usage of falsework, using prefabricated elements and mounting all parts together in a position – in this case vertically – that would simplify the construction process. In order to reach the final state of the bridge, the vertically assembled parts are rotated into their final horizontal position. This article contains a description of the development of the method, a large scale test will be portrayed and two already designed bridges using the balanced lift method will be shown.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:20:20.475015-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400024
  • Bella Sky Hotel – Taking precast concrete to the limit
    • Authors: Kaare K. B. Dahl
      Abstract: The Bella Sky Hotel consists of two towers each leaning away from each other at an angle of 15 degrees. The basic principle is vertical load bearing walls with precast concrete hollow core deck slabs. At the ends of the building, inclined walls are used to carry the vertical walls above when they are undercut. At these junctions the horizontal forces induced by turning the vertical forces are huge, and needs to be transferred through the floors in to the longitudinal walls. The complexity of the structure comes from the number of openings in these walls for doors and services in conjunction with the enormity of the horizontal loads from the building lean. The use of precast elements meant that the forces had to be transferred through the joints in the elements. Severe reinforcement congestion along with most of the geometry through the building being unique, led to an enormous design and engineering effort required to produce a solution. The end result is a simple, elegant hotel structure which jumps into the record books as one of the most leaning buildings in the world.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:20:19.214536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400017
  • Recycling Concrete in Practice – A Chance for Sustainable Resource
    • Authors: Lamia Messari‐Becker; Angelika Mettke, Florian Knappe, Ulrich Storck, Klaus Bollinger, Manfred Grohmann
      Abstract: With about 30% of primary energy consumption and 15% of energy consumption caused‐carbon emissions in Germany the private households sector represent a key sector for the climate protection targets. While the primary energy consumption in buildings by means of regulations is limited, the production of carbon emissions‐intensive materials moves only slowly in the focus of the legislation, regulation and ultimately the perception of society. Considering a thermally conditioned building during his life cycle, the most environmental effects are during operation. Nevertheless, the grey energy of a concrete structure can add up to 20% in individual cases. Concrete as material causes due to the carbon‐intensive cement production relatively high environmental impacts. Logical options appear to substitute cement with so called by‐products or to use recycled additives. In fact, there are only a few projects that used a resource‐saving concrete. In 2010 in Ludwigshafen, one building of a group of buildings was chosen as the first building in Germany that was built almost completely out of recycled concrete without increasing the cement content. It is built as a low‐energy construction and in a zero carbon emission area. The project was accompanied scientifically by the Institute of Energy and Environmental Research in Heidelberg and the Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus. The buildings are the winner of the Construction Prize 2011 with the predicate best relation between quality and costs. The paper discusses integral aspects of the use of recycling concrete from a structural design, eco‐accounting and materials properties perspective. It shows potential and opportunities to a quality‐assured use of recycling concrete for a sustainable resource management.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:20:18.164477-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400010
  • Further Investigation of Transverse Stresses and Bursting Forces in
           Post‐Tensioned Anchorage Zones
    • Authors: Lin‐Yun Zhou; Zhao Liu, Zhi‐Qi He
      Abstract: In the post‐tensioned anchorage zone, the load transfer path of anchor force can be visualized by infinite number of Isostatic Lines of Compression (ILCs), which was initially proposed by Guyon and recently attracted significant interests from a number of researchers. Based on these predecessors' work, an updated mathematical model has been proposed to analyze the bursting forces and the distribution of transverse stresses in the anchorage zone. Compared with the results of finite element analysis, the updated equations have better accuracy than the previous ones. Based on the observation that the sixth‐order polynomial expression is better than the fourth‐order, so far as the solution of bursting stresses is concerned, it can be reasonably postulated that a de facto function of the ILCs must be in existence. Additionally, it is equally interesting that the bursting forces derived by the updated analytical model is the same as the formula given by the current AASHTO‐LRFD Bridge Design Specifications based on numerical stress analyses.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:20:17.066356-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400005
  • Institute of Concrete Structures, Ruhr‐Universität Bochum
           (RUB), Germany
    • Authors: Karsten Winkler; Peter Mark, Peter Heek, Sandra Rohländer, Simone Sommer
      Abstract: Experiments on large‐scale reinforced concrete members like beams or slabs with large effective depths are challenging and not least due to extensive material and financial efforts rarely performed. But, results from such experiments are strongly needed, as decisive size effects affect shear and punching shear failure types. At the Institute of Concrete Structures at the Ruhr‐Universität Bochum (RUB), an innovative test setup was elaborated following a principle of “upsizing by downsizing”. It transfers symmetry reductions – a standard feature in numerical simulations – to experiments. Thus, test loads and dead loads pronouncedly decrease proportional to the symmetry grade giving rise to larger specimen within given testing facilities. The setup enables tests on symmetrically sectioned concrete members – halved beams or quarters of slabs – concurrently implying load‐deformation behaviors of corresponding, i.e. full‐size members, by a simple factorization of loads with twice of the axial symmetry grade. The contribution presents the single steps of the development to test quartered slabs, including the modular bearing constructions with sliding planes and back anchorings of the bending reinforcement as well as the concrete specimen itself with interconnections to the symmetry planes, measuring techniques and its specific assembly. Results from a first prototype testing proof the general applicability in failure modes, crack pattern and kinematics. However, ultimate punching loads are slightly overestimated yet.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:20:14.592445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400022
  • Quality assessment of material models for reinforced concrete flexural
    • Authors: Bastian Jung; Guido Morgenthal, Dong Xu, Hendrik Schröter
      Abstract: Non‐linear constitutive models for concrete in compression are defined frequently in design codes. The engineer would generally use either the linear (in SLS) or the non‐linear (in ULS) compressive model. However, a large variety of different approaches exist in order to describe the behaviour of the cracked concrete tension zone and the selection of a corresponding model is usually based on qualitative engineering judgement. The aim of this paper is to assess the prediction quality of several concrete material models in order to provide a quantitative model selection. Therefore, uncertainty analysis is applied in order to investigate the model and parameter uncertainty in the bending stiffness prognosis for flexural members. The total uncertainty is converted into a prognosis model quality which allows the comparison between considered materials model in a quantitative manner. The consideration of the reinforced concrete in tension is based on the characterisation of the tension stiffening effect which describes the cracking in an average sense. No discrete crack simulations based on fracture mechanics are considered in the interest of the practical applicability of the considered models even for large structures. Finally, the assessment identify that the prediction quality depends on the loading level, and furthermore, the quality between the models can be quantitatively similar as well as diverse.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:10:18.537099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300066
  • Post‐installed reinforcement connections at ultimate and
           serviceability limit states
    • Authors: Norbert Randl; Jakob Kunz
      Abstract: When reinforcing bars are post‐installed in holes which were drilled into cured concrete, adhesive mortars are used to create bond between concrete and bars. Appropriate adhesives can develop higher bond strength than standard ribbed bars cast into concrete. A detailed design concept for the anchorage length of reinforcing bars has been developed by taking into account splitting / spalling of the concrete and pullout. Pullout and splitting tests on reinforcing bars set into concrete were carried out with different adhesive mortars and with varying concrete strength and concrete cover. When higher bond strengths than those recommended for cast‐in reinforcement are taken into account, it is important to check deformations and crack widths at serviceability limit state (SLS) separately. For this reason structural tests on slabs and corbels were carried out. Moreover, pullout tests on post‐installed reinforcing bars were performed in order to measure displacements at service load level.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:10:17.177734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300094
  • Serviceability Uncertainties in Flat Slabs
    • Authors: Richard Scott
      Abstract: Service load tests on the sixth floor of the full‐scale reinforced concrete building at BRE Cardington are described. Both deflections and reinforcement strains were measured. Finite element analyses of the floor slab were then undertaken using the measured material properties and four different models for the behaviour of the concrete in tension, the tension stiffening effect being known to influence slab behaviour significantly. Calculated deflections and reinforcement strains from the four analyses were compared with values measured in the load tests. As a consequence, comments, reservations and recommendations are made concerning the use of finite element analyses for predicting deflections and reinforcement strains. Finally, the need to appreciate and accommodate the indeterminate nature of many of the parameters involved is emphasised.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:10:15.755663-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300098
  • Bond behaviour of normal‐ and high‐strength recycled aggregate
    • Authors: M. John Robert Prince; Bhupinder Singh
      Abstract: The effect of concrete grade on bond between 12 mm diameter deformed steel bar and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) has been investigated with the help of forty‐five pullout tests with concentric rebar placement for coarse recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) replacement levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The measured bond‐slip relationships indicate similar mechanisms of bond resistance in the RAC and the natural aggregate (NA) concrete for all the grades and relatively the most accurate and least conservative predictions of the measured bond strengths were obtained from the local bond‐slip model in the fib Model Code 2010. Bond strength, when normalised to fc(3/4) gave an improved match with test data and increased with an increase in the RCA replacement levels and decreased with an increase in compressive strength and this behaviour has been sought to be explained in terms of brittleness index an analogous parameter from rock mechanics. An empirical bond stress‐versus‐slip relationship has been proposed for the 12 mm diameter bar and it is conservatively suggested that similar anchorage lengths for this bar in all the three concrete grades can be adopted for the RAC and the NA concretes.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:10:14.443622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300101
  • Contents: Structural Concrete 2/2014
    • PubDate: 2014-06-02T14:32:34.355138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490010
  • Cover Picture: Structural Concrete 2/2014
    • Abstract: The Norwegian Public Roads Administration started a programme named “National Tourist Routes in Norway” in 1994. Today it included 18 selected routes from south to north. The uniqueness of these attractions lies in the spectacular architecture found at the viewpoints, places of interest and visitor centres located amid magnificent scenery. The routes are carefully selected and allow tourists to enjoy some of the most spectacular scenery in the country. All are so unique that tourists automatically stop as they drive along, not just to admire the scenery, but also the special objects. Several of these objects are in concrete, and four are presented in the paper on pp. 117–128 in this issue (photo: Ole. H. Krokstrand).
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T14:32:30.479294-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490006
  • Aspects of imposed deformation in concrete structures – a condensed
    • Authors: Hans‐Wolf Reinhardt
      Abstract: Imposed deformation is a special case of loading which gets much less attention than mechanical loading due to external forces. However, imposed deformation can impair the serviceability of structures such as tightness and durability. Imposed deformations are due to shrinkage of concrete and temperature variations. The boundary conditions play an important role when analyzing stresses due to imposed deformation. The paper gives an overview.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08T05:10:09.330297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400014
  • Challenges for Concrete in Tall Buildings
    • Authors: Gordon Clark
      Abstract: Tall buildings present unique challenges both in terms of design and construction. The definition of tall is always a matter for debate and actually is related to the proportions of the building although the actual physical height does also result in other influences such as extreme lateral loading. Concrete features prominently in providing the structural material for most cores and framing options whereby stability of the structure is provided. The core of a tall building is important structurally as well as forming the spine for vertical transportation and services. There can be a wide choice of size and shape, which is dictated in part by the geometry of the building and the site. This paper focuses on some of the issues for concrete, which is a key material in tall building construction, and is based on some of the work of an fib task group which has been formed to bring together important guidance based on experience of design and construction.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08T04:40:12.581731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400011
  • Evaluation of models for estimating concrete strains due to drying
    • Authors: Yvonne Theiner; Andreas Andreatta, Günter Hofstetter
      Abstract: The present contribution focuses on a comparative study of shrinkage prediction models according to the European Standard Eurocode 2 (EC2), the recommendation by the ACI committee 209 and the fib Model Code 2010. Thereby the estimated ultimate drying shrinkage strains and the predicted evolution of drying shrinkage strains are compared with respective shrinkage strains measured on normal strength concrete specimens of different size. For all prediction models the estimated ultimate values are found to agree quite well with the ultimate drying shrinkage strains measured on thin concrete slices. Whereas the evolution of drying shrinkage strains measured on small concrete prisms agree quite well with the predicted values, for larger specimen sizes substantial differences between code values and experimental data are encountered.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08T04:40:11.623875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300082
  • Fire Resistance Performance of Steel Composite Hollow RC Column with Inner
           Tube under ISO‐834 Standard Fire
    • Authors: Deok Hee Won; Woo‐Sun Park, In‐Sung Jang, Sang‐Hun Han, Taek Hee Han
      Abstract: An internally confined hollow RC (ICH RC) column offers strong and durable confinement owing to the reinforcement provided by the inner tube. The strength and ductility of the column are enhanced because of the continuous confining stress provided by the inner tube. The excellent structural performance of ICH RC columns makes them particularly suitable for application in high‐rise buildings. However, if a high‐rise building is damaged by fire, it will be collapse without fire resistance performance. Also, damage of human life is occured by lack of evacuation. Thus, to predict the status of structures under fire, their behavior should be evaluated in terms of fire time. In this study, the fire resistance performance of an ICH RC column was analyzed during an ISO‐834 standard fire and certain starting conditions. Furthermore, the effects of the hollow ratio, thickness of inner tube, and thickness of cover concrete on fire resistance performance were analyzed. These results could be used for designing fire‐resistant ICH RC columns.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08T04:40:10.698126-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300067
  • Punching shear design of footings: critical review of different code
    • Authors: Carsten Siburg; Marcus Ricker, Josef Hegger
      Abstract: In 2012, Eurocode 2 and the corresponding National Annex were introduced in Germany. Most of the design provisions for these new standards were adopted from Model Code 1990 and provide a new design approach for ground slabs and footings. For Model Code 2010, the punching shear design concept was revised and introduced in the Swiss standard SIA262:2013. In this paper, the design equations for the determination of the punching capacity according to Eurocode 2, the German National Annex to Eurocode 2, Model Code 2010, and SIA 262:2013 are presented in detail. Parametric studies have been used to examine the influence of the main parameters (shear span‐depth ratio, effective depth, longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and concrete compressive strength) on the punching shear resistance of footings. To quantify the safety level and the efficiency, the design provisions are compared to systematic test series.
      PubDate: 2014-04-17T10:10:30.147497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300092
  • Dynamically loaded Concrete Structures
    • Authors: Susanne Urban; Alfred Strauss, Robert Schütz, Konrad Bergmeister, Christian Dehlinger
      Abstract: Considering dynamically loaded concrete structures, the determination of the real degree of fatigue damage of a structure on‐site is a very demanding process and is not explored in depth. Calculation concepts according to actual Codes and Specifications (e.g. CEB‐FIP Model Code 2010) do not offer efficient results to this task. However, the permanent monitoring from the erection of a structure up to the end of its lifetime is seen as a very promising possibility to assess constantly the degree of damage. This article takes a closer look at the concrete fatigue concept of the Model Code 2010, shows a FE‐simulation of a time depending fatigue process of an offshore‐foundation for wind energy plants and presents a fatigue monitoring concept including laboratory tests, which enables the detection of the real degree of deterioration of a concrete structure. During tests the use of ultrasound could be identified as the most appropriate method. Measuring wave velocity enables the determination of the dynamic E‐Modulus, which correlates to the degree of damage within the considered cross section of the structure.
      PubDate: 2014-03-13T05:40:33.258398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300095
  • A new predictive model to the bond strength of FRP‐to‐concrete
           composite joints
    • Authors: Majid Abdellahi; Javad Heidari, Marayam Bahmanpour
      Abstract: In this work, gene expression programming, as a new tool, has been utilized to predicting the bond strength of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP)‐to‐concrete composite joints as the performance symbol of this structure. A number of 238 data were collected from the literature, and divided into 192 and 46 sets, randomly, then trained and tested by GEP means, respectively. The parameters including Width of prism, Concrete cylinder compressive strength, Width of FRP, Thickness of FRP, Modulus of elasticity of FRP, and Bond length were used as input parameters. According to these input parameters, in the gene expression programming model, the bond strength of FRP‐to‐concrete composite joints in different conditions was predicted. The training and testing results in the gene expression programming model have shown that gene expression programming is a powerful tool for predicting the bond strength values of the FRP‐to‐concrete composite joints in the considered range.
      PubDate: 2014-03-13T05:40:32.103549-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300093
  • Analytical and numerical evaluation of the design shear resistance of
           reinforced concrete slabs
    • Authors: Beatrice Belletti; Cecilia Damoni, Max A.N. Hendriks, Ane de Boer
      Abstract: The aim of this research is to compare the predictions of the design load carrying capacity of slabs obtained with simplified analytical and numerical procedures, usable by analysts in the current design process. The research fits into a research program driven by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment for the re‐examination of the load carrying capacity of existing bridges and viaducts, and of their composing beams and slabs, through the use of nonlinear finite‐element analyses. The behaviour of reinforced‐concrete slabs subjected to concentrated loads close to their supports is in this contribution investigated. Three tests from a series of 18 slabs with a total of 108 tests, tested at Delft University of Technology were selected as cases studies and analyzed with nonlinear finite‐element analyses, as well as with analytical models either proposed by the standard codes or available in the literature. The research well matches with the philosophy of the Model Code 2010 that offers different analytical and numerical calculation methods for the evaluation of the design shear resistance of reinforced concrete members according to different levels of approximation. For the three slabs used in this study, it indeed pays off to use higher levels of approximation. The highest level (“level IV”) based on non linear finite element analysis gives the highest design load resistance, still well below the experimentally obtained resistance.
      PubDate: 2014-03-13T05:30:30.214905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300069
  • Biaxial Behavior of Plain Concrete Subjected to Dynamic Compression with
           Constant Lateral Stress
    • Authors: Dongming Yan; Shilang Xu, Genda Chen, Hedong Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this study, the dynamic biaxial behavior of concrete is investigated with testing of over 60 cubic specimens on a custom‐designed, servo‐hydraulic controlled machine. Each specimen was axially loaded in compression at a constant strain rate of 10‐5 sec‐1, 10‐4 sec‐1, 10‐3 sec‐1 or 10‐2 sec‐1 while two opposite side faces were subjected to a constant confining pressure and the other two side faces were free. The confining pressure applied on each specimen was 0, 30.5%, 61.0% or 91.5% of its uniaxial compressive strength. Test results indicated that the biaxial strength of concrete increased with strain rate at a reduced slope as the confining pressure increases. The failure mode of concrete specimens was basically unaffected by strain rate. An empirical relation for the ultimate strength of concrete in biaxial stress state was developed, taking into account the effects of both confinement and strain rate.
      PubDate: 2014-01-23T03:11:58.957677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300057
  • Effect of Welding Heat on Precast Steel Composite Hollow Columns
    • Authors: Deok Hee Won; Woo Sun Park, Jin‐Hak Yi, Sang‐Hun Han, Taek Hee Han
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Steel composite hollow columns are researched for easing construction. Welding or bolting are mostly used for connecting the steel tubes of precast steel composite hollow columns. However, welding generally results in temperatures of about 20,000°C in the welding zone and 1,300°C around the welding zone. Thus, the strength of concrete in the regions close to a welding zone is reduced. In this paper, the effects of arc welding and electro‐slag welding, two widely used welding methods for connecting the column modules of hollow, composite steel composite columns, on the temperature change in the welding zone were studied by performing heat transfer analysis. The changes in the strength of concrete are investigated for each welding method. The rate of decrease in concrete strength due to electro‐slag welding was larger than that due to arc welding. In addition, an effective method is suggested for preventing strength reduction of concrete using ceramic fiber by welding heat.
      PubDate: 2014-01-14T07:30:13.63352-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300060
  • The service life of any structure is due to the genius of the engineer who
           designs it – and should not be at the expense of the engineer
           maintaining it.
    • Authors: Konrad Bergmeister
      First page: 115
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T14:32:31.760008-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490011
  • Splendid concrete architecture in National Tourist Routes in Norway
    • Authors: Ole H. Krokstrand; Reiulf Ramstad, Carl‐Viggo Hölmebakk
      First page: 117
      Abstract: The Norwegian Public Roads Administration started a programme named “National Tourist Routes in Norway” in 1994. Today it includes 18 selected routes from south to north. The uniqueness of these attractions lies in the spectacular architecture found at the viewpoints, places of interest and visitor centres located amid magnificent scenery. The aim of the tourist routes was to strengthen Norway's position in the marketing of international tourism and to help promote local business. The routes are carefully selected and allow tourists to enjoy some of the most spectacular scenery in the country. Young Norwegian sculptors and architects, and a few renowned ones from abroad too, were invited to take up the challenge of creating unique viewing platforms, service buildings, footbridges, ramps, benches and stairs to be placed along the different routes. All are so unique that tourists automatically stop as they drive along, not just to admire the scenery, but also the special objects. Several of these objects are in concrete, and four are presented below. (Map references for the individual projects are listed for easy searching on Google Earth)
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T14:32:28.144092-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300080
  • Cracking performance of SCC reinforced with recycled fibres – an
           experimental study
    • Authors: Giancarlo Groli; Alejandro Pérez Caldentey, Alejandro Giraldo Soto
      First page: 136
      Abstract: This paper presents an experimental campaign aiming to assess the cracking behaviour of flexural members made with self‐compacting concrete (SCC) and reinforced with both rebars and steel fibres recycled from end‐of‐life tyres (ELT). The characteristics, constructability and performance of this new type of fibre are first discussed. The results of the tests carried out are then presented and discussed. The parameters that have been investigated are: ϕ/ρs,ef, concrete cover and fibre content. The results obtained show improvement in cracking behaviour, especially for low reinforcement ratios and large covers. Results are compared with the predictions of the recently published fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010. The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the efficiency of a new type of fibre technology for crack width control of RC elements, with advantages in sustainability from the point of view of recycling and durability.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08T04:41:49.691485-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300008
  • Sensitivity analysis of the early‐age cracking risk in an immersed
    • Authors: Xian Liu; Yong Yuan, Quanke Su
      First page: 179
      Abstract: Engineers know only too well that early‐age cracking accounts for the decrease of long‐term serviceability for a majority of infrastructure. In immersed tunnels, early‐age cracks may leave paths for aggressive media, which lead to deterioration and thus compromise durability. On the other hand, the cracking risk in concrete structures depends on a number of factors, such as material properties, construction methods, curing measures, etc., which make decisions complex. This work presents the results of a sensitivity analysis of early‐age behaviour for an immersed tunnel cast in situ. Numerical modelling and local sensitivity methods are employed to evaluate the sensitivity of early‐age cracking to casting temperature, formwork conductivity, formwork removal time, curing temperature and ambient temperature. The numerical results indicate that the casting and curing temperatures appear to be the most dominant factors with regard to the whole fabrication period. This study provides a realistic method for determining the uncertainty analysis of concrete structures at an early age, and identifies the most important factors during the fabrication of immersed tunnel segments, which is beneficial for further decisions related to the control of early‐age cracking.
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T14:32:28.502418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300064
  • Water permeability of concrete under uniaxial tension
    • Authors: Yong Yuan; Yang Chi
      First page: 191
      Abstract: Concrete structures can suffer from water permeating under stresses. This paper investigates the surface water permeability of reinforced concrete elements subjected to uniaxial tension. A testing system was developed to combine a conventional loading machine with a surface permeameter. To eliminate the effect of initial absorption of water, calibration tests were conducted on plain concrete samples with different surface saturated states. The experiment presented is designed to test the surface water permeability of a structural member under uniaxial tension. Specimens were reinforced centrally with different sizes of steel bar and fabricated with normal‐strength and high‐strength concrete. A uniaxial tensile load was applied from 0.10 to 0.80 of estimated ultimate cracking load in 0.10 increments. At the same time, water permeability was measured at each load step. Test results give the relationship between water permeability of concrete member and tensile load levels.
      PubDate: 2014-05-12T09:29:34.544434-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300059
  • Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete T‐beams with fully or
           partially bonded fibre‐reinforced polymer composites
    • Authors: Sevket Ozden; Hilal M. Atalay, Erkan Akpinar, Hakan Erdogan, Yılmaz Zafer Vulaş
      First page: 229
      Abstract: A series of 10 reinforced concrete T‐beams, designed deficient in shear, were tested in order to investigate the shear performance achieved through externally applied U‐shaped FRP composite strips. Key variables of the study were: type of FRP composite, type of surface bonding and type of end anchorage for the strips. Carbon fibre‐reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fibre‐reinforced polymer (GFRP) and high modulus of elasticity carbon fibre‐reinforced polymer (Hi‐CFRP) strips were the special composite types with different elastic moduli, full or partial bonding of the strips to the beam surface were the variables for the type of surface bonding. All partially bonded FRP strips were free from surface bonding, whereas epoxy‐bonded FRP anchors were used at their ends close to the slab‐to‐beam connection. Those strips with full surface bonding have either epoxy‐bonded FRP anchors at their ends or the strip ends were without anchorage. The test results revealed that shear‐deficient beams may well be strengthened by the externally applied FRP strips. However, the level of strength enhancement and the failure pattern is closely influenced by the composite's elastic modulus, the type of surface bonding and the type of end anchorage for the FRP strip itself. The enhancement of the Hi‐CFRP strips did not live up to expectations. The use of unbonded FRP for shear strengthening yielded promising results.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08T04:42:00.043237-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300031
  • Correction to: Non‐linear analysis of statically indeterminate SFRC
           columns. Structural Concrete
    • First page: 268
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T14:32:28.441203-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490007
  • fib‐news: Structural Concrete 2/2014
    • First page: 269
      Abstract: New structure of fib's Commissions and Task Groups; International Workshop on Concrete Sustainability and K. Sakai's retirement; G. Clark and G. Balázs attend ACI Spring Convention; fib Commission 5 Durability seminar; Recent awards and honours; Jan Bobrowski †; Congresses and symposia; Acknowledgement
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T14:32:34.46323-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490008
  • Structural Concrete 3/2014
    • First page: 276
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T14:32:29.280191-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490009
  • Review of possible mineral materials and production techniques for a
           building material on the moon
    • Authors: Sebastian Wilhelm; Manfred Curbach
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The article provides an overview of findings and production processes of various mineral materials which have been developed and tested worldwide in the past with regard to the establishment of a lunar base. At the beginning, the aim and procedure of constructing a lunar base will be outlined briefly. Subsequently, the lunar environment factors and their influence on a possible construction will be described. Then the advantages and disadvantages of examined materials such as sulfur concrete, cast basalt, lunar concrete or polymer concrete, on the one hand, as well as previously investigated production processes like sintering, geothermite reaction and 3D printing, on the other hand, are presented. One promising method is the Dry‐Mix/Steam‐Injection method for producing a lunar concrete as a possible material which is based on cement made from lunar resources developed by T. D. Lin.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T09:20:16.709418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300088
  • Applications of Non‐contact Senor (IBIS‐S) and Finite Element
           Method in Assessment of Bridge Deck Structures
    • Authors: Amir M. Alani; Morteza Aboutalebi, Gökhan Kiliç
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The main objective of this investigation is to provide an alternative method for damage detection and assessment of bridge structures based on comparisons between Finite Element (FE) modelling/analysis and field data. The field data reported in this paper refers to the application of a non‐destructive structural testing method (IBIS‐S sensor system – displacement/movement detecting sensors with interferometric capabilities) and inspections by visualisation. The developed FE models presented in this study demonstrate certain degrees of reliability in terms of predicting mechanical behaviour of the bridge structure under investigation. The FE models were developed using the ANSYS software package. This investigation also provides a detailed report on application of the field survey that was carried out on a rather heavily used bridge located in Chatham, Kent, UK. The reported field data concerning the IBIS‐S sensors correspond to subjecting the bridge to different static and dynamic loading conditions. The static and dynamic structural responses of the bridge were created by driving a lorry up and down the bridge. Then the same loading conditions were simulated using the developed FE model verifying the sensitivity of the model. This FE model was then used to study the response of the bridge to other loading conditions. It is believed that the proposed method could potentially be utilised in assessing bridge structures within the context of the health monitoring of structures.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T09:10:26.148088-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201200020
  • Effect of bond degradation due to corrosion – literature survey
    • Authors: Giuseppe Mancini; Francesco Tondolo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Bond can play an important role in assessment of existing structures, particularly when corrosion of reinforcement is to be expected. Bond tests results on corroded bars embedded in concrete are not yet fully exhaustive for the definition of bond degradation by effect of corrosion of reinforcement. Structural effects of bond degradation can assume different importance following the resisting mechanism that is activated within the structure. A critical review of the available data is presented; some aspects as the embedment length, corrosion rate and type of test are analyzed.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T09:10:24.88945-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300009
  • Fatigue Life of RC Beams Strengthened with FRP Systems
    • Authors: Leila Cristina Meneghetti; Mônica Regina Garcez, Luiz Carlos Pinto da Silva Filho, Francisco de Paula Simões Lopes Gastal, Túlio Nogueira Bittencourt
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fiber Reinforced Polymers have been successfully used in the rehabilitation of concrete structures in the form of externally bonded reinforcement. Although many data has been produced on the performance of strengthened RC structures, the reliability of strengthened structures can be significantly reduced due to the variability in the FRP properties, especially when wet layup technique is used. In addition to this, structural engineers are concerned about the durability of the FRP strengthened structures under extreme loading conditions. Nonetheless, knowledge of the behaviour of strengthened elements under fatigue loading may be important to increase the confidence of the strengthening systems. This paper presents the results of an experimental program developed to investigate the behaviour of RC beams strengthened with high performance carbon and aramid fiber sheets submitted to static and cyclic loadings, regarding ultimate loads, deflections, cracking behaviour, failure modes and fatigue life by means of loading, cracking opening and deflections monitoring, up to failure. Experimental data of fatigue life were used to validate analytical models developed for strengthened and unstrengthened beams.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T09:10:23.578416-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300017
  • Residual modulus of elasticity and maximum compressive strain of HSC and
           FRHSC after high stress level cyclic loading
    • Authors: Miguel A. Vicente Cabrera; Dorys C. González Cabrera, Jesús Mínguez Algarra, José A. Martínez Martínez
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper discusses the residual modulus of elasticity and maximum compressive strain of high strength concrete and fiber reinforced high strength concrete after being subjected to axial high stress level cyclic loading. This paper presents a specific procedure to evaluate the residual values of these mechanical parameters of concrete specimens. This procedure reveals that there is not a monotonic decrease of the residual modulus of elasticity with number of cycles. In all cases, an initial decrease occurs. Then, an increase and, finally, another decrease happen. Similarly, there is not a monotonic increase of the residual maximum compressive strain. The results show substantial changes in both the residual modulus of elasticity and the residual maximum compressive strain of concrete depending on the number of cycles. These variations are due to the combined action of two phenomena of concrete: microcracking and reconsolidation of concrete microstructure.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T09:10:22.249576-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300032
  • Validation of post‐tensioning anchorage zones by laboratory testing
           and numerical simulation
    • Authors: Vladimir Cervenka; Hans Rudolf Ganz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Anchorage zones in post‐tensioned concrete structures offered by construction industry are subject to a certification process, which checks its compliance with codes of practice and safety requirements. This certification is based on load transfer tests of specimens, which represent the real actual structural solutions. Such tests can be supplemented by numerical simulations based on computational mechanics. Such simulations offer a powerful tool for interpretation of test results and contribute to a better understanding of structural behaviour of anchorage zones.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T09:10:21.074419-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300038
  • Effect of old adhered mortar on creep of recycled aggregate concrete
    • Authors: Yuhui Fan; Jianzhuang Xiao, Vivian W.Y. Tam
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper first presents an experimental study on shrinkage and creep behavior of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) with different recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) replacement percentages (i.e. 0%, 33%, 66%, 100%). From the experimental results, it is found that increasing the RCA replacement percentages can increase the shrinkage and creep of RAC. A calculated method of old adhered mortar creep behavior is also proposed by analyzing the influence mechanism of creep and the volume content of old adhered mortar on creep of RAC. It is found that the RAC creep is significantly influence by old adhered mortar properties and its volume contents. Finally, a calculated model of RAC creep is established by considering the influence of mechanical properties and creep behaviors of old adhered mortar. It is proved that this model can calculate the creep of RAC.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T09:10:19.787848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300055
  • Experimental, analytical and numerical analysis of the pullout behavior of
           steel fibers considering different fiber types, inclinations and concrete
    • Authors: Rolf Breitenbücher; Günther Meschke, Fanbing Song, Yijian Zhan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The pullout behavior of single steel fibers embedded in a concrete matrix is investigated for various configurations of fiber types and embedment lengths and angles, respectively, by means of laboratory tests and analytical models. Laboratory tests on fiber pullout are performed to investigate the fiber‐matrix bond mechanisms. Parameters influencing the fiber pullout response, such as fiber shape, fiber tensile strength, concrete strength and fiber inclination angle are systematically studied. From the experimental results, the effect of these parameters on the pullout force versus displacement relationship, fiber efficiency and fiber/matrix failure response is analyzed. For the analytical modeling of the fiber pullout behavior of straight fibers, an interface law is proposed for the frictional behavior between the fiber and matrix. In the case of inclined fibers, also the plastic deformation of the fiber and the local damage of concrete are considered. For hook‐ended fibers, the anchorage effect due to the hook is analyzed. By combining these sub‐models, the pullout response of single fibers embedded in a concrete matrix is predicted. In addition, numerical simulations of pullout tests are performed to obtain insight in the local fiber‐concrete interactions and to provide supporting information for the analytical modeling. The models are successfully validated with the experimental results.
      PubDate: 2013-11-06T05:10:16.260466-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300058
  • Investigation of bond behaviour between recycled aggregate concrete and
           deformed steel bars
    • Authors: M. John Robert Prince; Bhupinder Singh
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The results of forty‐five pullout tests carried out using 8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm diameter deformed steel bars concentrically embedded in recycled aggregate concrete designed using equivalent mix proportions with coarse recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) replacement levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% are reported. Although consistent results were not obtained for the 8 mm bars, the normalized bond strengths of the 10 mm and the 12 mm bars across all the RCA replacement levels were higher for the RCA concretes compared to the natural coarse aggregate concrete and they increased with RCA replacement levels. Brittleness index, an analogous parameter from rock mechanics, has been shown to be a relevant predictor of the measured bond strengths. An empirical bond stress‐versus‐slip relationship has been proposed and it has been conservatively suggested that anchorage lengths of the 10 mm and the 12 mm diameter deformed bars in recycled aggregate concrete may be taken the same as in natural aggregate concrete.
      PubDate: 2013-11-06T05:10:15.226375-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300042
  • Robustness based performance assessment of a pre‐stressed concrete
    • Authors: Jan Podrouzek; Alfred Strauss, Konrad Bergmeister
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The life‐cycle civil engineering addresses among others the growing number of deteriorating bridges and the associated economic challenges. In consequence, Government bodies, infrastructure and bridge owners as well as the industry request objective and rational performance indicators for classification and intervention planning in structural engineering. This paper focuses on a methodology for analyzing the damage‐based robustness margins of bridge systems under traffic loading. In particular, a series of emergent deterioration‐based damage scenarios are compared to the actual or virgin state in terms of load bearing capacity and serviceability. Non‐linear finite element analysis based on a detailed 3‐D model has a high potential for capturing the available bridge capacity at different degradation phenomena and levels, serving as an input for further reliability‐based performance indicators. Notwithstanding, costs associated with fully probabilistic assessment measures are still prohibitive despite the technological advancement and new methods of reducing the sample size in Monte Carlo computations. In addition, considering the large uncertainties and imprecisions involved, it is imperative that probabilistic schemes are considered over deterministic assessment. The objective of this article is to present strategies for robustness based performance assessment using nonlinear modeling and to discuss relevant reliability‐based quantities and performance indicators in relation to structural damage, at the example of specific degradation events in an existing prestressed box‐girder bridge. Furthermore some strategies are developed on the basis of the novel approach for general complex engineering structures.
      PubDate: 2013-11-06T05:10:13.641115-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300002
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