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CIVIL ENGINEERING (150 journals)                  1 2     

ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access  
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access  
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access  
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Constructii : Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Geotechnics     Open Access  
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal  
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ingenio Magno     Open Access  
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ISRN Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ISRN Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Fire Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Structural Concrete
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [10 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1464-4177 - ISSN (Online) 1751-7648
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1604 journals]   [SJR: 0.311]   [H-I: 7]
  • Pneumatic forming of hardened concrete – building shells in the 21st
    • Authors: Benjamin Kromoser; Johann Kollegger
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Double curved shells, used as supporting structures, are strong and material saving. Major parts of the applied loads can be carried by normal forces. Thus, the stresses are very uniformly and efficiently distributed over the entire cross section and large spans with small thicknesses can be built. The state of the art in the construction of shell structures is characterised by high labour input for formwork and falsework. A new construction method without formwork and falsework was invented at the Institute for Structural Engineering at Vienna University of Technology. The idea of this new construction method is to build concrete shells with double curvature originating from an initially plane plate. During the transformation process, the hardened concrete plate is lifted and the elements are bent with the aid of a pneumatic formwork until the required curvature is reached. Non‐linear Finite Element calculations, tension tests, bending tests and bonding tests were carried out in order to determine a suitable combination of concrete and reinforcement. In the second part of the paper a large scale experiment for the erection of a 17.6 × 10.8 m span and 2.9 m height free formed shell is presented. Finally, different application‐areas for the newly invented method are explained.
      PubDate: 2014-10-24T04:40:13.006359-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400057
  • Self‐repair of thermal cracks in concrete sandwich panels
    • Authors: Kim Van Tittelboom; Elke Gruyaert, Pieter De Backer, Wim Moerman, Nele De Belie
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: While the use of insulated concrete sandwich panels results in more energy efficient buildings, the presence of this insulation layer can induce thermal crack formation. As cracks form a preferential path for aggressive agents to enter and degrade the concrete matrix and as they are not wanted in this application from an aesthetical point of view, they need to be treated. In this study it was aimed to invisibly seal the cracks in concrete sandwich panels in an autonomous way. Therefore, the efficiency of various encapsulated healing agents was compared by inducing thermal cracks in concrete sandwich panels causing capsule breakage and thus release of the agents into the cracks. It was shown that encapsulation of both polyurethane and a water repellent agent can result in a reduction of the water uptake by cracks, however, only in the case a water repellent agent was released, cracks were healed in an almost invisible way. From this study, it was shown that the self‐healing approach consisting of encapsulated polymer based healing agents can also be applied in concrete sandwich panels although more research will be needed to meet the specific healing requirements for this application.
      PubDate: 2014-10-24T04:30:09.44029-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400055
  • A design approach for tunnels exposed to blast and fire
    • Authors: Matteo Colombo; Paolo Martinelli, Marco di Prisco
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: In this work, a design procedure based on a simplified FE model for underground tunnels subjected to internal explosion eventually preceded by fire accidents is proposed. The procedure can provide a valuable tool for designers for checking the structural tunnel safety in case of an internal blast event. The tunnel geometry considered is that adopted for the Brescia metro line (Italy). It has an inner diameter of about 8.15 m, a length of about 13.7 km and is located from about 23.1 m below the surface. Six segments and a smaller key segment (6+1) compose the tunnel. The ring has an average width of about 1.5 m. The FE model is firstly tested under serviceability static loads. Dynamic analyses are carried out in order to reproduce the blast scenario. The aim of this work is the generation of pressure‐impulse (p‐i) diagrams for underground tunnel in case of internal explosion and pre‐explosion fire actions. An ultimate limit state criterion based on eccentric ultimate flexural capacity and capable to include fire‐blast interaction is introduced. An innovative layered precast tunnel segment solution made of different fibre‐reinforced cementitious composites is compared with a traditional solution where the lining section is made of R/C. The potentialities of this new solution are discussed in the paper.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T06:24:01.933511-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400052
  • Flexural behavior of recycled aggregate concrete gradient slabs
    • Authors: Jianzhuang Xiao; Chang Sun, Xinghan Jiang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new concept of ‘recycled aggregate concrete gradient slabs’, through which gradient distribution for mechanical properties of the Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC) can be achieved. In this study, one four‐point bending test was applied to investigate six RAC gradient slabs and three homogeneous slabs with RAC. The major parameters considered are the layers with different Recycled Coarse Aggregates (RCAs) replacement percentage (0%, 50% and 100%), the gradient pattern (different casting methods) and the reinforcement ratio. It has been concluded that RAC gradient slabs have similar flexural behavior to that of homogeneous slabs with RAC. The reinforcement ratio, the layers with different RCAs replacement percentage and the gradient pattern can influence the flexural behavior of RAC gradient slabs. Furthermore, the effects of the three factors on both the flexural capacity and the deflection of the RAC gradient slabs were studied by the Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation with the software of ABAQUS. Both the experiments and the FEM analysis indicate that the flexural behavior of RAC gradient slabs can be improved by this suitable gradient method.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T06:24:00.30028-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400008
  • Consideration of strength and size of beam‐column joints in the
           design of RC frames
    • Authors: Ricardo Costa; Paulo Providência, Alfredo Dias
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Some experimental research studies reported that the longitudinal reinforcement of beams and columns shows larger strains inside the joint than at the joint periphery (defined as the intersection of the outer surfaces of beam and column) – this may explain why several technical specifications and state‐of‐the‐art programs recommend to base the design of beams and columns on values of the internal forces larger than those at the joint periphery. These results and procedures are questionable and are investigated in this paper. The presented non‐linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete frames under gravity and quasi‐static monotonic lateral loads examines (i) the stress fields in reinforcement inside interior, exterior and roof exterior joints and (ii) the load carrying capacity of representative sub‐frame models incorporating such joints. The results prove that it is actually safe, with respect to the joint load capacity, to base the design of the longitudinal reinforcement of beams and columns on the value of the internal forces at the joint periphery; this result also contributes to the recommendation of real size beam column joint models in the analysis procedure.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T02:40:09.18929-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400054
  • Derivation of the σ‐w relationship for SFRC from prism bending
    • Authors: Ali Amin; Stephen J. Foster, Aurelio Muttoni
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The material characterization of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC), which is required for its implementation in design codes, should be based on nominal properties that describe its post‐cracking strength in tension. In the case of brittle and quasi‐brittle materials, such as concrete, the tensile parameters are often derived indirectly; however, for materials with more ductility, such as SFRC, there is conjecture as to whether or not an indirect measure may be used to establish the stress versus crack opening displacement relationship, such as the use of a three‐ or four‐point prism test combined with an inverse analysis. In this paper a simple and efficient inverse analysis technique is developed and shown to compare well with data obtained from direct tension tests. Furthermore, the methodology proposed by the fib Model Code 2010 was investigated and recommendations made to improve its accuracy.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T02:40:07.922172-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400018
  • Eurocode 2 – Analysis of National Annexes
    • Authors: Anett Ignatiadis; Frank Fingerloos, Josef Hegger, Frederik Teworte
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Eurocode 2 consists of four parts which have to be applied in conjunction with the respective National Annexes of the CEN‐member states. The National Annexes were introduced particularly to maintain the national safety level and to account for regional aspects in the different states. The CEN (European Committee for Standardization) will revise and extend all Structural Eurocodes up to 2018. As part of that process two main objectives for revising Eurocodes have been formulated, namely the reduction of the number of Nationally Determined Parameters (NDP) and the improvement of “ease of use”. In order to reduce the number of NDP, improve the ease of use and allow for a further harmonisation without changing the main structure and the design models of Eurocode 2, the National Annexes of EN 1992‐1‐1 of the different CEN‐member states were compared and analysed. Furthermore, the analysis of the National Annexes may help to identify some main aspects for the revision of Eurocode 2. This paper summarises the analysis of the National annexes of EN 1992‐1‐1 and makes first proposals for a further harmonisation.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T09:40:17.270322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400060
  • Minimum Reinforcement of Concrete Members regarding Hardening Caused
           Stresses and Member Dimensions
    • Authors: Dirk Schlicke; Nguyen Viet Tue
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The minimum reinforcement for crack width control of restrained concrete members is directed in the actual design code EC2 [1] by the limitation of the steel strain at taking up the cracking force of the cross section or relevant parts of it. But with the simplification of a restricted view on the cross section, this approach is unable to cover the central problem of restraint stressing. Hence, the consistent application of this approach can lead to high reinforcement amounts and was therefore empirically modified according to the practical experience, see [2]. But in particular, the main modification of a limited tensile strength seems very dubious as the primarily affected members are thick and have therefore a late cracking time with a strong developed tensile strength. Finally, this circumstance leaves the structural designer in a dilemma of being uneconomic or having no mechanical proof in a possible case of damage. However, the mechanically consistent estimation of the minimum reinforcement for crack width control can be achieved by considering the deformation compatibility of the restrained member, see [3]. And with the introduction of [4] this deformation based design concept became already state of the art for massive concrete members of water buildings. This contribution presents the general application of the deformation based design concept based on the findings of [5]. Concluding, the reliability and the practicability of this approach will be exemplified by the deformation based minimum reinforcement design of a massive trough structure.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T05:10:15.345894-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400058
  • Thin‐walled shell structure made of textile reinforced concrete
    • Authors: Alexander Scholzen; Rostislav Chudoba, Josef Hegger
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The present paper describes the dimensioning approach for textile reinforced concrete (TRC) shells capturing the interaction between normal forces and bending moments based on the experimentally determined cross‐sectional strength characteristics of the material. The influence of oblique loading on the composite strength of TRC elements with flexible reinforcement is included in a normalized interaction diagram for combined loading. The dimensioning approach is exemplified for the ultimate limit state assessment of a doubly curved TRC shell. Furthermore, the general applicability of the dimensioning approach is discussed in the light of the non‐linear load‐bearing behaviour of TRC. Due to its strain‐hardening tensile response stress redistributions within the shell result in load‐bearing reserves. Details of the structural design and manufacturing solutions developed and applied during the realisation of the TRC shell structure are described in the companion paper (Part I).
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T05:10:13.685221-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400046
  • Five‐spring model for complete shear behaviour of deep beams
    • Authors: Boyan Mihaylov
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper presents a five‐spring model capable of predicting the complete pre‐ and post‐peak shear behaviour of deep beams. The model stems from a two‐parameter kinematic theory (2PKT) for the shear strength and displacement capacity of deep beams under single curvature. Four of the springs of the model represent the mechanisms of shear resistance of the beam, while the fifth spring models the flexural behaviour. The model predicts not only the load‐displacement response, but also the deformation patterns of the beam and how these patterns change with increasing loads. Validation studies are performed by using 28 tests from the literature showing excellent results. The model is used to interpret the tests and to draw conclusions on the behaviour of deep beams. It is shown that shear strength variations of up to 60% between nominally identical specimens can be caused by variations in the path of the critical shear cracks. It is also demonstrated that loss of bond of large reinforcing bars increases the shear capacity of deep beams. Finally, the five‐spring model is shown to effectively predict the post‐peak shear behaviour, which is important for the analysis of structures under extreme loading.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T05:10:11.792529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400044
  • On the use of European and American building codes with low‐strength
           cement‐based composites
    • Authors: Francois Duplan; Ariane Abou‐Chakra, Anaclet Turatsinze, Gilles Escadeillas, Stephane Brule, Emmanuel Javelaud, F. Masse
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The standard European building specifications, grouped in a 9‐volume Eurocode, describes different approaches for determining the properties of commonly used building materials such as steel, aluminium, concrete, ... The American Concrete Institute (ACI) also offers different reports concerning concrete structures (ACI 318R), lightweight concrete (ACI 213R) and its long‐term mechanical behavior (ACI 209R). Those reports, used as building codes, are also applicable when the material respects certain scope criteria. All materials which do not meet the scope criteria of Eurocode 2 or ACI reports because of their composition, properties values, or application cannot be used in the design of structures with those building codes. Regarding cement‐based materials, concretes and mortars which compressive strength is lower than the minima might not be useful for structures, however they present an interesting potential for applications such as infrastructure materials, low‐solicited slabs, ... When designing a structure/infrastructure made of those materials, the accuracy of any formula offered by those building codes should be checked before being used. This work shows the comparison between experimental measurements and the predictive formulas of the engineering properties (compressive and tensile strength, modulus of elasticity). The results show that the addition of specific aggregates which present low stiffness and strength modifies the relation between those engineering properties, which makes its estimation impossible without considering its unit weight.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T04:40:05.933171-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400020
  • Thin‐walled shell structure made of textile reinforced
    • Authors: Alexander Scholzen; Rostislav Chudoba, Josef Hegger
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: At RWTH Aachen University recently a pavilion has been constructed with a roof shell made of textile reinforced concrete (TRC), a composite material consisting of a fine grained concrete and a high‐strength, noncorroding textile reinforcement made of carbon fibres. The thin‐walled TRC shell structure demonstrates impressively the load‐bearing capacity of this innovative composite material. The present paper discusses the practical issues concerning the construction, such as the fabrication of the TRC shells using shotcrete, the concepts for the arrangement of the textile reinforcement developed, as well as the mounting of the shells on top of the precast concrete columns. The issues concerning dimensioning, assessment and numerical simulation of the load bearing behavior of TRC shells are presented in the companion paper (Part II).
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T04:40:04.635355-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300071
  • Cover Picture: Structural Concrete 3/2014
    • Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The cover picture shows the Egg‐Graben Bridge which was a winning structure in the 2014 competition for the fib Awards for Outstanding Concrete Structures. In the words of the jury “The jury highly appreciated the consistent application of durability philosophy. The bridge deck is intended to have a long service life with very low maintenance costs because the bridge deck is constructed exclusively with encapsulated post‐tensioned reinforcement and watertight anchorages. No other reinforcement is used. Therefore, the electrolytic corrosion in the deck is ruled out. In this way waterproofing and pavement were also saved. The concrete itself is meant to resist both physical and environmental loads. The bridge also fulfils high aesthetic expectations.” More information can be found in this issue on pp. 281–291 (photo: Pez Hejduk).
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T02:36:43.319905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490012
  • Contents: Structural Concrete 3/2014
    • Pages: n/a - n/a
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T02:36:41.295674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490016
  • Bond and anchorage of embedded steel reinforcement in the fib Model Code
    • Authors: John Cairns
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The paper describes the changes to design provisions for embedded steel reinforcement in the fib Model Code 2010. The changes introduce new coefficients for steel grade and for clear spacing between bars, and extend the range of concrete strengths covered. The way in which the contribution of hooks or anchorages is determined calculated has been revised and the contribution of end bearing to laps and anchorages of compression bars is recognised. The revised rules represent a move away from a distinction between laps and anchorages per se towards a distinction based on the presence or absence of transverse pressure perpendicular to the bar axis within the bond length. The benefits of staggering of laps with only a proportion of bars lapped at a section are reviewed. Finally, the potential impact of performance of laps and anchorages on structural robustness is discussed, and it is concluded that this can only be achieved if bar yield precedes splitting mode bond failures.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T06:30:07.305539-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400043
  • Experimental investigations on the punching behaviour of reinforced
           concrete footings with structural dimensions
    • Authors: Carsten Siburg; Josef Hegger
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Punching tests on 13 specimens under uniform soil pressure were conducted to evaluate the punching shear behaviour of footings with practical dimensions. The test series included square footings with and without punching shear reinforcement. The dimensions of the footings varied between 1.20 × 1.20 m and 2.70 × 2.70 m and the slab thickness varied between 0.45 and 0.65 m, resulting in shear span‐depth ratios aλ/d between approx. 1.25 and 2.00. In addition to the measured steel strains in the flexural reinforcement and the stirrups, the increase in the slab thickness as well as the saw‐cuts were examined to investigate the internal cracking and failure characteristic. In combination with previous tests conducted at RWTH Aachen University, this test series permits a description of the effect of the main parameters on the punching shear strength of footings. These parameters are the size effect of the effective depth, the concrete compressive strength, the flexural reinforcement ratio and the punching shear reinforcement.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T06:29:00.531401-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300083
  • Stochastic fracture‐mechanical parameters for the
           performance‐based design of concrete structures
    • Authors: Alfred Strauss; Thomas Zimmermann, David Lehký, Drahomír Novák, Zbyněk Keršner
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The experimental results for quasi‐brittle materials such as concrete and fibre‐reinforced concrete exhibit high variability due to the heterogeneity of their aggregates, additives and general composition. An accurate assessment of the fracture‐mechanical parameters of such materials (e.g. compressive strength fc and specific fracture energy Gf) turns out to be much more difficult and problematic than for other engineering materials. The practical design of quasi‐brittle material‐based structures requires virtual statistical approaches, simulations and probabilistic assessment procedures in order to be able to characterize the variability of these materials. A key parameter of non‐linear fracture mechanics modelling is the specific fracture energy Gf and its variability, which has been a research subject for numerous authors although we will mention only [1, 2] at this point. The aim of this contribution is the characterization of stochastic fracture‐mechanical properties of four specific, frequently used classes of concrete on the basis of a comprehensive experimental testing programme.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T06:27:39.802838-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300077
  • Influence of time‐dependent effects on the crack spacing in
           reinforced concrete beams
    • Authors: Arnaud Castel; Raymond Ian Gilbert
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper aims to put into perspective the influence of long‐term effects, such as concrete creep and shrinkage, on concrete cracking. Long‐term experimental results obtained at the Centre for Infrastructure Engineering & Safety (CIES) are reported and compared to design estimates made using the fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010. The influence of factors such as stirrup spacing and concrete cover are discussed. Results show that time‐dependent shrinkage‐induced cracking can considerably modify the cracking patterns obtained in short‐term tests. For crack control in real structures and for the development of models for inclusion in codes of practice, it is strongly recommended that account be taken of time‐dependent effects. Limiting observations to those made in short‐term tests may lead to erroneous conclusions that are simply not applicable for structures that are more than a few weeks old.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T06:25:41.771053-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300065
  • Design of Composite Slabs with Prepressed Embossments Using
           Small‐scale Tests
    • Authors: Josef Holomek; Miroslav Bajer, Jan Barnat, Pavel Schmid
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The load bearing capacity of steel and concrete composite slabs using thin‐walled steel sheeting with prepressed embossments is in most cases determined by its resistance in longitudinal shear. The designing of composite slabs still requires the performance of full‐scale laboratory bending tests. Small‐scale shear tests cannot include all of the influences affecting the bended slab but using an appropriate procedure the shear characteristics obtained from them can be used for determining the bending capacity of the slab. Two such procedures are compared in this paper. End constraints effectively increase the load bearing capacity of the composite slabs. Two different types of easily assembled additional end constraints are also tested and compared in this paper. Small‐scale tests are used to obtain their shear bearing characteristics and to predict the load bearing capacity of bended slabs using these constraints.
      PubDate: 2014-08-07T10:10:23.666635-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400042
  • Minimum flexural reinforcement in rectangular and T‐section concrete
    • Authors: Alberto Carpinteri; Erica Cadamuro, Mauro Corrado
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The prescriptions provided by codes of practice for assessing the minimum reinforcement amount for strength purposes in reinforced concrete beams usually disregard the non‐linear contribution of concrete in tension and size‐scale effects. In the present paper, these phenomena are taken into account correctly in the description of the flexural failure in lightly reinforced concrete beams by means of a numerical algorithm based on non‐linear fracture mechanics. In this context, the application of dimensional analysis permits a reduction in the number of governing parameters. In particular, it is demonstrated analytically that only two dimensionless parameters, referred to as reinforcement brittleness number and stress brittleness number, are responsible for the brittle‐to‐ductile transition in the mechanical response. According to this approach, new formulae suitable for evaluating the minimum reinforcement in practical applications is proposed for both rectangular and T‐sections. A comparison with experimental results demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed model for different reinforcement percentages and beam depths.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T06:05:34.535578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300056
  • Modelling, verification and investigation of behaviour of circular CFST
    • Authors: Pramod K. Gupta; Ashok K. Ahuja, Ziyad A. Khaudhair
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper is an attempt to provide a detailed procedure for the finite element modelling and simulation of concrete‐filled steel tubular (CFST) columns subjected to axial compression using the commercial software package ANSYS 12. A modified material model for modelling the concrete core is described and explained. Composite action is modelled between the concrete core and the steel tube and the procedure is presented with the recommended properties for modelling such behaviour. The proposed model is then validated by comparing its numerical results with selected experimental results available in the literature. The proposed model is used to investigate numerically the load transfer mechanism of CFST columns filled with different grades of concrete in order to study the effect of this parameter – i.e. compressive strength of concrete core – on the load transfer mechanism in such columns. Further, the proposed model has been employed for investigating the confining pressure provided by the steel tube on the concrete core along the length of the CFST column.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24T05:51:43.089658-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300045
  • Extension of tabulated design parameters for rectangular columns exposed
           to fire taking into account second order effects and various fire models
    • Authors: Lijie Wang; Robby Caspeele, Ruben Van Coile, Luc Taerwe
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Fire, as one of the most severe load conditions, has an important impact on concrete structures. It does not only affect the material strength, but also the structural stiffness and stability. A concrete column, compared to other structural members, has most often to cope both with vertical forces and bending moments transmitted by slabs and beams. Consequently, it is essential to find a reliable and practical way to establish interaction curves for the overall structural behaviour of concrete columns subjected to fire. In this paper, a cross‐section calculation method based on the material models of Eurocode 2 is explained and adopted to calculate interaction curves for a typical rectangular column exposed to the ISO834 standard fire. Subsequently, an iterative approach is introduced to develop interaction curves taking into account second order effects in case of four‐side heated fire exposure. The maximum permitted slenderness ratios of columns under different fire durations are obtained and compared with Eurocode 2 provisions. Finally, this method is applied to calculate the maximum permitted slenderness ratios for columns exposed to hydrocarbon fires and natural fires.
      PubDate: 2014-07-09T03:30:06.313185-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400002
  • Behaviour of fatigue loaded self‐compacting concrete compared to
           vibrated concrete
    • Authors: Sara Korte; Veerle Boel, Wouter De Corte, Geert De Schutter
      Abstract: Fatigue loading and its sometimes inevitable fatigue failure are well known phenomena for many civil engineering constructions. The behaviour of vibrated concrete (VC) under this type of loading is well understood. However, the fracture and fatigue resistance of self‐compacting concrete (SCC) is poorly documented in literature. Considering the substantially different composition of the two concrete types (VC and SCC), it is uncertain whether their mechanical properties are similar or not. This paper describes the results of a series of destructive static and cyclic four‐point bending tests on inverted Tshaped reinforced concrete beams, made from VC and SCC in equal quantities and of equal compressive strength. A comparison of the two concrete types is made, based on deflection, strain, crack width evolution and failure mechanism. The experiments prove that these mechanical properties of VC and SCC, subjected to a fatigue load, in some cases relate differently than in a static loading process. Furthermore, the results reveal a faster concrete strain and crack width development for SCC during the fatigue tests. Regarding the number of cycles to failure, the applied load level is crucial.
      PubDate: 2014-06-18T06:11:33.674643-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300085
  • Bella Sky Hotel – Taking precast concrete to the limit
    • Authors: Kaare K. B. Dahl
      Abstract: The Bella Sky Hotel consists of two towers each leaning away from each other at an angle of 15 degrees. The basic principle is vertical load bearing walls with precast concrete hollow core deck slabs. At the ends of the building, inclined walls are used to carry the vertical walls above when they are undercut. At these junctions the horizontal forces induced by turning the vertical forces are huge, and needs to be transferred through the floors in to the longitudinal walls. The complexity of the structure comes from the number of openings in these walls for doors and services in conjunction with the enormity of the horizontal loads from the building lean. The use of precast elements meant that the forces had to be transferred through the joints in the elements. Severe reinforcement congestion along with most of the geometry through the building being unique, led to an enormous design and engineering effort required to produce a solution. The end result is a simple, elegant hotel structure which jumps into the record books as one of the most leaning buildings in the world.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:20:19.214536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400017
  • Recycling Concrete in Practice – A Chance for Sustainable Resource
    • Authors: Lamia Messari‐Becker; Angelika Mettke, Florian Knappe, Ulrich Storck, Klaus Bollinger, Manfred Grohmann
      Abstract: With about 30% of primary energy consumption and 15% of energy consumption caused‐carbon emissions in Germany the private households sector represent a key sector for the climate protection targets. While the primary energy consumption in buildings by means of regulations is limited, the production of carbon emissions‐intensive materials moves only slowly in the focus of the legislation, regulation and ultimately the perception of society. Considering a thermally conditioned building during his life cycle, the most environmental effects are during operation. Nevertheless, the grey energy of a concrete structure can add up to 20% in individual cases. Concrete as material causes due to the carbon‐intensive cement production relatively high environmental impacts. Logical options appear to substitute cement with so called by‐products or to use recycled additives. In fact, there are only a few projects that used a resource‐saving concrete. In 2010 in Ludwigshafen, one building of a group of buildings was chosen as the first building in Germany that was built almost completely out of recycled concrete without increasing the cement content. It is built as a low‐energy construction and in a zero carbon emission area. The project was accompanied scientifically by the Institute of Energy and Environmental Research in Heidelberg and the Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus. The buildings are the winner of the Construction Prize 2011 with the predicate best relation between quality and costs. The paper discusses integral aspects of the use of recycling concrete from a structural design, eco‐accounting and materials properties perspective. It shows potential and opportunities to a quality‐assured use of recycling concrete for a sustainable resource management.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:20:18.164477-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400010
  • Further Investigation of Transverse Stresses and Bursting Forces in
           Post‐Tensioned Anchorage Zones
    • Authors: Lin‐Yun Zhou; Zhao Liu, Zhi‐Qi He
      Abstract: In the post‐tensioned anchorage zone, the load transfer path of anchor force can be visualized by infinite number of Isostatic Lines of Compression (ILCs), which was initially proposed by Guyon and recently attracted significant interests from a number of researchers. Based on these predecessors' work, an updated mathematical model has been proposed to analyze the bursting forces and the distribution of transverse stresses in the anchorage zone. Compared with the results of finite element analysis, the updated equations have better accuracy than the previous ones. Based on the observation that the sixth‐order polynomial expression is better than the fourth‐order, so far as the solution of bursting stresses is concerned, it can be reasonably postulated that a de facto function of the ILCs must be in existence. Additionally, it is equally interesting that the bursting forces derived by the updated analytical model is the same as the formula given by the current AASHTO‐LRFD Bridge Design Specifications based on numerical stress analyses.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:20:17.066356-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400005
  • Institute of Concrete Structures, Ruhr‐Universität Bochum
           (RUB), Germany
    • Authors: Karsten Winkler; Peter Mark, Peter Heek, Sandra Rohländer, Simone Sommer
      Abstract: Experiments on large‐scale reinforced concrete members like beams or slabs with large effective depths are challenging and not least due to extensive material and financial efforts rarely performed. But, results from such experiments are strongly needed, as decisive size effects affect shear and punching shear failure types. At the Institute of Concrete Structures at the Ruhr‐Universität Bochum (RUB), an innovative test setup was elaborated following a principle of “upsizing by downsizing”. It transfers symmetry reductions – a standard feature in numerical simulations – to experiments. Thus, test loads and dead loads pronouncedly decrease proportional to the symmetry grade giving rise to larger specimen within given testing facilities. The setup enables tests on symmetrically sectioned concrete members – halved beams or quarters of slabs – concurrently implying load‐deformation behaviors of corresponding, i.e. full‐size members, by a simple factorization of loads with twice of the axial symmetry grade. The contribution presents the single steps of the development to test quartered slabs, including the modular bearing constructions with sliding planes and back anchorings of the bending reinforcement as well as the concrete specimen itself with interconnections to the symmetry planes, measuring techniques and its specific assembly. Results from a first prototype testing proof the general applicability in failure modes, crack pattern and kinematics. However, ultimate punching loads are slightly overestimated yet.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:20:14.592445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400022
  • Quality assessment of material models for reinforced concrete flexural
    • Authors: Bastian Jung; Guido Morgenthal, Dong Xu, Hendrik Schröter
      Abstract: Non‐linear constitutive models for concrete in compression are defined frequently in design codes. The engineer would generally use either the linear (in SLS) or the non‐linear (in ULS) compressive model. However, a large variety of different approaches exist in order to describe the behaviour of the cracked concrete tension zone and the selection of a corresponding model is usually based on qualitative engineering judgement. The aim of this paper is to assess the prediction quality of several concrete material models in order to provide a quantitative model selection. Therefore, uncertainty analysis is applied in order to investigate the model and parameter uncertainty in the bending stiffness prognosis for flexural members. The total uncertainty is converted into a prognosis model quality which allows the comparison between considered materials model in a quantitative manner. The consideration of the reinforced concrete in tension is based on the characterisation of the tension stiffening effect which describes the cracking in an average sense. No discrete crack simulations based on fracture mechanics are considered in the interest of the practical applicability of the considered models even for large structures. Finally, the assessment identify that the prediction quality depends on the loading level, and furthermore, the quality between the models can be quantitatively similar as well as diverse.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:10:18.537099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300066
  • Post‐installed reinforcement connections at ultimate and
           serviceability limit states
    • Authors: Norbert Randl; Jakob Kunz
      Abstract: When reinforcing bars are post‐installed in holes which were drilled into cured concrete, adhesive mortars are used to create bond between concrete and bars. Appropriate adhesives can develop higher bond strength than standard ribbed bars cast into concrete. A detailed design concept for the anchorage length of reinforcing bars has been developed by taking into account splitting / spalling of the concrete and pullout. Pullout and splitting tests on reinforcing bars set into concrete were carried out with different adhesive mortars and with varying concrete strength and concrete cover. When higher bond strengths than those recommended for cast‐in reinforcement are taken into account, it is important to check deformations and crack widths at serviceability limit state (SLS) separately. For this reason structural tests on slabs and corbels were carried out. Moreover, pullout tests on post‐installed reinforcing bars were performed in order to measure displacements at service load level.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:10:17.177734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300094
  • Serviceability Uncertainties in Flat Slabs
    • Authors: Richard Scott
      Abstract: Service load tests on the sixth floor of the full‐scale reinforced concrete building at BRE Cardington are described. Both deflections and reinforcement strains were measured. Finite element analyses of the floor slab were then undertaken using the measured material properties and four different models for the behaviour of the concrete in tension, the tension stiffening effect being known to influence slab behaviour significantly. Calculated deflections and reinforcement strains from the four analyses were compared with values measured in the load tests. As a consequence, comments, reservations and recommendations are made concerning the use of finite element analyses for predicting deflections and reinforcement strains. Finally, the need to appreciate and accommodate the indeterminate nature of many of the parameters involved is emphasised.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:10:15.755663-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300098
  • Bond behaviour of normal‐ and high‐strength recycled aggregate
    • Authors: M. John Robert Prince; Bhupinder Singh
      Abstract: The effect of concrete grade on bond between 12 mm diameter deformed steel bar and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) has been investigated with the help of forty‐five pullout tests with concentric rebar placement for coarse recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) replacement levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The measured bond‐slip relationships indicate similar mechanisms of bond resistance in the RAC and the natural aggregate (NA) concrete for all the grades and relatively the most accurate and least conservative predictions of the measured bond strengths were obtained from the local bond‐slip model in the fib Model Code 2010. Bond strength, when normalised to fc(3/4) gave an improved match with test data and increased with an increase in the RCA replacement levels and decreased with an increase in compressive strength and this behaviour has been sought to be explained in terms of brittleness index an analogous parameter from rock mechanics. An empirical bond stress‐versus‐slip relationship has been proposed for the 12 mm diameter bar and it is conservatively suggested that similar anchorage lengths for this bar in all the three concrete grades can be adopted for the RAC and the NA concretes.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:10:14.443622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300101
  • Aspects of imposed deformation in concrete structures – a condensed
    • Authors: Hans‐Wolf Reinhardt
      Abstract: Imposed deformation is a special case of loading which gets much less attention than mechanical loading due to external forces. However, imposed deformation can impair the serviceability of structures such as tightness and durability. Imposed deformations are due to shrinkage of concrete and temperature variations. The boundary conditions play an important role when analyzing stresses due to imposed deformation. The paper gives an overview.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08T05:10:09.330297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400014
  • Challenges for Concrete in Tall Buildings
    • Authors: Gordon Clark
      Abstract: Tall buildings present unique challenges both in terms of design and construction. The definition of tall is always a matter for debate and actually is related to the proportions of the building although the actual physical height does also result in other influences such as extreme lateral loading. Concrete features prominently in providing the structural material for most cores and framing options whereby stability of the structure is provided. The core of a tall building is important structurally as well as forming the spine for vertical transportation and services. There can be a wide choice of size and shape, which is dictated in part by the geometry of the building and the site. This paper focuses on some of the issues for concrete, which is a key material in tall building construction, and is based on some of the work of an fib task group which has been formed to bring together important guidance based on experience of design and construction.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08T04:40:12.581731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400011
  • Evaluation of models for estimating concrete strains due to drying
    • Authors: Yvonne Theiner; Andreas Andreatta, Günter Hofstetter
      Abstract: The present contribution focuses on a comparative study of shrinkage prediction models according to the European Standard Eurocode 2 (EC2), the recommendation by the ACI committee 209 and the fib Model Code 2010. Thereby the estimated ultimate drying shrinkage strains and the predicted evolution of drying shrinkage strains are compared with respective shrinkage strains measured on normal strength concrete specimens of different size. For all prediction models the estimated ultimate values are found to agree quite well with the ultimate drying shrinkage strains measured on thin concrete slices. Whereas the evolution of drying shrinkage strains measured on small concrete prisms agree quite well with the predicted values, for larger specimen sizes substantial differences between code values and experimental data are encountered.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08T04:40:11.623875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300082
  • Fire Resistance Performance of Steel Composite Hollow RC Column with Inner
           Tube under ISO‐834 Standard Fire
    • Authors: Deok Hee Won; Woo‐Sun Park, In‐Sung Jang, Sang‐Hun Han, Taek Hee Han
      Abstract: An internally confined hollow RC (ICH RC) column offers strong and durable confinement owing to the reinforcement provided by the inner tube. The strength and ductility of the column are enhanced because of the continuous confining stress provided by the inner tube. The excellent structural performance of ICH RC columns makes them particularly suitable for application in high‐rise buildings. However, if a high‐rise building is damaged by fire, it will be collapse without fire resistance performance. Also, damage of human life is occured by lack of evacuation. Thus, to predict the status of structures under fire, their behavior should be evaluated in terms of fire time. In this study, the fire resistance performance of an ICH RC column was analyzed during an ISO‐834 standard fire and certain starting conditions. Furthermore, the effects of the hollow ratio, thickness of inner tube, and thickness of cover concrete on fire resistance performance were analyzed. These results could be used for designing fire‐resistant ICH RC columns.
      PubDate: 2014-05-08T04:40:10.698126-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300067
  • Punching shear design of footings: critical review of different code
    • Authors: Carsten Siburg; Marcus Ricker, Josef Hegger
      Abstract: In 2012, Eurocode 2 and the corresponding National Annex were introduced in Germany. Most of the design provisions for these new standards were adopted from Model Code 1990 and provide a new design approach for ground slabs and footings. For Model Code 2010, the punching shear design concept was revised and introduced in the Swiss standard SIA262:2013. In this paper, the design equations for the determination of the punching capacity according to Eurocode 2, the German National Annex to Eurocode 2, Model Code 2010, and SIA 262:2013 are presented in detail. Parametric studies have been used to examine the influence of the main parameters (shear span‐depth ratio, effective depth, longitudinal reinforcement ratio, and concrete compressive strength) on the punching shear resistance of footings. To quantify the safety level and the efficiency, the design provisions are compared to systematic test series.
      PubDate: 2014-04-17T10:10:30.147497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300092
  • Dynamically loaded Concrete Structures
    • Authors: Susanne Urban; Alfred Strauss, Robert Schütz, Konrad Bergmeister, Christian Dehlinger
      Abstract: Considering dynamically loaded concrete structures, the determination of the real degree of fatigue damage of a structure on‐site is a very demanding process and is not explored in depth. Calculation concepts according to actual Codes and Specifications (e.g. CEB‐FIP Model Code 2010) do not offer efficient results to this task. However, the permanent monitoring from the erection of a structure up to the end of its lifetime is seen as a very promising possibility to assess constantly the degree of damage. This article takes a closer look at the concrete fatigue concept of the Model Code 2010, shows a FE‐simulation of a time depending fatigue process of an offshore‐foundation for wind energy plants and presents a fatigue monitoring concept including laboratory tests, which enables the detection of the real degree of deterioration of a concrete structure. During tests the use of ultrasound could be identified as the most appropriate method. Measuring wave velocity enables the determination of the dynamic E‐Modulus, which correlates to the degree of damage within the considered cross section of the structure.
      PubDate: 2014-03-13T05:40:33.258398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300095
  • A new predictive model to the bond strength of FRP‐to‐concrete
           composite joints
    • Authors: Majid Abdellahi; Javad Heidari, Marayam Bahmanpour
      Abstract: In this work, gene expression programming, as a new tool, has been utilized to predicting the bond strength of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP)‐to‐concrete composite joints as the performance symbol of this structure. A number of 238 data were collected from the literature, and divided into 192 and 46 sets, randomly, then trained and tested by GEP means, respectively. The parameters including Width of prism, Concrete cylinder compressive strength, Width of FRP, Thickness of FRP, Modulus of elasticity of FRP, and Bond length were used as input parameters. According to these input parameters, in the gene expression programming model, the bond strength of FRP‐to‐concrete composite joints in different conditions was predicted. The training and testing results in the gene expression programming model have shown that gene expression programming is a powerful tool for predicting the bond strength values of the FRP‐to‐concrete composite joints in the considered range.
      PubDate: 2014-03-13T05:40:32.103549-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300093
  • Super‐light concrete decks for building floor slabs
    • Authors: Kristian Hertz; Andreas Castberg, Jacob Christensen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This paper presents investigations made at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) on a prototype series of a super‐light prestressed concrete deck element called the SL‐Deck. The intension of making a new prefabricated deck element is to improve performance with respect to flexibility, sound insulation, and fire resistance compared with present day prefabricated structures. Full‐scale tests and theoretical investigations show that the deck structure performs as intended, and that it is possible to assess by calculation the load‐bearing capacity in bending and shear, and assess the pull‐out strength of prestressing reinforcement, the fire resistance, and the acoustical insulation. Based on the results of the investigations recommendations are given for further development of the structure before a full automatic mass production is established.
      PubDate: 2014-03-13T05:30:28.868883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300062
  • Effect of Welding Heat on Precast Steel Composite Hollow Columns
    • Authors: Deok Hee Won; Woo Sun Park, Jin‐Hak Yi, Sang‐Hun Han, Taek Hee Han
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Steel composite hollow columns are researched for easing construction. Welding or bolting are mostly used for connecting the steel tubes of precast steel composite hollow columns. However, welding generally results in temperatures of about 20,000°C in the welding zone and 1,300°C around the welding zone. Thus, the strength of concrete in the regions close to a welding zone is reduced. In this paper, the effects of arc welding and electro‐slag welding, two widely used welding methods for connecting the column modules of hollow, composite steel composite columns, on the temperature change in the welding zone were studied by performing heat transfer analysis. The changes in the strength of concrete are investigated for each welding method. The rate of decrease in concrete strength due to electro‐slag welding was larger than that due to arc welding. In addition, an effective method is suggested for preventing strength reduction of concrete using ceramic fiber by welding heat.
      PubDate: 2014-01-14T07:30:13.63352-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300060
  • Tempora mutantur......
    • Authors: Hans‐Ulrich Litzner
      Pages: 277 - 278
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T02:36:41.45391-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490017
  • Structural Concrete makes impact
    • Authors: Luc Taerwe; Steinar Helland
      Pages: 279 - 280
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T02:36:43.396964-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490013
  • Building bridges using the Balanced Lift Method
    • Authors: Johann Kollegger; Sara Foremniak, David Wimmer, Dominik Suza, Susanne Gmainer
      First page: 281
      Abstract: This article explains the process of developing a new method called the balanced lift method, for the construction of bridges based on an alternative to bridge construction techniques that are used nowadays. The most common methods to build bridges are the ones using falsework or the cantilever method, but a rather uncommon method, the lowering of arches is seen as the origin of the balanced lift method. The idea was to create a method which would allow a bridge to be built in a very fast manner without the usage of falsework, using prefabricated elements and mounting all parts together in a position – in this case vertically – that would simplify the construction process. In order to reach the final state of the bridge, the vertically assembled parts are rotated into their final horizontal position. This article contains a description of the development of the method, a large scale test will be portrayed and two already designed bridges using the balanced lift method will be shown.
      PubDate: 2014-06-16T06:20:20.475015-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201400024
  • Concrete integral abutment bridges with reinforced concrete piles
    • Authors: David Gama; João F. Almeida
      Pages: 292 - 304
      Abstract: The use of reinforced concrete (RC) piles in integral abutment bridges (IABs) has not been widespread due to concerns over pile flexibility and the potential for concrete cracking. This is the reason why the use of steel piles is the preferred solution in the United States. However, in various countries where IABs are still seldom used, RC piles are more readily available and economical. Hence, an understanding of the behaviour of IABs with RC piles can lead to a wider implementation of integral solutions. This paper presents the results of a parametric study conducted to evaluate how both the design variables and the accuracy of the modelling approach influence the potential use of integral solutions with RC piles in prestressed concrete bridges up to 200 m long. Finite element modelling was used and four levels of approximation (LoA) were established for the analyses, ranging from simple linear‐elastic to more complex non‐linear models. The results show that existing concerns over concrete cracking control can be overcome if adequate options in design are used together with the adequate LoAs in structural analysis. Integral solutions with RC piles for bridges up to 200 m long can generally be adopted, although in comparisons with non‐integral designs a significant additional amount of prestressing steel is to be expected. The results also include a set of charts with practical estimates to help designers in their first approach to the preliminary design of an IAB.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T04:17:49.982285-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300081
  • Consistent practical design of concrete structures
    • Authors: Bente Skovseth Nyhus
      Pages: 305 - 316
      Abstract: The design of large concrete structures is a very complex area which requires specialized skills and specialized tools. Tools are available to design these structures efficiently. However, these design tools are based on inconsistency between what is assumed in the structural analysis and the sectional design. This inconsistency is believed to be conservative, but is such an approach always safe and cost‐effective? In light of this, a design tool has been developed to eliminate this inconsistency. The program is called ShellDesign and the new method is called the “consistent stiffness method”. The method can be used in practical design and is a more efficient alternative to running non‐linear analysis programs. In order to obtain a more rational and consistent design method for transverse shear, implementation of the modified compression field theory (MCFT) in ShellDesign is almost finished. The main advantages of developing ShellDesign are to increase the competitiveness of concrete structures, contribute to increased safety and also to increase operability and document robustness in existing structures.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T04:19:27.818862-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300086
  • Analytical and numerical evaluation of the design shear resistance of
           reinforced concrete slabs
    • Authors: Beatrice Belletti; Cecilia Damoni, Max A.N. Hendriks, Ane de Boer
      First page: 317
      Abstract: The aim of this research is to compare the predictions of the design load carrying capacity of slabs obtained with simplified analytical and numerical procedures, usable by analysts in the current design process. The research fits into a research program driven by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment for the re‐examination of the load carrying capacity of existing bridges and viaducts, and of their composing beams and slabs, through the use of nonlinear finite‐element analyses. The behaviour of reinforced‐concrete slabs subjected to concentrated loads close to their supports is in this contribution investigated. Three tests from a series of 18 slabs with a total of 108 tests, tested at Delft University of Technology were selected as cases studies and analyzed with nonlinear finite‐element analyses, as well as with analytical models either proposed by the standard codes or available in the literature. The research well matches with the philosophy of the Model Code 2010 that offers different analytical and numerical calculation methods for the evaluation of the design shear resistance of reinforced concrete members according to different levels of approximation. For the three slabs used in this study, it indeed pays off to use higher levels of approximation. The highest level (“level IV”) based on non linear finite element analysis gives the highest design load resistance, still well below the experimentally obtained resistance.
      PubDate: 2014-03-13T05:30:30.214905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300069
  • Towards a reliability‐based post‐fire assessment method for
           concrete slabs incorporating information from inspection
    • Authors: Ruben Van Coile; Robby Caspeele, Luc Taerwe
      Pages: 395 - 407
      Abstract: After a concrete structure has been exposed to fire, a combination of destructive and non‐destructive testing, expert judgment and calculations is used to decide whether the structure should be demolished or repaired, or can continue to be used without repairs or rehabilitation. However, there are many uncertainties associated with both the fire duration and the effect of elevated temperatures on the residual mechanical properties of the materials. Consequently, the maximum service load after fire exposure should be assessed based on reliability considerations in order to provide an adequate level of safety. As this type of calculation is too complex and time‐consuming for practical use, a reliability‐based assessment tool has been developed for concrete structures and applied to slabs to determine the maximum service load after fire. When using the proposed method, a safety level is targeted which is comparable with the safety level associated with the Eurocode format for the design of new structures. It is concluded that the proposed assessment method is both user‐friendly and directly applicable in practice.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T04:58:00.414953-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300084
  • fib‐news: Structural Concrete 3/2014
    • Pages: 429 - 437
      Abstract: AAYE: award opportunity for young engineers; First fib PhD Symposium held in North America; International conference in Moscow attracts renowned specialists; Innovation in Oslo; NZCS: New Zealand's member group; Structural Concrete impact factor on the rise; fib Bulletin 72; Montreal: the state‐of‐the‐art in FRC; Short notes; EWH Gifford † 1921–2014; Congresses and symposia; Acknowledgement
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T02:36:47.970582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490014
  • Structural Concrete 4/2014
    • Pages: 438 - 438
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T02:36:46.553213-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201490015
  • Review of possible mineral materials and production techniques for a
           building material on the moon
    • Authors: Sebastian Wilhelm; Manfred Curbach
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The article provides an overview of findings and production processes of various mineral materials which have been developed and tested worldwide in the past with regard to the establishment of a lunar base. At the beginning, the aim and procedure of constructing a lunar base will be outlined briefly. Subsequently, the lunar environment factors and their influence on a possible construction will be described. Then the advantages and disadvantages of examined materials such as sulfur concrete, cast basalt, lunar concrete or polymer concrete, on the one hand, as well as previously investigated production processes like sintering, geothermite reaction and 3D printing, on the other hand, are presented. One promising method is the Dry‐Mix/Steam‐Injection method for producing a lunar concrete as a possible material which is based on cement made from lunar resources developed by T. D. Lin.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T09:20:16.709418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300088
  • Effect of bond degradation due to corrosion – literature survey
    • Authors: Giuseppe Mancini; Francesco Tondolo
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Bond can play an important role in assessment of existing structures, particularly when corrosion of reinforcement is to be expected. Bond tests results on corroded bars embedded in concrete are not yet fully exhaustive for the definition of bond degradation by effect of corrosion of reinforcement. Structural effects of bond degradation can assume different importance following the resisting mechanism that is activated within the structure. A critical review of the available data is presented; some aspects as the embedment length, corrosion rate and type of test are analyzed.
      PubDate: 2013-12-17T09:10:24.88945-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/suco.201300009
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