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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2285 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1206 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (185 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 185 of 185 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructures     Open Access  
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials and Engineering Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum     Open Access  
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Spektran     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Konstruksia     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
npj Materials Degradation     Open Access  
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Underground Space     Open Access  
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)


Journal Cover Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
  [SJR: 1.603]   [H-I: 77]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1615-1488 - ISSN (Online) 1615-147X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • An improved high-moment method for reliability analysis
    • Authors: Tianxiao Zhang
      Pages: 1225 - 1232
      Abstract: For reliability analysis, there may be several potential distributions for a random variable due to limited samples available. For the same reason, a distribution may not be available. Simply assuming a normal distribution may result in a large error for the reliability prediction. Moment-based methods use only moments of random variables for reliability analysis and can effectively address the problem of multiple distributions or lack of distributions. The existing moment-based methods, however, may produce large errors or may result in instability in the analysis process. This study extends the high-moment method for higher accuracy of the reliability prediction by including the parameters ignored by the existing high-moment method. The proposed method derives the reliability index from the first four moments of random input variables based on the statistical properties of the standard normal random variable. Compared with the existing method, the proposed method is more accurate and stable for problems for which the distributions of input random variables are unknown. Numerical examples show the improved accuracy from the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1715-3
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Synthesis of tensegrity structures of desired shape using constrained
    • Authors: Navaneeth K . R. Pandian; G. K. Ananthasuresh
      Pages: 1233 - 1245
      Abstract: There are two types of problems in tensegrity design: (i) form-finding when the tensegrity shape is not specified and (ii) synthesis when the tensegrity shape is specified. We address synthesis problems in this paper. We first formulated and solved an optimization problem to synthesize tensegrity structures of specified shape when the connectivity of the elements (bars and cables) is known a priori. We minimize the error in force-balance at the vertices in the desired equilibrium configuration by using force densities as the design variables. This constrained minimization problem enabled us to synthesize a known asymmetric tensegrity arch and a hitherto unknown tensegrity of biconcave shape similar to that of a healthy human red blood cell. We also extend the above method to a reduced order optimization problem for synthesizing complex symmetric tensegrity structures. Using this approach, we synthesized a truncated dodecahedron inside another truncated dodecahedron to emulate a nucleus inside a cell. We use a restricted global structure on an already available two-step mixed integer linear programming (MILP) topology optimization formulation to synthesize a non-convex tensegrity structure when only the coordinates are provided. We further improve this two-step MILP to a single-step MILP. We also present static analysis of a tensegrity structure by minimizing the potential energy with unilateral constraints on the lengths of the cables that cannot take compressive loads. Furthermore, we use this method to synthesize a tensegrity table of desired height and area under a predefined load. The prototypes of three synthesized tensegrities were made and validated.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1716-2
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Microstructural topology optimization of structural-acoustic coupled
           systems for minimizing sound pressure level
    • Authors: Ning Chen; Dejie Yu; Baizhan Xia; Jian Liu; Zhengdong Ma
      Pages: 1259 - 1270
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a microstructural topology optimization methodology for the structural-acoustic coupled system. In the structural-acoustic system, the structure is considered to be a thin composite plate composed of periodic uniform microstructures. The discrete design variables are used in the microstructural topology optimization, and the constitutive matrix is interpolated by the power-law scheme at the micro scale. The equivalent macro material properties of the microstructure are computed through the homogenization method. The design objective is to minimize the sound pressure level (SPL) in an interior acoustic medium. The sensitivities of the SPL with respect to design variables are derived. The bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method is extended to solve the structural-acoustic coupled optimization problem to find the optimal material distribution of the microstructure. Numerical examples of a hexahedral box and an automobile passenger compartment are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the presented microstructural topology optimization method.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1718-0
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Unified uncertainty representation and quantification based on
           insufficient input data
    • Authors: Xiang Peng; Jiquan Li; Shaofei Jiang
      Pages: 1305 - 1317
      Abstract: Uncertainty quantification accuracy of system performance has an important influence on the results of reliability-based design optimization (RBDO). A new uncertain identification and quantification methodology is proposed considering the strong statistical variables, sparse variables, and interval variables simultaneously. Maximum likelihood function and Akaike information criterion (AIC) methods are used to identify the best-fitted distribution types and distribution parameters of sparse variables. The interval variables are represented with evidence theory. Finally, a unified uncertainty quantification framework considering the three types of uncertain design variables is put forward, and then the failure probability of system performance is quantified with belief and plausibility measures. The Kriging metamodel and random sampling method are used to reduce the computational complexity. Three examples are illustrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1722-4
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Topology optimization of phononic crystals with uncertainties
    • Authors: Longxiang Xie; Baizhan Xia; Guoliang Huang; Jirong Lei; Jian Liu
      Pages: 1319 - 1339
      Abstract: Topology optimization of phononic crystals (PnCs) is generally based on deterministic models without considering effects of inherent uncertainties existed in PnCs. However, uncertainties presented in PnCs may significantly affect band gap characteristics. To address this, an interval Chebyshev surrogate model-based heuristic algorithm is proposed for topology optimization of PnCs with uncertainties. Firstly, the interval model is introduced to handle the uncertainties, and then the interval Chebyshev surrogate model (ICSM), in which the improved fast plane wave expansion method (IFPWEM) is used to calculate the integral points to construct the ICSM, is introduced for band structure analysis with uncertainties efficiently. After that, the sample data, which is randomly generated by the Monte Carlo method (MCM), is applied to the ICSM for predicting the interval bounds of the band structures. Finally, topology optimization of PnCs is conducted to generate the widest band gaps with uncertainties included by utilizing the genetic algorithm (GA) and the ICSM. Numerical results show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method which has promising prospects in a range of engineering applications.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1723-3
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Hierarchical optimization of the composite blade of a stratospheric
           airship propeller based on genetic algorithm
    • Authors: Junhui Meng; Jie Hu; Houdi Xiao; Mingyun Lv
      Pages: 1341 - 1352
      Abstract: High-altitude propellers equipped with solar energy systems are widely adopted in stratospheric airships because of their light weight, excellent mechanical performance, and high efficiency. To optimize the composite laminated structure of the blade, a hierarchical optimization method based on genetic algorithm is carried out. Global and local layers are combined according to the structural and loading properties of the blade, and each partitioned region in the local layer is optimized independently. Combined with the finite element method, a subprogram based on the classical lamination theory is developed to simulate the stiffness matrix of the blade and obtain the deflection, weight, etc. as objects. The restricted condition, whether the structure has failed, is determined by the Tsai-Wu criterion. In addition, multiple tasks are delivered and read simultaneously by a specific program for the sake of improving computation efficiency. After verification with a case study, the stacking sequence and thickness of the blade of a stratospheric airship propeller is optimized and an ideal result is obtained.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1725-1
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Optimal seismic design of 3D steel moment frames: different ductility
    • Authors: A. Kaveh; M. H. Ghafari; Y. Gholipour
      Pages: 1353 - 1368
      Abstract: Three different types of lateral resisting steel moment frames consisting of ordinary moment frame (OMF), intermediate moment frame (IMF) and special moment frame (SMF) are available for design of 3D frames in literature. In this paper, optimum seismic design of 3D steel moment frames with different types of lateral resisting systems are performed according to the AISC-LRFD design criteria. A comparison is made considering the results of the above mentioned frames of different ductility types. These frames are analyzed by Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA), and optimizations are performed using nine different well-established metaheuristic algorithms. Performances of these algorithms are then compared for introducing the most suitable metaheuristic algorithms for optimal design of the 3D frames.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1727-z
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Multi-fidelity POD surrogate-assisted optimization: Concept and
           aero-design study
    • Authors: Tariq Benamara; Piotr Breitkopf; Ingrid Lepot; Caroline Sainvitu; Pierre Villon
      Pages: 1387 - 1412
      Abstract: We combine multiple sets of variable-precision full-field simulations within a single surrogate model. The approach is based on an original formulation of the “Constrained Proper Orthogonal Decomposition” (C-POD), interpolating precise, albeit costly, high-fidelity data and approximating abondant, yet less accurate, lower-fidelity data. We compute the optimal high-dimensional subspace spanning the sparse high-fidelity full-field solutions and refine the output subspace definition thanks to the orthogonal information contained in abondant low-fidelity full-field solutions. We then build “hierarchised” multi-fidelity surrogate models based on the previously refined subspace and giving a fast estimation of the high-fidelity full-field solution of any new location in the design space. The proposed model is illustrated by exploring the prediction of an analytical 2D functional space on the one hand, and demonstrated by studying the efficiency of a 1.5-stage low-pressure compressor on the other.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1730-4
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Stress constrained thermo-elastic topology optimization with varying
           temperature fields via augmented topological sensitivity based level-set
    • Authors: Shiguang Deng; Krishnan Suresh
      Pages: 1413 - 1427
      Abstract: Engineering structures must often be designed to resist thermally induced stresses. Significant progress has been made on the design of such structures through thermo-elastic topology optimization. However, a computationally efficient framework to handle stress-constrained large-scale problems is lacking. The main contribution of this paper is to address this limitation. In particular, a unified topological-sensitivity (TS) based level-set approach is presented in this paper for optimizing thermo-elastic structures subject to non-uniform temperatures. The TS fields for various thermo-elastic objectives are derived, and, to address multiple constraints, an augmented Lagrangian method is developed to explore Pareto topologies. Numerical examples demonstrate the capability of the proposed framework to solve large-scale design problems. Comparison is made between pure elastic problems, and its thermo-elastic counterpart, shedding light on the influence of thermo-elastic coupling on optimized topologies.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1732-2
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Matrix-free algorithm for the optimization of multidisciplinary systems
    • Authors: Alp Dener; Jason E. Hicken
      Pages: 1429 - 1446
      Abstract: Multidisciplinary engineering systems are usually modeled by coupling software components that were developed for each discipline independently. The use of disparate solvers complicates the optimization of multidisciplinary systems and has been a long-standing motivation for optimization architectures that support modularity. The individual discipline feasible (IDF) formulation is particularly attractive in this respect. IDF achieves modularity by introducing optimization variables and constraints that effectively decouple the disciplinary solvers during each optimization iteration. Unfortunately, the number of variables and constraints can be significant, and the IDF constraint Jacobian required by most conventional optimization algorithms is prohibitively expensive to compute. Furthermore, limited-memory quasi-Newton approximations, commonly used for large-scale problems, exhibit linear convergence rates that can struggle with the large number of design variables introduced by the IDF formulation. In this work, we show that these challenges can be overcome using a reduced-space inexact-Newton-Krylov algorithm. The proposed algorithm avoids the need for the explicit constraint Jacobian and Hessian by using a Krylov iterative method to solve the Newton steps. The Krylov method requires matrix-vector products, which can be evaluated in a matrix-free manner using second-order adjoints. The Krylov method also needs to be preconditioned, and a key contribution of this work is a novel and effective preconditioner that is based on approximating a monolithic solution of the (linearized) multidisciplinary system. We demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm by comparing it with the popular multidisciplinary feasible formulation on two test problems.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1734-0
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Design of fracture resistant energy absorbing structures using
           elastoplastic topology optimization
    • Authors: Lei Li; Kapil Khandelwal
      Pages: 1447 - 1475
      Abstract: This paper introduces a novel elastoplastic topology optimization method for fracture resistant energy absorbing structural designs. The target is to find the optimal structural topologies with high plastic work absorption capacity while constraining the fracture indicators below the prescribed constraints. As the two main fracture mechanisms in ductile metals, the ductile fracture and shear fracture criteria are considered using uncoupled CrachFEM fracture model. A consistent adjoint method is presented for the path-dependent sensitivity analysis under the plane stress assumption. Several numerical examples are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. It is shown that by constraining the fracture indicators, the optimized designs have a more uniform plastic work distribution and high ductility with a significant delay of failure points. This eventually leads to much better material utilization with enhanced ultimate energy absorption capacities.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1735-z
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Analytical sensitivities for statistically extrapolated extreme load
           constraints in structural optimization
    • Authors: Lars Einar S. Stieng; Michael Muskulus
      Pages: 1477 - 1491
      Abstract: For some applications in structural optimization, it is required to have constraints on the extreme loads that represent long term loading conditions. This usually involves a statistical extrapolation procedure that fits maxima from simulated load time series to short term extreme value distributions and then extrapolates to an n-year return value. Often such situations are highly simplified because of the apparent complexity involved in evaluating the sensitivity of such constraints. However, such simplification is not necessary. In this study, we present a method to evaluate the sensitivities of such extrapolated extreme load constraints in a semi-analytical way. The method uses the implicit function theorem to obtain local derivatives at the points defined by the solution of the maximum likelihood estimate that is used to calculate the parameters of the short term extreme value distributions. Comparing with high accuracy finite difference estimates, the method is shown to give reasonably accurate values. We also demonstrate how the method can be used to estimate the uncertainty of the estimated n-year return value caused by uncertainty in both the maximum likelihood estimate and inherent uncertainties in the data. The method then is applied to a simple optimization example and shown to perform very well compared with using finite difference estimates for the sensitivities. Finally, we note that the method is in principle fairly general and could be applied to similar problems that do not specifically involve statistical extrapolation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1738-9
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • High dimensional model representation for hybrid reliability analysis with
           dependent interval variables constrained within ellipsoids
    • Authors: Shaojun Xie; Baisong Pan; Xiaoping Du
      Pages: 1493 - 1505
      Abstract: Random variables could be dependent, and so could interval variables. To accommodate dependent interval variables, this work develops an efficient hybrid reliability analysis method to handle both random and dependent interval input variables. Due to the dependent interval variables, the reliability analysis needs to perform the probability analysis for every combination of dependent interval variables. This involves a nested double-loop procedure and dramatically decreases the efficiency. The proposed method decomposes the nested double loops into sequential probability analysis (PA) loop and interval analysis (IA) loop. An efficient IA algorithm based on the cut-HDMR (High Dimensional Model Representation) expansion is developed and a sampling strategy with the leave-one-out technique without extra calls of the limit-state function is proposed. The proposed method has good accuracy and efficiency as demonstrated by two engineering examples.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1806-1
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • A consistent formulation for imposing packaging constraints in shape
           optimization using Vertex Morphing parametrization
    • Authors: Reza Najian Asl; Shahrokh Shayegan; Armin Geiser; Majid Hojjat; Kai-Uwe Bletzinger
      Pages: 1507 - 1519
      Abstract: This paper aims at imposing no-penetration condition over arbitrary surfaces which act as bounding surfaces, also known as packaging constraints, on the design surface of shape optimization problem. We use Vertex Morphing technique for the shape parametrization. Vertex Morphing is a consistent surface control approach for node-based shape optimization. The suitability of this technique has been assessed and demonstrated for a wide range of engineering applications without geometric shape constraints. In this contribution, a consistent formulation is presented for the implementation of numerous point-wise geometric constraints in four main steps. First, a potential contact between optimization surface points and the bounding surface is identified via the so-called gap function. Second, the shape gradients of objective functions and active constraints are mapped onto the Vertex Morphing’s control space, where the optimization problem is formulated. Third, the linear least squares method is used to project the steepest-descent search direction onto the subspace tangent to the mapped active constraints. Finally, the feasible design update is mapped onto the geometry space. To verify the perfect consistency between the geometry space (where the constraints are formulated) and the control space (where the optimization problem is solved) two applications of CFD shape optimization in the automotive industry are presented.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1819-9
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Many-objective control optimization of high-rise building structures using
           replicator dynamics and neural dynamics model
    • Authors: Mariantonieta Gutierrez Soto; Hojjat Adeli
      Pages: 1521 - 1537
      Abstract: Recently the authors presented a single-agent Centralized Replicator Controller (CRC) and a decentralized Multi-Agent Replicator Controller (MARC) for vibration control of high-rise building structures. It was shown that the use of agents and a decentralized approach enhances the vibration control system. Two key parameters in the proposed control methodologies using replicator dynamics are the total population (total available resources or the sum of actuators forces) and the growth rate. In the previous research, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the appropriate values for the population size and growth rate. In this paper, the aforementioned control methodologies are integrated with a multi-objective optimization algorithm in order to find Pareto optimal values for growth rates with the goal of achieving maximum structural performance with minimum energy consumption. A modified neural dynamic model of Adeli and Park is used in this research to solve the many-objective optimization problem where the Normal Boundary Intersection method is employed to find Pareto optimality. Sample results are presented using a 20-story steel benchmark structure subjected to historical and artificial accelerograms.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1835-9
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Optimizing the design of automotive S-rail using grey relational analysis
           coupled with grey entropy measurement to improve crashworthiness
    • Authors: Kefang Cai; Dengfeng Wang
      Pages: 1539 - 1553
      Abstract: The optimization of the crashworthiness and lightweight design of S-rail extracted from the frontal body in white was studied in this paper. A physical test was conducted to verify the validity of S-rail model and then an implicit parameterization model was built based on the S-rail model using the software SFE-CONCEPT. Based on the implicit parameterization modeling, a steel-aluminum S-rail was designed to reduce the peak collision force (PCF) and increase the specific energy absorption (SEA) under the condition that the total weight (M) of S-rail does not increase. L16 (45) Taguchi array was used to collect sample points which will be prepared for the optimization design. The experimental results were analyzed through grey relational analysis (GRA) coupled with grey entropy measurement method. The multi-objective optimization was then converted into a single objective optimization problem based on the grey relational grade. The optimal combination of design parameters for S-rail was obtained using the proposed method. Meanwhile, a comparison was presented between the proposed method and other extensively used methods (i.e. NSGA-II, MOPSO, and ASA), and the proposed method reduces the PCF and M to 26.81% and 46.01% respectively, and increases the corresponding SEA by 176.06%. Moreover the computational cost can be reduced by 143.5% at least when compared with other extensively used methods. Therefore, the hybrid method can efficiently improve the crashworthiness and reduce the computational cost during the design process of S-rail.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1728-y
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Surrogate based multidisciplinary design optimization of lithium-ion
           battery thermal management system in electric vehicles
    • Authors: Xiaobang Wang; Mao Li; Yuanzhi Liu; Wei Sun; Xueguan Song; Jie Zhang
      Pages: 1555 - 1570
      Abstract: A battery thermal management system (BTMS) is a complex system that uses various heat removal and temperature control strategies to keep battery packs at optimal thermal conditions, thereby improving the lifetime and safety of lithium-ion battery packs in electric vehicles (EVs). However, an optimal design of BTMS is still challenging, due to its large number of sub-systems and/or disciplines involved. To address this challenge, an air-based BTMS is hierarchically decoupled into four sub-systems and/or sub-disciplines in this paper, including the battery thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, structure, and lifetime model. A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is first developed to analyze the effects of key design variables (i.e., heat flux, mass flow rate, and passage spacing size) on the performance of BTMS. Aiming to perform the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of BTMS based on the high-fidelity CFD model, surrogate models are developed using an automatic model selection method, the Concurrent Surrogate Model Selection (COSMOS). The surrogate models represent the BTMS performance metrics (i.e., the pressure difference between air inlet and outlet, the maximum temperature difference among battery cells, and the average temperature of the battery pack) as functions of key design parameters. The objectives are to maximize the battery lifetime and to minimize the battery volume, the fan’s power, and the temperature difference among different cells. The MDO results show that the lifetime of the battery module is significantly improved by reducing the temperature difference and battery volume.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1733-1
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • To avoid unpractical optimal design without support
    • Authors: Jie Liu; Guilin Wen; Xiaodong Huang
      Pages: 1589 - 1595
      Abstract: In some cases, topology optimization of continuum structures subjected to applied loads having a zero resultant force may result in an unpractical design without support. This phenomenon occurs because the original optimization problem neglects the possible change of the direction of applied load. This brief note sheds the light on avoiding such an unpractical design from the engineering viewpoint. In our work, this usually neglected phenomenon is systematically illustrated by employing a series of two-dimensional (2D) cantilever design problems using a simple and efficient Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) method. An alternative scheme is further recommended to tackle the concerned conundrum. The proposed scheme not only can avoid unpractical designs without any support, but also takes into account the inherent uncertainty property in designing actual engineering structures.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1720-6
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • Compact implementation of non-hierarchical analytical target cascading for
           coordinating distributed multidisciplinary design optimization problems
    • Authors: Bastien Talgorn; Michael Kokkolaras
      Pages: 1597 - 1602
      Abstract: We present a novel technique for implementing non-hierarchical analytical target cascading to coordinate distributed multidisciplinary design optimization problems. The proposed technique is based on i) representing the structure of the problem compactly, ii) segregating the coordination from disciplinary analysis and iii) defining a single collective penalty function to be used in all subproblems. This allows a general, flexible, straightforward and less error-prone implementation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1726-0
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
  • A short numerical study on the optimization methods influence on topology
    • Authors: Susana Rojas-Labanda; Ole Sigmund; Mathias Stolpe
      Pages: 1603 - 1612
      Abstract: Structural topology optimization problems are commonly defined using continuous design variables combined with material interpolation schemes. One of the challenges for density based topology optimization observed in the review article (Sigmund and Maute Struct Multidiscip Optim 48(6):1031–1055 2013) is the slow convergence that is often encountered in practice, when an almost solid-and-void design is found. The purpose of this forum article is to present some preliminary observations on how designs evolves during the optimization process for different choices of optimization methods. Additionally, the authors want to open a discussion on how to properly define and identify the boundary translation that is often observed in practice. The authors hope that these preliminary observations can open for fruitful discussions and stimulate further investigations concerning slowly moving boundaries. Although the discussion is centered on density based methods it may be equally relevant to level-set and phase-field approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1813-2
      Issue No: Vol. 56, No. 6 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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