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CIVIL ENGINEERING (181 journals)                     

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ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access  
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 79)
Journal of Composites for Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Constructional Steel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fluids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Frontiers in Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Infrastructure Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Multifunctional Composites     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Offshore Structure and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access  
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access  
Mathematical Modelling in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nondestructive Testing And Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Obras y Proyectos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Management, Procurement and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Random Structures and Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research in Nondestructive Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Road Materials and Pavement Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Selected Scientific Papers - Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Slovak Journal of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Control and Health Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Engineering International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Structural Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Study of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Surface Innovations     Hybrid Journal  
Technical Report Civil and Architectural Engineering     Open Access  
Teknik     Open Access  
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Thin Films and Nanostructures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Thin-Walled Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Transactions of the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava. Construction Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Geotechnics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Water Science & Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Water Science and Technology : Water Supply     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)


Journal Cover Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
  [SJR: 1.603]   [H-I: 77]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1615-1488 - ISSN (Online) 1615-147X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Structural optimization with fatigue and ultimate limit constraints of
           jacket structures for large offshore wind turbines
    • Authors: Jacob Oest; René Sørensen; Lars Chr. T. Overgaard; Erik Lund
      Pages: 779 - 793
      Abstract: The purpose of the research presented in this paper is to develop and implement an efficient method for analytical gradient-based sizing optimization of a support structure for offshore wind turbines. In the jacket structure optimization of frame member diameter and thickness, both fatigue limit state, ultimate limit state, and frequency constraints are included. The established framework is demonstrated on the OC4 reference jacket with the NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine installed at a deep water site. The jacket is modeled using 3D Timoshenko beam elements. The aero-servo-elastic loads are determined using the multibody software HAWC2, and the wave loads are determined using the Morison equation. Analytical sensitivities are found using both the direct differentiation method and the adjoint method. An effective formulation of the fatigue gradients makes the amount of adjoint problems that needs to be solved independent of the amount of load cycles included in the analysis. Thus, a large amount of time-history loads can be applied in the fatigue analysis, resulting in a good representation of the accumulated fatigue damage. A reduction of 40 % mass is achieved in 23 iterations using the CPLEX optimizer by IBM ILOG, where both fatigue and ultimate limit state constraints are active at the optimum.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-016-1527-x
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 3 (2017)
  • Topology optimization for minimum weight with compliance and simplified
           nominal stress constraints for fatigue resistance
    • Authors: Maxime Collet; Matteo Bruggi; Pierre Duysinx
      Pages: 839 - 855
      Abstract: This work investigates a simplified approach to cope with the optimization of preliminary design of structures under local fatigue constraints along with a global enforcement on the overall compliance. The problem aims at the minimization of the weight of linear elastic structures under given loads and boundary conditions. The expected stiffness of the optimal structure is provided by the global constraint, whereas a set of local stress–based constraints ask for a structure to be fatigue resistant. A modified Goodman fatigue strength comparison is implemented through the same formalism to address pressure–dependent failure in materials as in Drucker–Prager strength criterion. As a simplification, the Sines approach is used to define the equivalent mean and alternating stresses to address the fatigue resistance for an infinite life time. Sines computation is based on the equivalent mean and alternate stress depending on the invariants of the stress tensor and its deviatoric part, respectively. The so–called singularity phenomenon is overcome by the implementation of a suitable qp-relaxation of the equivalent stress measures. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the features of the achieved optimal layouts and of the proposed algorithm.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-016-1510-6
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 3 (2017)
  • Multi-criteria optimization of an aircraft propeller considering
    • Authors: Markus E. Schatz; Andreas Hermanutz; Horst J. Baier
      Pages: 899 - 911
      Abstract: Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers are gaining ground; high mass-specific stiffness and strength properties in fiber direction are commonly identified as reasons. Nonetheless, there are great challenges unleashing the entire light-weight potential. For instance, the multitude of parameters (e.g. fiber orientations), also being linked with each other and having huge influence on, not only structural mechanics, but also onto effort in terms of manufacturing. Moreover, these parameters ideally need to be determined, such that mass and costs are minimal, while all structural and technical requirements are fulfilled. The challenge of considering manufacturing aspects along with structural mechanics are mainly addressed in this paper. It is outlining an approach for modeling manufacturing effort via expert knowledge and how to actually consider this model in a multi-criteria optimization framework. In addition, it will be shown how to incorporate these knowledge-based models into an efficient structural design optimization. For this sake, a braided propeller structure is optimized.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-016-1541-z
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 3 (2017)
  • An evaluation of simple techniques to model the variation in strain
           hardening behavior of steel
    • Authors: Sandeep Shetty; Larsgunnar Nilsson
      Pages: 945 - 957
      Abstract: It is important to consider variations in material parameters in the design of automotive structures in order to obtain a robust and reliable design. However, expensive tests are required to gain complete knowledge of the material behavior and its associated variation. Consequently, due to time and cost constraints, simplified material scatter modeling techniques based on scatter data of typical material properties provided by the material suppliers are used at early design stages in simulation-based robustness studies. The aim of this paper is to study the accuracy of the simplified scatter modeling methods in representing the real material variation. The simplified scatter modeling methods are evaluated by comparing the material scatter obtained by them to the scatter obtained by complete tensile tests, which are obtained after detailed time-consuming experimental investigations. Furthermore, an accuracy assessment is carried out based on selected responses from an axially-crushed, square tube made from DP600 steel.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-016-1547-6
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 3 (2017)
  • Coupled operational optimization of smart valve system subject to
           different approach angles of a pipe contraction
    • Authors: Peiman Naseradinmousavi; Sahar Ghanipoor Machiani; Mohammad A. Ayoubi; C. Nataraj
      Pages: 1001 - 1015
      Abstract: In this paper, we focus on interconnected trajectory optimization of two sets of solenoid actuated butterfly valves dynamically coupled in series. The system undergoes different approach angles of a pipe contraction as a typical profile of the so-called “Smart Valves” network containing tens of actuated valves. A high fidelity interconnected mathematical modeling process is derived to reveal the expected complexity of such a multiphysics system dealing with electromagnetics, fluid mechanics, and nonlinear dynamic effects. A coupled operational optimization scheme is formulated in order to seek the most efficient trajectories of the interconnected valves minimizing the energy consumed enforcing stability and physical constraints. We examine various global optimization methods including Particle Swarm, Simulated Annealing, Genetic, and Gradient based algorithms to avoid being trapped in several possible local minima. The effect of the approach angles of the pipeline contraction on the amount of energy saved is discussed in detail. The results indicate that a substantial amount of energy can be saved by an intelligent operation that uses flow torques to augment the closing efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-016-1554-7
      Issue No: Vol. 55, No. 3 (2017)
  • Optimal shape design of functionally graded thickness inversion tubes
           subjected to oblique loading
    • Authors: Omid Mohammadiha; Hashem Ghariblu
      Abstract: This paper aims to understand and optimize the crush response of Functionally Graded Thickness (FGT) tubes with various thickness distributions subjected to oblique loading using multi-objective optimization method. Hence, finite element (FE) models are established and their results are validated by experimental tests. Two objective functions (specific energy absorption and peak load) are approximated by four different multi-objective optimization models: the weighted average, multi-design optimization (MDO) technique, constrained single-objective optimization, and geometrical average methods. The optimum design results demonstrate that the selection of appropriate inversion tube parameters such as the die radius, the coefficient of friction between the die and tube, and thickness distribution function have significant roles in the crashworthiness design. The results give new ideas to improve the crashworthiness performance of inversion tubes under oblique loading conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1676-6
  • Topology optimization of structures with gradient elastic material
    • Authors: Lei Li; Guodong Zhang; Kapil Khandelwal
      Abstract: Topology optimization of structures and mechanisms with microstructural length-scale effect is investigated based on gradient elasticity theory. To meet the higher-order continuity requirement in gradient elasticity theory, Hermite finite elements are used in the finite element implementation. As an alternative to the gradient elasticity, the staggered gradient elasticity that requires C 0-continuity, is also presented. The solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) like material interpolation schemes are adopted to connect the element density with the constitutive parameters of the gradient elastic solid. The effectiveness of the proposed formulations is demonstrated via numerical examples, where remarkable length-scale effects can be found in the optimized topologies of gradient elastic solids as compared with linear elastic solids.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1670-z
  • Boundary shape design by using PDE filtered design variables
    • Authors: Tadayoshi Matsumori; Atsushi Kawamoto; Tsuguo Kondoh; Tsuyoshi Nomura; Hidetaka Saomoto
      Abstract: This paper deals with a design method for boundary shapes using filtering techniques based on a partial differential equation (PDE). In shape optimization, it is known that oscillatory boundaries appear when design variables are directly assigned to the design boundaries. In addition, during the optimization process, discretized elements in a computational domain are distorted due to extremely large shape changes along the design boundaries. The distorted elements may cause accuracy deterioration or numerical instability in a forward problem. In this paper, we propose a shape optimization method by using the PDE as a low pass filter which prevents the oscillatory boundaries of the optimized design. For restricting the shape distortion of the discretized elements, the shear deformation of the elements is constrained in the optimization problem. Mathematical programming is used to find the boundary shapes under the KKT conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through numerical examples in solid and fluid mechanics.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1678-4
  • Topology optimization of freely vibrating continuum structures based on
           nonsmooth optimization
    • Authors: Pingzhang Zhou; Jianbin Du; Zhenhua Lü
      Abstract: The non-differentiability of repeated eigenvalues is one of the key difficulties to obtain the optimal solution in the topology optimization of freely vibrating continuum structures. In this paper, the bundle method, which is a very promising one in the nonsmooth optimization algorithm family, is proposed and implemented to solve the problem of eigenfrequency optimization of continuum. The bundle method is well-known in the mathematical programming community, but has never been used to solve the problems of topology optimization of continuum structures with respect to simple or multiple eigenfrequencies. The advantage of this method is that the specified information of iteration history may be collected and utilized in a very efficient manner to ensure that the next stability center is closer to the optimal solution, so as to avoid the numerical oscillation in the iteration history. Moreover, in the present method, both the simple and multiple eigenfrequencies can be managed within a unified computational scheme. Several numerical examples are tested to validate the proposed method. Comparisons with nonlinear semidefinite programming method and 0–1 formulation based heuristic method show the advantages of the proposed method. It is showed that, the method can deal with the nonsmoothness of the repeated eigenvalues in topology optimization in a very effective and efficient manner without evaluating the multiplicity of the eigenvalues.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1677-5
  • Reliability-based design optimization using SORM and SQP
    • Authors: Niclas Strömberg
      Abstract: In this work a second order approach for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) with mixtures of uncorrelated non-Gaussian variables is derived by applying second order reliability methods (SORM) and sequential quadratic programming (SQP). The derivation is performed by introducing intermediate variables defined by the incremental iso-probabilistic transformation at the most probable point (MPP). By using these variables in the Taylor expansions of the constraints, a corresponding general first order reliability method (FORM) based quadratic programming (QP) problem is formulated and solved in the standard normal space. The MPP is found in the physical space in the metric of Hasofer-Lind by using a Newton algorithm, where the efficiency of the Newton method is obtained by introducing an inexact Jacobian and a line-search of Armijo type. The FORM-based SQP approach is then corrected by applying four SORM approaches: Breitung, Hohenbichler, Tvedt and a recent suggested formula. The proposed SORM-based SQP approach for RBDO is accurate, efficient and robust. This is demonstrated by solving several established benchmarks, with values on the target of reliability that are considerable higher than what is commonly used, for mixtures of five different distributions (normal, lognormal, Gumbel, gamma and Weibull). Established benchmarks are also generalized in order to study problems with large number of variables and several constraints. For instance, it is shown that the proposed approach efficiently solves a problem with 300 variables and 240 constraints within less than 20 CPU minutes on a laptop. Finally, a most well-know deterministic benchmark of a welded beam is treated as a RBDO problem using the proposed SORM-based SQP approach.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1679-3
  • Topology optimization using the p-version of the finite element method
    • Authors: Tam H. Nguyen; Chau H. Le; Jerome F. Hajjar
      Abstract: A multiresolution topology optimization approach is proposed using the p-version finite element method (p-version FEM). Traditional topology optimization, where a density design variable is assigned to each element, is suitable for low-order h-version FEM. However, it cannot take advantage of the higher accuracy of higher-order p-version FEM analysis for generating results with higher resolution. In contrast, the proposed method separates density variables and finite elements so that the resolution of the density field, which defines the structure, can be higher than that of the finite element mesh. Thus, the method can take full advantage of the higher accuracy of p-version FEM.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1675-7
  • Interval analysis based robust truss optimization with continuous and
           discrete variables using mix-coded genetic algorithm
    • Authors: Pingzhang Zhou; Jianbin Du; Zhenhua LÜ
      Abstract: The problem of optimizing truss structures in the presence of uncertain parameters considering both continuous and discrete design variables is studied. An interval analysis based robust optimization method combined with the improved genetic algorithm is proposed for solving the problem. Uncertain parameters are assumed to be bounded in specified intervals. The natural interval extensions are employed to obtain explicitly a conservative approximation of the upper and lower bounds of the structural response, and hereby the bounds of the objective function and the constraint function. This way the uncertainty design may be performed in a very efficient manner in comparison with the probabilistic analysis based method. A mix-coded genetic algorithm (GA), where the discrete variables are coded with binary numbers while the continuous variables are coded with real numbers, is developed to deal with simultaneously the continuous and discrete design variables of the optimization model. An improved differences control strategy is proposed to avoid the GA getting stuck in local optima. Several numerical examples concerning the optimization of plane and space truss structures with continuous, discrete or mixed design variables are presented to validate the method developed in the present paper. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the interval analysis based optimization method gives much more robust designs in comparison with the deterministic optimization method.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1668-6
  • Topology optimization for finding shell structures manufactured by deep
    • Authors: R. Dienemann; A. Schumacher; S. Fiebig
      Abstract: This paper presents a new approach for optimizing shell structures considering their mid surface design including cut-outs. Therefore we introduced a manufacturing constraint to the 3D topology optimization based on the density method in order to receive an optimized structure without undercuts and with a constant wall thickness, so that these structures can be manufactured by deep drawing in one step. It is shown that introducing cut-outs while increasing the shell thickness can improve the performance of shell structures considering their stiffness at a constant mass.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1661-0
  • An efficient method for reliability-based design optimization of nonlinear
           inelastic steel space frames
    • Authors: V. H. Truong; Seung-Eock Kim
      Abstract: This paper proposes an effective numerical procedure for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) of nonlinear inelastic steel frames by integrating a harmony search technique (HS) for optimization and a robust method for failure probability analysis. The practical advanced analysis using the beam-column approach is used for capturing the nonlinear inelastic behaviors of frames, while a detail implement of HS for discrete optimization of steel frames is introduced. The failure probability of structures is evaluated by using the combination of the improved Latin Hypercube (IHS) and a new effective importance sampling (EIS). The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed procedure are demonstrated through three mathematical examples and five steel frames. The results obtained in this paper prove that the proposed procedure is computationally efficient and can be applied in practical design. Furthermore, it is shown that the use of nonlinear inelastic analysis in the optimization of steel frames yields more realistic results.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1667-7
  • An optimization study on load alleviation techniques in gliders using
           morphing camber
    • Authors: José Vale; Frederico Afonso; Éder Oliveira; Fernando Lau; Afzal Suleman
      Abstract: This study explores wing morphing for load alleviation as a means to reduce the required wing structural weight without compromising aircraft performance. A comparative study between the lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) performance of a fixed wing glider (FWG) and a cambered morphing wing glider (CMWG) is presented. Both aircraft are aero-structurally optimized for the best L/D for a given speed and payload mass. A combination of lifting-line theory and 2D viscous calculations is used for the aerodynamics and an equivalent beam model is employed for the structural analysis. Pull-up and -down maneuvers at 25 m/s and near stall angle of attack are assumed as critical load cases. Results of the FWG optimization are shown for several trimmed flight conditions with varying mass and velocity. Results are compared to the ones from the CMWG optimization and conclusions are drawn on the improvement in the L/D ratio throughout the flight envelope and on potential reductions in the wing structural mass due to the load alleviation strategy. The wing camber adaptation provides significant performance gains in a large range of flight speeds with negligible penalties in the low speeds range. However, maneuverability is penalized.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1673-9
  • GPU parallel strategy for parameterized LSM-based topology optimization
           using isogeometric analysis
    • Authors: Zhaohui Xia; Yingjun Wang; Qifu Wang; Chao Mei
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new level set-based topology optimization (TO) method using a parallel strategy of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and the isogeometric analysis (IGA). The strategy consists of parallel implementations for initial design domain, IGA, sensitivity analysis and design variable update, and the key issues in the parallel implementation, e.g., the parallel assembly race condition, are discussed in detail. The computational complexity and parallelization of the different steps in the TO are also analyzed in this paper. To better demonstrate the advantages of the proposed strategy, we compare efficiency of serial CPU, multi-thread parallel CPU and GPU by benchmark examples, and the speedups achieve two orders of magnitude.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1672-x
  • Integrated design technique for materials and structures of vehicle body
           under crash safety considerations
    • Authors: Yuan Chen; Guiping Liu; Zheyi Zhang; Shujuan Hou
      Abstract: With the rapid development of the vehicle industry, crashworthiness has become a crucial aspect in vehicle body design. In fact, crashworthiness is a multivariable optimization design problem for a vehicle body, regardless of structure or material. However, when crashworthiness involves a large number of design variables, including both material and structure variables, it is more difficult to deal with. In this paper, an integrated design technique for materials and structures of vehicle body under crash safety consideration is suggested. First, a finite element model of the vehicle body is established according to relevant vehicle safety standards. Then, the material parameters of the vehicle body are set as analytical factors for factor screening. Next, significant factors are obtained using a three-level saturated design integrated with multi-index comprehensive balance analysis and the MaxUr (3) method, with an improved evaluation method. These screened material parameters along with the corresponding continuous variables of the structure, are considered as the design variables of the integrated design of the vehicle body. Both the weight and the crashworthiness properties are set as the design objectives. Optimal Latin hypercube sampling and radius basis functions are utilized to construct highly accurate surrogate models. Furthermore, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II is implemented to seek the optimal solutions. Finally, two cases considering the roof module and the frontal module of a vehicle body are analyzed to verify the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1674-8
  • On the numerical implementation of continuous adjoint sensitivity for
           transient heat conduction problems using an isogeometric approach
    • Authors: Zhen-Pei Wang; Deepak Kumar
      Abstract: A crucial problem of continuous adjoint shape sensitivity analysis is the numerical implementation of its lengthy formulations. In this paper, the numerical implementation of continuous adjoint shape sensitivity analysis is presented for transient heat conduction problems using isogeometric analysis, which can serve as a tutorial guide for beginners. Using the adjoint boundary and loading conditions derived from the design objective and the primary state variable fields, the numerical analysis procedure of the adjoint problem, which is solved backward in time, is demonstrated. Following that, the numerical integration algorithm of the shape sensitivity using a boundary approach is provided. Adjoint shape sensitivity is studied with detailed explanations for two transient heat conduction problems to illustrate the numerical implementation aspects of the continuous adjoint method. These two problems can be used as benchmark problems for future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1669-5
  • Multi-dimensional optimization of functionally graded material composition
           using polynomial expansion of the volume fraction
    • Authors: Omar S. Hussein; Sameer B. Mulani
      Abstract: The work of this paper proposes a method for multi-dimensional optimization of functionally graded materials (FGMs) composition. The method is based on using polynomial expansion of the volume fraction of the constituent materials. In this approach, the design variables are the coefficients of the polynomial expansion which to be determined through the optimization process. This method provides much more flexibility in the design compared to the methods based on the power-law, or the exponential-law which will in turn lead to more optimal designs. Also it requires much less number of design variables compared to the grid based approaches which is also utilized for two-dimensional optimization of FGMs structures. As an application of the proposed method, the optimization of a simply supported Aluminum plate reinforced with Silicon Carbide nano-particles is considered. Cost plays a very important role for this type of structures, since the cost of the reinforcements such as Silicon Carbide nano-particles, or carbon nano-tubes is too high. So the aim of the optimization process is to minimize the amount of the reinforcement required to satisfy certain performance criteria. Both static, and dynamic cases are considered in this work; a plate under a transverse pressure distribution is considered as the static case, and the panel flutter problem as the dynamic case.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-017-1662-z
  • Material nonlinear topology optimization using the ground structure method
           with a discrete filtering scheme
    • Authors: Xiaojia Zhang; Adeildo S. Ramos; Glaucio H. Paulino
      Abstract: Topology optimization of truss lattices, using the ground structure method, is a practical engineering tool that allows for improved structural designs. However, in general, the final topology consists of a large number of undesirable thin bars that may add artificial stiffness and degenerate the condition of the system of equations, sometimes even leading to an invalid structural system. Moreover, most work in this field has been restricted to linear material behavior, yet real materials generally display nonlinear behavior. To address these issues, we present an efficient filtering scheme, with reduced-order modeling, and demonstrate its application to two- and three-dimensional topology optimization of truss networks considering multiple load cases and nonlinear constitutive behavior. The proposed scheme accounts for proper load levels during the optimization process, yielding the displacement field without artificial stiffness by simply using the truss members that actually exist in the structure (spurious members are removed), and improving convergence performance. The nonlinear solution scheme is based on a Newton-Raphson approach with line search, which is essential for convergence. In addition, the use of reduced-order information significantly reduces the size of the structural and optimization problems within a few iterations, leading to drastically improved computational performance. For instance, the application of our method to a problem with approximately 1 million design variables shows that the proposed filter algorithm, while offering almost the same optimized structure, is more than 40 times faster than the standard ground structure method.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00158-016-1627-7
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