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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2235 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (188 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (178 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1194 journals)
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CIVIL ENGINEERING (178 journals)                  1 2     

ACI Structural Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access  
Acta Structilia : Journal for the Physical and Development Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Architectural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Planning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bridge Structures : Assessment, Design and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Building Women     Full-text available via subscription  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Bulletin of Pridniprovsk State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Civil And Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Civil Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil Engineering Dimension     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cohesion and Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Computer-aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computers & Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Constructii : Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access  
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Construction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Constructive Approximation     Hybrid Journal  
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DFI Journal : The Journal of the Deep Foundations Institute     Hybrid Journal  
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Enfoque UTE     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Engineering Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Structures and Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Environmental Geotechnics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale : Fracture and Structural Integrity     Open Access  
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access  
Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Geomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geosystem Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Geotechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Géotechnique Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Infrastructure Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ingenio Magno     Open Access  
Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Condition Monitoring     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Steel Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal on Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Bridge Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Civil Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
  [SJR: 1.825]   [H-I: 61]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1615-1488 - ISSN (Online) 1615-147X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2280 journals]
  • Topological derivatives applied to fluid flow channel design optimization
    • Abstract: Abstract Topology optimization methods application for viscous flow problems is currently an active area of research. A general approach to deal with shape and topology optimization design is based on the topological derivative. This relatively new concept represents the first term of the asymptotic expansion of a given shape functional with respect to the small parameter which measures the size of singular domain perturbations, such as holes and inclusions. In previous topological derivative-based formulations for viscous fluid flow problems, the topology is obtained by nucleating and removing holes in the fluid domain which creates numerical difficulties to deal with the boundary conditions for these holes. Thus, we propose a topological derivative formulation for fluid flow channel design based on the concept of traditional topology optimization formulations in which solid or fluid material is distributed at each point of the domain to optimize the cost function subjected to some constraints. By using this idea, the problem of dealing with the hole boundary conditions during the optimization process is solved because the asymptotic expansion is performed with respect to the nucleation of inclusions – which mimic solid or fluid phases – instead of inserting or removing holes in the fluid domain, which allows for working in a fixed computational domain. To evaluate the formulation, an optimization problem which consists in minimizing the energy dissipation in fluid flow channels is implemented. Results from considering Stokes and Navier-Stokes are presented and compared, as well as two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) designs. The topologies can be obtained in a few iterations with well defined boundaries.
      PubDate: 2016-02-11
  • A first order approach for worst-case shape optimization of the compliance
           for a mixture in the low contrast regime
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this article is to propose a deterministic method for optimizing a structure considering its worst possible behaviour when a small uncertainty exists over its Lamé parameters. The idea is to take advantage of the small parameter to derive an asymptotic expansion of the displacement and of the compliance with respect to the contrast in Lamé coefficients. We are then able to compute the worst case design as post-treatment of the computation of the displacement field for the nominal parameters. The domain evolution resulting from the optimization is performed here using the level set method. The computational cost of our method remains of the same order as the cost of the optimization for a homogeneous material.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08
  • Design complexity control in truss optimization
    • Abstract: Abstract Truss optimization based on the ground structure approach often leads to designs that are too complex for practical purposes. In this paper we present an approach for design complexity control in truss optimization. The approach is based on design complexity measures related to the number of bars (similar to Asadpoure et al. Struct Multidisc Optim 51(2):385–396 2015) and a novel complexity measure related to the number of nodes of the structure. Both complexity measures are continuously differentiable and thus can be used together with gradient based optimization algorithms. The numerical examples show that the proposed approach is able to reduce design complexity, leading to solutions that are more fit for engineering practice. Besides, the examples also indicate that in some cases it is possible to significantly reduce design complexity with little impact on structural performance. Since the complexity measures are non convex, a global gradient based optimization algorithm is employed. Finally, a detailed comparison to a classical approach is presented.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08
  • A concurrent subspace collaborative optimization architecture to
           structural synthetical optimization design
    • Abstract: Abstract A concurrent subspace collaborative optimization (CSCO) technique is developed in this paper to deal with the layout, shape and size optimization of the hierarchical feature structures. The structural optimization is divided into three concurrent subspaces: the structural layout optimization, shape optimization and size optimization. And all these subspace optimizations are solved independently in every iteration loop. Based on the optimal results of each subspace, the design variables are synthetically adjusted at the end of the loop. The iteration loop will be repeated until the convergence accuracy requirement is met. Two structural optimization examples, including truss structure and composite stiffened panel, are completed in this paper. The results obtained from them demonstrate the reasonability and effectiveness of the CSCO technique.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05
  • Accelerated failure identification sampling for probability analysis of
           rare events
    • Abstract: Abstract Critical engineering systems generally demand high reliability while considering uncertainties, which makes failure event identification and reliability analysis based on computer simulation codes computationally very expensive. Rare event can be defined as a failure event that has a small probability of failure value, normally less than 10−5. This paper presents a new approach, referred to as Accelerated Failure Identification Sampling (AFIS), for probability analysis of rare events, enabling savings of vast computational efforts. To efficiently identify rare failure sample points in probability analysis, the proposed AFIS technique will first construct a Gaussian process (GP) model for system performance of interest and then utilize the developed model to predict unknown responses of Monte Carlo sample points. Second, a new quantitative measure, namely “failure potential”, is developed to iteratively search sample points that have the best chance to be a failure sample point. Third, the identified sample points with highest failure potentials are evaluated for the true performance and then used to update the GP model. The failure identification process will be iteratively preceded and the Monte Carlo simulation will then be employed to estimate probabilities of rare events if the maximum failure potential of existing Monte Carlo samples falls below a given target value. Two case studies are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed AFIS approach for rare events identification and probability analysis.
      PubDate: 2016-02-04
  • Isoperimetric inequality in the periodic Greenhill Problem of twisted
           elastic rod
    • Abstract: Abstract In this article we demonstrate the isoperimetric inequality arising in exactly solvable structural optimization problem of stability under torque load. The Greenhill problem describes the forming of a loop in an elastic bar under torsion. The inequality for infinite rod with periodical cross-section with two types of supports is rigorously verified. The optimal shape of the twisted rod is constant along its length and the optimal shape of cross-section is the equilateral triangle. The technique to demonstrate of isoperimetric inequalities exploits the variational method and the Hölder inequality.
      PubDate: 2016-02-04
  • A sequential sampling strategy to improve the global fidelity of
           metamodels in multi-level system design
    • Abstract: Abstract In engineering design, complex systems that involve a multitude of decision variables and parameters are often decomposed into several submodels (also called subsystems and/or components) with a hierarchical (multi-level) manner to manage complexity. Metamodeling techniques are widely used to replace the original time-consuming computer simulation models to further reduce computational burden in multi-level system performance analysis and design optimization. However, due to the limited samples from simulation models, metamodels may contain metamodeling uncertainties at un-sampled sites. Such metamodeling uncertainties arising from metamodels across the entire hierarchy will propagate from the lower to upper levels and eventually impact the top-level response of interest. With the aim of improving the global fidelity of metamodels for multi-level system performance analysis and design optimization, a new sequential sampling strategy is proposed in this paper. The proposed method contains two basic elements: (1) quantifying metamodeling uncertainty propagated from the lower-level metamodels to the top-level response of interest and (2) seeking a new sample site at which the global fidelity of the multi-level system model can be maximally improved. As exemplified by the two numerical examples and a multi-scale bracket structure example, with the same amount of samples from computer simulation models, the new sequential sampling strategy is superior to existing sequential sampling strategies in terms of improving the global fidelity of the metamodels of multi-level systems.
      PubDate: 2016-01-30
  • Analytical solutions for two-bar structures under loads along uncertain
    • Abstract: Abstract Two-bar structures under uncertain load are optimized analytically. The magnitudes of load are given and their directions are uncertain. The uncertain loads may be along any directions or in a certain range. The optimization problem of least weight structures with stress constraint and minimal compliance structures with prescribed material volume are studied. The most unfavorable directions of load are found. These examples may be used as benchmarks.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28
  • Optimum design of steel space frames including soil-structure interaction
    • Abstract: Abstract The effect of soil-structure interaction on the optimum design of steel space frames is investigated using metaheuristic algorithms. Three-parameter elastic foundation model is used to incorporate soil-structure interaction. A computer program is developed in MATLAB interacting with SAP2000-OAPI for two way data flow in all optimization procedures. Optimum design of space frames is formulated according to LRFD-AISC (Load and Resistance Factor Design, American Institute of Steel Construction) specifications. The parameters of foundation model are obtained by using soil surface displacements. It is concluded that consideration of soil-structure interaction ends up with heavier frames, and method is applicable for practical purposes.
      PubDate: 2016-01-26
  • A discontinuous phase field approach to variational growth-based topology
    • Abstract: Abstract Numerical instabilities cause the well-known problem of checkerboarding during topology optimization: elements that possess material are periodically neighbored to elements that are material-free. Furthermore, such numerical solutions depend on the finite element mesh and no reasonable processing techniques exist for manufacture. Thus, integral- or gradient-based regularization techniques are usually applied during topology optimization. In this paper, a novel approach to regularization is derived for a recently published variational approach to topology optimization that is based on material growth. The presented approach shares some similarities with the discontinuous Galerkin method and completely removes consideration of additional nodal quantities or complex integration schemes. The derivation and numerical treatment of the resulting phase field equation as well as exemplary numerical results are presented.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25
  • Filtering structures out of ground structures – a discrete filtering
           tool for structural design optimization
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an efficient scheme to filter structures out of ground structures, which is implemented using a nested elastic formulation for compliance minimization. The approach uses physical variables and allows control of the minimum ratio between the minimum and maximum areas in the final topology. It leads to a singular problem which is solved using a Tikhonov regularization on the structural problem (rather than on the optimization problem). The filter allows a multiple choice solution in which the user can control the global equilibrium residual in the final structural topology and limit variations of the objective function between consecutive iterations (e.g., compliance). As a result, an unambiguous discrete solution is obtained where all the bars that belong to the topology have well-defined finite areas. This filter feature, with explicit control of member areas, allows the user (e.g., engineer or architect) to play with different alternatives prior to selecting a specific structural configuration. Examples are provided to illustrate the properties of the present approach and the fact that the technique does not always lead to a fully stressed design. The method is efficient in the sense that the finite element solution is computed on the filtered structure (reduced order model) rather than on the full ground structure.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25
  • Response surface single loop reliability-based design optimization with
           higher-order reliability assessment
    • Abstract: Abstract Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) aims at determination of the optimal design in the presence of uncertainty. The available Single-Loop approaches for RBDO are based on the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM) for the computation of the probability of failure, along with different approximations in order to avoid the expensive inner loop aiming at finding the Most Probable Point (MPP). However, the use of FORM in RBDO may not lead to sufficient accuracy depending on the degree of nonlinearity of the limit-state function. This is demonstrated for an extensively studied reliability-based design for vehicle crashworthiness problem solved in this paper, where all RBDO methods based on FORM strongly violates the probabilistic constraints. The Response Surface Single Loop (RSSL) method for RBDO is proposed based on the higher order probability computation for quadratic models previously presented by the authors. The RSSL-method bypasses the concept of an MPP and has high accuracy and efficiency. The method can solve problems with both constant and varying standard deviation of design variables and is particularly well suited for typical industrial applications where general quadratic response surface models can be used. If the quadratic response surface models of the deterministic constraints are valid in the whole region of interest, the method becomes a true single loop method with accuracy higher than traditional SORM. In other cases, quadratic response surface models are fitted to the deterministic constraints around the deterministic solution and the RBDO problem is solved using the proposed single loop method.
      PubDate: 2016-01-24
  • Topology optimization: a review for structural designs under vibration
    • Abstract: Abstract This article provides a comprehensive review of structural optimization employing topology methods for structures under vibration problems. Topology optimization allows creative and radical design modifications, compared to shape and size optimization techniques. Various works of structural topology optimization, which are subjected to vibration as the response function of the optimization process, are reviewed. Different types of calculus and numerical methods commonly used for solving structural topological optimization problems are briefly discussed. Moreover, different aspects of topology optimization related to vibration problems are explained. The articles reviewed are largely confined to linear systems that concern small vibration amplitudes. Accordingly, the works related to vibration topological optimization are classified according to the method employed (homogenization, evolutionary structural optimization, solid isotropic material with penalization, or level set). The reviewed works are tabulated according to their methodology, year, and the objective functions and applications of each work. Although the homogenization and evolutionary methods were common in the past, the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) method is the most popular method applied in recent years. The advantages of the level set method show promise for future applications.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21
  • Torque control strategy incorporating charge torque and optimization for
           fuel consumption and emissions reduction in parallel hybrid electric
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes a torque control strategy to charge the battery of parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in which the charge torque by an internal combustion engine (ICE) is newly introduced. In our previous paper, only regenerative braking was used to charge the battery. However, this is not sufficient for CO2 and NOx emissions reduction, and thus, a more effective energy management system (EMS) should be developed. To maintain the battery state of charge (SOC), a target SOC is also introduced in the charge torque. In addition, a CHARGE driving condition where the charge torque by the ICE is generated is newly proposed. By introducing the CHARGE driving, the ICE driving region on torque-engine speed plane was reduced. As a result, a greater reduction in CO2 and NOx emissions is expected. Based on the EMS proposed in our previous papers, an EMS incorporating the CHARGE driving is developed. Through typical driving cycles, the validity of the proposed EMS algorithm incorporating the CHARGE driving is examined.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15
  • Can damping be ignored in transient structural dynamic optimization?
    • Abstract: Abstract In this note, we show that for a undamped structure, the solution of transient response sensitivity contains resonant terms that grow with time without bounds. Thus damping cannot be ignored in transient structural dynamic optimization.
      PubDate: 2016-01-14
  • Improving kriging surrogates of high-dimensional design models by Partial
           Least Squares dimension reduction
    • Abstract: Abstract Engineering computer codes are often computationally expensive. To lighten this load, we exploit new covariance kernels to replace computationally expensive codes with surrogate models. For input spaces with large dimensions, using the kriging model in the standard way is computationally expensive because a large covariance matrix must be inverted several times to estimate the parameters of the model. We address this issue herein by constructing a covariance kernel that depends on only a few parameters. The new kernel is constructed based on information obtained from the Partial Least Squares method. Promising results are obtained for numerical examples with up to 100 dimensions, and significant computational gain is obtained while maintaining sufficient accuracy.
      PubDate: 2016-01-14
  • Multi-objective crashworthiness optimization of perforated square tubes
           using modified NSGAII and MOPSO
    • Abstract: Abstract In this paper, multi-objective optimization of perforated square tubes is performed considering absorbed energy, peak crushing force and weight of the tube as three conflicting objective functions. In the multi-objective optimization problem (MOP), absorbed energy and peak crushing force are defined by polynomial models extracted using the software GEvoM based on the train and test data obtained from the numerical simulation of quasi-static crushing of the perforated square tubes using ABAQUS. To verify the numerical procedure, 16 different experimental tests are performed and then the experimental and numerical results are compared together. The comparison shows reasonable similarities between the numerical and experimental results. The MOP is solved using modified Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII) and Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) and then the solutions are combined for non-dominated sorting to obtain the non-dominated individuals of 3-objective optimization. 105 optimum points are extracted from the multi-objective optimization process. Finally, Nearest to Ideal Point (NIP) method and Technique for Ordering Preferences by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method are employed to find trade-off optimum design points out of all non-dominated individuals compromising all three objective functions together.
      PubDate: 2016-01-13
  • On the implementation and effectiveness of morphological close-open and
           open-close filters for topology optimization
    • Abstract: Abstract This note reconsiders the morphological close-open and open-close filters for topology optimization introduced in an earlier paper (Sigmund Struct Multidiscip Optim 33(4–5):401–424 (2007)). Close-open and open-close filters are defined as the sequential application of four dilation or erosion filters. In the original paper, these filters were proposed in order to provide length scale control in both the solid and the void phase. However, it was concluded that the filters were not useful in practice due to the computational cost of the sensitivity analysis. In this note, it is shown that the computational cost is much lower if the sensitivity analysis for each erosion or dilation step is performed sequentially. Unfortunately, it is also found that the close-open and open-close filters do not have the expected effect in terms of length scale control: each close or open operation ruins the effect of the preceding filters, resulting in a design with a minimum length scale in either the solid phase or the void phase, but not both.
      PubDate: 2016-01-11
  • Optimization of excess system capability for increased evolvability
    • Abstract: Abstract System evolvability is vital to the longevity of large-scale complex engineered systems. The need for evolvability in complex systems is a result of their long service lives, rapid advances to their integrated technologies, unforeseen operating conditions, and emerging system requirements. Building excess capability into complex systems can improve their ability to evolve while in service. However, excess capability increases initial build cost and operating cost, which is compounded across the service life of the system. Excess capability that is eventually used adds benefit by allowing for in-service evolution to meet emerging system requirements. Therefore, there is a trade-off between the cost of excess capability initially built into the system and the benefit that is added to the system by enabling future evolution. This paper introduces a process for optimizing the amount of excess capability in a complex system. This process results in a set of evolvable systems without excessive cost. We demonstrate how this process can be used to select the amount of excess capability that should be included in a military ground vehicle.
      PubDate: 2016-01-09
  • A new metaheuristic for continuous structural optimization: water
           evaporation optimization
    • Abstract: Abstract The paper proposes a novel physically inspired population-based metaheuristic algorithm for continuous structural optimization called as Water Evaporation Optimization (WEO). WEO mimics the evaporation of a tiny amount of water molecules adhered on a solid surface with different wettability which can be studied by molecular dynamics simulations. A set of six truss design problems from the small to normal scale are considered for evaluating the WEO. The most effective available state-of-the-art metaheuristic optimization methods are used as basis of comparison. The optimization results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the WEO and its competitive performance to other algorithms for continuous structural optimization problems.
      PubDate: 2016-01-09
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