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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2246 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (188 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (178 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1191 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (386 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (61 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)

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3C TIC     Open Access  
Actuators     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Sensor Technology     Open Access  
Archives of Control Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Atom Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing     Open Access  
Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computers & Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Trends in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access  
Electric Power Components and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Electric Power Systems Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Electrical and Power Engineering Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Electrical Engineering and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Electrical Engineering in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ferroelectrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ferroelectrics Letters Section     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frequenz     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEA Electricity Information     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Access     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IET Control Theory & Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IET Electric Power Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Ingeniería Electrónica, Automática y Comunicaciones     Open Access  
Integrated Ferroelectrics: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Monitoring and Surveillance Technologies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Nuclear Security     Open Access  
International Journal on Communication     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal on Control System and Instrumentation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal on Signal and Image Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki : Materials of Electronics Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
J3eA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micro-Bio Robotics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Power Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the Society for Information Display     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of World's Electrical Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Elementer     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa SPEKTRUM     Open Access  
Jurnal Nasional Teknik Elektro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Micro and Nano Systems Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nanotechnology Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Quarterly Statistics - Electricite, charbon, gaz et petrole - Statistiques trimestrielles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Recent Patents on Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Recent Patents on Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Russian Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers     Hybrid Journal  
Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Synthesis Lectures on Electrical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
System analysis and applied information science     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
Trends in Electrical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Wireless Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  
Journal Cover Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on
  [SJR: 3.646]   [H-I: 45]   [11 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1949-3029
   Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Information for Authors
    • Abstract: Provides instructions and guidelines to prospective authors who wish to submit manuscripts.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • A Multi-Time Scale Co-Optimization Method for Sizing of Energy Storage and
           Fast-Ramping Generation
    • Authors: Amin Kargarian;Gabriela Hug;Javad Mohammadi;
      Pages: 1351 - 1361
      Abstract: Power systems need to have sufficient generation capacity to support the demand at all times. In addition, dispatchable generation resources should be capable of adjusting their power output on a short term basis not only to alleviate uncertainties of nondispatchable generation and load fluctuations but also to correct for forecast errors. This paper presents a long-term planning approach to co-optimize capacities of energy storages and fast-ramping generation. We model and integrate the capability of the storage to provide multiple services for the system. Our formulation takes into account wind generation and demand forecast errors as well as short-term fluctuations. A stochastic optimization problem is formulated consisting of hourly and intrahour time scales. The approach determines the optimal size of newly deployed generation and storage resources to provide adequate generation capacity and ramping needed to support hourly demand. Additionally, our method ensures that the system is capable of following the net load in intrahour time intervals, as well as mitigating the impact of short-term wind power and load fluctuations. In this formulation, power balance, network security, and system ramping capability are stochastic constraints being modeled as chance constraints. A 3-bus and the IEEE 24-bus test systems are studied to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • A Methodology of Modelling a Wave Power System via an Equivalent RLC
           Circuit
    • Pages: 1362 - 1370
      Abstract: The equivalent circuit method can be an effective modelling technique for system studies of point absorbing wave energy converters (WECs). For the continuously evolving design and study of WEC systems, an instruction on how to draw the corresponding equivalent RLC circuit model is needed. It is not only vital to make sure the model is correct, but to allow the model to be easily adapted for different cases and implemented by different researchers. This paper presents a force analysis-oriented methodology based on a typical WEC unit composed of a heaving buoy and a linear generator. Three cases are studied in order to demonstrate the procedures: the generator with a retracting spring, the connection line with a rubber damper, and buoy motion in both heave and surge directions. The presented methodology serves as a guide to produce nonlinear circuit models that give a reliable description of the dynamics of real wave energy systems.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Considering Carbon Capture and Storage in Electricity Generation Expansion
           Planning
    • Authors: Hedayat Saboori;Reza Hemmati;
      Pages: 1371 - 1378
      Abstract: Nowadays, CO2 is the primary greenhouse gas pollutant and fossil fuel-fired electrical power plants are the major producer of CO2. In this regard, it is required to equip the electrical power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. This paper addresses a multistage generation expansion planning (GEP) including nuclear units, renewable energy units, and different fossil fuel-fired units equipped with CCS. The proposed GEP minimizes the planning costs and CO2 at the same time, while it considers CCS cost and revenue. The problem is mathematically expressed as a constrained, mixed-integer, and nonlinear optimization problem and solved using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The problem considers all practical constraints including security constraints of the network, and the generating units constraints of operation. Simulation results demonstrate that utilizing CCS significantly impacts on the planning output. Eventually, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is carried out based on the CCS cost and revenue.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • LMF-Based Control Algorithm for Single Stage Three-Phase Grid Integrated
           Solar PV System
    • Authors: Rahul Kumar Agarwal;Ikhlaq Hussain;Bhim Singh;
      Pages: 1379 - 1387
      Abstract: This paper proposes the use of a least mean fourth (LMF)-based algorithm for single-stage three-phase grid-integrated solar photovoltaic (SPV) system. It consists of an SPV array, voltage source converter (VSC), three-phase grid, and linear/nonlinear loads. This system has an SPV array coupled with a VSC to provide three-phase active power and also acts as a static compensator for the reactive power compensation. It also conforms to an IEEE-519 standard on harmonics by improving the quality of power in the three-phase distribution network. Therefore, this system serves to provide harmonics alleviation, load balancing, power factor correction and regulating the terminal voltage at the point of common coupling. In order to increase the efficiency and maximum power to be extracted from the SPV array at varying environmental conditions, a single-stage system is used along with perturb and observe method of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) integrated with the LMF-based control technique. The proposed system is modeled and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink with available simpower system toolbox and the behaviour of the system under different loads and environmental conditions are verified experimentally on a developed system in the laboratory.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Harmonic Stability Assessment for Multiparalleled, Grid-Connected
           Inverters
    • Authors: Changwoo Yoon;Haofeng Bai;Remus Narcis Beres;Xiongfei Wang;Claus Leth Bak;Frede Blaabjerg;
      Pages: 1388 - 1397
      Abstract: This paper investigates the harmonic interactions of current controllers in multiparalleled grid-connected inverters. Potential harmonic instability phenomenon, which features oscillations above the fundamental frequency, is evaluated by the impedance-based stability criterion. The possible reasons of the destabilized inverter with different types of grid impedances are explained by the passivity-based analysis and impedance-based stability criterion. Thereafter, case studies are provided, which shows how the nonpassive grid connected inverters interact with the varying grid impedance due to load changes or by the new connections of other grid-connected inverters. Time domain simulations in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment and experimental results show the corresponding harmonic interaction problems may exist in nowadays power system and the impedance-based stability analysis can be an effective tool to assess those problems.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Collector System Layout Optimization Framework for Large-Scale Offshore
           Wind Farms
    • Authors: Yingying Chen;Zhao Yang Dong;Ke Meng;Fengji Luo;Zhao Xu;Kit Po Wong;
      Pages: 1398 - 1407
      Abstract: A new collector system layout optimization (CSLO) framework for large-scale offshore wind farms (OWFs) is proposed in this paper. First, a self-adaptive allocation method is proposed to determine the location of substations and to allocate each turbine to its geographically closest substation. And then, in order to minimize the annualized investment cost, maintenance cost, and levelized cable losses cost, while satisfying a group of operational constraints, the proposed CSLO model is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is solved by the Benders decomposition algorithm. Multiple substations and cable types are also considered in the model. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed methods are demonstrated in two OWF cases consisting of 30 and 100 units.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Impacts of Dynamic Probabilistic Reserve Sizing Techniques on Reserve
           Requirements and System Costs
    • Authors: Michael Bucksteeg;Lenja Niesen;Christoph Weber;
      Pages: 1408 - 1420
      Abstract: The increasing share of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) potentially endangers a reliable power system operation. Due to the variability and unpredictability of added RES, reserve requirements will increase in the future. To counter this, adequate reserve sizing techniques are of major importance. While most system operators apply simple deterministic or probabilistic models assuming RES forecast errors to follow a Gaussian distribution, we propose an improved dynamic reserve sizing method using nonparametric distributions as a forecast error description. The added value of the presented methodology is the use of a conditional kernel-based estimator in combination with a clustering approach to derive dynamic reserves through a convolution of conditional load, wind and solar forecast errors, and plant outage distributions. For comparability, traditional static and deterministic approaches are applied. Based on recent historical data for the German power system, we quantify reserves and demonstrate the feasibility and economic benefits of this improved approach using a scheduling model.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Development and Comparison of an Improved Incremental Conductance
           Algorithm for Tracking the MPP of a Solar PV Panel
    • Authors: Duy C. Huynh;Matthew W. Dunnigan;
      Pages: 1421 - 1429
      Abstract: This paper proposes an adaptive and optimal control strategy for a solar photovoltaic (PV) system. The control strategy ensures that the solar PV panel is always perpendicular to sunlight and simultaneously operated at its maximum power point (MPP) for continuously harvesting maximum power. The proposed control strategy is the control combination between the solar tracker (ST) and MPP tracker that can greatly improve the generated electricity from solar PV systems. Regarding the ST system, the paper presents two drive approaches including open- and closed-loop drives. Additionally, the paper also proposes an improved incremental conductance algorithm for enhancing the speed of the MPP tracking of a solar PV panel under various atmospheric conditions as well as guaranteeing that the operating point always moves toward the MPP using this proposed algorithm. The simulation and experimental results obtained validate the effectiveness of the proposal under various atmospheric conditions.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • A Nearly Decentralized Voltage Regulation Algorithm for Loss Minimization
           in Radial MV Networks With High DG Penetration
    • Authors: Georgios C. Kryonidis;Charis S. Demoulias;Grigoris K. Papagiannis;
      Pages: 1430 - 1439
      Abstract: In this paper, a nearly decentralized voltage regulation algorithm is proposed that effectively coordinates the operation of distributed generation (DG) units in order to minimize the active power losses and the total reactive power consumption in medium-voltage (MV) networks with radial topology. This control requires minimum communication infrastructure, whereas decisions are individually taken by each DG unit based on local and remote measurements. Furthermore, a new cooperative on-load tap changer control is employed to further reduce the network losses. The proposed controls are validated by time-domain and time-series quasi-static simulations in a radial MV network. The former highlights the fast response and the robustness of the proposed voltage regulation algorithm, while comparisons with well-known decentralized control schemes and an optimal power flow method show the improved performance of the proposed controls.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Coordinated Voltage Control of a Wind Farm Based on Model Predictive
           Control
    • Authors: Haoran Zhao;Qiuwei Wu;Qinglai Guo;Hongbin Sun;Shaojun Huang;Yusheng Xue;
      Pages: 1440 - 1451
      Abstract: This paper presents an autonomous wind farm voltage controller based on model predictive control. The reactive power compensation and voltage regulation devices of the wind farm include static Var compensators, static Var generators, wind turbine generators and on-load tap changing transformer, and they are coordinated to keep the voltages of all the buses within the feasible range. Moreover, the reactive power distribution is optimized throughout the wind farm in order to maximize the dynamic reactive power reserve. The sensitivity coefficients are calculated based on an analytical method to improve the computation efficiency and overcome the convergence problem. Two control modes are designed for both voltage violated and normal operation conditions. A wind farm with 20 wind turbines was used to conduct case studies to verify the proposed coordinated voltage control scheme under both normal and disturbance conditions.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Planning of Fast EV Charging Stations on a Round Freeway
    • Authors: Xiaohong Dong;Yunfei Mu;Hongjie Jia;Jianzhong Wu;Xiaodan Yu;
      Pages: 1452 - 1461
      Abstract: A novel planning method of fast electric vehicle (EV) charging stations on a round freeway was developed, considering the spatial and temporal transportation behaviors. A spatial and temporal model based on the origin-destination (OD) analysis was developed to obtain all the EV charging points (the location on the round freeway that an EV needs recharging due to the low battery capacity). Based on a shared nearest neighbor (SNN) clustering algorithm, a location determination model was developed to obtain the specific locations for EV charging stations with their service EV clusters. A capacity determination model based on the queuing theory was proposed to determine the capacity of each EV charging station. The round-island freeway in Hainan Island of China was employed as a test system to illustrate the planning method. Simulation results show that the developed planning method can not only accurately determine the most suitable locations for EV fast charging stations considering the travelling convenience of EV users, but also minimize the sum of waiting cost and charger cost.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Strategic Sizing of Energy Storage Facilities in Electricity Markets
    • Authors: Ehsan Nasrolahpour;S. Jalal Kazempour;Hamidreza Zareipour;William D. Rosehart;
      Pages: 1462 - 1472
      Abstract: This paper proposes a model to determine the optimal size of an energy storage facility from a strategic investor's perspective. This investor seeks to maximize its profit through making strategic planning, i.e., storage sizing, and strategic operational, i.e., offering and bidding, decisions. We consider the uncertainties associated with rival generators’ offering strategies and future load levels in the proposed model. The strategic investment decisions include the sizes of charging device, discharging device, and energy reservoir. The proposed model is a stochastic bi-level optimization problem; the planning and operation decisions are made in the upper-level, and market clearing is modeled in the lower-level under different operating scenarios. To make the proposed model computationally tractable, an iterative solution technique based on Benders’ decomposition is implemented. This provides a master problem and a set of subproblems for each scenario. Each subproblem is recast as an mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints. Numerical results based on real-life market data from Alberta's electricity market are provided.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Harmonic Profile Injection-Based Hybrid Active Islanding Detection
           Technique for PV-VSC-Based Microgrid System
    • Authors: Snehamoy Dhar;P. K. Dash;
      Pages: 1473 - 1481
      Abstract: In this paper, a new investigation on islanding detection method is presented for PV-based VSC system. The proposed PV-VSC is represented as one of the distributed energy resource (DER) for a microgrid environment. A new multivariable dynamic model is presented in terms of two stage conversion with a dc–dc converter for the proposed PV-VSC system. The proposed VSC system is controlled primarily by a positive sequence P–Q loop, at the PCC. A new backstepping fast sliding mode control (BFSMC) is proposed for primary PWM control of VSC system. During sudden grid disconnection an islanding protection loop based on rate of change in voltage harmonic profile injection is proposed. A binary tree (BT) threshold filter is designed for the proposed hybrid islanding protection loop, to avoid false detection during other grid operational issues. UL 1741 (section 46) standard is followed for the PV-VSC system to consider the worst-case scenario. Performance of the proposed hybrid islanding protection scheme is investigated for IEEE 9 bus system with multiple DERs, implemented in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is determined by result analysis, where no significant effect on power quality is recorded during nominal grid operation.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Fractional-Order Sliding-Mode Control of Islanded Distributed Energy
           Resource Systems
    • Authors: Mohammad B. Delghavi;Sajjad Shoja-Majidabad;Amirnaser Yazdani;
      Pages: 1482 - 1491
      Abstract: This paper proposes a voltage control strategy for islanded operation of dispatchable electronically coupled distributed energy resource (DER) systems, for remote (off grid) electrification systems. The proposed control strategy is based on fractional-order sliding-mode control, offers black-start functionality, maintains the quality of the output voltage of the host DER system in spite of unbalanced and/or distorted load currents, and ensures protection of the power-electronic interface to external faults. Moreover, the fractional derivative order of the controller can be used as an additional tuning parameter. Performance of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated through time-domain simulation of single- and multi-DER islanded networks, starting from black-start and subjected to various operating scenario, and it is also compared to the performance of a proportional-integral (PI)-based control strategy.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Benefits of Storage Control for Wind Power Producers in Power Markets
    • Authors: Mainak Chowdhury;Milind Rao;Yue Zhao;Tara Javidi;Andrea Goldsmith;
      Pages: 1492 - 1505
      Abstract: We consider a wind power producer (WPP) participating in a dynamically evolving two settlement power market. We study the utility of energy storage for a WPP in maximizing its expected profit. With random wind and price processes, the optimal forward contract and storage charging/discharging decisions are formulated as solutions of an infinite horizon stochastic optimal control problem. For the asymptotically small storage capacity regime, we precisely characterize the maximum profit increase brought by utilizing energy storage. We prove that, in this regime, an optimal policy uses storage to compensate for power delivery shortfall/surplus in real time, without changing the forward contracts from the optimal ones in the absence of energy storage. This policy also serves as an approximately optimal policy for the case of relatively small storage capacity. We also design a policy based on model predictive control (MPC) that is approximately optimal for general storage capacities. We numerically evaluate the developed policies for wind and price processes with representative statistics from real world data. It is observed that, as expected, the simple small storage approximation policy performs closely to the optimum when storage is relatively small, while the more complex stochastic MPC policy performs better for larger storage capacities.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • A Modified P&O Maximum Power Point Tracking Method With Reduced
           Steady-State Oscillation and Improved Tracking Efficiency
    • Authors: Jubaer Ahmed;Zainal Salam;
      Pages: 1506 - 1515
      Abstract: This paper proposes a method to reduce the steady-state oscillation and to mitigate the probability of losing the tracking direction of the perturb and observed (P&O)-based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for PV system. The modified scheme retains the conventional P&O structure, but with a unique technique to dynamically alter the perturbation size. At the same time, a dynamic boundary condition is introduced to ensure that the algorithm will not diverge from its tracking locus. The modified P&O is simulated in MATLAB Simulink and its performance is benchmarked using the standard MPPT efficiency {{boldsymbol{\eta }}_{MPPT}} calculation. Furthermore, the proposed concept is validated experimentally using a buck-boost converter, fed by a solar PV array simulator (PVAS). Based on the EN 50530 dynamic irradiance tests, the proposed method achieved an average {{boldsymbol{\eta }}_{MPPT}} almost 1.1% higher than the conventional P&O when irradiance changes slowly and about 12% higher under fast change of irradiance.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Wind Power Ramping Control Using Competitive Game
    • Authors: Yongzhi Qi;Yutian Liu;
      Pages: 1516 - 1524
      Abstract: Wind power ramping events bring serious challenges to power system operations. Coordination among wind farms should be improved to mitigate adverse impacts of ramping events. A competitive game mechanism based on the noncooperative game theory is proposed to evaluate the contribution of wind farms in the competitive coordination process. Wind farms compete for participating in the schedule of virtual power plant to decrease the control errors during ramping events. The competitive coordination process depends on the wind farms regulation process affected by profit distribution. Considering power regulation quantity of wind farms and the ability to maintain power outputs, a contribution index is proposed as payoff function and evaluation tool. Furthermore, the existence of Nash equilibrium is proved by analyzing concavity of contribution index. The detailed derivation of Nash equilibrium is presented mathematically. Effective-regulation strategy is derived as Nash equilibrium among effective-regulation, over-regulation, and under-regulation strategies. Simulation results show that the competition among wind farms can reduce the control error. Furthermore, comparison among wind farms with different game strategies indicates that a larger contribution index can be obtained by choosing effective-regulation strategy which is beneficial to fulfill the schedule of virtual power plant.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Quantifying the Economic and Grid Reliability Impacts of Improved Wind
           Power Forecasting
    • Authors: Qin Wang;Carlo Brancucci Martinez-Anido;Hongyu Wu;Anthony R. Florita;Bri-Mathias Hodge;
      Pages: 1525 - 1537
      Abstract: Wind power forecasting is an important tool in power system operations to address variability and uncertainty. Accurately doing so is important to reduce the occurrence and length of curtailment, enhancing market efficiency, and improving the operational reliability of the bulk power system. This research quantifies the value of wind power forecasting improvements in the IEEE 118-bus test system as modified to emulate the generation mixes of Midcontinent, California, and New England independent system operator balancing authority areas. To measure the economic value, a commercially available production cost modeling tool was used to simulate the multitimescale unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch process for calculating the cost savings and curtailment reductions. To measure the reliability improvements, an in-house tool, Flexible energy scheduling tool for integrating variable generation, was used to calculate the system's area control error and the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Control Performance Standard 2. The approach allowed scientific reproducibility of results and cross validation of the tools. A total of 270 scenarios were evaluated to accommodate the variation of three factors: generation mix, wind penetration level, and wind forecasting improvements. The modified IEEE 118-bus systems utilized 1 year of data at multiple time scales, including the day-ahead UC, 4-h-ahead UC, and real-time dispatch. The value of improved wind power forecasting was found to be strongly tied to the conventional generation mix, existence of energy storage devices, and the penetration level of wind energy. The simulation results demonstrate that wind power forecasting brings clear benefits to power system operations.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Small Signal Stability of Fractional Frequency Transmission System With
           Offshore Wind Farms
    • Authors: Jing Li;Xiao-Ping Zhang;
      Pages: 1538 - 1546
      Abstract: Fractional frequency transmission system (FFTS) is a relatively new transmission technology that can be used to deliver the energy from remote offshore wind farms, and it can increase the transmission capacity through the reduced transmission frequency. However, the dynamic performance of a FFTS with the wind farm may be different from that of a traditional ac transmission with the wind farm. In this paper, a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farm is connected to the main grid via the FFTS. The detailed dynamic model of the FFTS with wind farm is established first, and then the eigenvalue analysis is carried out to evaluate the system dynamic damping performance. To verify the results of eigenvalue analysis, dynamic simulations are carried out on a single machine infinite bus and a multimachine system. Both eigenvalue analysis and simulations demonstrate that the FFTS will have a negative influence on the damping of the DFIG-based wind farm in comparison to that of the wind farm with the traditional ac transmission system. However, with the control of cycloconverter, this problem can be easily overcome, and the damping performance of wind farm with FFTS can be even better.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Robust Co-Optimization to Energy and Ancillary Service Joint Dispatch
           Considering Wind Power Uncertainties in Real-Time Electricity Markets
    • Authors: Tao Ding;Zhongyu Wu;Jiajun Lv;Zhaohong Bie;Xianjun Zhang;
      Pages: 1547 - 1557
      Abstract: This paper presents an adjustable robust co-optimization model for energy and ancillary service markets joint dispatch considering wind power uncertainties in real-time electricity markets. The participation factors are employed to generate adjustable generation outputs and ensure energy balance. The proposed robust optimization model can be equivalently transformed into a large-scale linear programming model with a huge number of dummy variables and additional constraints that challenge real-time markets. To further reduce the computation burden, the redundant constraint reduction strategy is proposed to fast eliminate redundant transmission security constraints before solving the model. The results from the IEEE 30-bus system with two wind farms show that the proposed robust joint optimization model provides a better solution compared to those cases using sequential dispatch or deterministic dispatch methodologies. Additional results from practical large-scale systems suggest that the number of redundant constraints is less than 6%, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed redundant constraint reduction strategy in improving the computation efficiency of the robust joint dispatch in real-time markets.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • An Analytical Method to Obtain Maximum Allowable Grid Support by Using
           Grid-Connected Converters
    • Authors: Masoud M. Shabestary;Yasser Abdel-Rady I. Mohamed;
      Pages: 1558 - 1571
      Abstract: Recently, supporting the grid voltage and proper operation of the grid-connected converters (GCCs) under a wide range of grid voltage conditions have become major requirements. An analytical study is very useful for evaluating the supporting capability of the available control strategies in GCCs. This paper analytically studies, then modifies the supporting capability of three existing strategies. The contribution of this paper is two-fold: first, analytical expressions of instantaneous active/reactive powers oscillation and maximum phase currents are formulated and used to conduct several comparisons among different strategies. Second, based on the obtained formulas for the maximum phase currents, maximum allowable support (MAS) control schemes are proposed under unbalanced voltage conditions. The MAS control schemes have two important objectives: obtaining maximum active or reactive power delivery and simultaneously respecting the maximum phase currents under the unbalanced condition. The proposed equations can further estimate the maximum depth of the faulted voltage where each strategy is still able to satisfy the voltage support requirements imposed by the grid codes. The proposed expressions can also help all techniques to provide their maximum voltage or frequency support under the pre-set maximum phase current limitations. Different selected simulation and experimental tests are carried out for comparing the strategies, and validating the effectiveness of the proposed MAS equations.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Synchronous Power Controller With Flexible Droop Characteristics for
           Renewable Power Generation Systems
    • Authors: Weiyi Zhang;Antoni Mir Cantarellas;Joan Rocabert;Alvaro Luna;Pedro Rodriguez;
      Pages: 1572 - 1582
      Abstract: The increasing amount of renewable power generation systems is a challenging issue for the control and operation of the electrical networks. One of the main issues is their lack of inertia, which is becoming a greater problem as much as the share of the power plants based on traditional synchronous generators gets reduced. In this regard, the new grid codes ask these plants to provide new functionalities such as the frequency support and inertia emulation. In this paper, a synchronous power controller for grid-connected converters is proposed as a good solution for the renewable generation systems with energy storage. It provides inertia, damping, and flexible droop characteristics. Different from the faithful replication of the swing equation of synchronous machines, an alternative control structure is proposed, by which the damping and inherent droop slope can be configured independently to meet the requirements in both dynamics and frequency regulations. Analysis and experimental results are both shown to validate the proposed controller.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • A Frequency Regulation Framework for Hydro Plants to Mitigate Wind
           Penetration Challenges
    • Authors: Jin Zou;Manisa Pipattanasomporn;Saifur Rahman;Xu Lai;
      Pages: 1583 - 1591
      Abstract: This paper presents a robust control design to integrate hydro generators to address increased frequency deviations in power systems with high wind power penetration. A robust control design framework for hydro governors is proposed in order to particularly tackle with disturbances from wind power fluctuation. First, by combining state equations of hydro, thermal, and wind generators through the power flow equations of network, a state space model of the entire power system is derived for the control design of hydro generators. In particular, the characteristics of wind power variations and the hydraulic system dynamics of hydroelectric power plants are implemented in the system model. Then, the H_{\infty } -based robust controller is synthesized by reducing the order of the system model and using the linear matrix inequality method. Finally, the IEEE 39-bus test system is used to verify the performance of the designed robust controller with 10–40% wind penetration levels. Simulation results are compared with a traditional PID controller. Research findings indicate that the proposed robust controller significantly reduces system frequency deviations and enables hydro generators to be more responsive to wind power variation in primary frequency regulation of power systems.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Coordinated Voltage Control in Offshore HVDC Connected Cluster of Wind
           Power Plants
    • Pages: 1592 - 1601
      Abstract: This paper presents a coordinated voltage control scheme (CVCS) for a cluster of offshore wind power plants connected to a voltage-source converter-based high-voltage direct current system. The primary control point of the proposed voltage control scheme is the introduced Pilot bus, which is having the highest short-circuit capacity in the offshore AC grid. The developed CVCS comprehends an optimization algorithm, aiming for minimum active power losses in the offshore grid, to generate voltage reference to the Pilot bus. During the steady-state operation, the Pilot bus voltage is controlled by dispatching reactive power references to each wind turbine (WT) in the wind power plant cluster based on their available reactive power margin and network sensitivity-based participation factors, which are derived from the dV/dQ sensitivity of a WT bus w.r.t. the Pilot bus. This method leads to the minimization of the risk of undesired effects, particularly overvoltage at the terminals of the WT located far away from the AC collector substation, by dispatching lower reactive power references compared with the ones nearer to the substation. In addition, this paper proposes a control strategy for improved voltage ride through capability of WTs for faults in the offshore grid, thus leading to improved dynamic voltage profile in the offshore AC grid.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Practical Strategies for Storage Operation in Energy Systems: Design and
           Evaluation
    • Authors: Fiodar Kazhamiaka;Catherine Rosenberg;Srinivasan Keshav;
      Pages: 1602 - 1610
      Abstract: Motivated by the increase in small-scale solar installations used for powering homes and small businesses, we consider the design of rule-based strategies for operating an energy storage device connected to a self-use solar generation system to minimize payments to the grid. This problem is inherently challenging, since strategies depend greatly on the choice of the tariff structure and forecasts of future generation and load. We propose an optimization framework for finding optimal operation strategies and use it to evaluate the performance of an existing operating strategy that we modified to not use forecasts, in the context of differential pricing. We also use our framework to propose a new practical operating strategy for peak-demand pricing. We simulate the two rule-based strategies using real data for solar generation and building load, and find that they are able to achieve near-optimal performance without requiring forecasts.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Admissible Region of Large-Scale Uncertain Wind Generation Considering
           Small-Signal Stability of Power Systems
    • Authors: Yanfei Pan;Shengwei Mei;Feng Liu;Wei Wei;Chen Shen;Jiabing Hu;
      Pages: 1611 - 1623
      Abstract: The increasing integration of wind generation has brought great challenges to small-signal stability analysis of bulk power systems, since the uncertainty of wind generation may considerably affect equilibria of the systems. In this regard, this paper develops a conceptual framework to geometrically measure the influence of uncertainty of wind power injections (WPIs) on the small-signal stability of bulk power systems. We define a new concept in the WPI subspace, which is referred to as the admissible region of uncertain wind generation considering small-signal stability (SSAR). To do this, first the traditional concept of small-signal stability region (SSSR) defined in the nodal power generation injection space is extended to a higher dimensional nodal injection space that incorporates both the deterministic generation injections and the uncertain WPIs. Then the SSAR is obtained by mapping the extended SSSR onto the WPI subspace. The polynomial approximation of the SSAR boundary is given in a closed form. Case studies on the modified New England 39-bus system with multiple wind farms illustrate the SSAR concept and its potential applications.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Optimal Local Reactive Power Control by PV Inverters
    • Authors: Sam Weckx;Johan Driesen;
      Pages: 1624 - 1633
      Abstract: The high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) generators leads to a voltage rise in the distribution network. To comply with grid standards, distribution system operators need to limit this voltage rise. Reactive power control is one of the most proposed remedies. A popular form of reactive power control is an active power dependent characteristic to define the reactive power control of a PV generator. This standard Q(P) characteristic is a simple curve, which is not adapted to the specific situation in the grid. Therefore, this work proposes a method to define the optimal Q(P) curve. The optimal Q( P) curve is represented as a piecewise constant or a piecewise linear function. The parameters are optimized based on historical smart meter information, to obtain a Q(P) curve that keeps the voltage within limits throughout the whole year, with a minimal amount of reactive power. An easy to solve convex optimization problem defines the parameters. The method is applied to unbalanced three-phase four-wire systems. Several simulations with realistic data are performed on an existing distribution network to compare the optimal Q(P) curve with standard Q(P) and Q (V) curves.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Multiple Period Ramping Processes in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets
    • Authors: Mohammad E. Khodayar;Saeed D. Manshadi;Hongyu Wu;Jeremy Lin;
      Pages: 1634 - 1645
      Abstract: This paper proposes an approach to formulate the multiple-period ramping capability of dispatchable generation resources and evaluates the impact of this service on the generation scheduling in day-ahead electricity market. It is discussed that the multiple-period ramping enhances the load following capability of dispatchable generation resources and improves the dispatchability of renewable energy resources in power systems. The presented approach encompasses the uncertainties in the operation scheduling of power systems, using scenario based stochastic security-constrained unit commitment. The presented case studies also highlight the merits of integrating energy storage facilities to reduce the ramping services provided by dispatchable generation resources with respective costs.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • A New Risk-Managed Planning of Electric Distribution Network Incorporating
           Customer Engagement and Temporary Solutions
    • Authors: Ali Arefi;Anula Abeygunawardana;Gerard Ledwich;
      Pages: 1646 - 1661
      Abstract: The connection of renewable-based distributed generation (DG) in distribution networks has been increasing over the last few decades, which would result in increased network capacity to handle their uncertainties along with uncertainties associated with demand forecast. Temporary non-network solutions (NNSs) such as demand response (DR) and temporary energy storage system/DG are considered as promising options for handling these uncertainties at a lower cost than network alternatives. In order to manage and treat the risk associated with these uncertainties using NNSs, this paper presents a new risk-managed approach for multi-stage distribution expansion planning (MSDEP) at a lower cost. In this approach, the uncertainty of available DR is also taken into account. The philosophy of the proposed approach is to find the “optimal level of demand” for each year at which the network should be upgraded using network solutions while procuring temporary NNSs to supply the excess demand above this level. A recently developed forward–backward approach is fitted to solve the risk-managed MSDEP model presented here for real sized networks with a manageable computational cost. Simulation results of two case studies, IEEE 13-bus and a realistic 747-bus distribution network, illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Optimal Secondary Distribution System Design Considering Rooftop Solar
           Photovoltaics
    • Authors: Shady A. El Batawy;Walid G. Morsi;
      Pages: 1662 - 1671
      Abstract: This study presents a new approach for optimally designing a secondary distribution system, taking into consideration the effect of prosumers owning rooftop solar photovoltaics in residential subdivisions. The methodology is presented and the optimization problem of secondary distribution system (SDS) design in the presence of prosumers is mathematically formulated. Moreover, numerical examples that consider houses of different types/sizes are introduced to exemplify the proposed approach.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Power Quality Improvement Using Photovoltaic Fed DSTATCOM Based on JAYA
           Optimization
    • Authors: Soumya Mishra;Pravat Kumar Ray;
      Pages: 1672 - 1680
      Abstract: In this paper, a new optimization technique namely JAYA is proposed to optimize the coefficients of proportional plus integral controller and filter parameters of photovoltaic fed distributed static compensator (PV-DSTATCOM). The JAYA is a new optimization tool whose performance is independent of the algorithm-specific control parameters. It overcomes the limitations of others in terms of attaining global optima with reduced computational effort. From the obtained simulation and experimental results, the performance of JAYA optimized PV-DSTATCOM has been found quite satisfactory and stimulating as compared to grenade explosion method and teaching-learning based optimized PV-DSTATCOM.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Control of a Point Absorber Using Reinforcement Learning
    • Authors: Enrico Anderlini;David I. M. Forehand;Paul Stansell;Qing Xiao;Mohammad Abusara;
      Pages: 1681 - 1690
      Abstract: This work presents the application of reinforcement learning for the optimal resistive control of a point absorber. The model-free Q-learning algorithm is selected in order to maximise energy absorption in each sea state. Step changes are made to the controller damping, observing the associated penalty, for excessive motions, or reward, i.e. gain in associated power. Due to the general periodicity of gravity waves, the absorbed power is averaged over a time horizon lasting several wave periods. The performance of the algorithm is assessed through the numerical simulation of a point absorber subject to motions in heave in both regular and irregular waves. The algorithm is found to converge towards the optimal controller damping in each sea state. Additionally, the model-free approach ensures the algorithm can adapt to changes to the device hydrodynamics over time and is unbiased by modelling errors.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
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      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
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    • Pages: 1693 - 1693
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      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Guest Editorial Special Section on Integration of Electrochemical Energy
           Storage in Sustainable Energy Systems
    • Authors: David A. Howey;
      Pages: 1694 - 1694
      Abstract: The nine papers in this special section focused on the integration of electrochemical energy storage in sustainable energy systems. Electrochemical energy storage, such as batteries and super-capacitors, is a rapidly advancing technology that promises to enable increased integration of renewable energy into the power grid. However, performance and cost challenges remain and it is often difficult to understand the role and value of energy storage in this context. Particular challenges include modelling and understanding degradation under various usage scenarios, optimal charge and discharge control, and robust, efficient monitoring and diagnostic approaches. The main objective of this special Section is to investigate exciting research challenges in design and control of electrochemical energy storage systems that are integrated into sustainable energy systems.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • A Novel Mechanical Analogy-Based Battery Model for SoC Estimation Using a
           Multicell EKF
    • Authors: Maurizio Paschero;Gian Luca Storti;Antonello Rizzi;Fabio Massimo Frattale Mascioli;Giorgio Rizzoni;
      Pages: 1695 - 1702
      Abstract: The future evolution of technological systems dedicated to improve energy efficiency will strongly depend on effective and reliable energy storage systems, as key components for smart grids, microgrids, and electric mobility. Besides possible improvements in chemical materials and cells design, the battery management system is the most important electronic device that improves the reliability of a battery pack. In fact, a precise state of charge (SoC) estimation allows the energy flows controller to better exploit the full capacity of each cell. In this paper, we propose an alternative definition for the SoC, explaining the rationales by a mechanical analogy. We introduce a novel cell model, conceived as a series of three electric dipoles, together with a procedure for parameters estimation relying only on voltage measures and a given current profile. The three dipoles represent the quasi-stationary, the dynamic, and the instantaneous components of voltage measures. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is adopted as a nonlinear state estimator. Moreover, we propose a multicell EKF system based on a round-robin approach to allow the same processing block to keep track of many cells at the same time. Performance tests with a prototype battery pack composed by 18 A123 cells connected in series show encouraging results.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Evaluation of Advanced Control for Li-ion Battery Balancing Systems Using
           Convex Optimization
    • Pages: 1703 - 1717
      Abstract: Typically, the unique objective pursued in either active or passive balancing is equalization of single cell charge. However, a balancing circuit may offer more control features, like virtual equalization of single cell internal resistance or thermal balancing. Such control features for balancing systems are evaluated in this paper by means of convex optimization. More than one hundred cases in a pure EV application are evaluated. Balancing circuits' efficiency models are implemented and realistic cell-to-cell parameter distributions are considered based on experimental data. Different battery sizes and driving cycles are considered. Balancing circuit topology is taken into account by selecting a specific category of energy transfer: cell-to-heat, bypass, cell-to-pack, pack-to-cell, cell-to-cell shared, cell-to-cell distributed or cell-to-pack-to-cell. In general, better results in terms of energy losses, available capacity or temperature are obtained for the last three categories, even for moderate balancing currents. In particular, remarkable improvements are observed under conditions of high power demand with high variability, i.e., smaller battery sizes and more demanding driving cycles.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Effect of Battery Degradation on Multi-Service Portfolios of Energy
           Storage
    • Authors: Aramis Perez;Rodrigo Moreno;Roberto Moreira;Marcos Orchard;Goran Strbac;
      Pages: 1718 - 1729
      Abstract: In an electricity market environment, energy storage plant owners are remunerated for the provision of services to multiple electricity sectors. Some of these services, however, may accelerate battery aging and degradation and hence this needs to be properly balanced against associated services remunerations. In this framework, we propose a combined economic-degradation model to quantify effects of operational policies (mainly focused on constraining State of Charge –SOC– to prescribed levels in order to reduce effects of aging) on gross revenue, multi-service portfolios, degradation and lifespan of distributed energy storage plants that can provide multiple services to energy and balancing market participants and Distribution Network Operators. Through various case studies based on the Great Britain system, we demonstrate that although operational policies focused on battery damage reduction will lead to a revenue loss in the short-term, such loss can be more than compensated by long-term revenues due to a lengthier battery lifespan. We also demonstrate that operational policies to reduce battery degradation mainly affect services related to the energy (rather than balancing) market, which represents a smaller proportion of the overall revenue streams of a distributed storage plant. The model is also used to study effects of ambient temperature fluctuations.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • A Practical Scheme to Involve Degradation Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries in
           Vehicle-to-Grid Applications
    • Authors: Hossein Farzin;Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad;Moein Moeini-Aghtaie;
      Pages: 1730 - 1738
      Abstract: This paper concentrates on degradation of electric vehicle (EV) lithium-ion batteries in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) programs and proposes a practical wear cost model for EVs charge scheduling applications. As the first step, all the factors affecting the cycle life of lithium-ion batteries are identified and their impacts on degradation process are investigated. Subsequently, a general model for battery loss of cycle life is devised incorporating all the pertinent factors associated with charging and discharging activities in V2G applications. Modeling the battery wear cost as a series of equal-payments over the cycle life, a mechanism for calculating the cost incurred by EV users due to participation in V2G programs is developed. Taking into account the developed battery degradation cost model, EVs charge scheduling problem is revisited and it is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming problem. As the actual battery degradation cost and adopted charging strategy are mutually dependent, a novel iterative method is proposed to efficiently obtain the optimal solution to charge scheduling problem and calculate the associated wear price. Several case studies are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method in integrating the degradation cost of lithium-ion batteries into charge scheduling of V2G-capable EVs.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Day-Ahead Smart Grid Cooperative Distributed Energy Scheduling With
           Renewable and Storage Integration
    • Authors: Yuan Zhang;Navid Rahbari-Asr;Jie Duan;Mo-Yuen Chow;
      Pages: 1739 - 1748
      Abstract: Day-ahead scheduling of generation units and storage devices is essential for the economic and efficient operation of a power system. Conventionally, a control center calculates the dispatch schedule by gathering information from all of the devices. However, this centralized control structure makes the system vulnerable to single point of failure and communication failures, and raises privacy concerns. In this paper, a fully distributed algorithm is proposed to find the optimal dispatch schedule for a smart grid with renewable and energy storage integration. The algorithm considers modified dc power flow constraints, branch energy losses, and energy storage charging and discharging efficiencies. In this algorithm, each bus of the system is modeled as an agent. By solely exchanging information with its neighbors, the optimal dispatch schedule of the conventional generators and energy storage can be achieved in an iterative manner. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated through several representative case studies.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Co-Optimization of Storage System Sizing and Control Strategy for
           Intelligent Photovoltaic Power Plants Market Integration
    • Pages: 1749 - 1761
      Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESS) when integrated with large-scale photovoltaic (PV) plants, constituting a so-called Intelligent PV (IPV) power plant, are able to contribute to improve the economic viability of these power plants and to help them participate in the electricity markets as other traditional generators. In this paper, the sizing and control strategy co-optimization for an existing IPV power plant is proposed and implemented. A global linear programming (LP) optimization algorithm is developed, where the optimal components sizing is computed directly in the same optimization as the operating management of the storage system. In the IPV power plant design stage, the LP optimization is applied to obtain the optimal energy storage sizing parameters (capacity and power rate). In the operation stage, the same LP algorithm optimizes the control strategy to participate to electricity markets. This participation is based on the online model predictive control (MPC) to counteract PV forecast errors by participating in intraday markets. The proposed approach (optimal ESS sizing and online MPC) increases the daily economic benefits around 20%.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Achieving the Dispatchability of Distribution Feeders Through Prosumers
           Data Driven Forecasting and Model Predictive Control of Electrochemical
           Storage
    • Authors: Fabrizio Sossan;Emil Namor;Rachid Cherkaoui;Mario Paolone;
      Pages: 1762 - 1777
      Abstract: We propose and experimentally validate a process to dispatch the operation of a distribution feeder with heterogeneous prosumers according to a trajectory with 5 min resolution, called dispatch plan, established the day before the operation. The controllable element is a utility-scale grid-connected battery energy storage system (BESS) integrated with a minimally pervasive monitoring infrastructure. The process consists of two stages: day-ahead, where the dispatch plan is determined by using forecast of the aggregated consumption and local distributed generation (prosumption), and real-time operation, where the mismatch between the actual prosumption realization and dispatch plan is compensated for thanks to adjusting the real power injections of the BESS with model predictive control (MPC). MPC accounts for BESS operational constraints thank to reduced order dynamic grey-box models identified from online measurements. The experimental validation is performed by using a grid-connected 720 kVA/500 kWh BESS to dispatch the operation of a 20-kV distribution feeder of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne campus with both conventional consumption and distributed photo-voltaic generation.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • A Review of Power Electronics for Grid Connection of Utility-Scale Battery
           Energy Storage Systems
    • Authors: Guishi Wang;Georgios Konstantinou;Christopher D. Townsend;Josep Pou;Sergio Vazquez;Georgios D. Demetriades;Vassilios Georgios Agelidis;
      Pages: 1778 - 1790
      Abstract: The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) poses a major challenge to the operation of the electricity grid owing to the intermittent nature of their power output. The ability of utility-scale battery energy storage systems (BESS) to provide grid support and smooth the output of RES in combination with their decrease in cost has fueled research interest in this technology over the last couple of years. Power electronics (PE) is the key enabling technology for connecting utility-scale BESS to the medium-voltage grid. PE ensure energy is delivered while complying with grid codes and dispatch orders. Simultaneously, the PE must regulate the operating point of the batteries, thus for instance preventing overcharge of batteries. This paper presents a comprehensive review of PE topologies for utility BESS that have been proposed either within industry or the academic literature. Moreover, a comparison of the presently most commercially viable topologies is conducted in terms of estimated power conversion efficiency and relative cost.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Quantitative Efficiency and Temperature Analysis of Battery-Ultracapacitor
           Hybrid Energy Storage Systems
    • Authors: Chen Zhao;He Yin;Chengbin Ma;
      Pages: 1791 - 1802
      Abstract: This paper provides quantitative analysis on system efficiency and battery temperature rise in battery-alone system, passive, battery semiactive, and capacitor semiactive hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs). First the system efficiencies and the temperature rises in battery are derived under a pulsed load profile and the four different topologies. Sensitivity analysis is then performed to investigate the influences of the factors (the characteristics of the load profile, the state of charge of battery, and the efficiency of the dc-dc converter) on the four energy storage systems. The proper usage of the HESSs is discussed later based on the results of the sensitivity analysis. It is found that in the most cases the capacitor semiactive HESS is superior in both system efficiency and the suppression of the battery temperature rise. Meanwhile, its behavior is more complicated than that of the battery semiactive HESS. The battery semiactive HESS is suitable for the highly dynamic loads, but its performance more depends on the efficiency of the dc-dc converter. Finally experiments are conducted that validate the previous theoretical discussions.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Expand Your Network, Get Rewarded
    • Pages: 1803 - 1803
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Scholarship Plus Initiative
    • Pages: 1804 - 1804
      Abstract: Advertisement, IEEE.
      PubDate: Oct. 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2016)
       
 
 
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