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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 1955 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (153 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (148 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (82 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1111 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (290 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (45 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (52 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (74 journals)

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (82 journals)

Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica     Open Access  
Actuators     Open Access  
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Control Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Atom Indonesia     Open Access  
Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computers & Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Trends in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Electric Power Components and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Electric Power Systems Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Electrical and Power Engineering Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Electrical Engineering and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrical Engineering in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ferroelectrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ferroelectrics Letters Section     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frequenz     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEA Electricity Information     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Access     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IET Control Theory & Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IET Electric Power Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Integrated Ferroelectrics: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Electronics and Communication Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Monitoring and Surveillance Technologies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal on Communication     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal on Control System and Instrumentation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal on Signal and Image Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J3eA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Control Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micro-Bio Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Power Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Society for Information Display     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C     Hybrid Journal  
Micro and Nano Systems Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nanotechnology Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Quarterly Statistics - Electricite, charbon, gaz et petrole - Statistiques trimestrielles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Recent Patents on Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Recent Patents on Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University. Power and Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Synthesis Lectures on Electrical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA : Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Trends in Electrical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science     Open Access  
Wireless Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  
Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1949-3029
     Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Homepage  [172 journals]   [SJR: 1.766]   [H-I: 14]
  • IEEE Power Engineering Society information for authors
    • Pages: C4 - C4
      Abstract: Provides instructions and guidelines to prospective authors who wish to submit manuscripts.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Table of Contents
    • Pages: C1 - 709
      Abstract: Presents the table of contents for this issue of the periodical.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
    • Pages: C2 - C2
      Abstract: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy society information
    • Pages: C3 - C3
      Abstract: Provides a listing of current committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Smart Grid Agent: Plug-in Electric Vehicle
    • Authors: Dallinger; D.;Link, J.;Büttner, M.;
      Pages: 710 - 717
      Abstract: This study describes a method for programming a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) agent that can be used in power system models and in embedded systems implemented in real PEVs. Implementing the software in real-life applications and in simulation tools enables research with a high degree of detail and practical relevance. Agent-based programming, therefore, is an important tool for investigating the future power system. To demonstrate the PEV agent behavior, an optimization algorithm is presented and two battery aging methods, as well as their effect on vehicle-to-grid operation, are analyzed. Aging costs based on the depth-of-discharge result in shallow cycles and a strong dependency on driving behavior, because the state-of-charge affects the discharging process. In contrast, aging costs based on energy throughput calculations result in deeper cycles and V2G operation, which is less dependent on driving behavior.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Variable Perturbation Size Adaptive P&O MPPT Algorithm for Sudden
           Changes in Irradiance
    • Authors: Kollimalla; S.K.;Mishra, M.K.;
      Pages: 718 - 728
      Abstract: In this paper, a variable perturbation size adaptive perturb and observe (P&O) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed to track the maximum power under sudden changes in irradiance. The proposed method consists of three algorithms, namely current perturbation algorithm (CPA), adaptive control algorithm (ACA), and variable perturbation algorithm (VPA). CPA always tries to operate the photovoltaic (PV) panel at maximum power point (MPP). ACA sets the operating point closer to MPP, only if the operating limits are violated. These operating limits are expressed in terms of the operating current range of the PV panel and the sudden changes in irradiance. VPA dynamically reduces the perturbation size based on polarity of change in power. Two-stage variable size perturbation is proposed in this paper. The proposed algorithm is realized using a boost converter. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm in terms of dynamic performance and improved stability is validated by detailed simulation and experimental studies.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Comparative Hourly Scheduling of Centralized and Distributed Storage in
           Day-Ahead Markets
    • Authors: Parvania; M.;Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.;Shahidehpour, M.;
      Pages: 729 - 737
      Abstract: Electric energy storage (EES) installations in power systems are migrating from large centralized systems to more distributed installations for microgrid applications. This trend signifies modular EES installations for the local control of buildings and processes. A centralized EES system is often dispatched by grid operators for increasing the overall efficiency and enhancing the security of power systems. The distributed EES (DEES) is locally managed by aggregators to maximize the local impact of EES, before the aggregators' adjusted load profiles are submitted to grid operators for the day-ahead scheduling. In this paper, we present and analyze two models for the hourly scheduling of centralized and distributed EES systems in day-ahead electricity markets. The proposed models take into account specific characteristics and intertemporal constraints of EES systems in transmission-constrained power systems. The proposed models are applied to a 6-bus system and the IEEE-RTS, and the results are presented to compare impacts of utilizing the two EES models on system operations and quantify operation benefits of EES in power systems.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Predictive Dispatch Across Time of Hybrid Isolated Power Systems
    • Authors: Bruno; S.;Dassisti, M.;La Scala, M.;Chimienti, M.;Cignali, C.;Palmisani, E.;
      Pages: 738 - 746
      Abstract: The paper proposes a methodology for the optimal dispatch of energy sources in hybrid and isolated energy systems. The proposed approach is based on the formulation and solution of a nonlinear discrete optimization problem aimed at optimizing input and output time trajectories for a set of combined generating and storage technologies. Loads and interruptible loads are among controlled variables, and are modeled according to their interruption costs. The approach is general enough to be applied to any hybrid system configuration and was developed having in mind the complex hybrid system architectures comprising several competing storage technologies (battery, pumping, and hydrogen). Test results are aimed at showing the feasibility of the proposed methodology, comparing optimal trajectories to suboptimal system behavior given by load-following strategies.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Three-Phase Fault Direction Identification for Distribution Systems With
           DFIG-Based Wind DG
    • Authors: Hooshyar; A.;Azzouz, M.A.;El-Saadany, E.F.;
      Pages: 747 - 756
      Abstract: Distributed generation (DG) integration necessitates upgrading some distribution system overcurrent relays to directional ones to offer selective protection. The directional feature is conventionally achieved by phase angle comparison between phasors of the fault current and a polarizing quantity, normally a voltage signal. Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines constitute an appreciable portion of today's DG power. This paper unveils that conventional directional elements malfunction during three-phase short-circuits when a distribution system incorporates DFIG-based wind DG. The maloperation is due to the exclusive fault behavior of DFIGs, which affects the existing relaying practices. The paper also proposes a fault current classification technique that replaces the conventional directional element during problematic conditions and provides accurate fault direction quickly based on waveshape properties of the current. An extensive performance evaluation using PSCAD/EMTDC simulation of the IEEE 34 bus system corroborates the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are exceptionally encouraging in the case of resistive crowbar circuits for DFIGs, which is the typical scenario in practice.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Unified Approach for Power System Predictive Operations Using Viterbi
           Algorithm
    • Authors: Livani; H.;Jafarzadeh, S.;Evrenosoglu, C.Y.;Fadali, M.S.;
      Pages: 757 - 766
      Abstract: A paradigm shift in the renewable energy proliferation in the U.S. necessitates a paradigm shift in power system operations to accommodate large-scale intermittent power while keeping the grid reliable and secure. Energy management systems (EMS) will benefit from an auxiliary function, which integrates the wind and load forecasting to state estimation and forecasting. This auxiliary function will create a predictive database for the power system states using the historical states as well as wind and load forecasts. The predictive database can be utilized to provide pseudo-measurements to a static state estimator in the case of loss of observability and bad data processing, or it can be used for short-term congestion and ramping predictions. This paper proposes an auxiliary tool for look-ahead power system state forecasting in electrical power systems with high intermittent renewable energy penetration. The method utilizes Markov models (MMs) and the Viterbi algorithm (VA) with a grid of feasible power system states obtained and updated by using the past states. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on the IEEE 14-bus and 118-bus systems using wind and load data available from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The results show good correlation between the predictions and the actual power system states.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Combined Vector and Direct Power Control for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines
    • Authors: Mohammadi; J.;Vaez-Zadeh, S.;Afsharnia, S.;Daryabeigi, E.;
      Pages: 767 - 775
      Abstract: In this paper, a combined vector and direct power control (CVDPC) is proposed for the rotor side converter (RSC) of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). The control system is based on a direct current control by selecting appropriate voltage vectors from a switching table. In fact, the proposed CVDPC enjoys the benefits of vector control (VC) and direct power control (DPC) in a compacted control system. Its benefits in comparison with VC include fast dynamic response, robustness against the machine parameters variation, lower computation, and simple implementation. On the other hand, it has benefits in comparison with DPC, including less harmonic distortion and lower power ripple. An extensive simulation study, using MATLAB/Simulink, is conducted on a 9-MW wind farm composed of six 1.5-MW DFIG-based wind turbines. The performance of the proposed CVDPC method is compared with both VC and DPC under steady-state and transient conditions. Simulation results confirm the superiority of the CVDPC over either VC or DPC.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Combined Central and Local Active and Reactive Power Control of PV
           Inverters
    • Authors: Weckx; S.;Gonzalez, C.;Driesen, J.;
      Pages: 776 - 784
      Abstract: The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV) generation results in a reverse power flow and a violation of the overvoltage limits in distribution networks. PV inverters can curtail active power or consume reactive power to avoid these excessive high voltages. Local controllers of active and reactive power that are based on measurements of the produced PV power have a fast response to the changing production levels of the PV installation. The performance of these local controllers depends on the tuning of the control parameters, which are grid and time dependent. In this paper, local control functions are defined as piecewise linear functions. The parameters of all the local control functions are regularly reoptimized. This results in an optimal use of reactive power and a minimum amount of curtailed active power, while respecting network limitations. The optimization of these parameters is formulated as a convex optimization problem, which can be solved sufficiently fast. The performance of the control is evaluated on an existing three-phase four-wire distribution grid and is compared with different local control methods.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Modeling and Parameter Identification of Lithium-Ion Capacitor Modules
    • Authors: Barcellona; S.;Ciccarelli, F.;Iannuzzi, D.;Piegari, L.;
      Pages: 785 - 794
      Abstract: Lithium-ion capacitors (LiCs) are novel storage devices with a high power density and high energy density compared to conventional supercapacitors (SCs). This paper proposes a method to validate the previously developed characterization and modeling methods, which are the same as those used for a conventional SC with double-layer-activated carbon technology. This paper presents two relevant contributions. First, a full frequency range model and the experimental parameter identification of two kinds of LiC cells are presented. In order to extend the LiC cell parameter identification to a module composed of several series-connected cells, an aggregate model of the LiC module was investigated and validated. The results of experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate the value and effectiveness of the proposed model when the cells operate at room temperature.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Estimation of Transportation Battery Second Life for Use in Electricity
           Grid Systems
    • Authors: Strickland; D.;Chittock, L.;Stone, D.A.;Foster, M.P.;Price, B.;
      Pages: 795 - 803
      Abstract: This paper presents research from part of a larger project focusing on the potential development of commercial opportunities for the reuse of batteries on the electricity grid system, subsequent to their primary use in low and ultra-low carbon vehicles, and investigating the life cycle issues surrounding the batteries. The work has three main areas; examination of electric vehicle fleet data in detail to investigate usage in first life. Batteries that have passed through a battery recycler at the end of their first life have been tested within the laboratory to confirm the general assumption that remaining capacity of 80% after use in transportation is a reasonable assumption as a basis for second-life applications. The third aspect of the paper is an investigation of the equivalent usage for three different second-life applications based on connection to the electricity grid. Additionally, the paper estimates the time to cell failure of the batteries within their second-life application to estimate lifespan for use within commercial investigations.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Vertically Correlated Echelon Model for the Interpolation of Missing Wind
           Speed Data
    • Authors: Qin Lin;Jun Wang;
      Pages: 804 - 812
      Abstract: The wind speeds of a wind farm are not always available or accurately measurable due to uncontrollable events such as anemometer failures or data transmission errors. However, the data are of great importance for wind resource assessment and wind speed prediction. In this paper, a vertically correlated echelon model (CEM) is proposed to interpolate the missing data of wind speeds by utilizing the correlation of wind speeds at different heights. First, the data of wind speed are checked according to a national standard. Second, the model based on the correlation of wind speeds at different heights is proposed for short interval of missing data. Third, the proposed method is compared with typical interpolation methods and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Finally, the uncertainty of the proposed method is analyzed for improved evaluation of interpolation errors.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Comprehensive, Quantitative Comparison of Inverter Architectures for
           Various PV Systems, PV Cells, and Irradiance Profiles
    • Authors: Strache; S.;Wunderlich, R.;Heinen, S.;
      Pages: 813 - 822
      Abstract: This paper compares the performance of state-of-the-art inverter architectures for photovoltaic (PV) systems, such as string inverters, power optimizers, or micro inverters, to one another for different locations and PV applications. Since inhomogeneous irradiance patterns significantly influence the performance of PV systems, this study explicitly considers partial shading effects and weather conditions. To improve output energy at shaded locations, an inverter topology applying converters on a submodule level is proposed and evaluated. A MATLAB/Simulink model on the cell level is employed to compare the energy output of different scenarios for 30 years of operation. Additionally, cell mismatch and degradation are considered. Finally, the paper discusses the advantages and drawbacks of each inverter topology regarding different PV applications based on the simulation results. It could be shown that PV systems employing a small number of solar cells (SCs) connected in series feature an enhanced energy output, even for locations without any shading.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Coordinated Robust Control of DFIG Wind Turbine and PSS for Stabilization
           of Power Oscillations Considering System Uncertainties
    • Authors: Surinkaew; T.;Ngamroo, I.;
      Pages: 823 - 833
      Abstract: Uncertainties in power systems, such as intermittent wind power, generating and loading conditions may cause the malfunction of power system stabilizing controllers, which are designed without considering such uncertainties. To enhance the robustness of stabilizing controllers against system uncertainties, this paper proposes a new coordinated robust control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine equipped with power oscillation damper (POD) and synchronous generator installed with power system stabilizer (PSS) for stabilization of power system oscillations. Without the difficulty of mathematical representation, the inverse output multiplicative perturbation is used to model system uncertainties. The structure of POD and PSS is specified as a practical second-order lead/lag compensator with single input. The parameters optimization of POD and PSS is conducted so that the stabilizing performance and robustness of POD and PSS are augmented. The improved firefly algorithm is applied to solve the optimization problem and achieve the POD and PSS parameters automatically. Simulation study in the modified IEEE-39 bus New England system included with DFIG wind turbines ensures that the robustness and stabilizing performance of the proposed coordinated DFIG with POD and PSS are much superior to those of the conventional DFIG with POD and PSS under various severe disturbances and system uncertainties.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Power Smoothing of Large Solar PV Plant Using Hybrid Energy Storage
    • Authors: Guishi Wang;Ciobotaru; M.;Agelidis, V.G.;
      Pages: 834 - 842
      Abstract: This paper proposes a power smoothing strategy for a 1-MW grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) power plant. A hybrid energy storage system (HESS) composed of a vanadium redox battery and a supercapacitor bank is used to smooth the fluctuating output power of the PV plant. The power management of the HESS is purposely designed to reduce the required power rating of the SCB to only one-fifth of the VRB rating and to avoid the operation of the VRB at low power levels, thus increasing its overall efficiency. The PV plant including the HESS has been modeled using MATLAB/Simulink and PLECS software environment. The effectiveness of the proposed power control strategy is confirmed through extensive simulation results.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Online Supervisory Voltage Control for Grid Interface of Utility-Level PV
           Plants
    • Authors: Weidong Xiao;Torchyan; K.;El Moursi, M.S.;Kirtley, J.L.;
      Pages: 843 - 853
      Abstract: Large-scale photovoltaic (PV) plants are being designed to support grid-voltage regulation. Based on transmission-level interconnection, this paper proposes a novel online supervisory voltage control (OSVC) strategy to improve network voltage profiles. The system structure includes the algorithms for reactive power allocation and online voltage tracking. The effectiveness of the proposed OSVC that improves the network voltage profile is verified by simulation in comparison with the conventional line-drop secondary voltage control and primary voltage control. Since the application relies on the measurement and communication network, the time delay is considered. Based on the available bandwidth of the wide-area measurement systems (WAMSs), the simulation shows the feasibility and success of utilizing the OSVC for real-world implementations. The study also indicates the transient response can be improved further by the proposed solution when high-bandwidth WAMS infrastructures are available in the future. Furthermore, the proposed control strategy is tested in a weak power network with the low-short circuit ratio and failure of communication.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Noniterative Method to Estimate Load Carrying Capability of Generating
           Units in a Renewable Energy Rich Power Grid
    • Authors: Abdullah; M.A.;Muttaqi, K.M.;Agalgaonkar, A.P.;Sutanto, D.;
      Pages: 854 - 865
      Abstract: It is important to estimate the contribution of renewable generation units in the evaluation of system generation adequacy for power generation planning taking into account the demand and renewable generation correlation and uncertainty. The effective load carrying capability (ELCC) is usually used for this purpose. In this paper, a noniterative analytical method is proposed for estimating the peak load carrying capability (PLCC) and ELCC of conventional and renewable generation units. The proposed method is verified using the IEEE RTS and an electricity network in New South Wales, Australia, and the results are compared with other estimation methods. The results show that the correlation between demand and renewable generation influences the ELCC of a renewable generation unit-the higher the correlation, the higher the ELCC, and vice versa. The main contribution of this paper is the development of an analytical noniterative and computationally efficient technique, which accounts for the correlation between demand and available renewable generation.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Pattern-Based Wind Speed Prediction Based on Generalized Principal
           Component Analysis
    • Authors: Qinghua Hu;Pengyu Su;Daren Yu;Jinfu Liu;
      Pages: 866 - 874
      Abstract: Short-term wind speed prediction plays an important role in large-scale wind power penetration. However, there is still a large gap between the requirement of prediction performance and current techniques. In this paper, we propose a pattern-based approach to short-term wind speed prediction. It is well accepted that wind varies in different patterns in different weather conditions. Thus, we should use different models to describe these patterns, whereas most current works conduct wind speed prediction with a single model. Based on this observation, we introduce generalized principal component analysis to automatically discover the patterns hidden in the historical data of wind speed. Then we train a predicting function for each pattern and combine their outputs for the final prediction. Experimental results show that the proposed approach performs better than the clustering-based approach, a single model, and persistence forecasting.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Impact of Energy Storage Systems on Electricity Market Equilibrium
    • Authors: Awad; A.S.A.;Fuller, J.D.;EL-Fouly, T.H.M.;Salama, M.M.A.;
      Pages: 875 - 885
      Abstract: Integration of large-scale energy storage systems (ESSs) is desirable nowadays to achieve higher reliability and efficiency for smart grids. Controlling ESS operation usually depends on electricity market prices so as to charge when the price is low and discharge when the price is high. On the other hand, the market-clearing price itself is determined based on the net demand, i.e., including energy storage output, at every hour. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a mathematical model to determine the optimal ESS operation as well as the market-clearing prices. The problem is formulated as a mixed complementarity problem (MCP) that allows the representation of special (incentive) prices, which cannot be represented in a single optimization model. The proposed model is useful for power system operators to determine the optimal storage dispatch simultaneously with the market-clearing price in addition to the conventional generation dispatch. The impact of energy storage size and location on market price, total generation cost, energy storage arbitrage benefit, and total consumer payment is further investigated in this paper. The latter analysis provides some guidelines for power system planners to identify the optimal size and location for installing large-scale ESSs.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Adaptive Decentralized Under-Frequency Load Shedding for Islanded Smart
           Distribution Networks
    • Authors: Wei Gu;Wei Liu;Junpeng Zhu;Bo Zhao;Zaijun Wu;Zhao Luo;Jie Yu;
      Pages: 886 - 895
      Abstract: Frequency stability of islanded smart distribution networks with peer-to-peer (P2P) controlled distributed generators (DGs) has attracted special attention recently. Using power line communication (PLC) technology, a multi-agent system (MAS)-based, decentralized, under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) scheme is investigated in this study for smart distribution networks with the communication constraint that each agent can only communicate with its neighboring agents. The proposed scheme uses the two-layer nearest neighbor consensus algorithm (NNCA) to overcome the drawback of the leader-follower consensus algorithm and guarantee the implementation of a decentralized UFLS. Based on the global information (i.e., the magnitude of the total active power imbalance) discovered in the first layer of the NNCA, the multi-stage UFLS can be executed by the second layer of the NNCA. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can effectively implement the decentralized UFLS while maintaining the frequency stability of an islanded smart distribution network.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Short-Term and Medium-Term Reliability Evaluation for Power Systems With
           High Penetration of Wind Power
    • Authors: Yi Ding;Singh; C.;Goel, L.;Østergaard, J.;Peng Wang;
      Pages: 896 - 906
      Abstract: The expanding share of the fluctuating and less predictable wind power generation can introduce complexities in power system reliability evaluation and management. This entails a need for the system operator to assess the system status more accurately for securing real-time balancing. The existing reliability evaluation techniques for power systems are well developed. These techniques are more focused on steady-state (time-independent) reliability evaluation and have been successfully applied in power system planning and expansion. In the operational phase, however, they may be too rough an approximation of the time-varying behavior of power systems with high penetration of wind power. This paper proposes a time-varying reliability assessment technique. Time-varying reliability models for wind farms, conventional generating units, and rapid start-up generating units are developed and represented as the corresponding universal generating functions (UGFs), respectively. A multistate model for a hybrid generation and reserve provider is also proposed based on the developed UGF representations of wind farms, conventional generating units, and rapid start-up generating units. The proposed technique provides a useful tool for the system operator to evaluate the reliability and arrange reserve for maintaining secure system operation in the short- as well as medium-terms.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Sizing of Energy Storage and Diesel Generators in an Isolated Microgrid
           Using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
    • Authors: Jun Xiao;Linquan Bai;Fangxing Li;Haishen Liang;Chengshan Wang;
      Pages: 907 - 916
      Abstract: This paper proposes a method for coordinated sizing of energy storage (ES) and diesel generators in an isolated microgrid based on discrete Fourier transform (DFT). ES and diesel generators have different response characteristics and can complementarily compensate the generation-demand imbalance at different time scales. The DFT-based coordinated dispatch strategy allocates balance power between the two components through frequency-time domain transform. The proposed method ensures that ES and diesel generators work in their respective and most efficient, fit way. Diesel generators consecutively work at a high-level generation while ES compensates small and frequent power fluctuations. Then, the capacities of ES and diesel generators are determined based on the coordinated dispatch strategy. The proposed method can also be used in the planning of ES with other dispatchable sources such as micro-turbine or fuel-cell. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method and its advantages are demonstrated via a practical case study.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Weather-Based Hybrid Method for 1-Day Ahead Hourly Forecasting of PV
           Power Output
    • Authors: Hong-Tzer Yang;Chao-Ming Huang;Yann-Chang Huang;Yi-Shiang Pai;
      Pages: 917 - 926
      Abstract: To improve real-time control performance and reduce possible negative impacts of photovoltaic (PV) systems, an accurate forecasting of PV output is required, which is an important function in the operation of an energy management system (EMS) for distributed energy resources. In this paper, a weather-based hybrid method for 1-day ahead hourly forecasting of PV power output is presented. The proposed approach comprises classification, training, and forecasting stages. In the classification stage, the self-organizing map (SOM) and learning vector quantization (LVQ) networks are used to classify the collected historical data of PV power output. The training stage employs the support vector regression (SVR) to train the input/output data sets for temperature, probability of precipitation, and solar irradiance of defined similar hours. In the forecasting stage, the fuzzy inference method is used to select an adequate trained model for accurate forecast, according to the weather information collected from Taiwan Central Weather Bureau (TCWB). The proposed approach is applied to a practical PV power generation system. Numerical results show that the proposed approach achieves better prediction accuracy than the simple SVR and traditional ANN methods.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Multistage Centralized Control Scheme for Islanded Microgrids With PEVs
    • Authors: Abdelaziz; M.M.A.;Shaaban, M.F.;Farag, H.E.;El-Saadany, E.F.;
      Pages: 927 - 937
      Abstract: This paper proposes a multistage centralized control scheme for droop-controlled islanded microgrids (IMGs) with high penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The proposed control scheme optimally coordinates the distributed generation (DG) units' droop characteristics, the shedding of microgrid power demand (during inadequate generation periods), and the PEVs charging/discharging decisions to support the IMG operation for a large time frame. This coordination allows the PEVs to play a pivotal role in the successful and optimized operation of the IMG systems. To this end, a novel multistage droop-based optimal power flow algorithm is proposed in order to: 1) minimize the load shedding; 2) satisfy the PEVs customers' requirements; and 3) minimize the microgrid cost of operation. The proposed algorithm takes into consideration: 1) the special features and operational philosophy of droop-controlled IMG systems; 2) the variability associated with the output power of renewable DG units; and 3) the random behavior of PEV charging. Several case studies have been carried out to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme. The simulation studies show that the proposed control scheme can enhance the operation of IMG systems and facilitate a successful implementation of the IMG concept in the presence of high PEV penetration.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Multiagent-Based Hybrid Energy Management System for Microgrids
    • Authors: Meiqin Mao;Peng Jin;Hatziargyriou; N.D.;Liuchen Chang;
      Pages: 938 - 946
      Abstract: Energy management systems for microgrids (EMS-MG) play an important role in ensuring their stable and economic operation. This paper presents a multiagent-based hybrid EMS-MG (HEMS-MG) with both centralized and decentralized energy control functionalities. Based on this framework, three-level hierarchical energy management strategies are presented, in which a cooperation method with contract net protocol and multifactor evaluation mechanisms are applied. A coordinated energy management framework is realized by the combination of autonomous control of local distributed energy resources at the local level with coordinated energy control at the central level of the microgrid. A novel simulation platform for the HEMS-MG is designed in terms of the client-server frame and implemented under the C++ Builder environment. To prove the effectiveness and benefits of the proposed control system, an example of generation cooperation control of a laboratory microgrid is provided. The simulation results show that the proposed control system is an effective way to manage and optimize microgrid operation.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • SSR Alleviation by STATCOM in Induction-Generator-Based Wind Farm
           Connected to Series Compensated Line
    • Authors: Moharana; A.;Varma, R.K.;Seethapathy, R.;
      Pages: 947 - 957
      Abstract: In this paper, a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) with a voltage controller is proposed to mitigate the potential of sub synchronous resonance (SSR) in a series compensated induction-generator (IG)-based wind farm. Detailed eigenvalue analysis is performed to demonstrate that IG effect SSR is successfully alleviated by STATCOM. The results are validated through electromagnetic transient simulation with PSCAD/EMTDC. The impacts of symmetrical fault at different locations and collector cables are investigated, and the effectiveness of the proposed STATCOM controller is illustrated. It is shown that a three-phase fault close to the wind farm may cause severe oscillations in the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage, electromagnetic torque, and shaft torque of the wind turbine generator. To examine this situation, an equivalent circuit analysis is presented, which predicts the band of resonant speeds within which the wind turbine becomes unstable. The study is extended to other commercially available IGs, which also show the potential for SSR even at realistic levels of series compensation levels, and the capability of the proposed STATCOM controller to obviate its occurrence.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Hierarchical Robust Control of Oscillating Wave Energy Converters With
           Uncertain Dynamics
    • Authors: Fusco; F.;Ringwood, J.V.;
      Pages: 958 - 966
      Abstract: Energy-maximizing controllers for wave energy devices are normally based on linear hydrodynamic device models. Such models ignore nonlinear effects which typically manifest themselves for large device motion (typical in this application) and may also include other modeling errors. The effectiveness of a controller is, in general, determined by the match between the model the controller is based on and the actual system dynamics. This match becomes especially critical when the controller is highly tuned to the system. In this paper, we present a methodology for reducing this sensitivity to modeling errors and nonlinear effects by the use of a hierarchical robust controller, which shows small sensitivity to modeling errors, but allows good energy maximization to be recovered through a passivity-based control approach.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Optimal PV Inverter Reactive Power Control and Real Power Curtailment to
           Improve Performance of Unbalanced Four-Wire LV Distribution Networks
    • Authors: Xiangjing Su;Masoum; M.A.S.;Wolfs, P.J.;
      Pages: 967 - 977
      Abstract: The rapid uptake of residential photovoltaic (PV) systems is causing serious power quality issues such as significant voltage fluctuation and unbalance that are restricting the ability of networks to accommodate further connections. Based on the latent reactive power capability and real power curtailment of single-phase inverters, this paper proposes a new comprehensive PV operational optimization strategy to improve the performance of significantly unbalanced three-phase four-wire low voltage (LV) distribution networks with high residential PV penetrations. A multiobjective optimal power flow (OPF) problem that can simultaneously improve voltage magnitude and balance profiles, while minimizing network losses and generation costs, is defined and then converted into an aggregated single-objective OPF problem using the weighted-sum method, which can be effectively solved by the global Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) approach with multiple starting points in MATLAB. Detailed simulations are performed and analyzed for various operating scenarios over 24 h on a real unbalanced four-wire LV distribution network in Perth Solar City trial, Australia. Finally, smart meter readings are used to justify the validity and accuracy of the proposed optimization model and considerations on the application of the proposed PV control strategy are also presented.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • An Improved MPPT Controller for Photovoltaic System Under Partial Shading
           Condition
    • Authors: Kai Chen;Shulin Tian;Yuhua Cheng;Libing Bai;
      Pages: 978 - 985
      Abstract: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is an integral part of a system of energy conversion using photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The power-voltage characteristic of PV arrays operating under partial shading conditions exhibits multiple local maximum power points (LMPPs). In this paper, a new method has been presented to track the global maximum power point (GMPP) of PV. Compared with the past proposed global MPPT techniques, the method proposed in this paper has the advantages of determining whether partial shading is present, calculating the number of peaks on P-V curves, and predicting the locations of GMPP and LMPP. The new method can quickly find GMPP, and avoid much energy loss due to blind scan. The experimental results verify that the proposed method guarantees convergence to the global MPP under partial shading conditions.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Energy Provisioning and Operating Costs in Hybrid Solar-Powered
           Infrastructure
    • Authors: Zefreh; M.S.;Todd, T.D.;Karakostas, G.;
      Pages: 986 - 994
      Abstract: In this paper, we consider the operating and capital expenditure (CAPEX) costs of solar-powered additions to infrastructure that is operated from the power grid. The CAPEX costs are those associated with provisioning the solar power components, and are selected using an offline design optimization. Once the solar add-on is designed and deployed, the node incurs ongoing operating expenditure (OPEX) costs associated with the purchase of power grid energy. Lower bounds on cost are derived using a linear programming formulation, where the solar power components are sized using historical solar insolation traces and projected loading data. Different node add-on arrangements are considered, which result in various solar/battery and grid configurations. Three energy scheduling algorithms are then introduced to optimize online OPEX costs. A variety of results are presented that show the extent to which a solar-powered add-on can reduce the total cost. These results also show that the proposed algorithms give performance that is close to the lower bounds in many situations.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Statistical Description of the Error on Wind Power Forecasts for
           Probabilistic Reserve Sizing
    • Authors: Bruninx; K.;Delarue, E.;
      Pages: 995 - 1002
      Abstract: As the share of wind power in the electricity system rises, the limited predictability of wind power generation becomes increasingly critical for operating a power system reliably. In most operational and economic models, the wind power forecast error (WPFE) is often assumed to follow a Gaussian or the so-called β-distribution. However, these distributions might not be suited to fully describe the skewed and heavy-tailed character of WPFE data. In this paper, the Lévy α-stable distribution is proposed as an improved description of the WPFE. The method presented allows us to quantify the probability of a certain error, given a certain wind power forecast. Based on recent historical wind power data, the feasibility of the Lévy α-stable distribution as a WPFE description is demonstrated. The added value of this improved statistical model of the WPFE is illustrated in a state-of-the-art probabilistic reserve sizing method. Results show that this new statistical description of the WPFE can hold important information for short-term economic and operational (reliability) studies for power systems with a significant wind power penetration.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Hardware-in-the-Loop Wind Turbine Simulation Platform for a Laboratory
           Feeder Model
    • Authors: Hardy; T.;Jewell, W.;
      Pages: 1003 - 1009
      Abstract: As part of a larger project to build a laboratory-based smart grid feeder, there was a need to incorporate renewable energy sources into the feeder model. The goal in this project was to create a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) wind turbine simulation platform. Software is used to calculate a dynamic optimal power point from time-series wind speed data and to generate control signals for the platform's hardware. The hardware consists of a dc motor providing mechanical power to a coupled generator. To validate the HIL simulation platform, time-series wind speed and output power data were used from an installed and operating utility-scale turbine. The steady-state performance of the HIL simulator correlates well with the provided manufacturer's curve, but the dynamic performance of the system is more varied with periods of excellent correlation as well as poor. A richer data set from the utility containing more than wind speed and power output (such as wind direction and turbine yaw position) could provide substantial improvements to the dynamic performance.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • An Effective Reference Generation Scheme for DFIG With Unbalanced Grid
           Voltage
    • Authors: Asha Rani; M.A.;Nagamani, C.;Ilango, G.S.;Karthikeyan, A.;
      Pages: 1010 - 1018
      Abstract: This paper presents a reference current generation scheme for improved dynamic performance of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) subjected to unbalanced grid voltage. The power and torque oscillations induced due to the unbalance in grid voltage are minimized using additional compensatory terms in the reference currents. The focus is on estimating the reference currents and control implementation without the need for dual vector control. Real and reactive power control is implemented in the positive d-q reference frame using stator flux-oriented vector control. The rotor-side converter (RSC) is controlled to enable effective reduction of oscillations in torque and active and reactive power. The dc-link voltage oscillation is minimized and the grid-side power factor is maintained unity using the grid-side converter (GSC). Unlike the previously reported techniques, the proposed scheme enables effective reduction of oscillations in torque, active, and reactive power, and the dc-link voltage, all in a single target. The performance of DFIG is investigated in consideration with the Indian Electricity Grid Code (IEGC). Numerical simulations are carried out in power system computer aided design/electromagnetic transients including direct current (PSCAD/EMTDC) for the laboratory 3-hp DFIG test setup. The results establish that the performance of DFIG is notably enhanced with the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Discussion of “Prediction Intervals for Short-Term Wind Farm
           Generation Forecasts” and “Combined Nonparametric Prediction
           Intervals for Wind Power Generation”
    • Authors: Pinson; P.;Tastu, J.;
      Pages: 1019 - 1020
      Abstract: A new score for the evaluation of interval forecasts, the so-called coverage width-based criterion (CWC), was proposed and utilized.. This score has been used for the tuning (in-sample) and genuine evaluation (out-ofsample) of prediction intervals for various applications, e.g., electric load [1], electricity prices [2], general purpose prediction [3], and wind power generation [4], [5]. Indeed, two papers by the same authors appearing in the IEEE Transactions On Sustainable Energy employ that score and use it to conclude on the comparative quality of alternative approaches to interval forecasting of wind power generation.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Discussion of “Combined Nonparametric Prediction Intervals for Wind
           Power Generation”
    • Authors: Can Wan;Zhao Xu;Ostergaard; J.;Zhao Yang Dong;Kit Po Wong;
      Pages: 1021 - 1021
      Abstract: In [1], the lower upper bounds estimation (LUBE) method is proposed to construct combined nonparametric prediction intervals (PIs) of wind power generation, which is also used in [2]. We would like to commend the authors for their efforts in exploring probabilistic wind power forecasting, which is an important research area toward a renewable-energy-penetrated operation environment for power systems.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • Closure to the Discussion of “Prediction Intervals for Short-Term
           Wind Farm Generation Forecasts” and “Combined Nonparametric
           Prediction Intervals for Wind Power Generation” and the Discussion
           of “Combined Nonparametric Prediction Intervals for Wind Power
           Generation”
    • Authors: Khosravi; A.;Nahavandi, S.;
      Pages: 1022 - 1023
      Abstract: In the above discussions [1], [2], some concerns have been raised related to the suitability of coverage-width-criterion (CWC) for comprehensive evaluation of the quality of prediction intervals (PIs) generated using neural networks (NNs). Effects of existing CWC measure on the quality of PIs reported in [3] and [4] are analyzed in this short note. Alternative methods for optimal construction and comprehensive evaluation of PIs are also discussed.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
  • IEEE Transactions Smart Grid
    • Pages: 1024 - 1024
      Abstract: Prospective authors are requested to submit new, unpublished manuscripts for inclusion in the upcoming event described in this call for papers.
      PubDate: July 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2014)
       
 
 
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