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Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica     Open Access  
Actuators     Open Access  
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Control Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Atom Indonesia     Open Access  
Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computers & Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Trends in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Electric Power Components and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Electric Power Systems Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Electrical and Power Engineering Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Electrical Engineering and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electrical Engineering in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ferroelectrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ferroelectrics Letters Section     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frequenz     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEA Electricity Information     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Access     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IET Control Theory & Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IET Electric Power Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Integrated Ferroelectrics: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Electronics and Communication Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Monitoring and Surveillance Technologies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal on Communication     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal on Control System and Instrumentation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal on Signal and Image Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J3eA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Control Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Micro-Bio Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Power Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Society for Information Display     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C     Hybrid Journal  
Micro and Nano Systems Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nanotechnology Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Quarterly Statistics - Electricite, charbon, gaz et petrole - Statistiques trimestrielles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Recent Patents on Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Recent Patents on Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University. Power and Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Synthesis Lectures on Electrical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA : Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Trends in Electrical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wireless Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  
Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on
   [7 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1949-3029
     Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Homepage  [172 journals]   [SJR: 1.766]   [H-I: 14]
  • Table of Contents
    • Pages: C1 - 353
      Abstract: Presents the cover/table of contents for this issue of the periodical.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
    • Pages: C2 - C2
      Abstract: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • [Blank page]
    • Pages: B554 - B554
      Abstract: This page or pages intentionally left blank.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy society information
    • Pages: C3 - C3
      Abstract: Provides a listing of current committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • IEEE Power Engineering Society information for authors
    • Pages: C4 - C4
      Abstract: Provides instructions and guidelines to prospective authors who wish to submit manuscripts.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Advanced Control Scheme for an IPM Synchronous Generator-Based Gearless
           Variable Speed Wind Turbine
    • Authors: Haque; M.E.;Saw, Y.C.;Chowdhury, M.M.;
      Pages: 354 - 362
      Abstract: This paper proposes a direct control strategy for an interior permanent magnet synchronous generator-based variable speed wind turbine. In this scheme, the requirement of the continuous rotor position is eliminated as all the calculations are done in the stator reference frame. This scheme possesses advantages such as lesser parameter dependence and reduced number of controllers compared with the traditional indirect vector control scheme. The direct control scheme is simpler and can eliminate some of the drawbacks of traditional indirect vector control scheme. The proposed control scheme is implemented in MATLAB/SimPowerSystems and the results show that the controller can operate under constant and varying wind speeds. Finally, a sensorless speed estimator is implemented, which enables the wind turbine to operate without the mechanical speed sensor. The simulation and experimental results for the sensorless speed estimator are presented.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Stochastic Performance Assessment and Sizing for a Hybrid Power System of
           Solar/Wind/Energy Storage
    • Authors: Arabali; A.;Ghofrani, M.;Etezadi-Amoli, M.;Fadali, M.S.;
      Pages: 363 - 371
      Abstract: This paper proposes a stochastic framework for optimal sizing and reliability analysis of a hybrid power system including the renewable resources and energy storage system. Uncertainties of wind power, photovoltaic (PV) power, and load are stochastically modeled using autoregressive moving average (ARMA). A pattern search-based optimization method is used in conjunction with a sequential Monte Carlo simulation (SMCS) to minimize the system cost and satisfy the reliability requirements. The SMCS simulates the chronological behavior of the system and calculates the reliability indices from a series of simulated experiments. Load shifting strategies are proposed to provide some flexibility and reduce the mismatch between the renewable generation and heating ventilation and air conditioning loads in a hybrid power system. Different percentages of load shifting and their potential impacts on the hybrid power system reliability/cost analysis are evaluated. Using a compromise-solution method, the best compromise between the reliability and cost is realized for the hybrid power system.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Renewable Electricity Futures for the United States
    • Authors: Mai; T.;Hand, M.M.;Baldwin, S.F.;Wiser, R.H.;Brinkman, G.L.;Denholm, P.;Arent, D.J.;Porro, G.;Sandor, D.;Hostick, D.J.;Milligan, M.;DeMeo, E.A.;Bazilian, M.;
      Pages: 372 - 378
      Abstract: This paper highlights the key results from the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study. It is a detailed consideration of renewable electricity in the United States. The paper focuses on technical issues related to the operability of the U.S. electricity grid and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. The results indicate that the future U.S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and the further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway. The central conclusion of the analysis is that renewable electricity generation from technologies that are commercially available today, in combination with a more flexible electric system, is more than adequate to supply 80% of the total U.S. electricity generation in 2050 while meeting electricity demand on an hourly basis in every region of the United States.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Stochastic SCUC Solution With Variable Wind Energy Using Constrained
           Ordinal Optimization
    • Authors: Hongyu Wu;Shahidehpour; M.;
      Pages: 379 - 388
      Abstract: This paper proposes a constrained ordinal optimization (COO) based method for solving the scenario-based stochastic security constrained unit commitment problem. The basic idea is to sample a large number of candidate unit commitment (UC) solutions by a crude model and then use an accurate model on a small selected subset to find good enough UC solutions over all scenarios. To facilitate the proposed method, a feasibility model is utilized that applies analytical conditions for identifying the feasibility of UCs. A blind picking approach based on the feasibility model is incorporated in the COO-based method for seeking good enough solutions. Numerical tests are performed on a modified IEEE 118-bus system with a high penetration of wind energy, in which hourly forecast errors of wind speed and loads and random outages of system components are considered. The simulation results show the validity and the effectiveness of the proposed method. Comparative evaluations of the proposed COO-based method with mixed-integer linear programming solvers are considered in this paper.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Hybrid Energy Storage With Multimode Fuzzy Power Allocator for PV Systems
    • Authors: Xue Feng;Gooi; H.B.;Chen, S.X.;
      Pages: 389 - 397
      Abstract: The ineluctable variations of the solar radiation, ambient temperature, and partial shading affect the performance of the photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and hence incur supply-demand mismatches in the PV-based system. This paper proposes a hybrid energy storage (HES) composed of lithium-ion batteries and ultracapacitors that can be incorporated in the PV-based system to complement the supply-demand mismatches by using a multimode fuzzy-logic power allocator. The battery used in the HES was modeled based on the experimental data and can accurately reflect the battery dynamics under varying conditions. The power allocator optimally adjusts the power contributions of the batteries and ultracapacitors and exchanges energy between them, thus compensating the supply-demand mismatches without accidentally depleting or saturating the two components. The proposed HES was evaluated in both short- and long-term scenarios. A good ac-side performance in the short-term scenario is observed due to the instant response of the ultracapacitors to the high-frequency requests. In the long-term scenario, the power allocator restrains the frequency fluctuations caused by the supply-demand mismatches within ±0.2 Hz, while maintaining the batteries and ultracapacitors in a safe working region. Additionally, the participation of ultracapacitors in supplying high-frequency power is beneficial for relaxing the stress on batteries, and the simulation results show that the lifetime of batteries in the HES can be extended.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Dish-Stirling Solar Power Plants: Modeling, Analysis, and Control of
           Receiver Temperature
    • Authors: Li; Y.;Choi, S.S.;Yang, C.;
      Pages: 398 - 407
      Abstract: A simplified adiabatic model of the Stirling engine is developed for the study of a grid-connected dish-Stirling solar-thermal power plant. The model relates the average values of the engine state variables and also takes into account the engine losses. As the engine is shown to exhibit nonminimum phase behavior, an improved temperature control scheme for the engine heat absorber is developed. By including the engine speed, pressure, and solar insolation limits into the analysis, a steady-state feasible operating regime of the solar-thermal power plant is obtained. A maximum solar energy harness is shown to be achievable through the variable speed operation of the power plant.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Optimization of Battery–Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage
           Station in Wind/Solar Generation System
    • Authors: Tianpei Zhou;Wei Sun;
      Pages: 408 - 415
      Abstract: In capacity optimization of hybrid energy storage station (HESS) in wind/solar generation system, how to make full use of wind and solar energy by effectively reducing the investment and operation costs based on the load demand through allocating suitable capacity of HESS is an optimization problem. The optimization objective is to minimize one-time investment and operation costs in the whole life cycle, the constraints are utilization rate, and reliability of power supply. In this paper, mathematical models of wind/solar generation systems, battery, and supercapacitor are built, the objective optimization function of HESS is proposed, and various constraints are considered. To solve the optimization problem, improved simulated annealing particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed by introducing the simulated annealing idea into particle swarm algorithm. The new algorithm enhance the ability to escape from local optimum and improve the diversity of particle swarm, then help to avoid prematurity and enhance the global searching ability of the algorithm. With the example system, the optimization results show that the convergence of new algorithm is faster than the traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm and its cost optimization is better, which demonstrated the correctness and validity of the proposed models and algorithms. This method can provide a reference for the capacity optimization of HESS in wind/solar generation system.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Overview of Wind Park Control Strategies
    • Authors: Karthikeya; B.R.;Schutt, R.J.;
      Pages: 416 - 422
      Abstract: This paper describes the concept of wind turbine control system (WTCS), wind park control system, state-of-the-art information communication technologies, and wind park control strategies from various sources. Concept of WTCSs and wind park control systems has been briefly explained. Their typical structures and functions have been explained. Relevant theoretical background of power systems has been touched upon as well.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Paths Toward Smart Energy: A Framework for Comparison of the EU and China
           Energy Policy
    • Authors: Bei Han;Bompard; E.;Profumo, F.;Qing Xia;
      Pages: 423 - 433
      Abstract: National decisions and behaviors are strictly interdependent and each of them may affect the whole planet; hence, the harmonization and coordination of the policy are the key issues. This is particularly true in the energy sector, where scarce resources, which are presently unevenly shared by the various nations with the possibility of conflicts arising need to be allocated to keep the pace with economic growth and in a manner compatible with the preservation of the environment. In this paper, we use the concept of “smart energy” as a way to embrace the target to meet commitments to the world's sustainability, and a comparison of the energy policies of two key-world players, the EU and China, is undertaken in this context. A framework for quantitatively assessing the effectiveness of various specific policy tools is proposed. The policies are defined and analyzed with reference to the general goals, the tools to pursue those goals and their outcomes, possibly in a quantitative manner resorting to a set of meaningful metrics.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Optimum Droop Parameter Settings of Islanded Microgrids With Renewable
           Energy Resources
    • Authors: Abdelaziz; M.M.A.;Farag, H.E.;El-Saadany, E.F.;
      Pages: 434 - 445
      Abstract: Droop control is a key strategy for operating distributed generation (DG) islanded systems, i.e., islanded microgrids (IMGs). The droop parameter settings of the DG units can significantly impact the ability of an IMG to feed its demand. This paper proposes a new probabilistic algorithm for determining the optimum choice for such droop settings for the individual DG units in a distribution network in cases when a microgrid central controller is unavailable. The proposed algorithm adopts a constraint hierarchy approach to enhance the operation of IMGs by satisfying the operational constraints of the system and expanding its loading margin. The new algorithm takes into consideration the variety of possible IMG configurations that can be initiated in a distribution network (multi-microgrids), the uncertainty and variability associated with the output power of renewable DG units as well as the variability of the load, and the special features and operational philosophy associated with droop-controlled IMG systems. Simulation studies show that the proposed algorithm can facilitate the successful implementation of the IMG concept by reducing the customer interruptions and enhancing the IMGs' loadability margins.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Decentralized Multi-Agent System-Based Cooperative Frequency Control for
           Autonomous Microgrids With Communication Constraints
    • Authors: Wei Liu;Wei Gu;Wanxing Sheng;Xiaoli Meng;Zaijun Wu;Wu Chen;
      Pages: 446 - 456
      Abstract: Based on power line carrier communication technology, a decentralized multi-agent system (DMAS)-based frequency control strategy is proposed and investigated in this study on an autonomous microgrid with communication constraints, where each agent can only communicate with its neighboring agents. Using the optimized average consensus algorithm, the global information (i.e., total active power deficiency of the microgrid) can be accurately shared in a decentralized way. Depending on the discovered global information, the cooperative frequency control strategy, which involves primary and secondary frequency control and multi-stage load shedding, is executed to achieve a cooperative frequency recovery. Simulation results indicate that the proposed frequency control approach can guarantee the consensus and coordination of the distributed agents and maintain the frequency stability of islanded microgrids even in emergency conditions.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • A Hydraulic Wind Power Transfer System: Operation and Modeling
    • Authors: Izadian; A.;Hamzehlouia, S.;Deldar, M.;Anwar, S.;
      Pages: 457 - 465
      Abstract: Conventional wind power plants employ a variable speed gearbox to run a generator housed on top of a tower. A new topology can remove some of the weight from the tower and centralize the wind power generation. This new topology uses a hydraulic wind power transfer system to connect several wind turbines to the generation unit. This paper demonstrates a mathematical modeling of this wind power transfer technology and its dynamic behavior. The flow response, angular velocity, and pressure of the system obtained from the mathematical model are compared with test results to demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical model. Several speed-step responses of the system obtained from the mathematical model demonstrate a close agreement with the results from the prototype of the hydraulic wind power transfer unit.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Semi-Definite Programming for Power Output Control in a Wind Energy
           Conversion System
    • Authors: Zhiqiang Jin;Fangxing Li;Xiao Ma;Djouadi; S.M.;
      Pages: 466 - 475
      Abstract: One of the key issues in wind energy is the control design of the wind energy conversion system to achieve an expected performance under both the power system and mechanical constraints which are subject to stochastic wind speeds. Quadratic control methods are widely used in the literature for such purposes, e.g., linear quadratic Gaussian and model predictive control. In this paper, the chance constraints are considered to address the stochastic behavior of the wind speed fluctuation on control inputs and system outputs instead of deterministic constraints in the literature. Also considered are the two different models: the first one assumes that the wind speed measurement error is Gaussian, where the chance constraints can be reduced to the deterministic constraints with Gaussian statistics; whereas the second one assumes that the error is norm bounded, which is likely more realistic to the practicing engineers, and the problem is formulated as a min-max optimization problem which has not been considered in the literature. Then, both of the models are formulated as semi-definite programming optimization problems that can be solved efficiently with existing software tools. Finally, the simulation results are provided to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • A Demand Response and Battery Storage Coordination Algorithm for Providing
           Microgrid Tie-Line Smoothing Services
    • Authors: Dan Wang;Shaoyun Ge;Hongjie Jia;Chengshan Wang;Yue Zhou;Ning Lu;Xiangyu Kong;
      Pages: 476 - 486
      Abstract: This paper presents a demand response (DR) and battery storage coordination algorithm for providing microgrid tie-line smoothing services. A modified coordinating control strategy is implemented through two-way communication networks to manage distributed heat pumps in a microgrid for smoothing the tie-line (connect the microgrid to the main grid) power fluctuations. A total of 1000 residential electric heat pumps and a battery storage system are modeled to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The impact of outdoor temperature changes and customer room temperature preferences is considered in the simulation. The results show that coordinating with DR programs can significantly reduce the size of conventional energy storage systems for large-scale integration of renewable generation resources in microgrids and improve the power quality.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Optimal Dispatch of Photovoltaic Inverters in Residential Distribution
    • Authors: Dall'Anese; E.;Dhople, S.V.;Giannakis, G.B.;
      Pages: 487 - 497
      Abstract: Low-voltage distribution feeders were designed to sustain unidirectional power flows to residential neighborhoods. The increased penetration of roof-top photovoltaic (PV) systems has highlighted pressing needs to address power quality and reliability concerns, especially when PV generation exceeds the household demand. A systematic method for determining the active- and reactive-power set points for PV inverters in residential systems is proposed in this paper, with the objective of optimizing the operation of the distribution feeder and ensuring voltage regulation. Binary PV-inverter selection variables and nonlinear power-flow relations render the optimal inverter dispatch problem nonconvex and NP-hard. Nevertheless, sparsity-promoting regularization approaches and semidefinite relaxation techniques are leveraged to obtain a computationally feasible convex reformulation. The merits of the proposed approach are demonstrated using real-world PV-generation and load-profile data for an illustrative low-voltage residential distribution system.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • A Multilayer Perceptron Controller Applied to the Direct Power Control of
           a Doubly Fed Induction Generator
    • Authors: Andreoli de Marchi; R.;Dainez, P.S.;Von Zuben, F.J.;Bim, E.;
      Pages: 498 - 506
      Abstract: This paper presents a direct power control strategy for a doubly fed induction generator by using an artificial neural network controller with the multilayer perceptron structure. This controller generates the direct- and quadrature-axis rotor voltage signals from both the stator current and voltage that are measured by the Hall sensors. The input variables of the control system are the rotor speed, the active and reactive power references, and their respective errors. The proposed control strategy allows the converter connected to the rotor terminals to operate with constant switching frequency. Digital simulation and experimental tests are performed for a 2.25-kW doubly fed induction generator to validate the proposed control strategy.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • A Robust Wind Power Optimization Method for Look-Ahead Power Dispatch
    • Authors: Wenchuan Wu;Jianhua Chen;Boming Zhang;Hongbin Sun;
      Pages: 507 - 515
      Abstract: The main purpose of the look-ahead dispatch is to manage operational uncertainties over the next several hours, with benefits for the exploitation of renewable energy resources. This paper describes a robust optimization (RO) model for wind power look-ahead dispatch. The model calculates allowable interval solutions for wind power generation and provides optimal economic solutions for conventional power generation to mitigate the uncertainty inherent to wind power. By introducing the interval values as control targets for wind farms, the method can reduce the curtailment of wind power and the frequency of regulation. Interval wind power look-ahead dispatch is a two-layer RO problem, which can be transformed into a quadratic programming problem using strong duality theory, allowing for a more straightforward solution. The results of numerical simulations using the IEEE RTS system, as well as field tests using a 1.8-GW transmission system, are reported.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Adaptive Control of Grid-Connected Inverters Based on Online Grid
           Impedance Measurements
    • Authors: Cespedes; M.;Jian Sun;
      Pages: 516 - 523
      Abstract: Stability of a grid-connected inverter depends on the ratio of the grid impedance to the inverter impedance. Since the grid impedance changes during normal power system conditions, this paper proposes a gain-scheduling adaptive control system that uses online grid impedance measurements. For grid impedance measurement, an impulse-response analysis method is programmed in the digital-signal processor (DSP) of the grid-connected inverter. For adaptation, a Routh-Hurwitz stability analysis approach is used to derive, analytically, the stable operation boundaries of the interconnected system. To simplify the analytical derivations, the grid impedance is assumed inductive at low frequencies and curve fitted to the online impedance measurements. Experimental measurements demonstrate the improvement in system stability, when the impedance identification and adaptive control algorithms are programmed together in the DSP of a three-phase inverter, which is connected to a grid with a variable feeder impedance.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • A Set of Multilevel Modular Medium-Voltage High Power Converters for 10-MW
           Wind Turbines
    • Authors: Xibo Yuan;
      Pages: 524 - 534
      Abstract: Medium-voltage power conversion is generally favored for future large wind turbines, e.g., 10 MW, in terms of higher power density, reduced current level, associated losses, and cost of power cables, switchgears, etc. This paper has summarized a fundamental rule to construct multilevel modular high power converters for large wind turbine power conversion. Based on that, three potential multilevel modular high power converter topologies are derived and compared. The topology with a 10-kV generator, a modular power converter, and a multi-winding step-up transformer have been specifically investigated. The large dc-link capacitor (not reliable, high cost, large volume) required in the converter is identified as the key limitation of the system used for wind power conversion. The paper proposes to compensate the ripple power by the grid-side inverter of the multilevel modular converter, thus reducing the dc-link capacitor requirement. The paper has validated the effectiveness of proportional-integral-resonant controller for this purpose. Further, the thermal impact of the proposed ripple power compensation scheme on the converter device junction temperature and the transformer secondary windings has been analytically derived. The paper has also analytically revealed that the proposed ripple power compensation scheme will not affect the grid-side power quality, although there are low-frequency harmonics in the transformer secondary windings. Simulation results with a 10-MW, 10-kV system have validated the proposed converter topology and control strategy with reduced dc-link voltage ripple.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Robust Optimization of Static Reserve Planning With Large-Scale
           Integration of Wind Power: A Game Theoretic Approach
    • Authors: Shengwei Mei;De Zhang;Yingying Wang;Feng Liu;Wei Wei;
      Pages: 535 - 545
      Abstract: This paper presents a methodology based on game theory for power system static reserve planning with large-scale integration of wind power to ensure the generating capacity adequacy. First, a min-max game model is proposed for decision-making problems with uncertainties. Then, it is applied to the static reserve capacity planning problem. In the proposed model, the system planner (as one player) aims to find the minimum static reserve capacity to meet the total load demand while keeping the system reliability index within a desired value. Nature (as the other player), which determines the wind power output, is modeled as an attacker who wants to worsen the system reliability level due to its uncertainty and inaccurate prediction. Then, a two-stage relaxation algorithm is introduced to solve the min-max game. Finally, the proposed model for static reserve planning is applied to the IEEE Reliability Test System (RTS), and its robustness and high efficiency are demonstrated by comparing it to the traditional expectation method and Monte Carlo method.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Long-Term Wind Speed Forecasting and General Pattern Recognition Using
           Neural Networks
    • Authors: Azad; H.B.;Mekhilef, S.;Ganapathy, V.G.;
      Pages: 546 - 553
      Abstract: Long-term forecasting of wind speed has become a research hot spot in many different areas such as restructured electricity markets, energy management, and wind farm optimal design. However, wind energy with unstable and intermittent characteristics entails establishing accurate predicted data to avoid inefficient and less reliable results. The proposed study in this paper may provide a solution regarding the long-term wind speed forecast in order to solve the earlier-mentioned problems. For this purpose, two fundamentally different approaches, the statistical and the neural network-based approaches, have been developed to predict hourly wind speed data of the subsequent year. The novelty of this study is to forecast the general trend of the incoming year by designing a data fusion algorithm through several neural networks. A set of recent wind speed measurement samples from two meteorological stations in Malaysia, namely Kuala Terengganu and Mersing, are used to train and test the data set. The result obtained by the proposed method has given rather promising results in view of the very small mean absolute error (MAE).
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Table of contents
    • Pages: 555 - 556
      Abstract: Presents the table of contents for this issue of the periodical.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Guest Editorial: Special section on real-time applications of intelligent
           methods in sustainable power and energy systems
    • Authors: Saber; A.Y.;
      Pages: 557 - 557
      Abstract: The 16 papers in this special section address distribution system voltage control, load management, optimization and control of wind, system voltage support through responsive demands, frequency support from wind, and elements of control of microgrid.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Real-Time Management of Power Systems With V2G Facility for Smart-Grid
    • Authors: Chukwu; U.C.;Mahajan, S.M.;
      Pages: 558 - 566
      Abstract: Real-time application in power systems is a key to smart-grid realization. Maintaining accurate security information and monitoring the changing system state are necessary for real-time management of the modern-day power system. Smart-grid applications provide an excellent opportunity to better manage the voltage stability of the power system. Using intelligent electronic devices, it is possible to capture power system data, and give an instantaneous snapshot of the system status. The penetration of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) into the power system may introduce a high-level of volatility due precarious charging/discharging operations, hence emphasizing the need for a real-time management option. In this paper, a real-time monitoring diagnostic of the power system is presented. The system parameters for consideration are voltage profile, voltage stability, step voltage regulators (SVRs) operations, power, and energy loss. Economic studies are also considered. Results show that for a given V2G penetration level, three-phase and system-wide V2G integration results in an improved system performance, and economic operation of the power system than a one-phase V2G integration. Results also indicate that using V2G parking lots to inject reactive power to the grid at an optimal location can promise about 95% power/energy loss reduction (relative to power loss without V2G installed). The results are suitable for further applications of smart grids.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Real-Time Control Strategy of Energy Storage Systems for Renewable Energy
           Sources Exploitation
    • Authors: Damiano; A.;Gatto, G.;Marongiu, I.;Porru, M.;Serpi, A.;
      Pages: 567 - 576
      Abstract: An optimal energy storage system (ESS) management procedure devoted to full renewable energy sources (RESs) exploitation is presented in this paper. It consists of an appropriate scheduling procedure and a real-time control strategy, which both aim to increase the RES penetration level as much as possible. In particular, the one-day-ahead scheduling procedure synthesizes the combined RES-ESS energy production profile with the aim of minimizing the RES energy production curtailments by means of ESS energy buffering. The real-time control strategy is developed in order to track the scheduled profile as well as possible by mitigating forecasting errors, thus improving RES reliability. The worth and effectiveness of the proposed management procedure is verified through a wide simulation study, which is carried out by means of the Matlab software package.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Real-Time Energy Management Algorithm for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle
           Charging Parks Involving Sustainable Energy
    • Authors: Mohamed; A.;Salehi, V.;Tan Ma;Mohammed, O.;
      Pages: 577 - 586
      Abstract: In this paper, a real-time energy management algorithm (RTEMA) for a grid-connected charging park in an industrial/commercial workplace is developed. The charging park under study involves plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) with different sizes and battery ratings as well as a photovoltaic (PV) system. Statistical and forecasting models were developed as components in the developed RTEMA to model the various uncertainties involved such as the PV power, the PHEVs, arrival time, and the energy available in their batteries upon their arrival. The developed energy management algorithm aims at reducing the overall daily cost of charging the PHEVs, mitigating the impact of the charging park on the main grid, and contributing to shaving the peak of the load curve. Hence, the benefits of implementing this RTEMA is shared among the customers, the charging park considering all customers as a bulk of power connected to the grid, and the ac grid. This makes it applicable for various business models. The developed RTEMA utilizes a fuzzy controller to manage the random energy available in the PHEVs' batteries arriving at the charging park and their charging/discharging times, power sharing among individual PHEVs that is commonly known as vehicle-to-vehicle functionality, and vehicle-to-grid service between the charging park and the main ac grid. The developed RTEMA was simulated using the standard IEEE 69-bus system at different penetration and distribution levels. The obtained results verify the effectiveness and validity of the developed RTEMA.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Real-Time Adaptive VVO/CVR Topology Using Multi-Agent System and IEC
           61850-Based Communication Protocol
    • Authors: Manbachi; M.;Nasri, M.;Shahabi, B.;Farhangi, H.;Palizban, A.;Arzanpour, S.;Moallem, M.;Lee, D.C.;
      Pages: 587 - 597
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach for real-time and adaptive Volt/VAr optimization (VVO)/conservation voltage reduction (CVR) system using Intelligent Agents, communicating through IEC 61850 Goose Messaging Protocol. The paper also proposes new real-time adaptive VVO/CVR algorithms tailored for different service level targets and system topologies. The paper argues that each of these variations requires different Intelligent Agent Systems, data structures, and communication requirements. To test the applicability of the VVO/CVR optimization engine, a modified IEEE 34 Node system is used as case study.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Real-Time Implementation of Intelligent Reconfiguration Algorithm for
    • Authors: Shariatzadeh; F.;Vellaithurai, C.B.;Biswas, S.S.;Zamora, R.;Srivastava, A.K.;
      Pages: 598 - 607
      Abstract: Microgrids with renewable distributed generation and energy storage offer sustainable energy solutions. To maintain the availability of energy to the connected loads, considering priority and to interrupt the smallest portion of the microgrid under any abnormal conditions, reconfiguration is critical to restore service to a section or to meet some operational requirements of dropping minimum loads. Reconfiguration is the process of modifying the microgrid's topological structure by changing the status (open/close) of the circuit breakers or switches. In this work, constraints are the power balance equation and power generation limits, and we assumed that the system is designed with the entire planning and operational control criterion to meet the voltage violation and line overloading constraints. This paper offers novel real-time implementation of intelligent algorithm for microgrid reconfiguration. Intelligent algorithm is based on the genetic algorithms and has been tested on two test systems including shipboard power system and modified Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) microgrid. Real-time test bed utilizes real-time digital simulator and commercial real-time controllers from Schweitzer Engineering Lab. Reconfiguration algorithm has been implemented in the real time using real-time test bed, e.g., microgrid system, and satisfactory results were obtained.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Online Optimal Control of Reactive Sources in Wind Power Plants
    • Authors: Pham; H.V.;Rueda, J.L.;Erlich, I.;
      Pages: 608 - 616
      Abstract: This paper suggests a novel approach to the problem of online optimal control of reactive sources in wind power plants (WPPs). Based on measurements tracking the actual conditions of each wind generator and the settings of transformers and compensation equipment within the WPP facility, the key idea is to incorporate reactive power optimization into a global WPP's control loop so that it can be used online to determine the optimal distribution of reactive power, which is needed to meet grid code requirements, among the available Var sources. The optimization problem is handled using an enhanced version of the mean-variance mapping optimization algorithm. A test case, based on a representative offshore WPP, is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Online Voltage Control in Distribution Systems With Multiple Voltage
           Regulating Devices
    • Authors: Ranamuka; D.;Agalgaonkar, A.P.;Muttaqi, K.M.;
      Pages: 617 - 628
      Abstract: Voltage regulation in distribution systems is typically performed with the aid of multiple voltage regulating devices, such as on-load tap changer and step voltage regulators. These devices are conventionally tuned and locally coordinated using Volt/VAR optimization strategies in accordance with the time-graded operation. However, in case of distribution systems with distributed generation (DG), there could be a possibility of simultaneous responses of DG and multiple voltage regulators for correcting the target bus voltage, thereby resulting in operational conflicts. This paper proposes an online voltage control strategy for a realistic distribution system containing a synchronous machine-based renewable DG unit and other voltage regulating devices. The proposed strategy minimizes the operational conflicts by prioritizing the operations of different regulating devices while maximizing the voltage regulation support by the DG. It is tested on an interconnected medium voltage distribution system, present in New South Wales, Australia, through time-domain simulation studies. The results have demonstrated that voltage control for a distribution feeder can effectively be achieved on a real-time basis through the application of the proposed control strategy.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • A Two-Stage Kalman Filter Approach for Robust and Real-Time Power System
           State Estimation
    • Authors: Jinghe Zhang;Welch; G.;Bishop, G.;Zhenyu Huang;
      Pages: 629 - 636
      Abstract: As electricity demand continues to grow and renewable energy increases its penetration in the power grid, real-time state estimation becomes essential for system monitoring and control. Recent development in phasor technology makes it possible with high-speed time-synchronized data provided by phasor measurement units (PMUs). In this paper, we present a two-stage Kalman filter approach to estimate the static state of voltage magnitudes and phase angles, as well as the dynamic state of generator rotor angles and speeds. Kalman filters achieve optimal performance only when the system noise characteristics have known statistical properties (zero-mean, Gaussian, and spectrally white). However, in practice, the process and measurement noise models are usually difficult to obtain. Thus, we have developed the adaptive Kalman filter with inflatable noise variances (AKF with InNoVa), an algorithm that can efficiently identify and reduce the impact of incorrect system modeling and/or erroneous measurements. In stage one, we estimate the static state from raw PMU measurements using the AKF with InNoVa; then in stage two, the estimated static state is fed into an extended Kalman filter to estimate the dynamic state. The simulations demonstrate its robustness to sudden changes of system dynamics and erroneous measurements.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Optimal Scheduling of Critical Peak Pricing Considering Wind Commitment
    • Authors: Xiaoxuan Zhang;
      Pages: 637 - 645
      Abstract: Demand response has been widely implemented as one of the “virtual” control mechanisms to make peak load management more efficient and economic. One of the popular demand response programs is called critical peak pricing (CPP). Relatively simple pricing schemes and convenient implementation within current energy system metering infrastructure make it well accepted by many utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs). In this paper, we investigate the optimal scheduling of CPP events from the perspective of an LSE which has wind energy to sell into the day-ahead market. The goal is to minimize the total operational cost for the whole planning horizon, taking into account the energy purchasing cost, revenue from the CPP, and wind energy sales, as well as imbalance penalties due to wind energy over- and under-commitments. We propose a multi-stage stochastic mixed integer nonlinear programming model. In addition, we perform various analyses of both the special case of a single-stage problem and the general multi-stage problem analytically and experimentally. Our analysis leads to useful operational insights and policy implications on how to manage a renewable-integrated system more efficiently.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Digital Implementation of a Fault Emulator for Transient Study of Power
           Transformers Used in Grid Connection of Wind Farms
    • Authors: Mesbah; M.;Moses, P.S.;Islam, S.M.;Masoum, M.A.S.;
      Pages: 646 - 654
      Abstract: A real-time digital hardware simulation tool is developed to study the transient performance of three-phase power transformers used in grid connected wind farms. Using vector-based analysis for generating different voltage components, the fault simulator is capable of emulating a multitude of grid connection disturbances such as voltage sag, voltage swell, voltage unbalance, harmonics, dc-bias, and phase jump. This enables realistic real-time evaluation of power system faults and their impacts on critical components such as the interconnection transformers used in wind farms. In this paper, the proposed fault simulator has been employed to conduct an experimental study of the effects of balanced and unbalanced fault conditions on a three-phase three-leg power transformer. The transient current response of three-phase transformers subject to symmetrical/unsymmetrical faults is a complex issue due to the influences of multiple flux paths interacting within the core as well as ferromagnetic nonlinearities and core-structure asymmetry. So far, existing studies of this behavior have been restricted to computer modeling simulations with limited experimental work performed. The main contributions of this paper are to 1) present a new versatile fault simulator using a space vector modulation control approach to generate typical grid disturbances, and 2) apply the fault emulator to study the transient behavior of three-phase power transformers under various fault conditions common to wind farm interconnection transformers. The paper also discusses design, component selection, digital signal processing (DSP), and implementation aspects.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Intelligent LFC Concerning High Penetration of Wind Power: Synthesis and
           Real-Time Application
    • Authors: Bevrani; H.;Daneshmand, P.R.;Babahajyani, P.;Mitani, Y.;Hiyama, T.;
      Pages: 655 - 662
      Abstract: Load-frequency control (LFC) is one of the important control problems in electric power system design and operation, and is becoming more significant today because of the increasing renewable energy sources such as wind farms. Wind power fluctuations impose additional power imbalance to the power system and may affect the frequency regulation performance, negatively. Dealing with this challenge, the present paper addresses an intelligent proportional-integral based fuzzy logic scheme for simultaneous minimization of system frequency deviation and tie-line power changes, which is required for successful operation of the LFC system concerning the high-penetration wind power in interconnected power systems. In order to obtain an optimal performance, the particle swarm optimization technique is used to online determine the membership function parameters. The physical and engineering aspects have been fully considered. The proposed control scheme is examined on the 10-machine New England test power system, and an experimental real-time implementation is also performed on the aggregated model of West Japan Power System.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • An Approach for Online Assessment of Rooftop Solar PV Impacts on
           Low-Voltage Distribution Networks
    • Authors: Alam; M.J.E.;Muttaqi, K.M.;Sutanto, D.;
      Pages: 663 - 672
      Abstract: Assumption-based offline analysis tools may not be able to provide sufficient and accurate information for the corrective decision making to mitigate solar photovoltaic (PV) impacts in the future distribution grids. This is mainly due to the increasing penetration level of intermittent power generation resources and also the fluctuating behavior of consumer demand. Online assessment tools can assist to manage PV impacts and aid to mitigate those on a real-time basis. This paper proposes an approach for online assessment of rooftop PV impacts on low-voltage (LV) networks using real-time network data. A variable-width sliding window will be used to provide the analysis an outcome-based online data. The width of the sliding window can be varied according to user input so that the changes in network behavior caused by PV integration can be investigated conveniently. Several numerical indices are proposed in this paper to assess solar PV impacts on the LV networks. This approach also uses the online data to develop real-time distribution network models for a dynamic “what-if” analysis. The usefulness of the proposed online assessment approach is verified using an Australian LV distribution feeder.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Active Demand-Side Management System to Facilitate Integration of RES in
           Low-Voltage Distribution Networks
    • Authors: Malik; O.;Havel, P.;
      Pages: 673 - 681
      Abstract: This paper presents a demand-side management system designed for areas with high penetration of renewable energy sources. The system is based on the centralized direct control of electric water heaters (EWHs) with the objective to find the optimal dispatch of the EWHs so that the peak imports and exports of the controlled area are minimized. The EWH dispatch is computed utilizing two-stage optimization: the first stage computes the EWH load distribution on a longer time horizon, whereas the second stage corrects the dispatch in real time based on the instantaneous import or export. In cooperation with a local distribution system operator, a pilot installation of the proposed system has been implemented in a part of the distribution system of the Czech Republic. The simulations of a full participation scenario indicate that the system is capable of significant reduction of the peak imports and exports as well as the reduction of the overall energy transfers from and to the controlled area and associated power losses. The results also show that the proposed load control reduces voltage fluctuations in the controlled area.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Optimal Voltage Control Using Inverters Interfaced With PV Systems
           Considering Forecast Error in a Distribution System
    • Authors: Ziadi; Z.;Oshiro, M.;Senjyu, T.;Yona, A.;Urasaki, N.;Funabashi, T.;Chul-Hwan Kim;
      Pages: 682 - 690
      Abstract: In recent years, distributed generation (DG) and renewable energy sources (RESs) have been attracting special attention in distribution systems. RESs such as photovoltaic (PV) systems are used as a source of green energy. However, a large amount of DGs causes voltage deviations beyond the statutory range in the distribution systems. This paper proposes a methodology for voltage control using the PV interfaced inverters and tap changing transformers. The proposed method uses a one-day schedule of voltage references for the control devices, which is determined by an optimization technique based on the forecast values of load demand and PV power generation. However, since the forecast value includes a forecast error, there is a possibility that the voltage control performance is affected. Thus, this paper introduces a replanning of the control reference schedule in order to reduce the forecast error impact on the control performance and its objectives.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Modified Queen-Bee Algorithm-Based Fuzzy Logic Control for Real-Time
           Robust Load Matching for a Solar PV System
    • Authors: Alam; M.S.;Azeem, M.F.;Alouani, A.T.;
      Pages: 691 - 698
      Abstract: The maximum power point (MPP) of a solar photovoltaic (PV) module fluctuates over the whole day with the variation of weather conditions. In order to track it precisely and harvest it efficiently, an appropriate value of load has to be matched. A prerequisite to successful load matching is the knowledge of available real-time maximum power. For real-time maximum power transfer and robust load matching, a control strategy that combines the use of a dc-dc boost converter, fuzzy logic control, and a modified queen bee genetic algorithm has been proposed. Simulation results show the promise of the approach. It is believed that this research will lead to improvement in the efficiency of PV modules considering real-time weather conditions and intelligent control for robust load matching.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
  • Multiagent Genetic Algorithm: An Online Probabilistic View on Economic
           Dispatch of Energy Hubs Constrained by Wind Availability
    • Authors: Moeini-Aghtaie; M.;Dehghanian, P.;Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.;Abbaspour, A.;
      Pages: 699 - 708
      Abstract: Multiple energy carriers (MECs) have been broadly engrossing power system planners and operators toward a modern standpoint in power system studies. Energy hub, though playing an undeniable role as the intermediate in implementing the MECs, still needs to be put under examination in both modeling and operating concerns. Since wind power continues to be one of the fastest-growing energy resources worldwide, its intrinsic challenges should be also treated as an element of crucial role in the vision of future energy networks. In response, this paper aims to concentrate on the online economic dispatch (ED) of MECs for which it provides a probabilistic ED optimization model. The presented model is treated via a robust optimization technique, i.e., multiagent genetic algorithm (MAGA), whose outstanding feature is to find well the global optima of the ED problem. ED once constrained by wind power availability, in the cases of wind power as one of the input energy carriers of the hub, faces an inevitable uncertainty that is also probabilistically overcome in the proposed model. Efficiently approached via MAGA, the presented scheme is applied to test systems equipped with energy hubs and as expected, introduces its applicability and robustness in the ED problems.
      PubDate: April 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2014)
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