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Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii. Materialy Elektronnoi Tekhniki : Materials of Electronics Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
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Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA : Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
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Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Wireless Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  
Journal Cover Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on
  [SJR: 2.826]   [H-I: 24]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1949-3029
   Published by IEEE Homepage  [177 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of the editors, board members, and current staff for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • IEEE Power Engineering Society information for authors
    • Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Blank page
    • Abstract: This page or pages intentionally left blank.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Table of Contents
    • Pages: 450
      Abstract: Presents the table of contents for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
    • Abstract: Provides a listing of the editors, board members, and current staff for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Integration of DFIG-Based Wind Farms Into Series-Compensated Transmission
    • Authors: Leon; A.E.;
      Pages: 451 - 460
      Abstract: Recent events have shown that doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines close to series capacitors are prone to subsynchronous oscillations (SSO). This paper analyzes these subsynchronous interactions (SSI) and a countermeasure to enable a reliable and secure integration of DFIG-based wind farms into series-compensated transmission systems. A case study based on a real power system is considered in this work. It has several transmission lines (many of them series compensated), various conventional and wind power plants, and a distributed load. This system allows to study the SSI among various wind farms and multiple subsynchronous modes, unlike previous studies which considered a single DFIG and one series-compensated line (i.e., one subsynchronous mode). An analytical investigation and development of fundamental concepts of the SSO are also discussed. A supplementary damping control (SDC) is designed to enhance the operating range and to damp the SSO of these series-compensated wind farms. A detailed analysis is carried out using eigenvalues and nonlinear time-domain simulations to evaluate the performance and robustness of the SDC. Besides the parameters usually studied, such as wind speed, series compensation level, control gains, the effects of conventional synchronous generation, type of load model, and system demand level on the SSI are also analyzed.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • A Sensitivity Analysis of Different Power System Parameters on Islanding
    • Authors: Raza; S.;Mokhlis, H.;Arof, H.;Laghari, J.A.;Mohamad, H.;
      Pages: 461 - 470
      Abstract: This work analyzes the sensitivity of 16 power system parameters that can be used in passive techniques to detect islanding and nonislanding events. It is observed that the rate of change of frequency over reactive power (df/dq) can effectively detect minute disturbances in power supply. It is also shown that active and reactive power mismatch has an opposing effect on the variation of frequency (df) in real time environment. As a result of this, a new passive technique based on df/dq is proposed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed technique is able to distinguish islanding from other events of similar signatures, such as load variation, capacitor switching, faults, and induction motor starting.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Impact of Active Power Curtailment of Wind Turbines Connected to
           Residential Feeders for Overvoltage Prevention
    • Authors: Chalise; S.;Atia, H.R.;Poudel, B.;Tonkoski, R.;
      Pages: 471 - 479
      Abstract: Overvoltage is a major limiting factor for the integration of distributed generation in distribution systems. Among various solutions to the overvoltage problem, active power curtailment is an attractive solution since only small adjustments in the controllers are necessary for implementing this technique. Furthermore, it is activated only when needed. In wind energy systems, this can be achieved by adjusting the pitch angle of a wind turbine. The objective of this paper is to develop an active power curtailment strategy for small wind turbines to prevent overvoltage by controlling the pitch angle of the turbine blades. The required blade pitch angle was calculated by using the voltage droop method. The developed control strategy was validated by a real time simulation of a rural feeder model developed using RT-Lab software. The feeder is based upon a North American rural distribution network consisting of 96 small wind turbines of 20 kW, a 30 MVA distribution substation with an on-load tap-changing transformer, a rural feeder with 288 houses, a 120 kV/25 kV LV transformer, and rural loads. The results show the effectiveness of the method in keeping the voltage within acceptable limits and a reduction in network losses.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Transmission-Constrained Unit Commitment Considering Combined Electricity
           and District Heating Networks
    • Authors: Li; Z.;Wu, W.;Wang, J.;Zhang, B.;Zheng, T.;
      Pages: 480 - 492
      Abstract: Wind power integration could be restricted by inflexible operation of combined heat and power (CHP) units due to the strong linkage between power generation and heating supply in winter. Utilization of the heat storage capacity of existing district heating network (DHN) is a cost-effective measure to enhance power system operational flexibility to accommodate large amounts of variable wind power. In this paper, transmission-constrained unit commitment (UC) with combined electricity and district heating networks (UC-CEHN) is formulated with a linear DHN model to coordinate short-term operation of electric power and district heating systems. The heat storage capacity of the DHN is modeled by capturing the quasi-dynamics of pipeline temperature. Both deterministic and robust models are developed to incorporate UC with the linear DHN model. Case studies are carried out for two test systems to show the potential benefits of the proposed method in terms of wind power integration and efficient operation.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • A Novel Approach to Solve Power Flow for Islanded Microgrids Using
           Modified Newton Raphson With Droop Control of DG
    • Authors: Mumtaz; F.;Syed, M.H.;Al Hosani, M.;Zeineldin, H.H.;
      Pages: 493 - 503
      Abstract: The study of power flow analysis for microgrids has gained importance where several methods have been proposed to solve these problems. However, these schemes are complicated and not easy to implement due to the absence of a slack bus as well as the dependence of the power on frequency as a result of the droop characteristics. This paper proposes simple and effective modifications to the conventional method (Newton Raphson) to compute the power flow for microgrids. The presented method provides a simple, easy to implement, and accurate approach to solve the power flow equations for microgrids. The proposed method is applied to two test systems: a 6-bus system and a 38-bus system. The results are compared against simulation results from PSCAD/EMTDC which validate the effectiveness of the developed method. The proposed technique can be easily integrated in current commercially available power system software and can be applied for power system studies.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • A Method for the Analytical Extraction of the Single-Diode PV Model
    • Authors: Batzelis; E.I.;Papathanassiou, S.A.;
      Pages: 504 - 512
      Abstract: Determination of PV model parameters usually requires time consuming iterative procedures, prone to initialization and convergence difficulties. In this paper, a set of analytical expressions is introduced to determine the five parameters of the single-diode model for crystalline PV modules at any operating conditions, in a simple and straightforward manner. The derivation of these equations is based on a newly found relation between the diode ideality factor and the open circuit voltage, which is explicitly formulated using the temperature coefficients. The proposed extraction method is robust, cost-efficient, and easy-to-implement, as it relies only on datasheet information, while it is based on a solid theoretical background. Its accuracy and computational efficiency is verified and compared to other methods available in the literature through both simulation and outdoor measurements.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Risk-Constrained Offering Strategy for Aggregated Hybrid Power Plant
           Including Wind Power Producer and Demand Response Provider
    • Authors: Aghaei; J.;Barani, M.;Shafie-khah, M.;Sanchez de la Nieta, A.A.;Catalao, J.P.S.;
      Pages: 513 - 525
      Abstract: The unpredictable and volatile nature of wind power is the main obstacle of this generation source in short-term trading. Owing to the ability of demand side to cover wind power imbalances, aggregated loads have been presented in the literature as a good complementary resource for the wind generation. To this end, this paper proposes a technique to obtain the best offering strategy for a hybrid power plant consisting of a wind power producer and a demand response provider in the power market. In addition, conditional value-at-risk is used to limit the risk on profit variability. Finally, a detailed analysis of a realistic case study based on a wind farm in Spain has illustrated that joint operation of wind power producers and demand response providers can increase the expected profit and reduce the potential risks.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Performance Improvements of Switching Control for Wind Turbines
    • Authors: Palejiya; D.;Chen, D.;
      Pages: 526 - 534
      Abstract: Modern variable speed wind turbines operate within a large range of wind speeds. Control of such a turbine is partitioned in two modes: a low wind speed mode and a high wind speed mode. Depending on the prevailing wind speed, a turbine is controlled to switch between these two modes. During mode switching, critical dynamics of the turbine such as the output power and mechanical loads can experience steep, large changes even though the switching action is Lyapunov as well as input-output stable. In this work, a new control technique is presented to attenuate the steep and large volatile dynamics during turbine switching while preserving the original system structure so that the established system stability still holds. An algorithm that modifies the generator torque control law in the low wind speed mode is developed to reduce the steep change of turbine power and torque. A Proportional-integral (PI) control of blade pitch angle in the high wind speed mode is proposed to optimize the system power variation and power generation. Simulations conducted under various wind speed classes demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Integration of Large-Scale Offshore Wind Energy via VSC-HVDC in Day-Ahead
    • Authors: Fu; Y.;Wang, C.;Tian, W.;Shahidehpour, M.;
      Pages: 535 - 545
      Abstract: This paper presents a security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) solution for the optimal integration of large-scale offshore wind energy into a power grid. The solution considers a linear static state representation of multiterminal voltage source converter (VSC)-based high voltage direct current (HVDC) network and effectively incorporates this model into SCUC. The proposed algorithm consists of two major solution components: 1) component implements a SCUC solution for the inland power system; 2) component executes a scheduling of multi-terminal VSC-based offshore HVDC power system. Auxiliary problem principle technique is utilized to coordinate the power injections/withdrawals at HVAC/DC grid interfaces, which are obtained from both the inland and offshore scheduling components. Numerical tests illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in the integration of large-scale offshore wind energy into the power grid.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Implementation and Verification of a Wave-to-Wire Model of an Oscillating
           Water Column With Impulse Turbine
    • Authors: Kelly; J.F.;Wright, W.M.D.;Sheng, W.;O'Sullivan, K.;
      Pages: 546 - 553
      Abstract: The increased demand for clean renewable sources of electricity has fostered strong growth in wave energy development in recent years. This led to greater understanding of the various systems involved in the conversion of wave energy to electrical energy, which in turn led to more accurate and sophisticated models of each system. Mathematical models have been developed independently to represent the various interactions that take place within wave energy converters (WEC). In this paper, models used to represent the various stages of energy conversion that occur within an oscillating water column (OWC) have been combined to create a single wave-to-wire model of an OWC. The model was then compared to the experimental results from the FP-7 CORES OWC deployment project. The results show good agreement between modeled and experimental data. The model can be used to estimate the power output of an OWC, as well as to test control strategies and algorithms allowing for development in the control of OWCs before physical deployment.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Maximum Likelihood Output Curve and Modal Bounds for Active
           Pitch-Regulated Wind Turbine
    • Authors: Roy; S.;
      Pages: 554 - 561
      Abstract: A scatter of operating points is commonly observed over time whenever a pitch angle controlled (PAC) wind energy conversion system (WECS) operates in source wind susceptible to short duration variations caused by turbulence and gusts. A suitable interpretation of the distributed operating points can be useful in the context of real-time performance of WECS, and its evaluation once integrated within a conventional power network. This paper provides conceptual background culminating in an algorithm that allows estimation of most probable (maximum likelihood) operating points for a pitch angle-controlled WECS. It further allows establishment of modal bounds, within which short duration operating points are expected to occur given a modal cumulative probability. The concepts and algorithm are illustrated for a popular make of WECS assumed to operate in source wind conditions according to IEC61400-1 standards. Following from the concepts proposed, indications are provided for possible refinement of WECS output power curves thereby aiming to achieve better short duration unit performance.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Control and Bidding Strategy for Virtual Power Plants With Renewable
           Generation and Inelastic Demand in Electricity Markets
    • Authors: Zhao; Q.;Shen, Y.;Li, M.;
      Pages: 562 - 575
      Abstract: A virtual power plant (VPP), aggregating the capacities of distributed energy resources (DER) as a single profile, can facilitate cost-efficient integrations of DERs into electricity markets. In this paper, we investigate the control and bidding problem of VPPs, which consist of renewable distributed generators (RDGs) and consumers with inelastic demand. As both renewable generation and inelastic demand cannot be scheduled and accurately forecasted, a novel coordinated strategy on renewable power usage is proposed. To minimize the cost of VPP in the day-ahead and the balancing markets, a stochastic bilevel optimization problem is formulated with decision variables being renewable power usages and day-ahead bids. Due to the unimodality of the objective function, the problem can be greatly simplified and solved by local optimization algorithms. The performance of proposed strategy has been numerically assessed and compared with other commonly used strategies. Results show that our strategy leads to much lower expected costs than others. Moreover, it can be combined with flexible resources to further improve the performance.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • An Enhanced MPPT Method Combining Model-Based and Heuristic Techniques
    • Authors: Mahmoud; Y.;Abdelwahed, M.;El-Saadany, E.F.;
      Pages: 576 - 585
      Abstract: An MPPT approach combining model-based and heuristic techniques has recently appeared in the literature for accelerating the tracking speed of the maximum power point (MPP) of PV systems. Despite the improved tracking speed, it requires an accurate temperature measurement that increases the cost and complexity of the implementation in comparison to the nonmodel-based maximum power point trackers (MPPTs). This paper proposes an MPPT method, which eliminates the need for temperature measurement. The proposed approach relies on a new set of equations capable of estimating the PV module temperature through utilizing the current and voltage measurements. It combines the well-known heuristic P&O and model-based techniques to ensure an accurate and high speed tracking. The proposed method also uniquely adopts a recently developed simple nontranscendental PV model featuring reduced computational time to reduce the computational complexity of the implementation. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified using real-time simulation and experimentally.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Assessment of the Role and Value of Frequency Response Support From Wind
    • Authors: Teng; F.;Strbac, G.;
      Pages: 586 - 595
      Abstract: High penetration of wind generation causes concerns over frequency stability, as currently wind plants do not provide frequency response support. Extensive research has been conducted to investigate alternative designs of controllers to facilitate the provision of synthetic inertia and primary frequency response from wind plants. However, frequency response support from wind plants differs from that provided by conventional plants and its impact on the system's economic performance is not yet fully understood. In this context, this paper develops a novel methodology to incorporate the frequency response support from wind plants into generation scheduling, thus enabling the benefits of alternative control strategies to be quantified. Studies are carried out on the future Great Britain power system with different wind energy penetration levels and frequency response requirements. The impact of the uncertainty associated with the quantity of wind plants being online and the energy recovery effect are also analyzed. The results demonstrate that the benefits of frequency response support from wind plants may be significant, although these are system specific. The proposed model could also inform the development of grid codes, market mechanisms, and business cases associated with the frequency response support from wind plants.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • A New Methodology for the Optimal Charging Coordination of Electric
           Vehicles Considering Vehicle-to-Grid Technology
    • Authors: Sabillon Antunez; C.;Franco, J.F.;Rider, M.J.;Romero, R.;
      Pages: 596 - 607
      Abstract: In this work, a new methodology based on a mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed to solve the optimal charging coordination of electric vehicles (EVs) in unbalanced electrical distribution systems (EDS) considering vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. The steady-state operation of the EDS is represented using the real and imaginary parts of voltages and currents at nodes and circuits respectively. Distributed generation (DG) and the imbalance of the system circuits and loads are taken into account. The developed method defines an optimal charging schedule for the EVs. This charging schedule considers the EVs' arrival and departure times and their arrival state of charge, along with the energy contribution of EVs equipped with V2G technology. The presented formulation was tested in a 123-node distribution system. The charging schedule obtained was compared in terms of V2G and DG scenarios, demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed method.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Corrections to “Mitigating Voltage Problem in Distribution System
           With Distributed Solar Generation Using Electric Vehicles”
    • Authors: Cheng; L.;Chang, Y.;Huang, R.;
      Pages: 608 - 608
      Abstract: Presents corrections to the paper, "Mitigating voltage problem in distribution system with distributed solar generation using electric vehicles??? (Cheng, L.), IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1475???1484, Oct. 2015.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Table of Contents
    • Pages: 611 - 612
      Abstract: Presents the table of contents for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Guest Editorial Special Section on Reserve and Flexibility for Handling
           Variability and Uncertainty of Renewable Generation
    • Pages: 613 - 613
      Abstract: Reserve and flexibility requirements are becoming more and more important for the optimal operation and planning of power systems to address the variability and uncertainty associated with increasing renewable generation. The objective of this special section is to cover this promising and dynamic area of research and development, while focusing on computational, technological, and regulatory aspects.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Power-Capacity and Ramp-Capability Reserves for Wind Integration in
           Power-Based UC
    • Authors: Morales-Espana; G.;Baldick, R.;Garcia-Gonzalez, J.;Ramos, A.;
      Pages: 614 - 624
      Abstract: This paper proposes a power-based network-constrained unit commitment (UC) model as an alternative to the traditional deterministic UCs to deal with wind generation uncertainty. The formulation draws a clear distinction between power-capacity and ramp-capability reserves to deal with wind production uncertainty. These power and ramp requirements can be obtained from wind forecast information. The model is formulated as a power-based UC, which schedules power-trajectories instead of the traditional energy-blocks and takes into account the inherent startup and shutdown power trajectories of thermal units. These characteristics allow a correct representation of unit's ramp schedule which define their ramp availability for reserves. The proposed formulation significantly decreases operation costs compared to traditional deterministic and stochastic UC formulations while simultaneously lowering the computational burden. The operation cost comparison is made through 5-min economic dispatch simulation under hundreds of out-of-sample wind generation scenarios.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • A Distributionally Robust Co-Ordinated Reserve Scheduling Model
           Considering CVaR-Based Wind Power Reserve Requirements
    • Authors: Wang; Z.;Bian, Q.;Xin, H.;Gan, D.;
      Pages: 625 - 636
      Abstract: The reserve scheduling problem becomes more difficult to handle when wind power is increasing at a rapid rate in power systems and the complete information on the stochasticity of wind power is hard to be obtained. In this paper, considering the uncertainty on the probability distribution (PD) of the wind power forecast error (WPFE), a distributionally robust co-ordinated reserve scheduling (DRCRS) model is proposed, aiming to minimize the total procurement cost of conventional generation and reserve, while satisfying the security requirement over all possible PDs of WPFE. In this model, a distributionally robust formulation based on the concept of conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) is presented to obtain the reserve requirement of wind power. In addition, to achieve tractability of the scheduling model, the random variable that refers to WPFE in the scheduling model is eliminated, equivalently converting the stochastic model into a deterministic bilinear matrix inequality problem that can be effectively solved. Case studies based on the IEEE-39 bus system are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results are compared with the normal distribution based co-ordinated reserve scheduling (NDCRS) method that assumes WPFE is of normal distribution.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Reserve Capability Assessment Considering Correlated Uncertainty in
    • Authors: Khan; S.;Gawlik, W.;Palensky, P.;
      Pages: 637 - 646
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach of assessing the required reserve capability in order to meet the forecast uncertainty dynamics in microgrid. The historical data of forecast variables is used to generate energy balance scenarios. The dynamics of these scenarios are represented as instances between capacity, ramp-rate and ramp-duration variables. A polytopic model is used to enclose these instances with its surface defining the worst case scenarios. This approach captures the correlated nature of the dynamics and provides a compact representation. In relevance, the capability of the generators and the power import from the grid are modeled as convex envelopes. A vertex based method is proposed that allocates the polytope among the resource envelopes. During this process, the operational cost is minimized while considering the resource location and the network constraints. The proposed method is examined for a microgrid test case based on the CIGRE medium voltage network. The results show new insights in the allocated demand and reserve capabilities. As an additional result, it is observed that the reserve requirements can be decreased by allocating reserves for each time instance separately as compared to the fixed percentage of load approach.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • An Integrated Scheduling Approach to Underpin Flexibility in European
           Power Systems
    • Authors: Marneris; I.G.;Biskas, P.N.;Bakirtzis, E.A.;
      Pages: 647 - 657
      Abstract: Variable and uncertain conditions associated with increasing renewables introduce prominent challenges in the optimal power system operation and necessitate the reinforcement of flexible capability potential provided by the eligible resources. To address these challenges, some U.S. ISOs have incorporated specific “flexible ramp products” in their short-term scheduling processes. This paper proposes an enhanced modeling approach to underpin flexibility in European Central Dispatch systems; the model employs a “multi-timing” day-ahead scheduling method, which allows for the optimal procurement of such ramp products on an intra-hourly (“real-time”) basis, when concurrently optimizing energy and reserves over hourly time intervals. Additionally, a probabilistic method for the quantification of the flexibility requirements is proposed, to align the real-time system ramping needs with the intra-hourly optimization intervals. The model is evaluated using the Greek power system for three market configurations; results demonstrate enhanced flexibility features in terms of market efficiency and system reliability.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Unified Unit Commitment Formulation and Fast Multi-Service LP Model for
           Flexibility Evaluation in Sustainable Power Systems
    • Authors: Zhang; L.;Capuder, T.;Mancarella, P.;
      Pages: 658 - 671
      Abstract: Classical unit commitment (UC) algorithms may be extremely time-consuming when applied to large systems and for long-term simulations (for instance, a year) and may not consider all the features required for flexibility assessment, including analysis of different reserve types. In this light, this paper presents a novel flexibility-oriented unified formulation of a large-scale scheduling model considering multiple types of plants (including storage) and reserves, which can seamlessly model binary (BUC), mixed integer linear programming (MILP), and relaxed linear programming (LP) UC. Comparisons are carried out on several case studies for a reduced model of Great Britain, assessing loss of accuracy (as measured according to various metrics specifically introduced) against computational benefits in different renewables scenarios with more or less flexible systems. It is demonstrated how the computational time of the LP model is significantly less than the BUC and MILP approaches while capturing with relatively high precision all the relevant flexibility requirements and allocation of multiple types of reserves to different types of plants. The results indicate that the proposed fast LP model could be suitable for various computationally intensive flexibility studies (e.g., Monte Carlo simulations or planning), with significant reduction in simulation time and only minor errors relative to established MILP models.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Impact of Operational Flexibility on Electricity Generation Planning With
           Renewable and Carbon Targets
    • Authors: Palmintier; B.S.;Webster, M.D.;
      Pages: 672 - 684
      Abstract: Recent work on operational flexibility-a power system's ability to respond to variations in demand and supply-has focused on the impact of large penetration of renewable generation on existing power systems. Operational flexibility is equally important for long-term capacity expansion planning. Future systems with larger shares of renewable generation, and/or carbon emission limits, will require flexible generation mixes; yet, flexibility is rarely fully considered in capacity planning models because of the computational demands of including mixed integer unit commitment within capacity expansion. We present a computationally efficient unit commitment/maintenance/capacity planning formulation that includes the critical operating constraints. An example of capacity planning for a Texas-like system in 2035 with hypothetical RPS and carbon policies shows how considering flexibility results in different capacity and energy mixes and emissions, and that the omission of flexibility can lead to a system that is unable to simultaneously meet demand, carbon, and RPS requirements.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Flexible Operation of Batteries in Power System Scheduling With Renewable
    • Authors: Li; N.;Uckun, C.;Constantinescu, E.M.;Birge, J.R.;Hedman, K.W.;Botterud, A.;
      Pages: 685 - 696
      Abstract: The fast growing expansion of renewable energy increases the complexities in balancing generation and demand in the power system. The energy-shifting and fast-ramping capability of energy storage has led to increasing interests in batteries to facilitate the integration of renewable resources. In this paper, we present a two-step framework to evaluate the potential value of energy storage in power systems with renewable generation. First, we formulate a stochastic unit commitment approach with wind power forecast uncertainty and energy storage. Second, the solution from the stochastic unit commitment is used to derive a flexible schedule for energy storage in economic dispatch where the look-ahead horizon is limited. Analysis is conducted on the IEEE 24-bus system to demonstrate the benefits of battery storage in systems with renewable resources and the effectiveness of the proposed battery operation strategy.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Operational Flexibility of Future Generation Portfolios Using High
           Spatial- and Temporal-Resolution Wind Data
    • Authors: Bruce; A.R.W.;Gibbins, J.;Harrison, G.P.;Chalmers, H.;
      Pages: 697 - 707
      Abstract: Increasing amounts of variable renewable energy sources will cause fundamental and structural changes to thermal power plant operating regimes. Maintaining key reserve requirements will lead to an increase in power plant start-ups and cycling operations for some units. An enhanced unit commitment model with energy storage and flexible CO2 capture is formulated. High-resolution on-/offshore wind data for the U.K., and probabilistic wind power forecast, model wind imbalances at operational timescales. The strategic use of flexible CO2 capture and energy storage helps maintain reserve levels, decreasing power plant cycling operations and wind curtailment. A temporally explicit variability assessment of net demand illustrates the generation flexibility requirements and the nonlinear impacts of increasing wind capacity on power plant operating regimes.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Flexible Operational Planning Framework Considering Multiple Wind Energy
           Forecasting Service Providers
    • Authors: Meng; K.;Yang, H.;Dong, Z.Y.;Guo, W.;Wen, F.;Xu, Z.;
      Pages: 708 - 717
      Abstract: While the state-of-the-art wind forecasting platforms use similar inputs, the techniques may vary substantially from one forecast service provider to another. No single forecast will apply optimally to all prediction horizons and site locations. Therefore, power system operators rely on several forecast service providers to hedge against the operational risk rising from the error in single-provider case. In order to accommodate the uncertainties in wind power forecast, each forecasting service provider will deliver multiple wind power output scenarios with different initial conditions and model formulations, and one commitment decision will be produced. The key issue of this research work is to identify which generation schedule is likely to perform better under various conditions or for different types of decisions. The selected plan may not be the optimal one for a particular scenario set, but it will lead to an overall lower cost if it needs to be changed to another plan as getting closer to real-time. Detailed case studies are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed flexible operation planning framework.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Integrated Electrical and Gas Network Flexibility Assessment in Low-Carbon
           Multi-Energy Systems
    • Authors: Clegg; S.;Mancarella, P.;
      Pages: 718 - 731
      Abstract: In power systems with more and more variable renewable sources, gas generation is playing an increasingly prominent role in providing short-term flexibility to meet net-load requirements. The flexibility provided by the gas turbines in turn relies on the flexibility of the gas network. While there are several discussions on the ability of the gas network in providing this operational flexibility, this has not been clearly modeled or quantified. In addition, the gas network may also be responsible for supplying heating technologies, and low-carbon scenarios see a tighter interaction between the electricity, heating and gas sectors, which calls for a holistic multi-energy system assessment. On these premises, this paper presents an original methodology to quantify the flexibility the gas network can provide to the power system, as well as the constraints it may impose on it, with also consideration of different heating scenarios. This is achieved by a novel multi-stage integrated gas and electrical transmission network model, which uses electrical DC OPF and both steady-state and transient gas analyses. A novel metric that makes use of the concept of zonal linepack is also introduced to assess the integrated gas and electrical flexibility, which is then used to impose gas-related inter-network inter-temporal constraints on the electrical OPF. Case studies are performed for the Great Britain transmission system for different renewables and heating scenarios to demonstrate the proposed integrated flexibility assessment methodology, provide insights into the effects of changes to the heating sector on the multi-energy system's combined flexibility requirements and capability, and assess how the electrical network can experience local generation and reserve constraints related to the gas network's lack of flexibility.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Storage-Reserve Sizing With Qualified Reliability for Connected High
           Renewable Penetration Micro-Grid
    • Authors: Dong; J.;Gao, F.;Guan, X.;Zhai, Q.;Wu, J.;
      Pages: 732 - 743
      Abstract: The major challenge in high renewable penetration microgrid is the power mismatch between stochastic renewables and demand. Energy storage and reserve purchase are main techniques in reducing that. Storage sizing problem is widely investigated in literatures without reserve capacity co-optimizing. And due to innate no loss-of-load assumption, a large proportion of capacity is used to handle inessential energy deficiency with small probability. In this paper, storage-reserve sizing problem with qualified reliability is raised to integrate reserve sizing and loss-of-load probability (LOLP) index into existing storage sizing problem. Two-stage probabilistic model is established to minimize total cost with optimizing storage capacity during first-stage and reserve strategy during second-stage. Since the time-consuming Monte Carlo simulation and stage iteration are usually required in problem solving, Markovian steady-state sizing method is proposed to improve efficiency. Probability constraint is tested by mathematical quantile. And two-stage model is transformed to single-stage one attributed to analytical solution of second-stage. Meanwhile obtained relationship among storage capacity, reserve capacity, and LOLP index can help designers balance between capacity and reliability. Numerical test shows: needed capacity is significantly reduced with little sacrifice of reliability; storage-reserve combination is economical, since they are probabilistically complementary; proposed solution method is fast and accurate.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Impact of Strategic Behavior and Ownership of Energy Storage on Provision
           of Flexibility
    • Authors: Hartwig; K.;Kockar, I.;
      Pages: 744 - 754
      Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESS) are expected to provide additional flexibility to managed variable power flows in future power systems. It is believed that the business case for ESS as an alternative to traditional network reinforcements can be improved, if the assets are able to access additional revenue streams by participating in energy and ancillary services markets. To enable this, the storage may need to be operated by private merchants to circumvent the unbundling principle applied in electricity markets today. However, it is not clear if the right incentives are in place for these entities to operate the ESS in a way that provides the required flexibility and supports the wider system benefits sought by the system operator (SO). This work seeks to evaluate the impact of strategic behavior of an independent trader operating ESS in a nodal electricity market. The results indicated that a strategic bidder operating ESS tends to underuse the assets leading to suboptimal solution in terms of market welfare, as well as congestion and curtailment reduction, removing some of the potential benefits the ESS can provide to the power system.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Optimal Storage Scheduling Using Markov Decision Processes
    • Authors: Grillo; S.;Pievatolo, A.;Tironi, E.;
      Pages: 755 - 764
      Abstract: The paper presents a method based on Markov decision processes to optimally schedule energy storage devices in power distribution networks with renewable generation. The time series of renewable generation is modeled as a Markov chain which allows for the implementation of a stochastic dynamic programming algorithm. The output of this algorithm is an optimal scheduling policy for the storage device achieving the minimization of an objective function including cost of energy and network losses. Besides this, other properties, such as energy storage placement and size, can be assessed and compared in optimized systems with different layouts.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Robust Transmission and Energy Storage Expansion Planning in Wind
           Farm-Integrated Power Systems Considering Transmission Switching
    • Authors: Dehghan; S.;Amjady, N.;
      Pages: 765 - 774
      Abstract: This paper presents a new nondeterministic model for joint transmission and energy storage expansion planning along with optimal transmission switching in wind farm-integrated power systems. The proposed approach adopts the underlying idea of robust optimization to characterize the uncertainty sources pertaining to load demands and wind power productions through uncertainty sets. Accordingly, a tractable adaptive min-max-min cost model is introduced to find a robust optimal expansion plan for new lines and storages withstanding the worst-case realization of the uncertain variables. As the adaptive min-max-min cost model cannot be solved directly by the commercial off-the-shelf software packages, a decomposition algorithm using primal cutting planes is introduced to obtain the optimal solution. The proposed approach has been implemented on the IEEE 24-bus and the IEEE 73-bus test systems. Also, the robustness of optimal expansion plans under different circumstances is evaluated through a post-optimization procedure simulating different realizations of the uncertainty sources. Case studies justify the efficiency of the proposed RO-based model.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • A Holistic Approach to the Integration of Battery Energy Storage Systems
           in Island Electric Grids With High Wind Penetration
    • Authors: Miranda; I.;Silva, N.;Leite, H.;
      Pages: 775 - 785
      Abstract: This paper details an optimization tool for the planning and operation of battery energy storage systems (BESS) in island power systems with high wind penetration. The selection of the most suitable battery technology, its sizing and location is achieved through a comparative analysis of the operational and capital expenditure of the islanded system during the planning horizon with and without the deployment of the BESS solution. An operational algorithm is developed consisting on sequentially closer to time of delivery optimization stages in order to provide a robust quantification of the technical, environmental, and economic impacts of the battery system. The developed methodology is assessed and validated in a real-world case study of a Portuguese island with a high share of wind generation. Results show that BESS enhances the flexibility of the islanded power system thus ensuring a higher accommodation of wind energy with significant economic benefits.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Coupling Pumped Hydro Energy Storage With Unit Commitment
    • Authors: Bruninx; K.;Dvorkin, Y.;Delarue, E.;Pandzic, H.;D'haeseleer, W.;Kirschen, D.S.;
      Pages: 786 - 796
      Abstract: Renewable electricity generation not only provides affordable and emission-free electricity but also introduces additional complexity in the day-ahead planning procedure. To address the stochastic nature of renewable generation, system operators must schedule enough controllable generation to have the flexibility required to compensate unavoidable real-time mismatches between the production and consumption of electricity. This flexibility must be scheduled ahead of real-time and comes at a cost, which should be minimized without compromising the operational reliability of the system. Energy storage facilities, such as pumped hydro energy storage (PHES), can respond quickly to mismatches between demand and generation. Hydraulic constraints on the operation of PHES must be taken into account in the day-ahead scheduling problem, which is typically not done in deterministic models. Stochastic optimization enhances the procurement of flexibility, but requires more computational resources than conventional deterministic optimization. This paper proposes a deterministic and an interval unit commitment formulation for the co-optimization of controllable generation and PHES, including a representation of the hydraulic constraints of the PHES. The proposed unit commitment (UC) models are tested against a stochastic UC formulation on a model of the Belgian power system to compare the resulting operational cost, reliability, and computational requirements. The cost-effective regulating capabilities offered by the PHES yield significant operational cost reductions in both models, while the increase in calculation times is limited.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Robust Scheduling Scheme for Energy Storage to Facilitate High Penetration
           of Renewables
    • Authors: Yi; J.;Lyons, P.F.;Davison, P.J.;Wang, P.;Taylor, P.C.;
      Pages: 797 - 807
      Abstract: This paper presents a robust scheduling scheme for energy storage systems (ESSs) deployed in distribution networks to facilitate high penetrations of renewable energy sources (RES). This scheme schedules the charging and discharging of an ESS cognizant of state-of-charge (SoC) limits, transmission line real time thermal ratings (RTTR), and voltage constraints. Robust optimization (RO) has been adopted to deal with the uncertainty of RES output, load, and RTTR. Two methods have been introduced to estimate the tradeoff between the cost and the probability of constraint violations. The proposed scheduling scheme is tested on the IEEE 14 and 118 busbar networks with real load, generation, and RTTR profiles through Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Test results show that the proposed scheme is able to minimize or curtail the probability of constraint violation to a desired level. In contrast, classical optimal power flow (OPF) approaches which do not consider uncertainty, when coupled with RTTR and ESS, result in a low PoS. At the same time, compared to conservative OPF approaches, the proposed scheme reduces the power and energy requirement of ESS.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Evaluating the Contribution of Energy Storages to Support Large-Scale
           Renewable Generation in Joint Energy and Ancillary Service Markets
    • Authors: Zou; P.;Chen, Q.;Xia, Q.;He, G.;Kang, C.;
      Pages: 808 - 818
      Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESSs) are of great value to realize energy management and to support large-scale renewable generation. The combined operation of ESSs and renewables is one way to achieve output levelling and to improve the integration of sustainable energy. However, in a market-based environment, ESSs would make strategic decisions on self-schedules and arbitrage in energy and ancillary service markets, maximizing the overall profits. Will the strategic operation of ESSs promote renewable generation integration? To explicitly answer this question, this paper proposes a multi-period Nash-Cournot equilibrium model for joint energy and ancillary service markets to evaluate the contribution of the ESSs for supporting renewable generation. Then, a reformulation approach based on the potential function is proposed, which can transform the bi-level equilibrium model into an integrated single-level optimization problem to enhance the computation efficiency. Numerical examples are implemented to validate the effectiveness of the reformulation technique. The results of the case study indicate that the ESSs indirectly but substantially provide improved flexibilities while pursuing individual profit maximization.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • A Two-Stage Stochastic Dynamic Economic Dispatch Model Considering Wind
    • Authors: Liu; Y.;Nair, N.-K.C.;
      Pages: 819 - 829
      Abstract: This paper proposes a two-stage stochastic dynamic economic dispatch model aiming at better managing system variability and uncertainty influenced by wind generation. Stochastic decomposition algorithm is proposed to solve the model in order to facilitate real-time application. The proposed method is tested on PJM-5 and RTS-24 systems and the results verify that the model inherits advantages from conventional dynamic economic dispatch, which is able to make out of merit order dispatch instructions for future benefits. Furthermore, the proposed model can correct false generator pre-ramp instructions due to forecast error and evaluate potential nodal wise reserve requirement therefore improving reserve deliverability. For computational efficiency assessment, stochastic decomposition is compared with sample average approximation. A modified IEEE-118 bus case study is shown.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Flow-Based Forward Capacity Mechanism: An Alternative to the Regulated
           Capacity Remuneration Mechanisms in Electricity Market With High RES
    • Authors: See; P.C.;Fosso, O.B.;Wong, K.Y.;Molinas, M.;
      Pages: 830 - 840
      Abstract: The rapid adoption of variable renewable generation has created new challenges in the maintenance of power system adequacy. On one hand, its non-dispatchable nature increases the need for firm and flexible load-following peaking power generation. On the other hand, its significantly lower short-run marginal cost raises the missing-money issue, which increases the tendency of conventional generators in terminating their services because of the reduced economic incentives. Therefore, many regulators have begun to implement remedial measures called capacity remuneration mechanisms (CRMs) to curb the problem. Though effective in supporting the operation of these generators, the mechanisms affects the cross-border sharing of generation resources. The shortcomings are discussed in this paper. Afterwards, the paper proposes a mechanism called the flow-based forward capacity mechanism as an alternative for accommodating the involvement of both domestic and foreign capacity generators in the cross-border competition for the supply of capacity generation. The mechanism is able to recover the missing-money bear by the capacity generators in a fair manner. Additionally, it offers a concise method for gradually phasing-out the service of capacity generators as the market transforms into a full RES form.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Information Gap Decision Theory-Based Congestion and Voltage Management in
           the Presence of Uncertain Wind Power
    • Authors: Murphy; C.;Soroudi, A.;Keane, A.;
      Pages: 841 - 849
      Abstract: The supply of electrical energy is being increasingly sourced from renewable generation. The variability and uncertainty of renewable generation, compared to a dispatchable plant, is a significant dissimilarity of concern to the traditionally reliable and robust power system. This change is driving the power system toward a more flexible entity that carries greater amounts of reserve. For congestion management purposes, it is of benefit to know the probable and possible renewable generation dispatch, but to what extent will these variations effect the management of congestion on the system? Reactive power generation from wind generators and demand response flexibility are the decision variables here in a risk averse multiperiod AC optimal power flow (OPF) seeking to manage congestion on distribution systems. Information Gap Decision Theory is used to address the variability and uncertainty of renewable generation. In addition, this work considers the natural benefits to the congestion on a system from the over estimation of wind forecast; providing an opportunistic schedule for both demand response nodes and reactive power provision from distributed generation.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Scheduling and Provision of Secondary Frequency Reserves by Aggregations
           of Commercial Buildings
    • Authors: Vrettos; E.;Andersson, G.;
      Pages: 850 - 864
      Abstract: Due to thermal inertia, commercial buildings can provide power system frequency reserves with the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In this paper, we follow up on a recently proposed framework for scheduling and provision of secondary frequency control (SFC) reserves within a building aggregation. We extend this framework with a new reserve scheduling formulation, which is based on a combination of robust and stochastic optimization, to allocate reserve capacities among buildings. The HVAC system setpoints are determined by a model predictive controller, the frequency signal is tracked by heat pump (HP) control with virtually no occupant discomfort, and the tracking quality is evaluated using a dynamic HP model. In simulations, we consider an aggregation of typical Swiss office buildings and compare the robust and stochastic reserve scheduling approaches in terms of performance and complexity. Using the framework, we demonstrate the importance of energy constrained SFC signals and asymmetric reserves with hourly resolution, and we investigate the sensitivity of reserves on the comfort zone's width, capacity payments, and HP constraints. Finally, we show that commercial buildings can track SFC signals well and substitute generators in SFC.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Ramping Rate Flexibility of Residential HVAC Loads
    • Authors: Sanandaji; B.M.;Vincent, T.L.;Poolla, K.;
      Pages: 865 - 874
      Abstract: Residential air conditioners (ACs), refrigeration units, and forced air heating loads are candidates for providing ancillary services to the grid. Motivated by the need for resources with high ramping rate capability, we investigate the ramping rate flexibility of such loads and show that a collection of residential heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads can provide regulating reserve service with certain ramping rate bound that is a result of enforcing a no-short-cycling requirement. A load is called short-cycled if it is switched on and off quicker than a certain allowed time. We support our proposed bounds and theorems with illustrative simulations.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • An Integrated Dynamic Market Mechanism for Real-Time Markets and Frequency
    • Authors: Shiltz; D.J.;Cvetkovic, M.;Annaswamy, A.M.;
      Pages: 875 - 885
      Abstract: The intermittent and uncertain nature of renewables represents a major challenge for large scale adoption of sustainable energy resources. Of particular concern is the need to maintain both quality of grid frequency and low costs of regulation reserves in the face of increasing fluctuations in renewables. To this end, we propose an integrated dynamic market mechanism (DMM), which combines real-time market and frequency regulation allowing market players, including renewable generators and flexible consumers, to iteratively negotiate electricity prices at the wholesale level while using the most recent information on the available wind power and the quality of grid frequency. Main features of the integrated DMM are as follows: 1) a Newton-Raphson-based method, which leads to fast convergence to the optimal dispatch; and 2) use of an aggregated frequency error as a feedback signal for the negotiation process, which leads to reduced regulation capacity requirements. The benefits of this DMM are illustrated via simulations on the IEEE 118 bus system.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Self Scheduling of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Aggregator to Provide
           Balancing Services for Wind Power
    • Authors: Gonzalez Vaya; M.;Andersson, G.;
      Pages: 886 - 899
      Abstract: This paper focuses on the self-scheduling problem of an aggregator of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) purchasing energy in the day-ahead market, and offering balancing services for a wind power producer, i.e., committing to compensate the forecast errors of wind power plants. The aggregated charging and discharging flexibility of the PEV fleet is represented by a probabilistic virtual battery model, accounting for the uncertainty in the driving patterns of PEVs. Another source of uncertainty is related to the balancing requests, which are a function of the forecasted wind power output. A scenario-based robust approach is used to tackle both sources of uncertainty in a tractable way. The interdependency between the day-ahead market prices and the aggregator's bidding decisions is addressed using complementarity models. A case study analyzes the capability of the PEV aggregation to provide balancing services, for different settings of the balancing contract, and both with and without the use of vehicle-to-grid.
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
  • Introducing IEEE Collabratec
    • Pages: 900 - 900
      Abstract: IEEE Collabratec is a new, integrated online community where IEEE members, researchers, authors, and technology professionals with similar fields of interest can network and collaborate, as well as create and manage content. Featuring a suite of powerful online networking and collaboration tools, IEEE Collabratec allows you to connect according to geographic location, technical interests, or career pursuits. You can also create and share a professional identity that showcases key accomplishments and participate in groups focused around mutual interests, actively learning from and contributing to knowledgeable communities. All in one place! Learn about IEEE Collabratec at
      PubDate: April 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2016)
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