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Actuators     Open Access  
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Signal Processing     Open Access  
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Control Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Atom Indonesia     Open Access  
Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers & Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Trends in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Electric Power Components and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Electric Power Systems Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Electrical and Power Engineering Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Electrical Engineering and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Electrical Engineering in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ferroelectrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ferroelectrics Letters Section     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frequenz     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEA Electricity Information     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Access     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Control Theory & Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IET Electric Power Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Integrated Ferroelectrics: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Electronics and Communication Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Monitoring and Surveillance Technologies Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Nano Devices, Sensors and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal on Communication     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal on Control System and Instrumentation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal on Signal and Image Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
J3eA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Control Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micro-Bio Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Power Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Society for Information Display     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C     Hybrid Journal  
Micro and Nano Systems Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nanotechnology Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Quarterly Statistics - Electricite, charbon, gaz et petrole - Statistiques trimestrielles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Recent Patents on Electrical & Electronic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Recent Patents on Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription  
Russian Electrical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Synthesis Lectures on Electrical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA : Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Trends in Electrical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access  
Wireless Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access  
Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1949-3029
     Published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Homepage  [174 journals]   [SJR: 1.766]   [H-I: 14]
  • Table of Contents
    • Pages: C1 - 1026
      Abstract: Presents the cover/table of contents for this issue of the periodical.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
    • Pages: C2 - C2
      Abstract: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy society information
    • Pages: C3 - C3
      Abstract: Provides a listing of current committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • IEEE Power Engineering Society information for authors
    • Pages: C4 - C4
      Abstract: Provides instructions and guidelines to prospective authors who wish to submit manuscripts.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Design of Three-Phase Autonomous PV Residential Systems With Improved
           Power Quality
    • Authors: Christodoulou; C.A.;Papanikolaou, N.P.;Gonos, I.F.;
      Pages: 1027 - 1035
      Abstract: During the last decade, autonomous residential photovoltaic (PV) systems have been widely installed, especially in remote areas (islands, rural territories, etc.), in an effort to produce electrical energy in a reliable and inexpensive manner. The appropriate design of a PV system and the compatibility of its power quality indices with national and international standards are crucial for efficient and economical autonomous operation of the system. To this direction, the critical parameters of a three-phase autonomous PV residential system are properly determined. Moreover, a new design methodology that meets the demanded standards and improves further the power quality is also introduced. Finally, an optimization algorithm is designed utilizing artificial intelligence techniques. The analytical results are corroborated by extensive simulation results and insightful discussions are provided demonstrating the efficiency of our proposed design.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Risk-Constrained Offering Strategy of Wind Power Producers Considering
           Intraday Demand Response Exchange
    • Authors: Heydarian-Forushani; E.;Parsa Moghaddam, M.;Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.;Shafie-Khah, M.;Catalao, J.P.S.;
      Pages: 1036 - 1047
      Abstract: This paper proposes a comprehensive stochastic decision making model for wind power producers' (WPPs) participation in a competitive market. The presented model incorporates three trading floors: 1) day-ahead; 2) intraday; and 3) balancing markets. An efficient integration of intraday markets allows market players to react to the latest information (e.g., more accurate wind forecast). Creating a platform that allows demand response resources (DRRs) to contribute to the intraday markets improves both WPP's business and power system flexibility. In this context, providing an intraday demand response exchange (IDRX) market for trading demand response (DR) between DR providers and DR users (e.g., WPPs) is proposed. The problem uncertainties, such as wind power and market prices, are considered using a scenario-based approach. Moreover, an appropriate risk measurement, conditional value-at-risk (CVaR), is incorporated with the model. Numerical results illustrate that utilizing DR to compensate wind generation imbalances can increase WPP's profit and reduce the related risks.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • A Model for Optimizing Spinning Reserve Requirement of Power System Under
           Low-Carbon Economy
    • Authors: Siyu Lu;Yaowu Wu;Suhua Lou;Xianggen Yin;
      Pages: 1048 - 1055
      Abstract: Spinning reserve (SR) capacity setting is an effective measure to ensure the reliability of power system operation. Traditional models for SR optimization are mainly concerned with the economic and security factors. In this paper, the concept of a low-carbon economy is introduced into the power system SR optimization while considering the emergence of low-carbon factors and their impact on the SR optimization under the condition of low-carbon economy, and then a model for optimizing SR requirement of power system is proposed under low-carbon economy. The proposed model integrates and formulates low-carbon factors such as the cost of low-carbon power technology, carbon trading cost, and the penalties for excess carbon emission and considers the constraint of the CO2 reduction targets, aiming to provide a more comprehensive evaluation method for SR requirement of power system under low-carbon economy. SR optimization based on the IEEE-RTS 96 system is studied by applying the proposed model and the results prove it to be more adaptable and effective for the sustainable development of future power systems.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • A Novel Transient Control Strategy for VSC-HVDC Connecting Offshore Wind
           Power Plant
    • Authors: Moawwad; A.;El Moursi, M.S.;Weidong Xiao;
      Pages: 1056 - 1069
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel steady-state and transient management scheme for voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) connecting permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based offshore wind power plant (WPP). The proposed control arrangement aims to fully utilize the HVDC converters' normal loading capabilities during steady-state operation. Furthermore, it targets the employment of the available converters' overloading capabilities to enhance the fault ride through (FRT) performance during faults. The positive and negative sequence components are controlled to 1) neutralize dc-link voltage ripples due to asymmetrical grid faults, 2) inject reactive current support for the grid voltage, and 3) deliver the maximum possible active power during different faults. Novel mathematical and time-variant representations of the positive and negative sequence components are introduced to adapt the converter current limits for full utilization of the converter limit. Comprehensive simulation studies using PSCAD/EMTDC are presented to verify the functioning of the proposed control strategy.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Stochastic Midterm Coordination of Hydro and Natural Gas Flexibilities for
           Wind Energy Integration
    • Authors: Kamalinia; S.;Lei Wu;Shahidehpour, M.;
      Pages: 1070 - 1079
      Abstract: This paper presents a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) model for the optimal midterm and flexible allocations of hydro and natural gas systems when accommodating a large integration of wind energy. Random errors in forecasting the hourly wind, natural water inflow, and electric load as well as random outages of power system components are modeled in scenarios via the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The proposed optimization model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic problem, where short-term and midterm generation resource optimizations are investigated in the first and the second stages, respectively. The reliability criteria including the loss of load expectation (LOLE) and load curtailment limits are incorporated into the midterm stochastic SCUC problem, where electric power and natural gas network constraints are checked. Numerical experiments signify the effectiveness of the proposed method for the midterm optimal scheduling of water and natural gas flexibilities when integrating wind energy resources.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Analytical Calculation of the Electrical Energy Losses on Fixed-Mounted PV
    • Authors: Malamaki; K.-N.D.;Demoulias, C.S.;
      Pages: 1080 - 1089
      Abstract: This paper presents analytical expressions for the annual energy losses on dc and ac cables, the annual energy losses on the step-up transformer, and the optimum transformer size for fixed-mounted photovoltaic (PV) plants of any size. These expressions are based on some unknown parameters, which can be easily estimated from data provided by the equipment (inverters or transformer) manufacturer and from available data in any meteorological database. The analytical expressions are meant to be used by the design engineers for comparing-from the energetic point of view-different cable cross sections and transformer sizes with various power loss classes or cooling medium, without having to perform multiple detailed simulations, as the current practice is. The validity of the derived expressions was tested against measurements taken in two existing 1003.52- and 491.4 kWp PV installations during the past 2 years. The proper use of the derived expressions during the design phase of a PV system is demonstrated through a detailed working example.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Excitation Synchronous Wind Power Generators With Maximum Power Tracking
    • Authors: Tzuen-Lih Chern;Ping-Lung Pan;Yu-Lun Chern;Wei-Ting Chern;Whei-Min Lin;Chih-Chiang Cheng;Jyh-Horng Chou;Long-Chen Chen;
      Pages: 1090 - 1098
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel excitation synchronous wind power generator (ESWPG) with a maximum power tracking scheme. The excitation synchronous generator and servo motor rotor speed tracks the grid frequency and phase using the proposed coaxial configuration and phase tracking technologies. The generator output can thus be directly connected to the grid network without an additional power converter. The proposed maximum power tracking scheme governs the exciter current to achieve stable voltage, maximum power tracking, and diminishing servo motor power consumption. The system transient and static responses over a wide range of input wind power are examined using simulated software. Experimental results from a laboratory prototype ESWPG demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Decentralized Model Predictive Control for Wave Energy Converter Arrays
    • Authors: Oetinger; D.;Magaña, M.E.;Sawodny, O.;
      Pages: 1099 - 1107
      Abstract: Most of the research on wave energy conversion has been focused on the characterization of the dynamic behavior of arrays of uncontrolled wave energy converters (WECs) in specific configurations, in order to quantify changes in the wave fields and absorbed power without active control. To maximize wave energy conversion, however, it is necessary to apply active control techniques to the WECs that conform the array. In this paper, we propose the application of decentralized model predictive control (MPC) to the elements of an array by considering each individual WEC as a subsystem. Each decentralized MPC optimizes the absorbed power of its own WEC under the same input and state constraints that a centralized MPC otherwise would.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Management Scheme for Increasing the Connectivity of Small-Scale Renewable
    • Authors: Eltantawy; A.B.;Salama, M.M.A.;
      Pages: 1108 - 1115
      Abstract: This paper presents a planning model and an active network management (ANM) scheme for increasing small-scale renewable distributed generation (DG) capacity in distribution networks. The capacity of each DG unit is assumed to include two components: 1) unconditional and 2) conditional. Unconditional DG capacity is calculated using an appropriate economic model that ensures adequate profit for DG investors. For all online distribution system conditions, a DG unit whose capacity is less than or equal to the unconditional DG capacity is granted permission to inject power into the system without curtailment. The first phase of this work involved the development of a proposed planning model that maximizes the number of DG units installed based on the calculated unconditional capacity. Any capacity higher than the unconditional DG capacity is considered conditional capacity. The second phase of this work is focused on an ANM scheme for minimizing the curtailment of conditional DG capacity using a novel scalable optimization model. The simulation results show that the proposed planning model with the ANM scheme significantly increases the photovoltaic (PV) DG capacity that can be installed. The simulation results indicate that online operation of the proposed ANM scheme would provide a favorable outcome and enhanced performance.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • An Integrated Active Power Filter–Ultracapacitor Design to Provide
           Intermittency Smoothing and Reactive Power Support to the Distribution
    • Authors: Somayajula; D.;Crow, M.L.;
      Pages: 1116 - 1125
      Abstract: Grid integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) is increasing rapidly. Furthermore, smart grid technologies are making the grid more bi-directional providing opportunities to consumers to supply power back to the grid. Energy storage technologies like battery and ultracapacitor (UCAP) can be integrated through grid-tied inverters to support variable DERs such as solar and wind. In these cases, the energy storage with active power capability can improve grid performance by providing active and reactive power support. In this paper, the concept of providing active/reactive power support and renewable intermittency smoothing to the distribution grid by UCAPs is presented. UCAPs have a higher number of charge-discharge cycles and higher terminal voltage per module when compared to batteries which make them ideal for providing grid support. The UCAP is integrated into the dc-link of the active power filter (APF) through a dc-dc converter. The dc-dc converter provides a stiff dc-link voltage which improves the performance of the grid tied-inverter. Design and control of both the dc-ac inverter and the dc-dc converter are very important in this regard and presented. The simulation model of the overall system is developed and results are compared to the results from an experimental hardware setup.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • A Model-Based Key Performance Index for Energy Assessment and Monitoring
           of Telecommunication Cooling Systems
    • Authors: Sorrentino; M.;Rizzo, G.;Trifiro, A.;Bedogni, F.;
      Pages: 1126 - 1136
      Abstract: A model-based key performance indicator (KPI) is proposed to monitor and suggest useful counteractions, to be undertaken whenever inefficient management of cooling systems is detected. The proposed methodology is applied both at room and central office (CEOF) level over an extended time window. The different modeling approaches required to usefully apply the proposed method to both Telecommunication (TLC) rooms and entire CEOFs are presented and discussed in detail. The results obtained in the former case allowed us to deeply analyze two alternative cooling management strategies for a selected TLC room, particularly addressing what is the most efficient one depending on outside temperature. Furthermore, the simulation-based evaluation of KPI was validated by comparison with experimentally derived estimations. The KPI computed at the CEOF level was proven effective to verify if expectable cooling efficiencies were met. Finally, the proposed KPI metric was discussed in view of its potential deployment to diagnose abnormal energy consumptions, which can be due to faults occurring either in sensors or cooling devices.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Design and Analysis of Novel Control Strategy for Battery and
           Supercapacitor Storage System
    • Authors: Kollimalla; S.K.;Mishra, M.K.;Narasamma, N.L.;
      Pages: 1137 - 1144
      Abstract: In this paper, a simple novel control strategy is designed and analyzed for a hybrid energy storage system (HESS). In the proposed method, batteries are used to balance the slow changing power surges, whereas supercapacitors (SC) are used to balance the fast changing power surges. The main advantage of the proposed control strategy is that, the slow response of battery system including dynamics of battery, controller, and converter operation, is overcome by diverting the power surges to the SC system. The proposed method inherits charge/discharge rate control to improve the life span and reduce the current stresses on battery. The proposed method features less computational burden as it uses simple control strategy. The detailed experimental results presented validate the proposed control strategy for sudden changes in photovoltaic (PV) generation and load demand.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • An Ultracapacitor Integrated Power Conditioner for Intermittency Smoothing
           and Improving Power Quality of Distribution Grid
    • Authors: Somayajula; D.;Crow, M.L.;
      Pages: 1145 - 1155
      Abstract: Penetration of various types of distributed energy resources (DERs) like solar, wind, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) onto the distribution grid is on the rise. There is a corresponding increase in power quality problems and intermittencies on the distribution grid. In order to reduce the intermittencies and improve the power quality of the distribution grid, an ultracapacitor (UCAP) integrated power conditioner is proposed in this paper. UCAP integration gives the power conditioner active power capability, which is useful in tackling the grid intermittencies and in improving the voltage sag and swell compensation. UCAPs have low energy density, high-power density, and fast charge/discharge rates, which are all ideal characteristics for meeting high-power low-energy events like grid intermittencies, sags/swells. In this paper, UCAP is integrated into dc-link of the power conditioner through a bidirectional dc-dc converter that helps in providing a stiff dc-link voltage. The integration helps in providing active/reactive power support, intermittency smoothing, and sag/swell compensation. Design and control of both the dc-ac inverters and the dc-dc converter are discussed. The simulation model of the overall system is developed and compared with the experimental hardware setup.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • A Control Strategy for Power Regulation in a Direct-Drive WECS With
           Flexible Drive-Train
    • Authors: Alizadeh; O.;Yazdani, A.;
      Pages: 1156 - 1165
      Abstract: The ever-increasing penetration of wind power into the electric power systems indicates the need that wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) should be able to regulate their output real power, since their participation in power-flow control is expected to be essential for power systems stability. On the other hand, the tendency to build larger WECSs at competitive costs encourages lighter and, consequently, more flexible drive-trains. However, a softer drive-train may give rise to undamped drive-train oscillations when the WECS exercises output power regulation. This paper proposes an enhanced control strategy that enables a direct-drive WECS based on the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) to damp its drive-train torsional mode, even if the output real power of the WECS is regulated. A procedure is presented for tuning of the proposed control to ensure the internal stability of the WECS, considering the impacts of the proposed control on the dynamic performance of the host WECS.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Optimal Demand-Side Management and Power Generation Scheduling in an
           All-Electric Ship
    • Authors: Kanellos; F.D.;Tsekouras, G.J.;Hatziargyriou, N.D.;
      Pages: 1166 - 1175
      Abstract: The worldwide effort for the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly ships has led to the development of new concepts. Extensive electrification is a very promising technology for this purpose. Together with optimal power management can lead to a substantial improvement in ship efficiency ensuring, at the same time, compliance with the environmental constraints and enhancing ship sustainability. In this paper, a method for optimal demand-side management and power generation scheduling is proposed. Demand-side management is based on the adjustment of the power consumed by ship electric propulsion motors, and no energy storage facility is exploited. Dynamic programming algorithm subjected to ship operation and environmental and travel constraints is used to solve the problem for all-electric ships (AESs). Simulation results prove that the proposed method ensures cost minimization of ship power system operation, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions limitation, and compliance with all technical and operational constraints.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • The Competitiveness of Continuous Monitoring of Residential PV Systems: A
           Model and Insights From the Japanese Market
    • Authors: Mukai; T.;Tomasella, M.;Parlikad, A.K.;Abe, N.;Ueda, Y.;
      Pages: 1176 - 1183
      Abstract: Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems installed worldwide have kept growing in number over the last two decades and represent a predominant component of the PV market in a number of countries including Japan. The status quo in the maintenance of these systems is based on periodic inspections (PIs), with a few PV systems manufacturers and maintenance service providers now starting to offer services based on continuous monitoring (CM). Profitability of CM versus PI has been widely studied in the literature, with respect to conventional power systems as well as wind turbines. No such studies exist on residential PV systems, particularly from the viewpoint of the service provider. Our work addresses this gap. We first develop a stochastic model of a residential PV installation, accounting for its degradation and failures. We then develop a model of the costs and benefits for both the system owner and the maintenance service provider, under both PI and CM. We conclude by analyzing the profitability of the two maintenance schemes using real data from the Japanese market.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • New Modular Structure DC–DC Converter Without Electrolytic
           Capacitors for Renewable Energy Applications
    • Authors: Yihua Hu;Wenping Cao;Finney; S.J.;Weidong Xiao;Fengge Zhang;McLoone, S.F.;
      Pages: 1184 - 1192
      Abstract: Electrolytic capacitors are extensively used in power converters but they are bulky, unreliable, and have short lifetimes. This paper proposes a new capacitor-free high step-up dc-dc converter design for renewable energy applications such as photovoltaics (PVs) and fuel cells. The primary side of the converter includes three interleaved inductors, three main switches, and an active clamp circuit. As a result, the input current ripple is greatly reduced, eliminating the necessity for an input capacitor. In addition, zero voltage switching (ZVS) is achieved during switching transitions for all active switches, so that switching losses can be greatly reduced. Furthermore, a three-phase modular structure and six pulse rectifiers are employed to reduce the output voltage ripple. Since magnetic energy stored in the leakage inductance is recovered, the reverse-recovery issue of the diodes is effectively solved. The proposed converter is justified by simulation and experimental tests on a 1-kW prototype.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Distance Protection of Lines Connected to Induction Generator-Based Wind
           Farms During Balanced Faults
    • Authors: Hooshyar; A.;Azzouz, M.A.;El-Saadany, E.F.;
      Pages: 1193 - 1203
      Abstract: Wind farms (WFs) are increasingly integrated with high-voltage (HV) grids, for which distance relaying is normally the protection of choice. This paper reveals some serious defects of distance protection for the lines connected to induction generator (IG)-based WFs during balanced faults. It is shown that for the squirrel cage IG (SCIG) WFs, distance protection becomes insecure, while for the doubly fed IG (DFIG) WFs, the relay performance is utterly unreliable, due to operating scenarios that are unique to such WFs, and are unfamiliar to the existing relaying practices. The detected failures can easily result in unnecessary WF tripping, thus jeopardizing the objectives pursued by the new grid codes that oblige WFs to remain connected to the grid during disturbances. Moreover, a novel modified permissive overreach transfer trip (POTT) scheme along with a fault current classification technique is proposed to address these problems for both types of IG-based WFs, and the accurate nondelayed protection of a distance relay over the entire line length is restored. A comprehensive performance evaluation confirms the findings of this paper and validates the efficacy of the proposed solution for all operating conditions. Results are particularly promising for the DFIG-based WFs with nonzero crowbar resistance, which is the most likely situation confronted by distance relays.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Stability Analysis of Converter-Connected Battery Energy Storage Systems
           in the Grid
    • Authors: Bazargan; D.;Filizadeh, S.;Gole, A.M.;
      Pages: 1204 - 1212
      Abstract: This paper analyzes the stability of a battery energy storage system (BESS) connected to the grid using a power-electronic interface. It is shown that the internal resistance and internal voltage of the battery affect system stability. Variations in these parameters may occur due to aging and changes in the state-of-charge (SoC). Using average-value modeling, this problem is framed into a nonlinear system formulation and the region of stability as a function of the internal resistance and the internal voltage of the battery is determined. This paper also extends its results in determining the configuration of a battery pack in terms of the number of battery cells in series and parallel to prevent instability while meeting demand power requirements. The findings are useful both in the design and operation stages of large-scale battery storage systems in the grid.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Optimal Incentive Design for Targeted Penetration of Renewable Energy
    • Authors: Das; I.;Bhattacharya, K.;Canizares, C.;
      Pages: 1213 - 1225
      Abstract: Environmental concerns arising from fossil-fuel-based generation have propelled the integration of less-polluting energy sources in the generation portfolio and simultaneously have motivated increased energy conservation programs. In today's deregulated electricity market, most participants [e.g., GENCOs and local distribution companies (LDCs)] focus on maximizing their profits, and thus they need to be incentivized to invest in renewable generation and energy conservation, which are otherwise not profitable ventures. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel holistic generation expansion plan (GEP) model that enables the central planning authority (CPA) to design optimal incentive rates for renewable integration and energy conservation targets, considering the investor interests and constraints. The model also determines the siting, sizing, timing, and technology required to adequately supply the projected demand over the planning horizon. The model is applied to the generation planning of Ontario, Canada, based on realistic data, to determine appropriate incentives for investors in renewable generation and energy conservation by LDCs. The obtained optimal incentives are shown to be similar to the ones currently in place in Ontario, with a slightly shorter payback period for investors. The effect of uncertainties associated with solar and wind energy availability on the GEP model is also examined using Monte Carlo simulations.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • A Set-Membership Affine Projection Algorithm-Based Adaptive-Controlled
           SMES Units for Wind Farms Output Power Smoothing
    • Authors: Hasanien; H.M.;
      Pages: 1226 - 1233
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel adaptive control scheme of the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units with the purpose of smoothing the wind farms' output power. The adaptive control scheme is based on the set-membership affine projection algorithm (SMAPA), which provides a faster convergence and less computational complexity than the normalized least-mean-square algorithm. In this study, two grid-connected fixed-speed wind farms are considered. The control strategy of the SMES units is based on a pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage source converter (VSC) and a dc-dc converter. The VSC and dc-dc converter is used to control the reactive and active power exchange with the power system, respectively. The SMAPA-based adaptive proportional-integral (PI) controllers are utilized to control both converters. For realistic responses, real wind speed data extracted from Hokkaido Island, Japan, and two-mass drive train model of the wind turbine generator system are used in the analyses. Also, a real 10 MVA SMES unit that was installed at a power plant in Kameyama, Japan, is connected to the point of common coupling of the wind farms. The validity of the proposed control scheme is verified by the simulation results, which are performed using PSCAD/EMTDC environment. With the SMAPA-based adaptive-controlled SMES units, the wind farms' output power can be smoothed easily avoiding huge effort for fine tuning the controllers' parameters.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Urban Scale Photovoltaic Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles
    • Authors: Brenna; M.;Dolara, A.;Foiadelli, F.;Leva, S.;Longo, M.;
      Pages: 1234 - 1241
      Abstract: An energy integration between photovoltaic (PV) systems and electric vehicles (EVs) can help to overcome problems related to the feasibility of a more sustainable mobility, most of all in urban context. This paper aims to examine the potential and the technical benefits of using PV systems as energy supplier for charging EVs. For this purpose, an urban scale integrated system is presented through a mathematical model that considers the power flows related to the PV generator, the charging station, and electric grid. The most significant result is the evaluation of the self-consumption in order to optimize the interaction between the PV system and charging station for EVs. This analysis has been conducted for different vehicles typologies and different PV installations, giving rise to more than 9000 different cases and allowing to consider the wideness of the self-consumption range for different months.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • High-Fidelity Dispatch Model of Storage Technologies for Production
           Costing Studies
    • Authors: Das; T.;Krishnan, V.;McCalley, J.D.;
      Pages: 1242 - 1252
      Abstract: This paper presents a high-fidelity storage dispatch model for production costing studies. The model captures the relationship between storage reservoir status and storage's participation in energy as well as ancillary markets in order to effectively dispatch such energy-limited technologies. The paper also delineates features of the proposed model that enable capturing unique characteristics of different classes of storage technologies. Production cost studies are used to ascertain the abilities of the proposed storage model to represent bulk as well as short-term storage technologies in the IEEE 24-bus reliability test system and to analyze the various avenues where each technology typically contributes to grid operation. The significance of the modeling features that attribute high fidelity to the dispatch decisions is discussed in the context of simple economic evaluation of these technologies.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Coordinated Control for an Offshore Wind Power Plant to Provide Fault Ride
           Through Capability
    • Authors: Aragues Penalba; M.;Gomis-Bellmunt, O.;Martins, M.;
      Pages: 1253 - 1261
      Abstract: The operation of ac connected wind power plants equipped with full power converter wind turbines under deep voltage sags on the main ac grid is analyzed. It is identified that standard control schemes, based on the strict application of grid codes, can lead to instability problems when this kind of severe disturbances occurs. A coordinated control scheme is proposed to operate the system, ensuring fault ride through capability. An index alerts of instability proximity and allows to activate active power and reactive power regulation to guarantee safe operation during faults. This paper describes the proposed control approach and demonstrates its performance by means of dynamic simulations with DIgSILENT Power Factory.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Wind Turbine Power Curve Modeling Using Advanced Parametric and
           Nonparametric Methods
    • Authors: Shokrzadeh; S.;Jozani, M.J.;Bibeau, E.;
      Pages: 1262 - 1269
      Abstract: Wind turbine power curve modeling is an important tool in turbine performance monitoring and power forecasting. There are several statistical techniques to fit the empirical power curve of a wind turbine, which can be classified into parametric and nonparametric methods. In this paper, we study four of these methods to estimate the wind turbine power curve. Polynomial regression is studied as the benchmark parametric model, and issues associated with this technique are discussed. We then introduce the locally weighted polynomial regression method, and show its advantages over the polynomial regression. Also, the spline regression method is examined to achieve more flexibility for fitting the power curve. Finally, we develop a penalized spline regression model to address the issues of choosing the number and location of knots in the spline regression. The performance of the presented methods is evaluated using two simulated data sets as well as an actual operational power data of a wind farm in North America.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Using Storage to Minimize Carbon Footprint of Diesel Generators for
           Unreliable Grids
    • Authors: Singla; S.;Ghiassi-Farrokhfal, Y.;Keshav, S.;
      Pages: 1270 - 1277
      Abstract: Although modern society is critically reliant on power grids, modern power grids are subject to unavoidable outages. The situation in developing countries is even worse, with frequent load shedding lasting several hours a day due to a large power supply-demand gap. A common solution for residences is, therefore, to back up grid power with local generation from a diesel generator (genset). To reduce carbon emissions, a hybrid battery-genset is preferable to a genset-only system. Designing such a hybrid system is complicated by the tradeoff between cost and carbon emission. Toward the analysis of such a hybrid system, we first compute the minimum battery size required for eliminating the use of a genset, while guaranteeing a target loss of power probability for an unreliable grid. We then compute the minimum required battery for a given genset and a target-allowable carbon footprint. Drawing on recent results, we model both problems as buffer sizing problems that can be addressed using stochastic network calculus. Specifically, a numerical study shows that, for a neighborhood of 100 homes, we are able to estimate the storage required for both the problems with a fairly small margin of error compared to the empirically computed optimal value.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Reliability Modeling of Run-of-the-River Power Plants in Power System
           Adequacy Studies
    • Authors: Khalilzadeh; E.;Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.;Aminifar, F.;Ghaedi, A.;
      Pages: 1278 - 1286
      Abstract: Deployment of renewable energies for the electricity generation is on the rise around the world, among which is the run-of-the-river (ROR) power plant whose output power is variable throughout the year depending on the water flow of the respective river. The inherent uncertainty associated with renewable energy resources calls for new stochastic modeling approaches to measure the impacts of using these energies on the power system performance. This paper develops an analytical reliability model for ROR power plants. The model is based on the state-space analysis and is devised with the intention of being used in adequacy studies of power systems. Failure of related components and the intermittent nature of water flow are concurrently accommodated in the proposed model. The well-known technique of fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to find the optimal states of the resultant multistate reliability model. Two reliability test systems, i.e., Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and IEEE Reliability Test System (IEEE-RTS), are examined to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reliability model. The water-flow data of Sheshpir River in Pars province of Iran are used.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Evaluating Charging Service Reliability for Plug-In EVs From the
           Distribution Network Aspect
    • Authors: Lin Cheng;Yao Chang;Qiang Wu;Weixuan Lin;Singh; C.;
      Pages: 1287 - 1296
      Abstract: The demands for reducing city pollutant emissions and for reducing fossil fuel consumption have stimulated the development of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs). From the perspective of distribution systems, evaluating the reliability of their charging services for EVs should be essential because reliable charging services would help to encourage the use of EVs and accelerate their deployment. However, the existing literature does not fully explore the fact that the charging processes of EVs can be considered interruptible. Modeling the charging demands as interruptible loads, this paper proposes a systematic charging service reliability evaluation algorithm for distribution systems. First, novel indices specialized for describing the reliability of charging services are proposed. Then, a method for extracting EV integration patterns is proposed. The method features the capability of describing the geographical dispersion of EV integrations, enabling careful inspection of the reliability at each load point in a distribution system. Third, the algorithm considers how charging profiles under uncoordinated and coordinated charging strategies will be affected by electric supply interruptions, as charging strategies would have an effect on the reliability. Finally, a case study is carried out on an existing distribution system in Guizhou Province, China, providing a reference for the planning and operations of distribution systems.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Performance Evaluation of Three-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic
           Inverters Using Electrolytic or Polypropylene Film Capacitors
    • Authors: Karanayil; B.;Agelidis, V.G.;Pou, J.;
      Pages: 1297 - 1306
      Abstract: In grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power stations, improving the life expectancy and long-term reliability of three-phase PV inverters is urgently needed to match the significantly higher lifetime of the PV modules. A key contribution toward such improvement is replacing the conventional electrolytic film capacitors by metallized polypropylene film ones. This paper presents a detailed evaluation of a conventional three-phase grid-connected PV inverter performance when replacing the electrolytic capacitor with a minimum value of metallized polypropylene film capacitor. Although the minimum dc bus capacitance leads to higher voltage ripples, such ripples were found to be within acceptable limits to operate the inverter satisfactorily. Simulation and experimental results are presented for a 5-kW grid-connected inverter prototype with a nominal dc voltage of 457 V to confirm the theoretical considerations.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Table of Contents
    • Pages: 1307 - 1308
      Abstract: Presents the table of contents for this issue of the periodical.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Guest Editorial Special Section on Microgrids for Sustainable
           Energy Systems
    • Authors: Hatziargyriou; N.;
      Pages: 1309 - 1309
      Abstract: The benefits of the integration of distributed energy resources (DER), i.e., distributed generators (DGs), storage devices, and flexible loads in the operation and planning of energy systems are currently widely recognized. The operation of microgrids as controlled entities offers the possibility of coordinating DER, so that they behave as a single producer or load to the upstream network, and they can provide the full DER advantages in a consistent, manageable way. The special section contains 15 papers that were selected from the 85 papers submitted. Four of the papers consider microgrids implementation in the context of rural electrification, industrial complexes, and commercial buildings. Two of the papers report the experience of two real-world microgrids, including performance in the wake of Hurricane Sandy and on control issues of a standalone, island microgrid. A related paper deals with the characterization of a prototype system for military applications. Management and control is the key feature of microgrids. Seven papers describe microgrid energy management systems, including specialized applications like remote telecommunication station supplies, coordinated charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and distribution system reconfiguration. Both centralized and decentralized coordination techniques of DER within microgrids are applied. A final paper presents a microgrids design approach considering the variability of photovoltaic (PV) systems.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Smart Microgrids as a Solution for Rural Electrification: Ensuring
           Long-Term Sustainability Through Cadastre and Business Models
    • Authors: Ubilla; K.;Jimenez-Estevez, G.A.;Hernadez, R.;Reyes-Chamorro, L.;Hernandez Irigoyen, C.;Severino, B.;Palma-Behnke, R.;
      Pages: 1310 - 1318
      Abstract: The provision of energy at the local level by using renewable and local resources is increasingly acknowledged as a techno-economic solution for rural electrification. This work describes an approach for implementing microgrid projects at the institutional level by means of a specific entity that uses methods that engage the community in microgrid operation and maintenance (O&M), which ensures long-run benefits. The first step, related to macro-level barriers, is addressed by building a complete cadastre of isolated communities, while the second, at the micro level, focuses on business models for covering investment and O&M costs. A cadastre uncovers the key characteristics of each location (energy resources, availability, socio-economic conditions, environment, etc.). A cadastre also helps identify local needs, develop monitoring strategies, and determine benchmarks among microgrids. Its information also assists with proposing new projects, securing funding, and monitoring actual microgrids. At the micro level, local stakeholders, economic capabilities, social capital, and organizational structures are identified, which contribute to the selection of a tailored business model that can enable fundraising and O&M activities. The approach is presented in a four-stage framework: 1) background data collection; 2) community profile building; 3) system design; and 4) detailed engineering. Each community is evaluated by a prioritization index that considers the electrical conditions of each residence.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Experimental Demonstration of a Tiered Power Management System for
           Economic Operation of Grid-Tied Microgrids
    • Authors: Hooshmand; A.;Asghari, B.;Sharma, R.K.;
      Pages: 1319 - 1327
      Abstract: Power management of grid-tied microgrids including distributed generations (DGs) and storage devices can be challenging due to the intermittent and uncontrollable nature of many types of DGs, load variations in time, different grid power tariffs, availability of different options to balance the electric supply and demand, and other parameters. In order to operate a microgrid efficiently, the management system should accomplish two tasks. 1) It needs to be adaptive and optimize the microgrid's performance by defining long-term (daily-based) directives or control strategies. 2) The management system should be able to operate and control the microgrid in real time and satisfy all operational constraints. To address the above-mentioned tasks, a comprehensive power management system that includes two control layers is developed in this paper. Concept for the proposed power management policy was demonstrated on an experimental microgrid system composed of lead-acid batteries, photovoltaic (PV) system, 3-kW peak load, and a utility connection.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Economic Analysis and Optimal Design on Microgrids With SS-PVs for
    • Authors: Meiqin Mao;Peng Jin;Liuchen Chang;Haibo Xu;
      Pages: 1328 - 1336
      Abstract: This paper proposes an optimal design model of microgrids with small-scale photovoltaic systems (SS-PVs) and storage batteries for industries along with three economic evaluation indicators. The proposed indicators are levelized energy cost, emission reduction benefits, and payback period. They are combined to comprehensively evaluate economic performances and investment risk of the microgrids. The optimal model considering local solar insolation level, environment benefits, different operation modes, and initial investment costs is formulated and applied to obtain the optimal configuration of the microgrids with SS-PVs by particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. The simulation results based on 4-month real operation data of a 500-kW PV microgrid for industries in Guangdong, China, have verified that the optimal design by the proposed method can meet the technical requirements as well as the economic performances, thus effectively optimizing the microgrid with SS-PVs for industries in both economic and environmental aspects. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of the impact of different parameters on the system is also performed. The results provide a reference for the application of similar projects.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Microgrids of Commercial Buildings: Strategies to Manage Mode Transfer
           From Grid Connected to Islanded Mode
    • Authors: Meegahapola; L.G.;Robinson, D.;Agalgaonkar, A.P.;Perera, S.;Ciufo, P.;
      Pages: 1337 - 1347
      Abstract: Microgrid systems located within commercial premises are becoming increasingly popular and their dynamic behavior is still uncharted territory in modern power networks. Improved understanding in design and operation is required for the electricity utility and building services design sectors. This paper evaluates the design requirements for a commercial building microgrid system to facilitate seamless mode transition considering an actual commercial building microgrid system. A dynamic simulation model of the proposed microgrid system is established (utilizing DIgSILENT Power Factory) to aid the development of planning and operational philosophy for the practical system. An economic operational criterion is developed for the microgrid to incorporate selective mode transition in different time intervals and demand scenarios. In addition, a multi-droop control strategy has been developed to mitigate voltage and frequency variations during mode transition. Different system conditions considering variability in load and generation are analyzed to examine the responses of associated microgrid network parameters (i.e., voltage and frequency) with the proposed mode transition strategy during planned and unplanned islanding conditions. It has been demonstrated that despite having a rigorous mode transition strategy, control of certain loads such as direct online (DOL) and variable-speed-drive (VSD) driven motor loads is vital for ensuring seamless mode-transition, in particular for unplanned islanding conditions.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Polygeneration Energy Container: Designing and Testing Energy Services for
           Remote Developing Communities
    • Authors: Paleta; R.;Pina, A.;Santos Silva, C.A.;
      Pages: 1348 - 1355
      Abstract: Nearly one and a half billion people in the world do not have access to electricity, and even when energy resources are available, millions of people are unable to pay for them. As so, the access to modern affordable and renewable-based energy services in developing countries is essential to achieve a sustainable development by reducing poverty and improving the living conditions (health, security, etc.). In this paper, we analyze how rural electrification efforts can benefit from the implementation of microgrid systems. Following a systematic methodology, we estimate a demand that can evolve through time and design a system that copes with the demand increase. Then, we test the operation of such a facility using a pilot installation, the polygeneration energy container (PEC), an experimental setup that mimics the deployment of a hybrid microgrid system. The development of the experiment has allowed us to test design issues and solve operation and maintenance challenges associated with autonomous electricity production systems. The results demonstrated that it is possible to design systems that are robust and flexible to operate under different conditions.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Real-World Performance of a CERTS Microgrid in Manhattan
    • Authors: Panora; R.;Gehret, J.E.;Furse, M.M.;Lasseter, R.H.;
      Pages: 1356 - 1360
      Abstract: The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) microgrid technology enabled the Brevoort, a 1950's era luxury co-op tower in Greenwich Village, NY, USA, to maintain power, water, and heat during the week of wide spread utility outages left in the wake of Hurricane Sandy in late 2012. The microgrid system, anchored by four 100-kW hybrid combined heat and power (CHP), uniquely able to seamlessly transition between grid tie and island-mode operation, powered the entire building including the central boilers, domestic water pumps, elevators, and all apartments, while most buildings in the lower third of Manhattan were without power, heat, and, in many cases, water. The Brevoort co-op board was elected to convert the 20-story building from oil heat to the natural gas CHP system as part of an energy-efficiency green initiative that was fully implemented in 2010. In New York City, these hybrid cogeneration systems can operate in parallel with Con Edison utilities during periods of regularly available power. During a power grid failure, the units, with their permanent magnet generators and inverters with built-in CERTS microgrid technology, will autonomously transition to island mode and continue powering the residences.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Faroe Islands Wind-Powered Space Heating Microgrid Using Self-Excited
           220-kW Induction Generator
    • Authors: Thomsen; B.;Guerrero, J.M.;Thogersen, P.B.;
      Pages: 1361 - 1366
      Abstract: Energy is fundamental to modern society. Increase in the price of oil as well as environmental concerns have spurred the use of alternative renewable energy sources. In the Faroe Islands, the readily available wind energy is an obvious source for space heating. Seasonal correlation exists between wind energy and required space heating and mismatches can be reduced by using simple water tanks as heat storages. A traditional Danish induction generator wind turbine has been erected on the island of Nólsoy to produce energy for space heating. The system is designed as a stand-alone microgrid, which needs its own control of frequency and voltage. A microcontroller is used to control frequency by matching load (heaters) to generated power and to produce the correct reactive power and voltage by switched capacitors. One challenge is the start-up procedure at high wind speeds when nominal speed tends to be reached before voltage builds up by the self-excitation process. This paper reports the initial test and adaptation of the control system.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in
           an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility
    • Authors: Dragicevic; T.;Pandzic, H.;Skrlec, D.;Kuzle, I.;Guerrero, J.M.;Kirschen, D.S.;
      Pages: 1367 - 1378
      Abstract: This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported by a central energy storage system (ESS), consisting of a battery and a fuel cell. The optimization is carried out as a robust mixed-integer linear program (RMILP), and results in different optimal solutions, depending on budgets of uncertainty, each of which yields different RES and storage capacities. These solutions are then tested against a set of possible outcomes, thus simulating the future operation of the system. Since battery cycling is inevitable in this application, an algorithm that counts the number of cycles and associated depths of discharges (DoD) is applied to the optimization results. The annual capacity reduction that results from these cycles is calculated for two types of battery technologies, i.e., valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) and lithium-ion (Li-ion), and treated as an additional cost. Finally, all associated costs are added up and the ideal configuration is proposed.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Performance Characterization for Photovoltaic-Vanadium Redox Battery
           Microgrid Systems
    • Authors: Nguyen; T.A.;Xin Qiu;Guggenberger, J.D.;Crow, M.L.;Elmore, A.C.;
      Pages: 1379 - 1388
      Abstract: The integration of photovoltatics (PV) and vanadium redox batteries (VRB) in microgrid systems has proven to be a valuable, environmentally friendly solution for reducing the dependency on conventional fossil fuel and decreasing emissions. The integrated microgrid system must be characterized to develop appropriate charging strategies specifically for VRBs, sizing microgrid systems to meet a given load, or comparing the VRB to other energy storage technologies in different applications. This paper provides a performance characterization analysis in a PV-VRB microgrid system for military installations under different conditions of load and weather. This microgrid system is currently deployed at the Fort Leonard Wood army base in Missouri, USA.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Electric Vehicle Charging in an Office Building Microgrid With Distributed
           Energy Resources
    • Authors: Van Roy; J.;Leemput, N.;Geth, F.;Buscher, J.;Salenbien, R.;Driesen, J.;
      Pages: 1389 - 1396
      Abstract: This paper discusses the charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in an existing office building microgrid equipped with a photovoltaic (PV) system and a combined heat and power (CHP) unit. Different charging strategies and charging power ratings for workplace charging are examined for their grid impact and their impact on the self-consumption of the locally generated electricity. The grid impact can be significantly reduced by using strategies that require limited future knowledge of the EV mobility behavior and limited communication infrastructure. These strategies allow a high number of EVs to be charged at an office building, even with a limited number of charging spots, due to the large standstill times.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Emission Reduction and Economical Optimization of an Urban Microgrid
           Operation Including Dispatched PV-Based Active Generators
    • Authors: Kanchev; H.;Colas, F.;Lazarov, V.;Francois, B.;
      Pages: 1397 - 1405
      Abstract: In order to take full advantage of distributed generators, an evolution of the classical power system organization and management is also necessary. An aggregator of a residential urban electrical network can be considered by the distribution system operator as a stakeholder, which is able to control a cluster of local generators and loads with technical constraints for the connection with the remaining distribution grid and commercial contracts with outer electrical producers. This paper is focused on the design of the microgrid central energy management system which relies on a day-ahead operational planning and an online adjustment procedure during the operation. A dynamic programming-based algorithm is derived to solve the unit commitment problem with a multiobjective function in order to reduce the economic cost and CO2 equivalent emissions. The proposed energy management system is implemented into a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and tested by using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation of the urban network. Economic and environmental gains are evaluated.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Decentralized Coordination of Microgrids With Flexible Demand and Energy
    • Authors: Papadaskalopoulos; D.;Pudjianto, D.;Strbac, G.;
      Pages: 1406 - 1414
      Abstract: Scalability and privacy concerns have created significant interest in decentralized coordination of distributed energy resources (DERs) within microgrids. Previously proposed approaches, however, fail to achieve feasible solutions under flexible demand (FD) and energy storage (ES) participation. After justifying and demonstrating this challenge, this paper develops a novel Lagrangian relaxation-based mechanism achieving feasible, near-optimal solutions in a decentralized fashion, considering both active and reactive power. A two-level iterative algorithm eliminates the infeasibility effect of FD and ES nonstrict convexities, and prevents the creation of new demand peaks and troughs by the concentration of their response at the same low- and high-priced periods. Tradeoffs associated with the design and operation of the mechanism are analyzed, and the value of additional information submission by the DER, in enabling the quantification of an optimality bound of the determined solutions and significant improvements in communication requirements, is assessed. These contributions are supported by case studies on an LV microgrid test system.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Risk-Constrained Microgrid Reconfiguration Using Group Sparsity
    • Authors: Dall'Anese; E.;Giannakis, G.B.;
      Pages: 1415 - 1425
      Abstract: The system reconfiguration task is considered for existing power distribution systems and microgrids, in the presence of renewable-based generation and load foresting errors. The system topology is obtained by solving a chance-constrained optimization problem, where loss-of-load (LOL) constraints and ampacity limits of the distribution lines are enforced. Similar to various distribution system reconfiguration renditions, solving the resultant problem is computationally prohibitive due to the presence of binary line selection variables. Further, lack of closed-form expressions for the joint probability distribution of forecasting errors hinders tractability of LOL constraints. Nevertheless, a convex problem reformulation is developed here by resorting to a scenario approximation technique, and by leveraging the underlying group-sparsity attribute of currents flowing on distribution lines equipped with tie and sectionalizing switches. The novel convex LOL-constrained reconfiguration scheme can also afford a distributed solution using the alternating direction method of multipliers, to address the case where multifacilities are managed autonomously from the rest of the system.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Testing of a Predictive Control Strategy for Balancing Renewable Sources
           in a Microgrid
    • Authors: Marinelli; M.;Sossan, F.;Costanzo, G.T.;Bindner, H.W.;
      Pages: 1426 - 1433
      Abstract: This paper presents the design of a control strategy for the energy management of a grid-connected microgrid with local distributed energy resources as: 10-kW photovoltaic plant, 11-kW wind turbine, and 15-kW-190-kWh vanadium-based electric storage system. According to future regulations, the renewable energy producers will also have to provide a day-ahead hourly production plan. The overall idea is, by knowing the meteorological forecasts for the next 24 h, to dispatch the microgrid in order to be able to grant the scheduled hourly production by means of proper management of the storage system. The usage of the storage system is, however, minimized by the energy management strategy. The system design is validated by experimental testing carried out in SYSLAB, a distributed power system test facility at Riso Campus, Technical University of Denmark.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Predicting Variability of High-Penetration Photovoltaic Systems in a
           Community Microgrid by Analyzing High-Temporal Rate Data
    • Authors: Shadmand; M.B.;Balog, R.S.;Johnson, M.D.;
      Pages: 1434 - 1442
      Abstract: Interest in renewable energy sources continues to gain popularity. However, a major fundamental limitation exists that prevents widespread adoption: variability of electricity generated. Distributed generation (DG) grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems with centralized battery back-up can mitigate the variability of PV systems and be optimized to reduce cost by analyzing high-temporal rate data. Thus, it is an attractive system to meet “go green” mandates, while also providing reliable electricity. The focus of this paper is to analyze the variability of a high-penetration PV scenario when incorporated into the microgrid concept. The proposed system design approach is based on high-temporal rate instead of the more commonly used hourly data rate. The methodology presented in this paper employs a technoeconomic approach to determine the optimal system design to guarantee reliable electricity supply with lowest investment. The proposed methodology is used to demonstrate that the variability of the PV resource can be quantified by determining the number of PV arrays and their corresponding distance in the microgrid and then mitigate with optimized storage.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Open Access
    • Pages: 1443 - 1443
      Abstract: Advertisement: This publication offers open access options for authors. IEEE open access publishing.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • Together, we are advancing technology
    • Pages: 1444 - 1444
      Abstract: Advertisement: Now over three million documents in IEEE Xplore. Thank you for your authorship.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
  • 2014 Index IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy Vol. 5
    • Pages: 1445 - 1469
      Abstract: This index covers all technical items - papers, correspondence, reviews, etc. - that appeared in this periodical during the year, and items from previous years that were commented upon or corrected in this year. Departments and other items may also be covered if they have been judged to have archival value. The Author Index contains the primary entry for each item, listed under the first author's name. The primary entry includes the co-authors' names, the title of the paper or other item, and its location, specified by the publication abbreviation, year, month, and inclusive pagination. The Subject Index contains entries describing the item under all appropriate subject headings, plus the first author's name, the publication abbreviation, month, and year, and inclusive pages. Note that the item title is found only under the primary entry in the Author Index.
      PubDate: Oct. 2014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2014)
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