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  Subjects -> EDUCATION (Total: 1751 journals)
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EDUCATION (1463 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 857 Journals sorted alphabetically
#Tear : Revista de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
(Pensamiento), (palabra) y obra     Open Access  
@tic. revista d'innovació educativa     Open Access  
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Academy of Educational Leadership Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Academy of Management Learning and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Accounting Education: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Across the Disciplines     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Didactica Norge     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Education     Open Access  
Acta Technologica Dubnicae     Open Access  
Action in Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Action Learning: Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 298)
Actualidades Pedagógicas     Open Access  
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 155)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149)
Advanced Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in School Mental Health Promotion     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Africa Education Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 24)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AGORA Magazine     Open Access  
Ahmad Dahlan Journal of English Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Education and Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Akadémiai Értesítö     Full-text available via subscription  
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Jabar : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
Alexandria : Revista de Educação em Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access  
Alsic     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Alteridad     Open Access  
Amasya Universitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
American Annals of the Deaf     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Educational Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Distance Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 170)
American Journal of Educational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Modern Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Apertura. Revista de innovación educativa‏     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Measurement in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Arabia     Open Access  
Art Design & Communication in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arts Education Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asia Pacific Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Asian Association of Open Universities Journal     Open Access  
Asian Education and Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of English Language Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ASp     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Assessing Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
At-Ta'dib Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
At-Turats     Open Access  
Athenea Digital     Open Access  
Aula Abierta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Educational Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Australasian Journal of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Australian Art Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Educational Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Australian Journal of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australian Journal of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 406)
Australian Journal of Teacher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Screen Education Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Universities' Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Azalea: Journal of Korean Literature & Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BELIA : Early Childhood Education Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BELT - Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biblioteca Escolar em Revista     Open Access  
Biblioteka i Edukacja     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bildung und Erziehung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Biosaintifika : Journal of Biology & Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biosfer : Jurnal Biologi dan Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
British Educational Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
British Journal of Educational Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145)
British Journal of Educational Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
British Journal of Religious Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
British Journal of Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
British Journal of Special Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de Física     Open Access  
Caderno Intersabares     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Educação     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Tecnologia e Sociedade     Open Access  
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access  
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos de Pesquisa em Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadmo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cahiers de la recherche sur l'éducation et les savoirs     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Campus Legal Advisor     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Campus Security Report     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian and International Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education/ Revue canadienne des jeunes chercheures et chercheurs en éducation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Journal of Education : Revue canadienne de l'éducation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Journal of Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology / La revue canadienne de l’apprentissage et de la technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Journal of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalejos. Revista sobre lectura, formación de lectores y literatura para niños     Open Access  
Catharsis : Journal of Arts Education     Open Access  
CELE Exchange, Centre for Effective Learning Environments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Changing English: Studies in Culture and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Charrette     Open Access  
Chemical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chi'e : Journal of Japanese Learning and Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Child Psychiatry & Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Childhood Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Children's Literature in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Education & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Christian Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Christian Perspectives in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Classroom Discourse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clio y Asociados     Open Access  
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
College Teaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Colóquio Internacional de Educação e Seminário de Estratégias e Ações Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communication Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Communication Methods and Measures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Community College Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Community Literacy Journal     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Comparative Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Comparative Education Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Comparative Professional Pedagogy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Compare: A journal of comparative education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Compass : Journal of Learning and Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Health Sciences Education
  [SJR: 1.397]   [H-I: 42]   [22 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-1677 - ISSN (Online) 1382-4996
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Generalization and the qualitative–quantitative debate
    • Authors: Geoff Norman
      Pages: 1051 - 1055
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9799-5
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Successfully sustaining sex and gender issues in undergraduate medical
           education: a case study
    • Authors: Francisca van der Meulen; Cornelia Fluit; Mieke Albers; Roland Laan; Antoine Lagro-Janssen
      Pages: 1057 - 1070
      Abstract: Although several projects have addressed the importance of gender health issues in medical education, the sustainability of change efforts in medical education has rarely been addressed. Understanding the possible facilitators or barriers to sustainability may help to develop future interventions that are effective in maintaining gender health issues as a topic in medical curricula. The aim of this study is to provide a longitudinal evaluation of changes regarding gender health issues that occurred in the past decade and the factors that influenced this process. The coursebooks of eight theoretical courses of the Nijmegen medical curriculum were screened on the basis of criteria for an integrated gender perspective in medical education. To assess the sustainability of gender health issues, the screening results from 2014 were compared with those of a similar project in 2005. In addition, open interviews were conducted with eight coordinators to identify facilitators and barriers influencing the sustainability of gender health issues. Analysis showed that, over the past decade, the implementation of gender health issues was mainly sustained and additional changes were made, resulting in an ongoing gender perspective in the Nijmegen medical curriculum. The coordinators mentioned several factors that influenced the sustainability of implementation in medical education: coordinators’ and teachers’ gender-sensitive attitude, competing demands, the presence of sex and gender in learning objectives, examinations and evaluation, organizational support and curriculum revisions. Our findings suggest that, in implementing sex and gender in medical education, medical faculties need to focus on top-down support in incorporating sex and gender into core objectives and time spent on incorporating sex and gender into medicine, and on the continuous training of teaching staff.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9742-1
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Examining the effect of self-explanation on cognitive integration of basic
           and clinical sciences in novices
    • Authors: Kristina Lisk; Anne M. R. Agur; Nicole N. Woods
      Pages: 1071 - 1083
      Abstract: Several studies have shown that cognitive integration of basic and clinical sciences supports diagnostic reasoning in novices; however, there has been limited exploration of the ways in which educators can translate this model of mental activity into sound instructional strategies. The use of self-explanation during learning has the potential to promote and support the development of integrated knowledge by encouraging novices to elaborate on the causal relationship between clinical features and basic science mechanisms. To explore the effect of this strategy, we compared diagnostic efficacy of teaching students (n = 71) the clinical features of four musculoskeletal pathologies using either (1) integrated causal basic science descriptions (BaSci group); (2) integrated causal basic science descriptions combined with self-explanation prompts (SE group); (3) basic science mechanisms segregated from the clinical features (SG group). All participants completed a diagnostic accuracy test immediately after learning and 1-week later. The results showed that the BaSci group performed significantly better compared to the SE (p = 0.019) and SG groups (p = 0.004); however, no difference was observed between the SE and SG groups (p = 0.91). We hypothesize that the structure of the self-explanation task may not have supported the development of a holistic conceptual understanding of each disease. These findings suggest that integration strategies need to be carefully structured and applied in ways that support the holistic story created by integrated basic science instruction in order to foster conceptual coherence and to capitalize on the benefits of cognition integration.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9743-0
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Pulling together and pulling apart: influences of convergence and
           divergence on distributed healthcare teams
    • Authors: L. Lingard; For the Heart Failure/Palliative Care Teamwork Research Group; C. Sue-Chue-Lam; G. R. Tait; J. Bates; J. Shadd; V. Schulz
      Pages: 1085 - 1099
      Abstract: Effective healthcare requires both competent individuals and competent teams. With this recognition, health professions education is grappling with how to factor team competence into training and assessment strategies. These efforts are impeded, however, by the absence of a sophisticated understanding of the the relationship between competent individuals and competent teams . Using data from a constructivist grounded theory study of team-based healthcare for patients with advanced heart failure, this paper explores the relationship between individual team members’ perceived goals, understandings, values and routines and the collective competence of the team. Individual interviews with index patients and their healthcare team members formed Team Sampling Units (TSUs). Thirty-seven TSUs consisting of 183 interviews were iteratively analysed for patterns of convergence and divergence in an inductive process informed by complex adaptive systems theory. Convergence and divergence were identifiable on all teams, regularly co-occurred on the same team, and involved recurring themes. Convergence and divergence had nonlinear relationships to the team’s collective functioning. Convergence could foster either shared action or collective paralysis; divergence could foster problematic incoherence or productive disruption. These findings advance our understanding of the complex relationship between the individual and the collective on a healthcare team, and they challenge conventional narratives of healthcare teamwork which derive largely from acute care settings and emphasize the importance of common goals and shared mental models. Complex adaptive systems theory helps us to understand the implications of these insights for healthcare teams’ delivery of care for the complex, chronically ill.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9741-2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Using video-reflexive ethnography to capture the complexity of leadership
           enactment in the healthcare workplace
    • Authors: Lisi Gordon; Charlotte Rees; Jean Ker; Jennifer Cleland
      Pages: 1101 - 1121
      Abstract: Current theoretical thinking asserts that leadership should be distributed across many levels of healthcare organisations to improve the patient experience and staff morale. However, much healthcare leadership education focusses on the training and competence of individuals and little attention is paid to the interprofessional workplace and how its inherent complexities might contribute to the emergence of leadership. Underpinned by complexity theory, this research aimed to explore how interprofessional healthcare teams enact leadership at a micro-level through influential acts of organising. A whole (interprofessional) team workplace-based study utilising video-reflexive ethnography occurred in two UK clinical sites. Thematic framework analyses of the video data (video-observation and video-reflexivity sessions) were undertaken, followed by in-depth analyses of human–human and human–material interactions. Data analysis revealed a complex interprofessional environment where leadership is a dynamic process, negotiated and renegotiated in various ways throughout interactions (both formal and informal). Being able to “see” themselves at work gave participants the opportunity to discuss and analyse their everyday leadership practices and challenge some of their sometimes deeply entrenched values, beliefs, practices and assumptions about healthcare leadership. These study findings therefore indicate a need to redefine the way that medical and healthcare educators facilitate leadership development and argue for new approaches to research which shifts the focus from leaders to leadership.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9744-z
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Misalignments of purpose and power in an early Canadian interprofessional
           education initiative
    • Authors: Sarah Whyte; Elise Paradis; Carrie Cartmill; Ayelet Kuper; Heather Boon; Corinne Hart; Saleem Razack; Mandy Pipher; Cynthia R. Whitehead
      Pages: 1123 - 1149
      Abstract: Interprofessional education (IPE) has been widely incorporated into health professional curricula and accreditation standards despite an arguably thin base of evidence regarding its clinical effects, theoretical underpinnings, and social implications. To better understand how and why IPE first took root, but failed to grow, this study examines one of the earliest documented IPE initiatives, which took place at the University of British Columbia between 1960 and 1975. We examined a subset of 110 texts (academic literature, grey literature, and unpublished records) from a larger study that uses Critical Discourse Analysis to trace the emergence of IPE in Canada. We asked how IPE was promoted and received, by whom, for what purposes, and to what effects. Our analysis demonstrates that IPE was promoted as a response to local challenges for the Faculty of Medicine as well as national challenges for Canada’s emerging public healthcare system. These dual exigencies enabled the IPE initiative, but they shaped it in somewhat divergent ways: the former gave rise to its core component (a health sciences centre) and the latter its ultimate purpose (increasing the role of non-medical professions in primary care). Reception of the initiative was complicated by a further tension: nurses and allied health professionals were sometimes represented as independent experts with unique knowledge and skills, and sometimes as assistants or substitutes for medical doctors. We relate the successes and frustrations of this early initiative to particular (mis)alignments of purpose and relationships of power, some of which continue to enable and constrain IPE today.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9746-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Effectiveness of various innovative learning methods in health science
           classrooms: a meta-analysis
    • Authors: Sema A. Kalaian; Rafa M. Kasim
      Pages: 1151 - 1167
      Abstract: This study reports the results of a meta-analysis of the available literature on the effectiveness of various forms of innovative small-group learning methods on student achievement in undergraduate college health science classrooms. The results of the analysis revealed that most of the primary studies supported the effectiveness of the small-group learning methods in improving students’ academic achievement with an overall weighted average effect-size of 0.59 in standard deviation units favoring small-group learning methods. The subgroup analysis showed that the various forms of innovative and reform-based small-group learning interventions appeared to be significantly more effective for students in higher levels of college classes (sophomore, junior, and senior levels), students in other countries (non-U.S.) worldwide, students in groups of four or less, and students who choose their own group. The random-effects meta-regression results revealed that the effect sizes were influenced significantly by the instructional duration of the primary studies. This means that studies with longer hours of instruction yielded higher effect sizes and on average every 1 h increase in instruction, the predicted increase in effect size was 0.009 standard deviation units, which is considered as a small effect. These results may help health science and nursing educators by providing guidance in identifying the conditions under which various forms of innovative small-group learning pedagogies are collectively more effective than the traditional lecture-based teaching instruction.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9753-6
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • A practical approach to programmatic assessment design
    • Authors: A. A. Timmerman; J. Dijkstra
      Pages: 1169 - 1182
      Abstract: Assessment of complex tasks integrating several competencies calls for a programmatic design approach. As single instruments do not provide the information required to reach a robust judgment of integral performance, 73 guidelines for programmatic assessment design were developed. When simultaneously applying these interrelated guidelines, it is challenging to keep a clear overview of all assessment activities. The goal of this study was to provide practical support for applying a programmatic approach to assessment design, not bound to any specific educational paradigm. The guidelines were first applied in a postgraduate medical training setting, and a process analysis was conducted. This resulted in the identification of four steps for programmatic assessment design: evaluation, contextualisation, prioritisation and justification. Firstly, the (re)design process starts with sufficiently detailing the assessment environment and formulating the principal purpose. Key stakeholders with sufficient (assessment) expertise need to be involved in the analysis of strengths and weaknesses and identification of developmental needs. Central governance is essential to balance efforts and stakes with the principal purpose and decide on prioritisation of design decisions and selection of relevant guidelines. Finally, justification of assessment design decisions, quality assurance and external accountability close the loop, to ensure sound underpinning and continuous improvement of the assessment programme.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9756-3
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • The effect of self-explanation of pathophysiological mechanisms of
           diseases on medical students’ diagnostic performance
    • Authors: José Maria Peixoto; Sílvia Mamede; Rosa Malena Delbone de Faria; Alexandre Sampaio Moura; Silvana Maria Elói Santos; Henk G. Schmidt
      Pages: 1183 - 1197
      Abstract: Self-explanation while diagnosing clinical cases fosters medical students’ diagnostic performance. In previous studies on self-explanation, students were free to self-explain any aspect of the case, and mostly clinical knowledge was used. Elaboration on knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases has been largely unexplored in studies of strategies for teaching clinical reasoning. The purpose of this two-phase experiment was to investigate the effect of self-explanation of pathophysiology during practice with clinical cases on students’ diagnostic performance. In the training phase, 39 4th-year medical students were randomly assigned to solve 6 criterion cases (3 of jaundice; 3 of chest pain), either self-explaining the pathophysiological mechanisms of the findings (n = 20) or without self-explaining (n = 19). One-week later, in the assessment phase, all students solved 6 new cases of the same syndromes. A repeated-measures analysis of variance on the mean diagnostic accuracy scores showed no significant main effects of study phase (p = 0.34) and experimental condition (p = 0.10) and no interaction effect (p = 0.42). A post hoc analysis found a significant interaction (p = 0.022) between study phase and syndrome type. Despite equal familiarity with jaundice and chest pain, the performance of the self-explanation group (but not of the non-self-explanation group) on jaundice cases significantly improved between training and assessment phases (p = 0.035) whereas no differences between phases emerged on chest pain cases. Self-explanation of pathophysiology did not improve students’ diagnostic performance for all diseases. Apparently, the positive effect of this form of self-explanation on performance depends on the studied diseases sharing similar pathophysiological mechanisms, such as in the jaundice cases.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9757-2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Erratum to: The effect of self-explanation of pathophysiological
           mechanisms of diseases on medical students’ diagnostic performance
    • Authors: José Maria Peixoto; Sílvia Mamede; Rosa Malena Delbone de Faria; Alexandre Sampaio Moura; Silvana Maria Elói Santos; Henk G. Schmidt
      Pages: 1199 - 1199
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9764-3
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Enhancing technical skill learning through interleaved mixed-model
           observational practice
    • Authors: Arthur Welsher; Lawrence E. M. Grierson
      Pages: 1201 - 1211
      Abstract: A broad foundation of behavioural (Hayes et al. in Exp Brain Res 204(2): 199–206, 2010) and neurophysiological (Kohler et al. in Science 297(5582): 846–848, 2002) evidence has revealed that the acquisition of psychomotor skills, including those germane to clinical practice (Domuracki et al. in Med Educ 49(2): 186–192, 2015), can be facilitated through observational practice. Interestingly, research also reveals that learning via observation is greatest when the learner has the opportunity to view both error-free expert demonstrations and flawed novice demonstrations (Rohbanfard and Proteau in Exp Brain Res 215: 183–197, 2011). In this study, we explored whether the learning that results from the combined viewing of experts and novices is greater when the demonstrations are presented under observation schedules characterized by higher levels of contextual interference. To do so, we engaged participants in an observational learning study of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery pots-and-beans task: a simulated procedure in which performers must move objects under precision constraints in the minimal access surgery environment. Each participant was randomized to one of three groups that engaged in identical physical and mixed-model observational practice of this skill, with the only difference being that one group’s observation was presented in blocked fashion (low interference) while the other two groups’ observations were presented in semi-interleaved (medium interference) and interleaved (high interference) fashions. Total errors and time-to-complete measures taken during physical practice blocks revealed that all three groups improved over the intervention. Further analyses revealed that the low interference group performed better immediately following the physical and observational practice intervention, but that the medium- and high-interference groups were conveyed a performance advantage in a transfer test conducted after a period of retention that challenged participants to perform in the opposite direction. The results are discussed with respect to the classic contextual interference effect (Shea and Morgan in J Exp Psychol 5(2): 179–187, 1979) and with particular relevance to clinical skills education.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9759-0
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Stakeholder perspectives on workplace-based performance assessment:
           towards a better understanding of assessor behaviour
    • Authors: Laury P. J. W. M. de Jonge; Angelique A. Timmerman; Marjan J. B. Govaerts; Jean W. M. Muris; Arno M. M. Muijtjens; Anneke W. M. Kramer; Cees P. M. van der Vleuten
      Pages: 1213 - 1243
      Abstract: Workplace-Based Assessment (WBA) plays a pivotal role in present-day competency-based medical curricula. Validity in WBA mainly depends on how stakeholders (e.g. clinical supervisors and learners) use the assessments—rather than on the intrinsic qualities of instruments and methods. Current research on assessment in clinical contexts seems to imply that variable behaviours during performance assessment of both assessors and learners may well reflect their respective beliefs and perspectives towards WBA. We therefore performed a Q methodological study to explore perspectives underlying stakeholders’ behaviours in WBA in a postgraduate medical training program. Five different perspectives on performance assessment were extracted: Agency, Mutuality, Objectivity, Adaptivity and Accountability. These perspectives reflect both differences and similarities in stakeholder perceptions and preferences regarding the utility of WBA. In comparing and contrasting the various perspectives, we identified two key areas of disagreement, specifically ‘the locus of regulation of learning’ (i.e., self-regulated versus externally regulated learning) and ‘the extent to which assessment should be standardised’ (i.e., tailored versus standardised assessment). Differing perspectives may variously affect stakeholders’ acceptance, use—and, consequently, the effectiveness—of assessment programmes. Continuous interaction between all stakeholders is essential to monitor, adapt and improve assessment practices and to stimulate the development of a shared mental model. Better understanding of underlying stakeholder perspectives could be an important step in bridging the gap between psychometric and socio-constructivist approaches in WBA.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9760-7
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • On the validity of repeated assessments in the UMAT, a high-stakes
           admissions test
    • Authors: David Andrich; Irene Styles; Annette Mercer; Ian B. Puddey
      Pages: 1245 - 1262
      Abstract: The possibility that the validity of assessment is compromised by repeated sittings of highly competitive and high profile selection tests has been documented and is of concern to stake-holders. An illustrative example is the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) used by some medical and dental courses in Australia and New Zealand. The proficiencies of all applicants who sat the UMAT from one to four sittings between 2006 and 2012 were estimated on the same metric using the probabilistic Rasch model. A fit index characterising each profile’s degree of conformity to the model was also calculated. Confirming expectations, mean proficiencies increased with repeated sittings on all three UMAT scales with the greatest difference (which was nevertheless relatively small) between the first two sittings. The fit index showed that the increases in proficiency estimates arose from additional easier items being answered correctly on repeated sittings rather than additional more difficult ones, suggesting that improvements are not on the substantive construct of the variable of assessment but in skills in answering the questions. Although strategies for dealing with the increase in proficiency estimates on repeated sittings could be canvassed, these results suggest that the validity of results on repeated sittings was not compromised. Accordingly, it might be concluded that although particular individuals might improve substantially between sittings, any validity is not likely to be compromised with the possibility that for some applicants, the second sitting might be the most valid.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9761-6
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Developing skilled doctor–patient communication in the workplace: a
    • Authors: Esther Giroldi; Wemke Veldhuijzen; Kristel Geelen; Jean Muris; Frits Bareman; Herman Bueving; Trudy van der Weijden; Cees van der Vleuten
      Pages: 1263 - 1278
      Abstract: To inform the development of recommendations to facilitate learning of skilled doctor–patient communication in the workplace, this qualitative study explores experiences of trainees and supervisors regarding how trainees learn communication and how supervisors support trainees’ learning in the workplace. We conducted a qualitative study in a general practice training setting, triangulating various sources of data to obtain a rich understanding of trainees and supervisors’ experiences: three focus group discussions, five discussions during training sessions and five individual interviews. Thematic network analysis was performed during an iterative process of data collection and analysis. We identified a communication learning cycle consisting of six phases: impactful experience, change in frame of reference, identification of communication strategies, experimentation with strategies, evaluation of strategies and incorporation into personal repertoire. Supervisors supported trainees throughout this process by creating challenges, confronting trainees with their behaviour and helping them reflect on its underlying mechanisms, exploring and demonstrating communication strategies, giving concrete practice assignments, creating safety, exploring the effect of strategies and facilitating repeated practice and reflection. Based on the experiences of trainees and supervisors, we conclude that skilled communication involves the development of a personal communication repertoire from which learners are able to apply strategies that fit the context and their personal style. After further validation of our findings, it may be recommended to give learners concrete examples, opportunities for repeated practise and reflection on personal frames of reference and the effect of strategies, as well as space for authenticity and flexibility. In the workplace, the clinical supervisor is able to facilitate all these essential conditions to support his/her trainee in becoming a skilled communicator.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9765-2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Comparison study of judged clinical skills competence from standard
           setting ratings generated under different administration conditions
    • Authors: William L. Roberts; John Boulet; Jeanne Sandella
      Pages: 1279 - 1292
      Abstract: When the safety of the public is at stake, it is particularly relevant for licensing and credentialing exam agencies to use defensible standard setting methods to categorize candidates into competence categories (e.g., pass/fail). The aim of this study was to gather evidence to support change to the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation standard setting design and administrative process. Twenty-two video recordings of candidates assessed for clinical competence were randomly selected from the 2014–2015 Humanistic domain test score distribution ranging from the highest to lowest quintile of performance. Nineteen panelists convened at the same site to receive training and practice prior to generating judgments of qualified or not qualified performance to each of the twenty videos. At the end of training, one panel remained onsite to complete their judgments and the second panel was released and given 1 week to observe the same twenty videos and complete their judgments offsite. The two one-sided test procedure established equivalence between panel group means at the 0.05 confidence level, controlling for rater errors within each panel group. From a practical cost-effective and administrative resource perspective, results from this study suggest it is possible to diverge from typical panel groups, who are sequestered the entire time onsite, to larger numbers of panelists who can make their judgments offsite with little impact on judged samples of qualified performance. Standard setting designs having panelists train together and then allowing those to provide judgments yields equivalent ratings and, ultimately, similar cut scores.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9766-1
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Clarifying changes in student empathy throughout medical school: a scoping
    • Authors: Alexandra Ferreira-Valente; Joana S. Monteiro; Rita M. Barbosa; Ana Salgueira; Patrício Costa; Manuel J. Costa
      Pages: 1293 - 1313
      Abstract: Despite the increasing awareness of the relevance of empathy in patient care, some findings suggest that medical schools may be contributing to the deterioration of students’ empathy. Therefore, it is important to clarify the magnitude and direction of changes in empathy during medical school. We employed a scoping review to elucidate trends in students’ empathy changes/differences throughout medical school and examine potential bias associated with research design. The literature published in English, Spanish, Portuguese and French from 2009 to 2016 was searched. Two-hundred and nine potentially relevant citations were identified. Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria. Effect sizes of empathy scores variations were calculated to assess the practical significance of results. Our results demonstrate that scoped studies differed considerably in their design, measures used, sample sizes and results. Most studies (12 out of 20 studies) reported either positive or non-statistically significant changes/differences in empathy regardless of the measure used. The predominant trend in cross-sectional studies (ten out of 13 studies) was of significantly higher empathy scores in later years or of similar empathy scores across years, while most longitudinal studies presented either mixed-results or empathy declines. There was not a generalized international trend in changes in students’ empathy throughout medical school. Although statistically significant changes/differences were detected in 13 out of 20 studies, the calculated effect sizes were small in all but two studies, suggesting little practical significance. At the present moment, the literature does not offer clear conclusions relative to changes in student empathy throughout medical school.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-016-9704-7
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Patients with chronic conditions: simulate to educate'
    • Authors: Thomas Lefèvre; Rémi Gagnayre; Maxime Gignon
      Pages: 1315 - 1319
      Abstract: Simulation in healthcare in an way to train professionals but it is not yet use commonly to train patient or their caregivers. Recently, it has been suggested to extend simulations to patients with chronic conditions. Simulations could help patients and caregivers to acquire psychosocial and self-management skills. This approach proved to be effective for the training of healthcare professionals, but its transferability to patients needs to be evaluated. Already, several questions arise. However, by considering simulations as pretexts for debriefing, they enable patients and professionals to assess a concrete situation, implying voluntary and reflexive learning processes. Thus, video recording should be assessed for its role in patient metacognition, defined as knowing about knowing. A taxonomy for simulations dedicated to patients, like that already developed for healthcare professionals, should be considered. Although practical constraints must be identified and addressed, they should not be the primary issue guiding research. The transferability of simulation as an educational technique from professionals to patients and caregivers should be investigated essentially in order to provide a significant benefit to patients.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9768-z
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 5 (2017)
  • Student learning outcomes, perceptions and beliefs in the context of
           strengthening research integration into the first year of medical school
    • Authors: Mayke W. C. Vereijken; Roeland M. van der Rijst; Jan H. van Driel; Friedo W. Dekker
      Abstract: Research integrated into undergraduate education is important in order for medical students to understand and value research for later clinical practice. Therefore, attempts are being made to strengthen the integration of research into teaching from the first year onwards. First-year students may interpret attempts made to strengthen research integration differently than intended by teachers. This might be explained by student beliefs about learning and research as well as student perceptions of the learning environment. In general, student perceptions of the learning environment play a pivotal role in fostering student learning outcomes. This study aims to determine whether a curriculum change intended to promote research integration fosters student learning outcomes and student perceptions of research integrated into teaching. To serve this purpose, three subsequent cohorts of first-year students were compared, one before and two after a curriculum change. Learning outcomes of these students were measured using scores on a national progress test of 921 students and assessments of a sample of 100 research reports of a first-year student research project. 746 Students filled out the Student Perceptions of Research Integration Questionnaire. The findings suggest that learning outcomes of these students, that is, scores on research related test items of the progress test and the quality of research reports, were better than those of students before the curriculum change.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9803-0
  • The bargaining of professionalism in emergency care practice: NHS
           paramedics and higher education
    • Authors: Assaf Givati; Chris Markham; Ken Street
      Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, as part of reforms to the National Health Service and with it organizational changes to ambulance work in the UK, paramedic education has undergone a process of academisation and a shift from in-house, apprenticeship weeks-long occupational training, to university-based undergraduate programs. While the professional regulation and standardization of Allied Health Professionals’ education in high-income countries has captured scholarly attention, the study of paramedic practice is still in its infancy and there is a need to explore its evolvement in relation to the fluid societal–political circumstances affecting its provision and demand. Based on interviews with front-line paramedics, paramedic educators and paramedic science students in the South of England, this article examines how the reforms to paramedic education have impacted the professionalization of paramedics and their discourse of professionalism. Framed within to the ‘new’ sociology of professions, the case of British paramedics demonstrates the complex nature of the relationship between the university and professional practice. It appears that universities, the providers of paramedic education, are caught between two opposing discourses of professionalism: on the one hand, that of providing a platform for students’ socialization and engagement with professionalism ‘from within’ practice which is based on students’ common goals and mutual experiences, and, on the other hand, serving as a conduit for managerial/organizational strategies of professionalism which appear to undermine the role of university socialization.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9802-1
  • Correction to: CASPer, an online pre-interview screen for
           personal/professional characteristics: prediction of national licensure
    • Authors: Kelly L. Dore; Harold I. Reiter; Sharyn Kreuger; Geoffrey R. Norman
      Abstract: In re-examining the paper “CASPer, an online pre-interview screen for personal/professional characteristics: prediction of national licensure scores” published in AHSE (22(2), 327-336), we recognized two errors of interpretation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10459-017-9798-6
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