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  Subjects -> EDUCATION (Total: 1696 journals)
    - ADULT EDUCATION (24 journals)
    - COLLEGE AND ALUMNI (9 journals)
    - E-LEARNING (22 journals)
    - EDUCATION (1413 journals)
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EDUCATION (1413 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 857 Journals sorted alphabetically
#Tear : Revista de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
(Pensamiento), (palabra) y obra     Open Access  
@tic. revista d'innovació educativa     Open Access  
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Academy of Educational Leadership Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Academy of Management Learning and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Accounting Education: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Across the Disciplines     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Didactica Norge     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Education     Open Access  
Acta Technologica Dubnicae     Open Access  
Action in Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Action Learning: Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235)
Actualidades Pedagógicas     Open Access  
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 142)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137)
Advanced Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in School Mental Health Promotion     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Africa Education Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 24)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AGORA Magazine     Open Access  
Ahmad Dahlan Journal of English Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Education and Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Akadémiai Értesítö     Full-text available via subscription  
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al Ibtida : Jurnal Pendidikan Guru MI     Open Access  
Alexandria : Revista de Educação em Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access  
Alsic     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Alteridad     Open Access  
Amasya Universitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
American Annals of the Deaf     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Educational Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Distance Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 157)
American Journal of Educational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Modern Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Apertura. Revista de innovación educativa‏     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Measurement in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Art Design & Communication in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Arts Education Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Asian Association of Open Universities Journal     Open Access  
Asian Education and Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of English Language Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Asian Journal of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ASp     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Assessing Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
At-Ta'dib Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
At-Turats     Open Access  
Athenea Digital     Open Access  
Aula Abierta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Educational Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Australian Art Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Educational Computing     Open Access  
Australian Educational Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australian Journal of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australian Journal of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 387)
Australian Journal of Teacher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Screen Education Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Universities' Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Azalea: Journal of Korean Literature & Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BELIA : Early Childhood Education Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BELT - Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Berkeley Review of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biblioteca Escolar em Revista     Open Access  
Biblioteka i Edukacja     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bildung und Erziehung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Biosaintifika : Journal of Biology & Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
British Educational Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
British Journal of Educational Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
British Journal of Educational Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
British Journal of Religious Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
British Journal of Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Special Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de Física     Open Access  
Caderno Intersabares     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Educação     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Tecnologia e Sociedade     Open Access  
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access  
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos de Pesquisa em Educação     Open Access  
Cadmo     Full-text available via subscription  
Cahiers de la recherche sur l'éducation et les savoirs     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Campus Legal Advisor     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Campus Security Report     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian and International Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education/ Revue canadienne des jeunes chercheures et chercheurs en éducation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Education : Revue canadienne de l'éducation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology / La revue canadienne de l’apprentissage et de la technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalejos. Revista sobre lectura, formación de lectores y literatura para niños     Open Access  
Catharsis : Journal of Arts Education     Open Access  
CELE Exchange, Centre for Effective Learning Environments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Changing English: Studies in Culture and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Charrette     Open Access  
Chemical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chi'e : Journal of Japanese Learning and Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Child Psychiatry & Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Childhood Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Children's Literature in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Education & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Christian Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Christian Perspectives in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Classroom Discourse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clio y Asociados     Open Access  
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cogent Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
College Teaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Colóquio Internacional de Educação e Seminário de Estratégias e Ações Multidisciplinares     Open Access  
Communication Disorders Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communication Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Communication Methods and Measures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Community College Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Community College Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Community Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Community Literacy Journal     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Comparative Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Comparative Education Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Comparative Professional Pedagogy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Compare: A journal of comparative education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Academic Medicine
  [SJR: 2.202]   [H-I: 107]   [56 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1040-2446
   Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [287 journals]
  • Assessment Reconsidered: Finding the Balance Between Patient Safety,
           Student Ranking, and Feedback for Improved Learning
    • Authors: Sklar; David P.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001687
  • Emphasizing Primary Prevention in the Curriculum to Mitigate Prescription
           Drug Abuse
    • Authors: Manion; Smith; Khan, Talal W.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001679
  • In Reply to Manion and Khan
    • Authors: Bharel; Monica; Antman, Karen; Berman, Harris; Dimitri, Dennis; Flier, Jeffrey; Flotte, Terence
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001713
  • Moving Towards a Mixed-Method Approach to Educational Assessments
    • Authors: Sim; Joong Hiong
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001680
  • More on Emotions in Medical Education and Practice
    • Authors: Schattner; Ami
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001682
  • More on Emotions in Medical Education and Practice
    • Authors: Sharma; Ekta; Gokani, Shyam A.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001683
  • It’s Time to Increase Community Hospital-Based Health Research
    • Authors: Tsang; Jennifer L.Y.; Ross, Katie
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001681
  • Secondary Medical School Applications Place an Unfair Financial Burden on
           Middle- and Lower-Income Applicants
    • Authors: Ghaffari Rafi; Arash
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001694
  • Using Video-Conference Interviews in the Residency Application Process
    • Authors: Hariton; Eduardo; Bortoletto, Pietro; Ayogu, Nworah
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001695
  • Streamlining the Medical School Admissions Process for Couples
    • Authors: Zureick; Andrew H.; Gauthier, Angela C.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001697
  • The Ugly Truth About Multiple Mini-Interviews in Medical School Admissions
    • Authors: Parad; Jason
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001698
  • SOAP for Everyone: An Evolutionary Development of the Match
    • Authors: London; Daniel A.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001702
  • Medical School Admissions: An LGBTQ Perspective
    • Authors: Tam; Andrew
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001703
  • The Match: A Numbers Game
    • Authors: Jones; R. Logan; Burk-Rafel, Jesse
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001704
  • Less Fantasy, More Reality: A Call for Humanistic Change in Medical School
    • Authors: Laux; Tom
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001708
  • Who Is a Medical Scientist Training Program Student? Interviewing for an
           MD–PhD as a “Nontraditional” Researcher
    • Authors: Zogg; Cheryl K.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001709
  • USMLE Step 1 “Score Creep” Adversely Affects Dual-Degree
    • Authors: Webb; William M.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001696
  • New Medical Student Performance Evaluation Standards: Laudable but
    • Authors: Burk-Rafel; Jesse; Heath, Jacqueline
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001705
  • Assessment in Medical Education Focuses Too Narrowly on Test Scores
    • Authors: Guris; Rodrigo Daly
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001701
  • Clinical Skills in the Age of Google: A Call for Reform and Expansion of
           the USMLE Step 2 CS
    • Authors: Saheb Kashaf; Michael
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001707
  • Incorporating Formative Assessments Into the Preclerkship Lecture
    • Authors: Sherry; Alexander D.; Barlow, Carrie L.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001706
  • Do “Good” Medical Students Really Make Good Doctors?
    • Authors: Thomson; Imogen
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001700
  • Medical Students Call for Single-Payer National Health Insurance
    • Authors: Harrison; Andrew M.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001699
  • Entrustment Decisions: Bringing the Patient Into the Assessment Equation
    • Authors: ten Cate; Olle
      Abstract: With the increased interest in the use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) in undergraduate medical education (UME) and graduate medical education (GME) come questions about the implications for assessment. Entrustment assessment combines the evaluation of learners’ knowledge, skills, and behaviors with the evaluation of their readiness to be entrusted to perform critical patient care responsibilities. Patient safety, then, should be an explicit component of educational assessments. The validity of these assessments in the clinical workplace becomes the validity of the entrustment decisions.Modern definitions of the validity of educational assessments stress the importance of the purpose of the test and the consequences of the learner’s score. Thus, if the learner is a trainee in a clinical workplace and entrusting her or him to perform an EPA is the focus of the assessment, the validity argument for that assessment should include a patient safety component.While the decision to allow a learner to practice unsupervised is typically geared toward GME, similar decisions are made in UME regarding learners’ readiness to perform EPAs with indirect supervision (i.e., without a supervisor present in the room). Three articles in this issue address implementing EPAs in UME.The author of this Commentary discusses the possibility of implementing true entrustment decisions in UME. He argues that bringing the patient into the educational assessment equation is marrying educational and health care responsibilities. Building trust in learners from early on, gradually throughout the continuum of medical education, may reframe our vision on assessment in the workplace.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001623
  • Is It Time for Entrustable Professional Activities for Residency Program
    • Authors: Bing-You; Robert G.; Holmboe, Eric; Varaklis, Kalli; Linder, Jo
      Abstract: imageResidency program directors (PDs) play an important role in establishing and leading high-quality graduate medical education programs. However, medical educators have failed to codify the position on a national level, and PDs are often not recognized for the significant role they play. The authors of this Commentary argue that the core entrustable professional activities (EPAs) framework may be a mechanism to further this work and define the roles and responsibilities of the PD position. Based on personal observations as PDs and communications with others in the academic medicine community, the authors used work in competency-based medical education to define a list of potential EPAs for PDs. The benefits of developing these EPAs include being able to define competencies for PDs using a deconstructive process, highlighting the increasingly important role PDs play in leading high-quality graduate medical education programs, using EPAs as a framework to assess PD performance and provide feedback, allowing PDs to focus their professional development efforts on the most important areas for their work, and helping guide the PD recruitment and selection processes.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001503
  • What Matters More About the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and the
           Jefferson Scale of Empathy? Their Underlying Constructs or Their
           Relationships With Pertinent Measures of Clinical Competence and Patient
    • Authors: Hojat; Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S.
      Abstract: In their study published in this issue of Academic Medicine, Costa and colleagues confirmed the underlying constructs of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) in medical students. The authors of this Commentary propose that in comparing two instruments that both purport to measure empathy, researchers or test users must pay close attention to the target populations, the conceptualizations of empathy, and the validity evidence in relation to pertinent criterion measures. The Commentary’s authors draw attention to the fact that the IRI was developed for administration to the general population, whereas the JSE was developed specifically for administration to students and practitioners of health professions. Also, the author of the IRI conceptualized empathy as a combination of cognitive and emotional attributes, whereas the authors of the JSE defined empathy as a predominantly cognitive attribute. These differences are reflected in the content of the items, which determines the underlying constructs of the two instruments. The Commentary authors suggest that any empathy-measuring instrument in the context of health professions education and patient care requires the crucial evidence of significant relationships with indicators of clinical competence and positive patient outcomes. Such validity evidence is readily available for the JSE, and the Commentary authors recommend that researchers make efforts to provide pertinent validity support for any other instrument measuring empathy in health professionals-in-training and in-practice.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001424
  • Humbled
    • Authors: Desai; J.S.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001693
  • Transforming Medical Assessment: Integrating Uncertainty Into the
           Evaluation of Clinical Reasoning in Medical Education
    • Authors: Cooke; Suzette; Lemay, Jean-Francois
      Abstract: imageIn an age where practicing physicians have access to an overwhelming volume of clinical information and are faced with increasingly complex medical decisions, the ability to execute sound clinical reasoning is essential to optimal patient care. The authors propose two concepts that are philosophically paramount to the future assessment of clinical reasoning in medicine: assessment in the context of “uncertainty” (when, despite all of the information that is available, there is still significant doubt as to the best diagnosis, investigation, or treatment), and acknowledging that it is entirely possible (and reasonable) to have more than “one correct answer.” The purpose of this article is to highlight key elements related to these two core concepts and discuss genuine barriers that currently exist on the pathway to creating such assessments. These include acknowledging situations of uncertainty, creating clear frameworks that define progressive levels of clinical reasoning skills, providing validity evidence to increase the defensibility of such assessments, considering the comparative feasibility with other forms of assessment, and developing strategies to evaluate the impact of these assessment methods on future learning and practice. The authors recommend that concerted efforts be directed toward these key areas to help advance the field of clinical reasoning assessment, improve the clinical care decisions made by current and future physicians, and have positive outcomes for patients. It is anticipated that these and subsequent efforts will aid in reaching the goal of making future assessment in medical education more representative of current-day clinical reasoning and decision making.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001559
  • Using Contribution Analysis to Evaluate Competency-Based Medical Education
           Programs: It’s All About Rigor in Thinking
    • Authors: Van Melle; Elaine; Gruppen, Larry; Holmboe, Eric S.; Flynn, Leslie; Oandasan, Ivy; Frank, Jason R.; for the International Competency-Based Medical Education Collaborators
      Abstract: imageCompetency-based medical education (CBME) aims to bring about the sequential acquisition of competencies required for practice. Although it is being adopted in centers of medical education around the globe, there is little evidence concerning whether, in comparison with traditional methods, CBME produces physicians who are better prepared for the practice environment and contributes to improved patient outcomes. Consequently, the authors, an international group of collaborators, wrote this article to provide guidance regarding the evaluation of CBME programs.CBME is a complex service intervention consisting of multiple activities that contribute to the achievement of a variety of outcomes over time. For this reason, it is difficult to apply traditional methods of program evaluation, which require conditions of control and predictability, to CBME. To address this challenge, the authors describe an approach that makes explicit the multiple potential linkages between program activities and outcomes. Referred to as contribution analysis (CA), this theory-based approach to program evaluation provides a systematic way to make credible causal claims under conditions of complexity. Although CA has yet to be applied to medical education, the authors describe how a six-step model and a postulated theory of change could be used to examine the link between CBME, physicians’ preparation for practice, and patient care outcomes.The authors argue that adopting the methods of CA, particularly the rigor in thinking required to link program activities, outcomes, and theory, will serve to strengthen understanding of the impact of CBME over time.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001479
  • Constructing a Shared Mental Model for Faculty Development for the Core
           Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency
    • Authors: Favreau; Michele A.; Tewksbury, Linda; Lupi, Carla; Cutrer, William B.; Jokela, Janet A.; Yarris, Lalena M.; for the AAMC Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency Faculty Development Concept Group
      Abstract: In 2014, the Association of American Medical Colleges identified 13 Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency (Core EPAs), which are activities that entering residents might be expected to perform without direct supervision. This work included the creation of an interinstitutional concept group focused on faculty development efforts, as the processes and tools for teaching and assessing entrustability in undergraduate medical education (UME) are still evolving. In this article, the authors describe a conceptual framework for entrustment that they developed to better prepare all educators involved in entrustment decision making in UME. This framework applies to faculty with limited or longitudinal contact with medical students and to those who contribute to entrustment development or render summative entrustment decisions.The authors describe a shared mental model for entrustment that they developed, based on a critical synthesis of the EPA literature, to serve as a guide for UME faculty development efforts. This model includes four dimensions for Core EPA faculty development: (1) observation skills in authentic settings (workplace-based assessments), (2) coaching and feedback skills, (3) self-assessment and reflection skills, and (4) peer guidance skills developed through a community of practice. These dimensions form a conceptual foundation for meaningful faculty participation in entrustment decision making.The authors also differentiate between the UME learning environment and the graduate medical education learning environment to highlight distinct challenges and opportunities for faculty development in UME settings. They conclude with recommendations and research questions for future Core EPA faculty development efforts.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001511
  • Nutella
    • Authors: Bernstein; Sarah M.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001692
  • Implementing an Entrustable Professional Activities Framework in
           Undergraduate Medical Education: Early Lessons From the AAMC Core
           Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency Pilot
    • Authors: Lomis; Kimberly; Amiel, Jonathan M.; Ryan, Michael S.; Esposito, Karin; Green, Michael; Stagnaro-Green, Alex; Bull, Janet; Mejicano, George C.; for the AAMC Core EPAs for Entering Residency Pilot Team
      Abstract: imageIn 2014, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) published a list of 13 Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency (Core EPAs) that medical school graduates might be expected to perform, without direct supervision, on the first day of residency. Soon after, the AAMC commissioned a five-year pilot with 10 medical schools across the United States, seeking to implement the Core EPA framework to improve the transition from undergraduate to graduate medical education.In this article, the pilot team presents the organizational structure and early results of collaborative efforts to provide guidance to other institutions planning to implement the Core EPA framework. They describe the aims, timeline, and organization of the pilot as well as findings to date regarding the concepts of entrustment, assessment, curriculum development, and faculty development. On the basis of their experiences over the first two years of the pilot, the authors offer a set of guiding principles for institutions intending to implement the Core EPA framework. They also discuss the impact of the pilot, its limitations, and next steps, as well as how the pilot team is engaging the broader medical education community. They encourage ongoing communication across institutions to capitalize on the expertise of educators to tackle challenges related to the implementation of this novel approach and to generate common national standards for entrustment. The Core EPA pilot aims to better prepare medical school graduates for their professional duties at the beginning of residency with the ultimate goal of improving patient care.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001543
  • Live and Let Live
    • Authors: Teo; Desmond B.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001691
  • Greener, Brighter
    • Authors: Bian; Rachel R.; Zureick, Andrew H.; Porter, Robert S.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001712
  • Commentary on “Greener, Brighter”
    • Authors: Bian; Rachel R.; Zureick, Andrew H.; Porter, Robert S.; Stojan, Jennifer N.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/01.ACM.0000520609.85345.87
  • Finding a Path to Entrustment in Undergraduate Medical Education: A
           Progress Report From the AAMC Core Entrustable Professional Activities for
           Entering Residency Entrustment Concept Group
    • Authors: Brown; David R.; Warren, Jamie B.; Hyderi, Abbas; Drusin, Ronald E.; Moeller, Jeremy; Rosenfeld, Melvin; Orlander, Philip R.; Yingling, Sandra; Call, Stephanie; Terhune, Kyla; Bull, Janet; Englander, Robert; Wagner, Dianne P.; for the AAMC Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency Entrustment Concept Group
      Abstract: imageProblem: To better prepare graduating medical students to transition to the professional responsibilities of residency, 10 medical schools are participating in an Association of American Medical Colleges pilot to evaluate the feasibility of explicitly teaching and assessing 13 Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency. The authors focused on operationalizing the concept of entrustment as part of this process.Approach: Starting in 2014, the Entrustment Concept Group, with representatives from each of the pilot schools, guided the development of the structures and processes necessary for formal entrustment decisions associated with students’ increased responsibilities at the start of residency.Outcomes: Guiding principles developed by the group recommend that formal, summative entrustment decisions in undergraduate medical education be made by a trained group, be based on longitudinal performance assessments from multiple assessors, and incorporate day-to-day entrustment judgments by workplace supervisors. Key to entrustment decisions is evidence that students know their limits (discernment), can be relied on to follow through (conscientiousness), and are forthcoming despite potential personal costs (truthfulness), in addition to having the requisite knowledge and skills. The group constructed a developmental framework for discernment, conscientiousness, and truthfulness to pilot a model for transparent entrustment decision making.Next Steps: The pilot schools are studying a number of questions regarding the pathways to and decisions about entrustment. This work seeks to inform meaningful culture change in undergraduate medical education through a shared understanding of the assessment of trust and a shared trust in that assessment.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001544
  • Beyond Selection: The Use of Situational Judgement Tests in the Teaching
           and Assessment of Professionalism
    • Authors: Goss; Barbara D.; Ryan, Anna T.; Waring, Joshua; Judd, Terry; Chiavaroli, Neville G.; O’Brien, Richard Charles; Trumble, Stephen C.; McColl, Geoffrey J.
      Abstract: imageProblem: Professionalism is a critical attribute of medical graduates. Its measurement is challenging. The authors sought to assess final-year medical students’ knowledge of appropriate professional behavior across a broad range of workplace situations.Approach: Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are used widely in applicant selection to assess judgement or decision making in work-related settings as well as attributes such as empathy, integrity, and resilience. In 2014, the authors developed three 40-item SJTs with scenarios relevant to interns (first-year junior doctors) and delivered the tests to final-year medical students to assess aspects of professionalism. As preparation, students discussed SJT-style scenarios; after the tests they completed an evaluation. The authors applied the Angoff method for the standard-setting process, delivered electronic individualized feedback reports to students post test, and provided remediation for students failing to meet the cut score.Outcomes: Evaluation revealed that the tests positively affected students’ learning and that students accepted them as an assessment tool. Validity and reliability were acceptable. Implementation costs were initially high but will be recouped over time.Next Steps: Recent improvements include changes to pass requirements, question revision based on reliability testing, and provision of detailed item-level feedback. Work is currently under way to expand the item bank and to introduce tests earlier in the course. Future research will explore correlation of SJT performance with other measures of professionalism and focus on the impact of SJTs on professionalism and interns’ ability to deal with challenging workplace situations.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001591
  • Artist’s Statement: Icon
    • Authors: Stahl; Darian Goldin
      Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001717
  • Internal Medicine Residency Program Directors’ Views of the Core
           Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency: An Opportunity
           to Enhance Communication of Competency Along the Continuum
    • Authors: Angus; Steven V.; Vu, T. Robert; Willett, Lisa L.; Call, Stephanie; Halvorsen, Andrew J.; Chaudhry, Saima
      Abstract: imagePurpose: To examine internal medicine (IM) residency program directors’ (PDs’) perspectives on the Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency (Core EPAs)—introduced into undergraduate medical education to further competency-based assessment—and on communicating competency-based information during transitions.Method: A spring 2015 Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine survey asked PDs of U.S. IM residency programs for their perspectives on which Core EPAs new interns must or should possess on day 1, which are most essential, and which have the largest gap between expected and observed performance. Their views and preferences were also requested regarding communicating competency-based information at transitions from medical school to residency and residency to fellowship/employment.Results: The response rate was 57% (204/361 programs). The majority of PDs felt new interns must/should possess 12 of the 13 Core EPAs. PDs’ rankings of Core EPAs by relative importance were more varied than their rankings by the largest gaps in performance. Although preferred timing varied, most PDs (82%) considered it important for medical schools to communicate Core EPA-based information to PDs; nearly three-quarters (71%) would prefer a checklist format. Many (60%) would be willing to provide competency-based evaluations to fellowship directors/employers. Most (> 80%) agreed that there should be a bidirectional communication mechanism for programs/employers to provide feedback on competency assessments.Conclusions: The gaps identified in Core EPA performance may help guide medical schools’ curricular and assessment tool design. Sharing competency-based information at transitions along the medical education continuum could help ensure production of competent, practice-ready physicians.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001419
  • How Entrustment Is Informed by Holistic Judgments Across Time in a Family
           Medicine Residency Program: An Ethnographic Nonparticipant Observational
    • Authors: Sagasser; Margaretha H.; Fluit, Cornelia R.M.G.; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P.M.; Kramer, Anneke W.M.
      Abstract: imagePurpose: Entrustment has mainly been conceptualized as delegating discrete professional tasks. Because residents provide most of their patient care independently, not all resident performance is visible to supervisors; the entrustment process involves more than granting discrete tasks. This study explored how supervisors made entrustment decisions based on residents’ performance in a long-term family medicine training program.Method: A qualitative nonparticipant observational study was conducted in 2014–2015 at competency-based family medicine residency programs in the Netherlands. Seven supervisor–resident pairs participated. During two days, one researcher observed first-year residents’ patient encounters, debriefing sessions, and supervisor-resident educational meetings and interviewed them separately afterwards. Data were collected and analyzed using iterative, phenomenological inductive research methodology.Results: The entrustment process developed over three phases. Supervisors based their initial entrustment on prior knowledge about the resident. In the ensuing two weeks, entrustment decisions regarding independent patient care were derived from residents’ observed general competencies necessary for a range of health problems (clinical reasoning, decision making, relating to patients); medical knowledge and skills; and supervisors’ intuition. Supervisors provided supervision during and after encounters. Once residents performed independently, supervisors kept reevaluating their decisions, informed by residents’ overall growth in competencies rather than by adhering to a predefined set of tasks.Conclusions: Supervisors in family medicine residency training took a holistic approach to trust, based on general competencies, knowledge, skills, and intuition. Entrustment started before training and developed over time. Building trust is a mutual process between supervisor and resident, requiring a good working relationship.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001464
  • A Patient-Centered Approach to Developing Entrustable Professional
    • Authors: El-Haddad; Carlos; Damodaran, Arvin; McNeil, H. Patrick; Hu, Wendy
      Abstract: imagePurpose: The medical education community is rapidly accepting the use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) as a means of assessing residents. Stakeholder engagement is advised in developing EPAs, but no studies have investigated the role of patient input. In this qualitative study, the authors investigated what patient input may add to designing a patient-centered EPA.Method: The authors chose “management of acute low back pain (LBP)” as a common, important clinical task on which to base the patient-centered EPA. In 2015, 14 patients who presented to a teaching hospital with acute LBP participated in semistructured interviews exploring their illness experience and expectations of doctors. Clinicians representing multiple disciplines participated in a focus group. The authors used the Framework Method to analyze data, identifying and developing themes, similarities, and differences between patient and clinician input. They used the findings to develop the EPA. Through an iterative procedure of data review and tracking data sources, they determined how patient and clinician input informed each EPA descriptor.Results: Drawing from their firsthand experience of LBP, patients described unique expectations of trainees which directly informed EPA descriptors. For example, the authors primarily used patients’ detailed descriptions of desirable and observable trainee behaviors to inform the required attitudes descriptor.Conclusions: Patients can provide unique contributions, complementary to those of clinicians, to EPAs. Consultations with patients led to the development of a patient-centered EPA, which aligned best clinical practice with patient expectations. Educators seeking to apply patient-centered care to EPA development could adopt a similar approach.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001616
  • Validity Evidence From Ratings of Pediatric Interns and Subinterns on a
           Subset of Pediatric Milestones
    • Authors: Turner; Teri L.; Bhavaraju, Vasudha L.; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A.; Hicks, Patricia J.; Multerer, Sara; Osta, Amanda; McDonnell, Jennifer; Poynter, Sue; Schumacher, Daniel J.; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca; Waggoner-Fountain, Linda; Schwartz, Alan; the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network–National Board of Medical Examiners Pediatrics
      Abstract: imagePurpose: To investigate evidence for validity of faculty members’ pediatric milestone (PM) ratings of interns (first-year residents) and subinterns (fourth-year medical students) on nine subcompetencies related to readiness to serve as a pediatric intern in the inpatient setting.Method: The Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN) and the National Board of Medical Examiners collaborated to investigate the utility of assessments of the PMs for trainees’ performance. Data from 32 subinterns and 179 interns at 17 programs were collected from July 2012 through April 2013. Observers used several tools to assess learners. At each site, a faculty member used these data to make judgments about the learner’s current developmental milestone in each subcompetency. Linear mixed models were fitted to milestone judgments to examine their relationship with learner’s rank and subcompetency.Results: On a 5-point developmental scale, mean milestone levels for interns ranged from 3.20 (for the subcompetency Work effectively as a member of a team) to 3.72 (Humanism) and for subinterns from 2.89 (Organize and prioritize care) to 3.61 (Professionalization). Mean milestone ratings were significantly higher for the Professionalism competency (3.59–3.72) for all trainees compared with Patient Care (2.89–3.24) and Personal and Professional Development (3.33–3.51). Mean intern ratings were significantly higher than mean subintern ratings for all nine subcompetencies except Professionalization, Humanism, and Trustworthiness.Conclusions: The PMs had a coherent internal structure and could distinguish between differing levels of trainees, which supports their validation for documenting developmental progression of pediatric trainees.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001622
  • Critical Deficiency Ratings in Milestone Assessment: A Review and Case
    • Authors: Kinnear; Benjamin; Bensman, Rachel; Held, Justin; O’Toole, Jennifer; Schauer, Daniel; Warm, Eric
      Abstract: imagePurpose: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires programs to report learner progress using specialty-specific milestones. It is unclear how milestones can best identify critical deficiencies (CDs) in trainee performance. Specialties developed milestones independently of one another; not every specialty included CDs within milestones ratings. This study examined the proportion of ACGME milestone sets that include CD ratings, and describes one residency program’s experiences using CD ratings in assessment.Method: The authors reviewed ACGME milestones for all 99 specialties in November 2015, determining which rating scales contained CDs. The authors also reviewed three years of data (July 2012–June 2015) from the University of Cincinnati Medical Center (UCMC) internal medicine residency assessment system based on observable practice activities mapped to ACGME milestones. Data were analyzed by postgraduate year, assessor type, rotation, academic year, and core competency. The Mantel–Haenszel chi-square test was used to test for changes over time.Results: Specialties demonstrated heterogeneity in accounting for CDs in ACGME milestones, with 22% (22/99) of specialties having no language describing CDs in milestones assessment. Thirty-three percent (63/189) of UCMC internal medicine residents received at least one CD rating, with CDs accounting for 0.18% (668/364,728) of all assessment ratings. The authors identified CDs across multiple core competencies and rotations.Conclusions: Despite some specialties not accounting for CDs in milestone assessment, UCMC’s experience demonstrates that a significant proportion of residents may be rated as having a CD during training. Identification of CDs may allow programs to develop remediation and improvement plans.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001383
  • Surgical Trainee Feedback-Seeking Behavior in the Context of
           Workplace-Based Assessment in Clinical Settings
    • Authors: Gaunt; Anne; Patel, Abhilasha; Fallis, Simon; Rusius, Victoria; Mylvaganam, Seni; Royle, T. James; Almond, Max; Markham, Deborah H.; Pawlikowska, Teresa R.B.
      Abstract: imagePurpose: To investigate surgical trainee feedback-seeking behaviors—directly asking for feedback (inquiry) and observing and responding to situational clues (monitoring)—in the context of workplace-based assessment (WBA).Method: A hypothetical model of trainee feedback-seeking behavior was developed using existing literature. A questionnaire, incorporating previously validated instruments from organizational psychology, was distributed to general surgical trainees at 23 U.K. hospitals in 2012–2013. Statistical modeling techniques compared the data with 12 predetermined hypothetical relationships between feedback-seeking behaviors and predictive variables (goal orientation, supervisory style) through mediating variables (perceptions of personal benefits and costs of feedback) to develop a final model.Results: Of 235 trainees invited, 178 (76%) responded. Trainees completed 48 WBAs/year on average, and 73% reported receiving feedback via WBA. The final model was of good fit (chi-square/degree of freedom ratio = 1.620, comparative fit index = 0.953, root mean square error of approximation = 0.059). Modeled data showed trainees who perceive personal benefits to feedback use both feedback inquiry and monitoring to engage in feedback interactions. Trainees who seek feedback engage in using WBA. Trainees’ goal orientations and perceptions of trainers’ supervisory styles as supportive and instrumental are associated with perceived benefits and costs to feedback.Conclusions: Trainees actively engage in seeking feedback and using WBA. Their perceptions of feedback benefits and costs and supervisory style play a role in their feedback-seeking behavior. Encouraging trainees to actively seek feedback by providing specific training and creating a supportive environment for feedback interactions could positively affect their ability to seek feedback.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001523
  • Clinical Performance Evaluations of Third-Year Medical Students and
           Association With Student and Evaluator Gender
    • Authors: Riese; Alison; Rappaport, Leah; Alverson, Brian; Park, Sangshin; Rockney, Randal M.
      Abstract: imagePurpose: Clinical performance evaluations are major components of medical school clerkship grades. But are they sufficiently objective? This study aimed to determine whether student and evaluator gender is associated with assessment of overall clinical performance.Method: This was a retrospective analysis of 4,272 core clerkship clinical performance evaluations by 829 evaluators of 155 third-year students, within the Alpert Medical School grading database for the 2013–2014 academic year. Overall clinical performance, assessed on a three-point scale (meets expectations, above expectations, exceptional), was extracted from each evaluation, as well as evaluator gender, age, training level, department, student gender and age, and length of observation time. Hierarchical ordinal regression modeling was conducted to account for clustering of evaluations.Results: Female students were more likely to receive a better grade than males (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–1.50), and female evaluators awarded lower grades than males (AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55–0.93), adjusting for department, observation time, and student and evaluator age. The interaction between student and evaluator gender was significant (P = .03), with female evaluators assigning higher grades to female students, while male evaluators’ grading did not differ by student gender. Students who spent a short time with evaluators were also more likely to get a lower grade.Conclusions: A one-year examination of all third-year clerkship clinical performance evaluations at a single institution revealed that male and female evaluators rated male and female students differently, even when accounting for other measured variables.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001565
  • Are Female Applicants Rated Higher Than Males on the Multiple
           Mini-Interview? Findings From the University of Calgary
    • Authors: Ross; Marshall; Walker, Ian; Cooke, Lara; Raman, Maitreyi; Ravani, Pietro; Coderre, Sylvain; McLaughlin, Kevin
      Abstract: imagePurpose: The multiple mini-interview (MMI) improves reliability and validity of medical school interviews, and many schools have introduced this in an attempt to select individuals more skilled in communication, critical thinking, and ethical decision making. But every change in the admissions process may produce unintended consequences, such as changing intake demographics. In this article, two studies exploring gender differences in MMI ratings are reported.Method: Cumulative meta-analysis was used to compare MMI ratings for female and male applicants to the University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine between 2010 and 2014. Multiple linear regression was then performed to explore gender differences in MMI ratings after adjusting for other variables, followed by a sensitivity analysis of the impact of varying the weight given to MMI ratings on the odds of females being ranked in the top 150 applicants for 2014.Results: Females were rated higher than male applicants (standardized mean difference 0.21, 95% CI [0.11, 0.30], P < .001). After adjusting for other explanatory variables, there was a positive association between female applicant and MMI rating (regression coefficient 0.23 [0.14, 0.33], P < .001). Increasing weight assigned to MMI ratings was associated with increased odds of females being ranked in the top 150 applicants.Conclusions: In this single-center study, females were rated higher than males on the MMI, and the odds of a female applicant being offered a position increased as more weight was given to MMI ratings. Further studies are needed to confirm and explain gender differences in MMI ratings.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001466
  • Are Scores From NBME Subject Examinations Valid Measures of Knowledge
           Acquired During Clinical Clerkships?
    • Authors: Ryan; Michael S.; Bishop, Steven; Browning, Joel; Anand, Rahul J.; Waterhouse, Elizabeth; Rigby, Fidelma; Al-Mateen, Cheryl S.; Lee, Clifton; Bradner, Melissa; Colbert-Getz, Jorie M.
      Abstract: imagePurpose: The National Board of Medical Examiners’ Clinical Science Subject Examinations are a component used by most U.S. medical schools to determine clerkship grades. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of this practice.Method: This was a retrospective cohort study of medical students at the Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine who completed clerkships in 2012 through 2014. Linear regression was used to determine how well United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores predicted Subject Examination scores in seven clerkships. The authors then substituted each student’s Subject Examination standard scores with his or her Step 1 standard score. Clerkship grades based on the Step 1 substitution were compared with actual grades with the Wilcoxon rank test.Results: A total of 2,777 Subject Examination scores from 432 students were included in the analysis. Step 1 scores significantly predicted between 23% and 44% of the variance in Subject Examination scores, P < .001 for all clerkship regression equations. Mean differences between expected and actual Subject Examination scores were small (≤ 0.2 points). There was a match between 73% of Step 1 substituted final clerkship grades and actual final clerkship grades.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that performance on Step 1 can be used to identify and counsel students at risk for poor performance on the Subject Examinations. In addition, these findings call into the question the validity of using scores from Subject Examinations as a high-stakes assessment of learning in individual clerkships.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001535
  • Emotional Learning and Identity Development in Medicine: A Cross-Cultural
           Qualitative Study Comparing Taiwanese and Dutch Medical Undergraduates
    • Authors: Helmich; Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; de Vries, Joy; Fu-Chang Tsai, Daniel; Dornan, Tim
      Abstract: imagePurpose: Current knowledge about the interplay between emotions and professional identity formation is limited and largely based on research in Western settings. This study aimed to broaden understandings of professional identity formation cross-culturally.Method: In fall 2014, the authors purposively sampled 22 clinical students from Taiwan and the Netherlands and asked them to keep audio diaries, narrating emotional experiences during clerkships using three prompts: What happened? What did you feel/think/do? How does this interplay with your development as a doctor? Dutch audio diaries were supplemented with follow-up interviews. The authors analyzed participants’ narratives using a critical discourse analysis informed by Figured Worlds theory and Bakhtin’s concept of dialogism, according to which people’s spoken words create identities in imagined future worlds.Results: Participants talked vividly, but differently, about their experiences. Dutch participants’ emotions related to individual achievement and competence. Taiwanese participants’ rich, emotional language reflected on becoming both a good person and a good doctor. These discourses constructed doctors’ and patients’ autonomy in culturally specific ways. The Dutch construct centered on “hands-on” participation, which developed the identity of a technically skilled doctor, but did not address patients’ self-determination. The Taiwanese construct located physicians’ autonomy within moral values more than practical proficiency, and gave patients agency to influence doctor–patient relationships.Conclusions: Participants’ cultural constructs of physician and patient autonomy led them to construct different professional identities within different imagined worlds. The contrasting discourses show how medical students learn about different meanings of becoming doctors in culturally specific contexts.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001658
  • Measuring Medical Students’ Empathy: Exploring the Underlying Constructs
           of and Associations Between Two Widely Used Self-Report Instruments in
           Five Countries
    • Authors: Costa; Patrício; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio; Schweller, Marcelo; Thiemann, Pia; Salgueira, Ana; Benson, John; Costa, Manuel João; Quince, Thelma
      Abstract: imagePurpose: Understanding medical student empathy is important to future patient care; however, the definition and development of clinical empathy remain unclear. The authors sought to examine the underlying constructs of two of the most widely used self-report instruments—Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy version for medical students (JSE-S)—plus, the distinctions and associations between these instruments.Method: Between 2007 and 2014, the authors administered the IRI and JSE-S in three separate studies in five countries, (Brazil, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the United Kingdom). They collected data from 3,069 undergraduate medical students and performed exploratory factor analyses, correlation analyses, and multiple linear regression analyses.Results: Exploratory factor analysis yielded identical results in each country, confirming the subscale structures of each instrument. Results of correlation analyses indicated significant but weak correlations (r = 0.313) between the total IRI and JSE-S scores. All intercorrelations of IRI and JSE-S subscale scores were statistically significant but weak (range r = −0.040 to 0.306). Multiple linear regression models revealed that the IRI subscales were weak predictors of all JSE-S subscale and total scores. The IRI subscales explained between 9.0% and 15.3% of variance for JSE-S subscales and 19.5% for JSE-S total score.Conclusions: The IRI and JSE-S are only weakly related, suggesting that they may measure different constructs. To better understand this distinction, more studies using both instruments and involving students at different stages in their medical education, as well as more longitudinal and qualitative studies, are needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001449
  • Using In-Training Evaluation Report (ITER) Qualitative Comments to Assess
           Medical Students and Residents: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Hatala; Rose; Sawatsky, Adam P.; Dudek, Nancy; Ginsburg, Shiphra; Cook, David A.
      Abstract: imagePurpose: In-training evaluation reports (ITERs) constitute an integral component of medical student and postgraduate physician trainee (resident) assessment. ITER narrative comments have received less attention than the numeric scores. The authors sought both to determine what validity evidence informs the use of narrative comments from ITERs for assessing medical students and residents and to identify evidence gaps.Method: Reviewers searched for relevant English-language studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC (last search June 5, 2015), and in reference lists and author files. They included all original studies that evaluated ITERs for qualitative assessment of medical students and residents. Working in duplicate, they selected articles for inclusion, evaluated quality, and abstracted information on validity evidence using Kane’s framework (inferences of scoring, generalization, extrapolation, and implications).Results: Of 777 potential articles, 22 met inclusion criteria. The scoring inference is supported by studies showing that rich narratives are possible, that changing the prompt can stimulate more robust narratives, and that comments vary by context. Generalization is supported by studies showing that narratives reach thematic saturation and that analysts make consistent judgments. Extrapolation is supported by favorable relationships between ITER narratives and numeric scores from ITERs and non-ITER performance measures, and by studies confirming that narratives reflect constructs deemed important in clinical work. Evidence supporting implications is scant.Conclusions: The use of ITER narratives for trainee assessment is generally supported, except that evidence is lacking for implications and decisions. Future research should seek to confirm implicit assumptions and evaluate the impact of decisions.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001506
  • Factors Influencing Mini-CEX Rater Judgments and Their Practical
           Implications: A Systematic Literature Review
    • Authors: Lee; Victor; Brain, Keira; Martin, Jenepher
      Abstract: imagePurpose: At present, little is known about how mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) raters translate their observations into judgments and ratings. The authors of this systematic literature review aim both to identify the factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting and to translate these findings into practical implications for clinician assessors.Method: The authors searched for internal and external factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting from 1980 to 2015 using the Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, PubMed, and Scopus databases. They extracted the following information from each study: country of origin, educational level, study design and setting, type of observation, occurrence of rater training, provision of feedback to the trainee, research question, and identified factors influencing rater judgments. The authors also conducted a quality assessment for each study.Results: Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria. The authors identified both internal and external factors that influence mini-CEX rater judgments. They subcategorized the internal factors into intrinsic rater factors, judgment-making factors (conceptualization, interpretation, attention, and impressions), and scoring factors (scoring integration and domain differentiation).Conclusions: The current theories of rater-based judgment have not helped clinicians resolve the issues of rater idiosyncrasy, bias, gestalt, and conflicting contextual factors; therefore, the authors believe the most important solution is to increase the justification of rater judgments through the use of specific narrative and contextual comments, which are more informative for trainees. Finally, more real-world research is required to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of rater cognition.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001537
  • The Steps Model: A Practical Tool for Engaging Communities to Improve
           Health Outcomes
    • Authors: Adams; Alexandra; Williamson, Amy; Sorkness, Christine; Hatfield, Peggy; Eggen, Amanda; Esmond, Sarah
      Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT-
      DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001677
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