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  Subjects -> EDUCATION (Total: 2194 journals)
    - ADULT EDUCATION (22 journals)
    - COLLEGE AND ALUMNI (9 journals)
    - E-LEARNING (30 journals)
    - EDUCATION (1876 journals)
    - HIGHER EDUCATION (133 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS (4 journals)
    - ONLINE EDUCATION (34 journals)
    - SCHOOL ORGANIZATION (13 journals)
    - SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION (38 journals)
    - TEACHING METHODS AND CURRICULUM (35 journals)

EDUCATION (1876 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 857 Journals sorted alphabetically
#Tear : Revista de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
(Pensamiento), (palabra) y obra     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
21. Yüzyılda Eğitim Ve Toplum Eğitim Bilimleri Ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi     Open Access  
21st Century Pedagogy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
@tic. revista d'innovació educativa     Open Access  
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ABDIMAS ALTRUIS : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Academic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Academy of Educational Leadership Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Academy of Management Learning and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Accounting Education: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Didactica Norge     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Educationis Generalis     Open Access  
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia     Open Access  
Acta Scientiarum. Education     Open Access  
Action in Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Action Learning: Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321)
Actualidades Pedagógicas     Open Access  
Adelphi series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Adiyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Administração Educacional     Open Access  
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 199)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194)
Advanced Education     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in School Mental Health Promotion     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Africa Education Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AGORA Magazine     Open Access  
Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Ahmad Dahlan Journal of English Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AIDS Education and Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ainedidaktiikka     Open Access  
Akadémiai Értesítö     Full-text available via subscription  
Akademos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aksis : Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia     Open Access  
Al-Idarah : Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
Al-Jabar : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Mudarris : Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Tadris : Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Arab     Open Access  
Al-Tadzkiyyah : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Alan Eğitimi Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria : Revista de Educação em Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access  
Alotrop     Open Access  
Alsic : Apprentissage des Langues et Systèmes d'Information et de Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Alteridad     Open Access  
Amasya Universitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Ambiente & Educação : Revista de Educação Ambiental     Open Access  
American Annals of the Deaf     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Educational Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Distance Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 227)
American Journal of Educational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi / Journal of Mother Tongue Education     Open Access  
Anadolu Journal Of Educational Sciences International     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Education Faculty     Open Access  
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio N – Educatio Nova     Open Access  
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Modern Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Apertura. Revista de innovación educativa‏     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Apex : New Zealand Journal of Gifted Children     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Measurement in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
AR-RIAYAH : Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar     Open Access  
Arabia     Open Access  
Arabiyatuna : Jurnal Bahasa Arab     Open Access  
Archivos de Ciencias de la Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Areté, Revista Digital del Doctorado en Educación de la Universidad Central de Venezuela     Open Access  
Ars Educandi     Open Access  
Art Design & Communication in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Arts Education Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Artseduca : Revista electrónica de educación en las ARTES     Open Access  
ASEAN Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asia Pacific Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Asian Journal of English Language Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Asian Journal of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ASp     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Assessing Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
At-Ta'dib Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
At-Taqaddum     Open Access  
At-Turats     Open Access  
Atenas : Revista Científico Pedagógica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Athenea Digital     Open Access  
ATIKAN : Jurnal Kajian Pendidikan (Journal of Educational Studies)     Open Access  
Aula Abierta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aula de Encuentro     Open Access  
Australasian Journal of Educational Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Australasian Journal of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Art Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian Educational Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Australian Journal of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Australian Journal of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 474)
Australian Journal of Teacher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Screen Education Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Universities' Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Azalea: Journal of Korean Literature & Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bahastra     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Barn : Forskning om barn og barndom i Norden     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BC TEAL Journal     Open Access  
BELAJEA : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
BELIA : Early Childhood Education Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BELT - Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Berkeley Review of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biblioteca Escolar em Revista     Open Access  
Biblioteka i Edukacja     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bildung und Erziehung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioma : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi     Open Access  
Biosaintifika : Journal of Biology & Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biosfer : Jurnal Biologi dan Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
Biosfer : Jurnal Tadris Biologi     Open Access  
Biuletyn Historii Wychowania     Open Access  
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Técnico do Senac     Open Access  
British Educational Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
British Journal of Educational Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
British Journal of Educational Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
British Journal of Music Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
British Journal of Religious Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
British Journal of Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
British Journal of Special Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
British Journal of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Buabandit Journal of Educational Administration     Open Access  
Buletin Fisika     Open Access  
Bulletin De L' Association Thaïlandaise Des Professeurs de Français     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de Física     Open Access  
Caderno de Educação     Open Access  
Caderno Intersabares     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Educação     Open Access  
Cadernos de Estudos e Pesquisa na Educação Básica     Open Access  
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access  
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos de Pesquisa em Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadmo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers de la recherche sur l'éducation et les savoirs     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cakrawala Pendidikan     Open Access  
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Campus Legal Advisor     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Campus Security Report     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian and International Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Academic Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.53
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 64  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1040-2446
Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [311 journals]
  • Training Models for Physician Assistants and Nurse Practitioners:
           Disruptive Innovations That Could Improve Health Professions Education and
           Practice
    • Authors: Sklar; David P.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • More on the Role of USMLE Step 1 in Resident Selection
    • Authors: Deng; Francis; Wesevich, Austin
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • More on the Role of USMLE Step 1 in Resident Selection
    • Authors: Carmody; J. Bryan; Rajasekaran, Senthil K.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • More on the Role of USMLE Step 1 in Resident Selection
    • Authors: Concejo; Bruno Alvarez; Philip, Stephen; Brown, Timothy J.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • In Reply to Deng and Wesevich, to Carmody and Rajasekaran, and to Concejo
           et al
    • Authors: Katsufrakis; Peter J.; Chaudhry, Humayun J.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Considerations of a Resident Recruitment Committee on the USMLE Step 1
           Examination
    • Authors: de Haan; Johanna Blair; Markham, Travis; Ghebremichael, Semhar
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • In Reply to de Haan et al
    • Authors: Chen; David R.; Priest, Kelsey C.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • In Reply to de Haan et al
    • Authors: Andolsek; Kathryn M.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Third-Party Resources for the USMLE: Reconsidering the Role of a Parallel
           Curriculum
    • Authors: Coda; John E.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • In Reply to Coda
    • Authors: Moynahan; Kevin F.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • From Patients to Test Questions: Do Clinical Clerkships Really Improve
           Student Performance on USMLE Step 1'
    • Authors: Le; Dustin; Chan, Donald; Barker, Blake R.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • In Reply to Le et al
    • Authors: Daniel; Michelle; Jurich, Daniel; Santen, Sally A.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Algorithmic Bias and Computer-Assisted Scoring of Patient Notes in the
           USMLE Step 2 Clinical Skills Exam
    • Authors: Spadafore; Maxwell; Monrad, Seetha U.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • In Reply to Spadafore and Monrad
    • Authors: Salt; Jessica; Harik, Polina; Barone, Michael A.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Can a Woman of Color Trust Medical Education'
    • Authors: Marte; Denise
      Abstract: In this Invited Commentary, the author—a second-generation immigrant, a first-generation college graduate, and a woman of color—reflects on the experiences during medical school that shaped her trust in the medical education system. She describes her reasons for entering medicine—to become the kind of doctor she wished she had had growing up. Then she considers how the words physicians use with patients and to talk about patients, which can reinforce problematic narratives and indicate complicity with structural injustices, negatively affect the care they provide. Trainees learn what is acceptable behavior from this hidden curriculum, perpetuating these harmful practices. The author challenges readers to consider how leaders in medical education can work to change this culture to create an education system that trains a physician workforce that keeps patients’ voices and experiences at the center of their care and serves the needs of all patients, regardless of their identities.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • How Patients’ Stories Shape Their Votes: The Role of Health Care in the
           2018 U.S. Midterm Elections
    • Authors: Gordon; Paul; Shapiro, Eve
      Abstract: Reflecting on the 2018 U.S. midterm elections, it is clear that health care coverage once again played an important role. This prompted the authors to look back on their 2016 bike listening tour across the country when they asked people about their views on the Affordable Care Act. Through those conversations, the authors observed that a common thread was the rampant misunderstanding of health insurance coverage and the central role that politicians had in the creation of policy. In this Invited Commentary, the authors explore the results of the 2018 election, particularly in the rural northern areas where they toured in 2016, and the contradictions between what people say they want, what the candidates say they support, and what the facts actually show. They offer suggestions for the role physicians might play with patients in correcting misunderstandings about the health care system and the policies that shape it. Patients do not always make decisions as physicians do. As opposed to evidence and data, they might rely on personal experiences and stories. The authors suggest that physicians might be able to help patients use these stories to inform their decisions, and to help them understand the connection between their personal health care experiences and the votes they cast in elections.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Artist’s Statement: An Imposter Amongst the Chaos
    • Authors: Melvin; Rochelle G.; Simpson, Jory S.
      Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • A Further Examination of Previous and Future Policy Opportunities of the
           Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates
    • Authors: Dauphinee; W. Dale
      Abstract: The Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) has a distinguished history of providing high-quality, innovative products and services to international medical graduates (IMGs) seeking to study and practice medicine in the United States. In 2010, the ECFMG board introduced a policy stating that, starting in 2023, all IMGs applying to the ECFMG for credentialing must have graduated from a medical school that has been accredited by an internationally recognized accrediting body akin to the Liaison Committee on Medical Education in the United States or the World Federation for Medical Education. In this issue of Academic Medicine, Tackett reviews the reasons for the policy and its adoption worldwide. After eight years, the number of schools meeting the new standard is modest. He is concerned about the negative effect a continuing low rate of adoption will have on U.S. postgraduate medical education programs and workforce supply. The author of this Invited Commentary offers three perspectives: an overview of the ECFMG’s successes, alternative measurement tools to ensure the quality of IMGs entering the United States, and frameworks by which an organization like the ECFMG can refine its policy positions and processes for the future. Academia can expect the ECFMG, given its history of successful collaboration and public accountability, to continue using best practices and to adjust policies according to evidence. As a publicly accountable authority, the ECFMG should debrief key stakeholders on current policies, track IMG practice patterns, and share the resulting data with stakeholders to inform their IMG-related planning decisions.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • What Can the Giant Do' Defining the Path to Unsupervised Primary Care
           Practice by Competence, Not Time
    • Authors: Warm; Eric J.; Kinnear, Benjamin
      Abstract: In this issue of Academic Medicine, Dewan and Norcini examine the significant variability of time-in-training between patient care “giants”—the physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants who practice primary care—and they call for further studies to determine optimal training duration and eventual scope of practice. They ask, what is the minimum education and training required to practice primary care, or “how tall is the shortest giant'” In this Invited Commentary, the authors reframe the question from identifying the minimum length of training required, to identifying desired patient care outcomes. Primary care is not a uniform entity. It ranges from complex elderly chronically ill patients, to twentysomething millennials with acute problems, to pregnant women, to families, and everything in between. The authors argue that training should be fit for purpose and produce high-quality outcomes for patients. Competence should be defined by these outcomes. Drawing parallels with Major League Baseball, the authors note that time to competence development will be variable for different training programs depending on purpose, and also variable for people within those programs, even with shared purpose. While time is a tool for competence attainment, it should not be the metric by which readiness for practice is measured.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • One Size Does Not Fit All: Balancing Individual and System Needs in
           Primary Care and Beyond
    • Authors: Whitehead; Cynthia; Paradis, Elise
      Abstract: In this issue, Dewan and Norcini invite readers to reconsider the basic minimum standards for independent primary care practice. Their willingness to push boundaries, question turf wars, and suggest innovative ways forward is laudable. Although their piece is timely and provocative, it does not fully consider the interplay between individual and system factors that influence people to pursue different kinds of degrees and practice in this context. In this Invited Commentary, the authors discuss imperatives that are underacknowledged by Dewan and Norcini: the importance of diversity in health system planning; status, power, and privilege; the extension of their argument beyond primary care; the conflation of time in training with competence; and important issues of distribution of health care resources. Ultimately, the authors argue that there may be strength in diversity, one that should not be obscured by attempts to normalize training time.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Importance of Gaining Insight
    • Authors: Michaelson; Nara Miriam
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Examining the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates
           Announcement Requiring Medical School Accreditation Beginning in 2023
    • Authors: Tackett; Sean
      Abstract: imageIn 2010, the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) announced that, beginning in 2023, graduation from a formally accredited medical school would be necessary for an international medical graduate (IMG) to be eligible for ECFMG certification. The announcement is notable because ECFMG certification is required for graduate medical training and practice in the United States. Graduating from a school accredited by an agency formally recognized by the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME), which has been formally evaluating and recognizing accrediting agencies since 2012, would fulfill the new ECFMG requirement. In 2015, ECFMG applicants came from 1,141 medical schools located in 139 countries or territories. As of December 2018, the WFME had formally recognized 14 accrediting agencies, which would cover only approximately a third of these recent ECFMG-certified IMGs. In this Perspective, the author compares the context of the ECFMG announcement to the beginning of accreditation in the United States so as to provide insight into the challenges the WFME faces as it seeks to evaluate and recognize what could ultimately be over 100 more accrediting authorities. The author then explores the possible effects of the requirement—specifically, its potential to restrict the ECFMG applicant pool—on the quantity and quality of the U.S. physician workforce. The author ends the Perspective by considering the implications of three broad policy options that the ECFMG could consider starting in 2023: implementation as announced, maintenance of the status quo, or a policy modified from the original announcement.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Pathways to Independent Primary Care Clinical Practice: How Tall Is the
           Shortest Giant'
    • Authors: Dewan; Mantosh J.; Norcini, John J.
      Abstract: imagePatients can be treated by a physician, a nurse practitioner (NP), or a physician assistant (PA) despite marked differences in the education and training for these three professions. This natural experiment allows examination of a critical question: What is the minimum education and training required to practice primary care? In other words, how tall is the shortest giant? State licensing requirements, not educational bodies, legislate minimum training. The current minimum is 6 years, which includes 27.5 weeks of supervised clinical experience (SCE), for NPs. In comparison, PAs train for 6 years with 45 weeks of SCE, and physicians for at least 8 years with 110 weeks of SCE. Initial, flawed studies show equivalent patient outcomes among the professions. If rigorous follow-up studies confirm equivalence, the content and length of medical education for primary care physicians should be reconsidered. Unmatched medical school graduates, with 7 years of training and 65 weeks of SCE, more than the required minimum for NPs, deserve to practice independently. So do PAs. If equivalence is not confirmed, the minimum requirements for NPs and/or PAs should be raised, including considering a required residency (currently optional). Alternatively, the scope of practice for the three professions could be defined to reflect differences in training. There is an urgent need to set aside preconceived notions and turf battles, conduct rigorous independent studies, and generate meaningful data on practice patterns and patient outcomes. This should inform optimal training, scope of practice, and workforce development for each invaluable primary care clinical practitioner.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Approaching Impact Meaningfully in Medical Education Research
    • Authors: Friesen; Farah; Baker, Lindsay R.; Ziegler, Carolyn; Dionne, Amy; Ng, Stella L.
      Abstract: imageMedical education research faces increasing pressure to demonstrate impact and utility. These pressures arise amidst a climate of accountability and within a culture of outcome measurement. Conventional metrics for assessing research impact such as citation analysis have been adopted in medical education, despite researchers’ assertion that these quantitative measures insufficiently reflect the value of their work. Every knowledge community has its own definitions of what counts as knowledge, how that knowledge should be produced, and how the quality of that knowledge production should be evaluated. Definitions of impact and knowledge shape and constrain researchers’ foci and endeavors. Therefore, metrics that meaningfully evaluate the knowledge outputs of researchers need to be defined within each field. It is time for medical education research, as a field, to examine how to measure research impact and carefully consider the broader implications these measures may have. The authors discuss developments in research metrics more broadly, then critically examine impact metrics currently used in the medical education field and propose alternatives to more meaningfully track and represent impact in medical education research. Grey metrics and narrative impact stories to more fully capture the richness and nuanced nature of impact in medical education research are introduced. The authors advocate for a continual examination of how impact is defined, eschewing unquestioned use of conventional metrics. A new conversation is needed, as well as a research agenda to help medical education conceptualize and study metrics more appropriate for the field.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • How May I Help You'
    • Authors: Agapoff; James R. IV
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Strengthening Teachers’ Professional Identities Through Faculty
           Development
    • Authors: Steinert; Yvonne; O’Sullivan, Patricia S.; Irby, David M.
      Abstract: Although medical schools espouse a commitment to the educational mission, faculty members often struggle to develop and maintain their identities as teachers. Teacher identity is important because it can exert a powerful influence on career choice, academic roles and responsibilities, and professional development opportunities. However, most faculty development initiatives focus on knowledge and skill acquisition rather than the awakening or strengthening of professional identity. The goal of this Perspective is to highlight the importance of faculty members’ professional identities as teachers, explore how faculty development programs and activities can support teachers’ identities, and describe specific strategies that can be used in professional development. These strategies include the embedding of identity and identity formation into existing offerings by asking questions related to identity, incorporating identity in longitudinal programs, building opportunities for community building and networking, promoting reflection, and capitalizing on mentorship. Stand-alone faculty development activities focusing on teachers’ identities can also be helpful, as can a variety of approaches that advocate for organizational change and institutional support. To achieve excellence in teaching and learning, faculty members need to embrace their identities as teachers and be supported in doing so by their institutions and by faculty development.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Conceptualizing Learning Environments in the Health Professions
    • Authors: Gruppen; Larry D.; Irby, David M.; Durning, Steven J.; Maggio, Lauren A.
      Abstract: imageThe learning environment (LE) is an important and frequently discussed topic in the health professions education literature. However, there is considerable inconsistency in how the LE is defined and described. The authors propose a definition of the LE and a conceptual framework to facilitate health professions educators in understanding, studying, and designing interventions to improve the LE. To arrive at this conceptual framework, the authors employed a living systems perspective that draws on various frameworks and theories, including ecological psychology, workplace learning, situated cognition, and sociomateriality theory. The conceptual framework identifies five overlapping and interactive core components that form two dimensions: the psychosocial dimension and material dimension. The psychosocial dimension comprises three components: the personal, social, and organizational. Intertwined with the psychosocial dimension at each level is the material dimension, which encompasses physical and virtual spaces. This theoretical lens can facilitate identifying and analyzing problems in the LE and guide development of interventions to mitigate them. The authors conclude with several practical suggestions for health professions educators, investigators, and editors.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Exemplary Learning Environments for the Health Professions: A Vision
    • Authors: van Schaik; Sandrijn M.; Reeves, Susan A.; Headrick, Linda A.
      Abstract: imageIn this article, the authors propose a vision for exemplary learning environments in which everyone involved in health professions education and health care collaborates toward optimal health for individuals, populations, and communities. Learning environments in the health professions can be conceptualized as complex adaptive systems, defined as a collection of individual agents whose actions are interconnected and follow a set of shared “simple rules.” Using principles from complex adaptive systems as a guiding framework for the proposed vision, the authors postulate that exemplary learning environments will follow four such simple rules: Health care and health professions education share a goal of improving health for individuals, populations, and communities; in exemplary learning environments, learning is work and work is learning; exemplary learning environments recognize that collaboration with integration of diverse perspectives is essential for success; and the organizations and agents in the learning environments learn about themselves and the greater system they are part of in order to achieve continuous improvement and innovation. For each of the simple rules, the authors describe the details of the vision and how the current state diverges from this vision. They provide actionable ideas about how to reach the vision using specific examples from the literature. In addition, they identify potential targets for assessment to monitor the success of learning environments, including outcome measures at the individual, team, institutional, and societal levels. Such measurements can ensure optimal alignment between health professions education and health care and inform ongoing improvement of learning environments.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Beyond the United States Medical Licensing Examination Score: Assessing
           Competence for Entering Residency
    • Authors: Radabaugh; Carrie L.; Hawkins, Richard E.; Welcher, Catherine M.; Mejicano, George C.; Aparicio, Alejandro; Kirk, Lynne M.; Skochelak, Susan E.
      Abstract: imageAssessments of physician learners during the transition from undergraduate to graduate medical education generate information that may inform their learning and improvement needs, determine readiness to move along the medical education continuum, and predict success in their residency programs. To achieve a constructive transition for the learner, residency program, and patients, high-quality assessments should provide meaningful information regarding applicant characteristics, academic achievement, and competence that lead to a suitable match between the learner and the residency program’s culture and focus.The authors discuss alternative assessment models that may correlate with resident physician clinical performance and patient care outcomes. Currently, passing the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step examinations provides one element of reliable assessment data that could inform judgments about a learner’s likelihood for success in residency. Yet, learner capabilities in areas beyond those traditionally valued in future physicians, such as life experiences, community engagement, language skills, and leadership attributes, are not afforded the same level of influence when candidate selections are made.While promising new methods of screening and assessment—such as objective structured clinical examinations, holistic assessments, and competency-based assessments—have attracted increased attention in the medical education community, currently they may be expensive, be less psychometrically sound, lack a national comparison group, or be complicated to administer. Future research and experimentation are needed to establish measures that can best meet the needs of programs, faculty, staff, students, and, more importantly, patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Collective Lamentation of the Raggio Tomb
    • Authors: Xu; Photo by Jennifer
      Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Commentary on “The Collective Lamentation of the Raggio Tomb”
    • Authors: Xu; Jennifer
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Exceptional Teacher Initiative: Finding a Silver Lining in Addressing
           Medical Student Mistreatment
    • Authors: Blackall; George F.; Wolpaw, Terry; Shapiro, Dan
      Abstract: imageProblem The Penn State College of Medicine (PSCOM) faced escalating reports of learner mistreatment in 2013–2017. As systems were implemented to gather and respond to student reports, faculty members expressed concern that these were creating a culture that focused on negative behaviors to the exclusion of acknowledging outstanding teaching that was also occurring.Approach The Exceptional Teacher Initiative was introduced in August 2017 to attempt to shift the institutional conversation around learner mistreatment by balancing reports of mistreatment with reports highlighting examples of excellent teaching considered in-line with organizational values. The primary goals of the program were to make it easy for students to submit narratives describing outstanding teaching experiences and to capture the nuances of what the teacher did that were notable to the student. Students were invited to write about teachers who challenged and changed them. Narratives were sent to the named teachers and their educational and clinical leaders.Outcomes Over the first 12 months of the Exceptional Teacher Initiative, learners submitted 553 narratives naming 253 different individuals across 37 departments. Faculty members and students expressed appreciation for this effort to highlight the positive. A monthly Exceptional Moments in Teaching feature was introduced in 2018, in which a named educator is featured prominently across the PSCOM.Next Steps Future plans include examining the impact of being named an exceptional teacher, ways exceptional teachers create respectful teaching interactions, and common threads within student narratives that illuminate specific techniques, behaviors, and attitudes that create exceptional teaching experiences.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Fostering Student–Faculty Partnerships for Continuous Curricular
           Improvement in Undergraduate Medical Education
    • Authors: Scott; Kirstin W.; Callahan, Dana G.; Chen, Jie Jane; Lynn, Marissa H.; Cote, David J.; Morenz, Anna; Fisher, Josephine; Antoine, Varnel L.; Lemoine, Elizabeth R.; Bakshi, Shaunak K.; Stuart, Jessie; Hundert, Edward M.; Chang, Bernard S.; Gooding, Holly
      Abstract: imageProblem A number of medical schools have used curricular reform as an opportunity to formalize student involvement in medical education, but there are few published assessments of these programs. Formal evaluation of a program’s acceptability and use is essential for determining its potential for sustainability and generalizability.Approach Harvard Medical School’s Education Representatives (Ed Reps) program was created in 2015 to launch alongside a new curriculum. The program aimed to foster partnerships between faculty and students for continuous and real-time curricular improvement. Ed Reps, course directors, and core faculty met regularly to convey bidirectional feedback to optimize the learning environment in real time.Outcomes A survey to assess the program’s impact was sent to students and faculty. The majority of students (202/222; 91.0%) reported Ed Reps had a positive impact on the curriculum. Among faculty, 35/37 (94.6%) reported making changes to their courses as a result of Ed Reps feedback, and 34/37 (91.9%) agreed the program had a positive impact on the learning environment. Qualitative feedback from students and faculty demonstrated a change in school culture, reflecting the primary goals of partnership and continuous quality improvement (CQI).Next Steps This student–faculty partnership demonstrated high rates of awareness, use, and satisfaction among faculty and students, suggesting its potential for local sustainability and implementation at other schools seeking to formalize student engagement in CQI. Next steps include ensuring the feedback provided is representative of the student body and identifying new areas for student CQI input as the curriculum becomes more established.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • A Core Components Framework for Evaluating Implementation of
           Competency-Based Medical Education Programs
    • Authors: Van Melle; Elaine; Frank, Jason R.; Holmboe, Eric S.; Dagnone, Damon; Stockley, Denise; Sherbino, Jonathan; on behalf of the International Competency-based Medical Education Collaborators
      Abstract: imagePurpose The rapid adoption of competency-based medical education (CBME) provides an unprecedented opportunity to study implementation. Examining “fidelity of implementation”—that is, whether CBME is being implemented as intended—is hampered, however, by the lack of a common framework. This article details the development of such a framework.Method A two-step method was used. First, a perspective indicating how CBME is intended to bring about change was described. Accordingly, core components were identified. Drawing from the literature, the core components were organized into a draft framework. Using a modified Delphi approach, the second step examined consensus amongst an international group of experts in CBME.Results Two different viewpoints describing how a CBME program can bring about change were found: production and reform. Because the reform model was most consistent with the characterization of CBME as a transformative innovation, this perspective was used to create a draft framework. Following the Delphi process, five core components of CBME curricula were identified: outcome competencies, sequenced progression, tailored learning experiences, competency-focused instruction, and programmatic assessment. With some modification in wording, consensus emerged amongst the panel of international experts.Conclusions Typically, implementation evaluation relies on the creation of a specific checklist of practices. Given the ongoing evolution and complexity of CBME, this work, however, focused on identifying core components. Consistent with recent developments in program evaluation, where implementation is described as a developmental trajectory toward fidelity, identifying core components is presented as a fundamental first step toward gaining a more sophisticated understanding of implementation.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Promoting Shared Decision-Making Behaviors During Inpatient Rounds: A
           Multimodal Educational Intervention
    • Authors: Harman; Stephanie M.; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Satterfield, Jason M.; Monash, Brad; Rennke, Stephanie; Yuan, Patrick; Sakai, Debbie S.; Huynh, Eric; Chua, Ian; Hilton, Joan F.; for the Patient Engagement Project
      Abstract: imagePurpose To estimate the effectiveness of a multimodal educational intervention to increase use of shared decision-making (SDM) behaviors by inpatient pediatric and internal medicine hospitalists and trainees at teaching hospitals at Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco.Method The 8-week Patient Engagement Project Study intervention, delivered at four services between November 2014 and January 2015, included workshops, campaign messaging, report cards, and coaching. For 12-week pre- and postintervention periods, clinician peers used the nine-point Rochester Participatory Decision-Making Scale (RPAD) to evaluate rounding teams’ SDM behaviors with patients during ward rounds. Eligible teams included a hospitalist and at least one trainee (resident, intern, medical student), in addition to nonphysicians. Random-effects models were used to estimate intervention effects based on RPAD scores that sum points on nine SDM behaviors per patient encounter.Results In total, 527 patient encounters were scored during 175 rounds led by 49 hospitalists. Patient and team characteristics were similar across pre- and postintervention periods. Improvement was observed on all nine SDM behaviors. Adjusted for the hierarchical study design and covariates, the mean RPAD score improvement was 1.68 points (95% CI, 1.33–2.03; P < .001; Cohen d = 0.82), with intervention effects ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 points per service. Improvements were associated with longer patient encounters and a higher percentage of trainees per team.Conclusions The intervention increased behaviors supporting SDM during ward rounds on four independent services. The findings recommend use of clinician-focused interventions to promote SDM adoption in the inpatient setting.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • A Lexicon of Concepts of Humanistic Medicine: Exploring Different Meanings
           of Caring and Compassion at One Organization
    • Authors: Stergiopoulos; Erene; Ellaway, Rachel H.; Nahiddi, Nima; Martimianakis, Maria A.
      Abstract: imagePurpose There has been scant scholarly attention paid to characterizing how the numerous definitions of terms associated with compassion and humanism have been mobilized or what the organizational implications of pursuing different constructs might be. This study explored the uses and implications of the terminology associated with humanistic medicine in the work of the Associated Medical Services (AMS) Phoenix Project.Method This study involved two phases (2014–2015). First, two pilot group workshops with AMS Phoenix Project participants and stakeholders were conducted to explore ways of parsing and interpreting core concepts used in the project. The authors then assembled an archive of texts associated with the project, comprising the project website and blog posts, conference proceedings, and fellowship and grant applications. Informed by critical discourse analysis, the authors identified, described, and analyzed core terms related to the project’s mission and explored the type of health care practices and reforms implied by their use.Results Two recurring core terms, care/caring and compassion, and eight clusters of terms related to these core terms were identified in the archive. Caring and compassion as terms were articulated in various psychological, sociological, and political configurations. This polysemy reflected a diverse array of health care reform agendas.Conclusions Understanding how different interpretations of caring and compassion cluster around core topics and concerns of humanistic medicine offers scholars an entry point for comparing and appraising the quality and direction of reform agendas, including multilevel strategies that involve systems-level changes.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Clean Sorrow
    • Authors: Glaser; Johanna S.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Attitudes and Habits of Highly Humanistic Surgeons: A Single-Institution,
           Mixed-Methods Study
    • Authors: Swendiman; Robert A.; Marcaccio, Christina L.; Han, Jason; Hoffman, Daniel I.; Weiner, Timothy M.; Nance, Michael L.; Chou, Carol M.
      Abstract: imagePurpose Humanism in medicine is associated with increased patient satisfaction, trust of patients in their doctors, and better outcomes. The authors sought to identify attitudes, habits, and other factors that sustain humanism in academic surgical faculty, and compare these with attributes determined from a previous study of internal medicine faculty.Method A mixed-methods study design at University of Pennsylvania Health System was employed from 2016 to 2018 using a survey instrument and semistructured interviews. Surgical residents nominated faculty who exemplified humanism. In-depth interviews were then conducted with surgeons receiving the most nominations. The interviews were transcribed, and common themes were identified using the grounded theory method. These were compared with findings from a previous internal medicine study.Results Ten faculty described three strongly shared attitudes: humility, responsibility, and a desire to live up to a high standard of professional behavior. Five habits were found important to sustaining these attitudes and their practice: self-reflection, finding deep connections with patients, maintaining personal and professional relationships, “having fun” at work, and paying it forward to surgical trainees. Surgeons also cited the importance of past role models in developing humanistic attitudes and sustaining practice. Responses were compared with previously documented attitudes and habits of humanistic internal medicine faculty at the institution.Conclusions This study identified recurring attitudes and habits that characterize humanistic behaviors in a cohort of academic surgeons. Learning from these exemplary humanistic surgeons may inform the development of future educational programs for residents and faculty in sustaining humanism.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • “Learning the Lingo”: A Grounded Theory Study of Telephone
           Talk in Clinical Education
    • Authors: Eppich; Walter J.; Dornan, Tim; Rethans, Jan-Joost; Teunissen, Pim W.
      Abstract: imagePurpose Workplace-learning literature has focused on doing, but clinical practice also involves talking. Clinicians talk not only with patients but also about patients with other health professionals, frequently by telephone. The authors examined how the underexplored activity of work-related telephone talk influences physicians’ clinical education.Method Using constructivist grounded theory methodology, the authors conducted 17 semistructured interviews with physicians-in-training from various specialties and training levels from two U.S. academic health centers between 2015 and 2017. They collected and analyzed data iteratively using constant comparison to identify themes and explore their relationships. They used theoretical sampling in later stages until sufficiency was achieved.Results Residents and fellows reported speaking via telephone regularly to facilitate patient care and needing to tailor their talk to the goal(s) of the conversation and their conversation partners. Three common conversational situations highlighted the interplay of patient care context and conversation and created productive conversational tensions that influenced learning positively: experiencing and dealing with (1) power differentials, (2) pushback, and (3) uncertainty.Conclusions Telephone talk contributes to postgraduate clinical education. Through telephone talk, physicians-in-training learn how to talk; they also learn through talk that is mediated by productive conversational tensions. These tensions motivate them to modify their behavior to minimize future tensions. When physicians-in-training improve how they talk, they become better advocates for their patients and more effective at promoting patient care. Preparing residents to deal with power differentials, pushback, and uncertainty in telephone talk could support their learning from this ubiquitous workplace activity.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Scoping Review of Entrustable Professional Activities in Undergraduate
           Medical Education
    • Authors: Meyer; Eric G.; Chen, H. Carrie; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian; Durning, Steven J.; Maggio, Lauren A.
      Abstract: imagePurpose Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are a hot topic in undergraduate medical education (UME); however, the usefulness of EPAs as an assessment approach remains unclear. The authors sought to better understand the literature on EPAs in UME through the lens of the 2010 Ottawa Conference Criteria for Good Assessment.Method The authors conducted a scoping review of the health professions literature (search updated February 2018), mapping publications to the Ottawa Criteria using a collaboratively designed charting tool.Results Of the 1,089 publications found, 71 (6.5%) met inclusion criteria. All were published after 2013. Forty-five (63.4%) referenced the 13 Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency developed by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). Forty (56.3%) were perspectives, 5 (7.0%) were reviews, and 26 (36.6%) were prospective empirical studies. The publications mapped to the Ottawa Criteria 158 times. Perspectives mapped more positively (83.7%) than empirical studies (76.7%). Reproducibility did not appear to be a strength of EPAs in UME; however, reproducibility, equivalence, educational effect, and catalytic effect all require further study. Inconsistent use of the term “EPA” and conflation of concepts (activity vs assessment vs advancement decision vs curricular framework) limited interpretation of published results. Overgeneralization of the AAMC’s work on EPAs has influenced the literature.Conclusions Much has been published on EPAs in UME in a short time. Now is the time to move beyond opinion, clarify terms, and delineate topics so that well-designed empirical studies can demonstrate if and how EPAs should be implemented in UME.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Influence of Prior Performance Information on Ratings of Current
           Performance and Implications for Learner Handover: A Scoping Review
    • Authors: Humphrey-Murto; Susan; LeBlanc, Aaron; Touchie, Claire; Pugh, Debra; Wood, Timothy J.; Cowley, Lindsay; Shaw, Tammy
      Abstract: imagePurpose Learner handover (LH) is the sharing of information about trainees between faculty supervisors. This scoping review aimed to summarize key concepts across disciplines surrounding the influence of prior performance information (PPI) on current performance ratings and implications for LH in medical education.Method The authors used the Arksey and O’Malley framework to systematically select and summarize the literature. Cross-disciplinary searches were conducted in six databases in 2017–2018 for articles published after 1969. To represent PPI relevant to LH in medical education, eligible studies included within-subject indirect PPI for work-type performance and rating of an individual current performance. Quantitative and thematic analyses were conducted.Results Of 24,442 records identified through database searches and 807 through other searches, 23 articles containing 24 studies were included. Twenty-two studies (92%) reported an assimilation effect (current ratings were biased toward the direction of the PPI). Factors modifying the effect of PPI were observed, with larger effects for highly polarized PPI, negative (vs positive) PPI, and early (vs subsequent) performances. Specific standards, rater motivation, and certain rater characteristics mitigated context effects, whereas increased rater processing demands heightened them. Mixed effects were seen with nature of the performance and with rater expertise and training.Conclusions PPI appears likely to influence ratings of current performance, and an assimilation effect is seen with indirect PPI. Whether these findings generalize to medical education is unknown, but they should be considered by educators wanting to implement LH. Future studies should explore PPI in medical education contexts and real-world settings.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Aligning and Applying the Paradigms and Practices of Education
    • Authors: Baker; Lindsay; Shing, Li Ka; Wright, Sarah; Mylopoulos, Maria; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Ng, Stella
      Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 GMT-
       
 
 
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