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  Subjects -> EDUCATION (Total: 1867 journals)
    - ADULT EDUCATION (24 journals)
    - COLLEGE AND ALUMNI (9 journals)
    - E-LEARNING (23 journals)
    - EDUCATION (1572 journals)
    - HIGHER EDUCATION (121 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS (4 journals)
    - ONLINE EDUCATION (29 journals)
    - SCHOOL ORGANIZATION (13 journals)
    - SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION (35 journals)
    - TEACHING METHODS AND CURRICULUM (37 journals)

EDUCATION (1572 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 857 Journals sorted alphabetically
#Tear : Revista de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
(Pensamiento), (palabra) y obra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
@tic. revista d'innovació educativa     Open Access  
Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
About Campus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Academic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Academic Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Academic Questions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Academy of Educational Leadership Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Academy of Management Learning and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Accounting & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Accounting Education: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Across the Disciplines     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Didactica Norge     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Education     Open Access  
Acta Technologica Dubnicae     Open Access  
Action in Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Action Learning: Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Action Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Active Learning in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267)
Actualidades Pedagógicas     Open Access  
Adelphi series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Administration & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 161)
Adult Education Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147)
Advanced Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Health Sciences Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in School Mental Health Promotion     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
AERA Open     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Africa Education Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 24)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AGORA Magazine     Open Access  
Ahmad Dahlan Journal of English Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AIDS Education and Prevention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Akadémiai Értesítö     Full-text available via subscription  
Aksiologiya : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AKSIOMA Journal of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Idarah : Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
Al-Jabar : Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
Alexandria : Revista de Educação em Ciência e Tecnologia     Open Access  
Alsic     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Alteridad     Open Access  
Amasya Universitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Ambiente & Educação : Revista de Educação Ambiental     Open Access  
American Annals of the Deaf     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Educational Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Distance Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 171)
American Journal of Educational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
American Journal of Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
American String Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annali dell'Universita di Ferrara     Hybrid Journal  
Annals of Dyslexia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Modern Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Apertura. Revista de innovación educativa‏     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Measurement in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Arabia     Open Access  
Art Design & Communication in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Arts Education Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ASHE Higher Education Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Asia Pacific Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asia Pacific Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Asia-Pacific Education Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Asian Association of Open Universities Journal     Open Access  
Asian Education and Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of English Language Teaching     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ASp     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Assessing Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137)
Assessment for Effective Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Assessment Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
At-Ta'dib Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
At-Taqaddum     Open Access  
At-Turats     Open Access  
Athenea Digital     Open Access  
Aula Abierta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Educational Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Australasian Journal of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Journal of Special Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Art Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Educational Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational Researcher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Australian Journal of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Australian Journal of Career Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 435)
Australian Journal of Teacher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Screen Education Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Universities' Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 230)
Avaliação : Revista da Avaliação da Educação Superior (Campinas)     Open Access  
Azalea: Journal of Korean Literature & Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bahastra     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BELIA : Early Childhood Education Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BELT - Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biblioteca Escolar em Revista     Open Access  
Biblioteka i Edukacja     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bildung und Erziehung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioma : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi     Open Access  
Biosaintifika : Journal of Biology & Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biosfer : Jurnal Biologi dan Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
BMJ Simulation & Technology Enhanced Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BoEM - Boletim online de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Cearense de Educação e História da Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim de Educação Matemática     Open Access  
Boletim Técnico do Senac     Open Access  
BOSAPARIS : Pendidikan Kesejahteraan Keluarga     Open Access  
British Educational Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
British Journal of Educational Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149)
British Journal of Educational Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
British Journal of Music Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
British Journal of Religious Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
British Journal of Sociology of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
British Journal of Special Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
British Journal of Visual Impairment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Caderno Brasileiro de Ensino de Física     Open Access  
Caderno Intersabares     Open Access  
Cadernos CEDES     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Educação     Open Access  
Cadernos de Educação, Tecnologia e Sociedade     Open Access  
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access  
Cadernos de Pesquisa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos de Pesquisa em Educação     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadmo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers de la recherche sur l'éducation et les savoirs     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cakrawala Pendidikan     Open Access  
Calidad en la educación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Campus Legal Advisor     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Campus Security Report     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian and International Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education/ Revue canadienne des jeunes chercheures et chercheurs en éducation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Journal of Education : Revue canadienne de l'éducation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Journal of Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology / La revue canadienne de l’apprentissage et de la technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Journal of School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalejos. Revista sobre lectura, formación de lectores y literatura para niños     Open Access  
Catharsis : Journal of Arts Education     Open Access  
CELE Exchange, Centre for Effective Learning Environments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Changing English: Studies in Culture and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Charrette     Open Access  
Chemical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chi'e : Journal of Japanese Learning and Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Child Language Teaching and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Child Psychiatry & Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Childhood Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Children's Literature in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chinese Education & Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Christian Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Christian Perspectives in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ciência & Educação (Bauru)     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ciencias Sociales y Educación     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Citizenship, Social and Economics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Classroom Discourse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clio y Asociados     Open Access  
CME     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Academic Medicine
  [SJR: 2.202]   [H-I: 107]   [61 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1040-2446
   Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [290 journals]
  • Moving From Professionalism to Empowerment: Taking a Hard Look at Resident
           Hours
    • Authors: Sklar; David P.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Accessing Electronic Health Records: A Misperception Corrected
    • Authors: Hammoud; Maya M.; Beck Dallaghan, Gary L.; Morgenstern, Bruce Z.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • A Transformative Learning Approach to Teaching Management Skills in
           Medical Education
    • Authors: Khoo; Hwee Sing; Teo, Winnie L.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • In Reply to Khoo and Teo
    • Authors: Myers; Christopher G.; Pronovost, Peter J.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Daunting Career of the Physician–Investigator: Don’t Blame
           It on the EMR
    • Authors: Fochtmann; Laura J.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • In Reply to Fochtmann
    • Authors: McKinney; Ross E. Jr
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Addressing Uncertainty in Burnout Assessment
    • Authors: Palamara; Kerri; Linzer, Mark; Shanafelt, Tait D.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • A Neglected Problem in Burnout Research
    • Authors: Bianchi; Renzo; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Laurent, Eric
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • In Reply to Palamara and colleagues and to Bianchi and colleagues
    • Authors: Kirkpatrick; Heather; Barbera, Thomas
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • A Different View on Political Activism
    • Authors: Lenchus; Joshua D.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • In Reply to Lenchus
    • Authors: Levinsohn; Erik A.; Wang, Priscilla; Shahu, Andi; Robledo-Gil, Talia; Berk-Krauss, Juliana
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • From Subsistence to Sustenance in Physician–Scientist Training
    • Authors: Patel; Chirag B.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Learning to Teach
    • Authors: Mullan; Clancy W.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Privilege of Patient Care: Often Experienced, Rarely Discussed
    • Authors: Torchia; Michael
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Unlocking the Closet Door: Recurrent Identity Disclosure Experiences Among
           LGBTQ Students
    • Authors: Lourie; Michael A.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Finding Focus: Recruiting and Supporting Underrepresented Minority
           Trainees Starts With Faculty
    • Authors: Youmans; Quentin; Suleiman, Linda
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Learning From Pediatrics to Secure Medical Education for the Future
    • Authors: Mileder; Lukas P.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • How to Maximize Happiness, Stability, and Success Among Medical School
           Applicants
    • Authors: Satarasinghe; Praveen
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • From Theoretical Physics to Atomic Bombs: Learning to Value Medical
           Epistemology
    • Authors: Mazer; Benjamin L.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • On Transitions in Training: Boost Bioethics Education
    • Authors: Rosseel; Sophie
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Beyond USMLE Step 1
    • Authors: Haider; Syeda Razia
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • A Rose by Other Names: Some General Musings on Lawrence and Colleagues’
           Hidden Curriculum Scoping Review
    • Authors: Hafferty; Frederic W.; Martimianakis, Maria Athina
      Abstract: In this Commentary, the authors explore the scoping review by Lawrence and colleagues by challenging their conclusion that with over 25 years’ worth of “ambiguous and seemingly ubiquitous use” of the hidden curriculum construct in health professions education scholarship, it is time to either move to a more uniform definitional foundation or abandon the term altogether. The Commentary authors counter these remedial propositions by foregrounding the importance of theoretical diversity and the conceptual richness afforded when the hidden curriculum construct is used as an entry point for studying the interstitial space between the formal and a range of other-than-formal domains of learning. They document how tightly delimited scoping strategies fail to capture the wealth of educational scholarship that operates within a hidden curriculum framework, including “hidden” hidden curriculum articles, studies that employ alternative constructs, and investigations that target important tacit sociocultural influences on learners and faculty without formally deploying the term. They offer examples of how the hidden curriculum construct, while undergoing significant transformation in its application within the field of health professions education, has created the conceptual foundation for the application of a number of critical perspectives that make visible the field’s political investments in particular forms of knowing and associated practices. Finally, the Commentary authors invite readers to consider the methodological promise afforded by conceptual heterogeneity, particularly strands of scholarship that resituate the hidden curriculum concept within the magically expansive dance of social relationships, social learning, and social life that form the learning environments of health professions education.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Artist's Statement: To Zanzibar by Motor Car, Please!
    • Authors: Love; Nick
      Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Academic Medicine and Medical Professionalism: A Legacy and a Portal Into
           an Evolving Field of Educational Scholarship
    • Authors: Hafferty; Frederic W.
      Abstract: In this Invited Commentary, the author examines two curated Academic Medicine volumes showcasing foundational research and key writings on professionalism in medicine and medical education, collectively spanning from 1994 to 2016. The author reviews the beginnings of the medical professionalism movement and examines how the trends and themes reflected in the first volume—specifically the work to define, assess, and institutionalize professionalism—capture key elements in this movement. He then examines how the trends and themes in the second volume align with and build on those from the first, noting two themes that extend across a number of second volume articles: a unit-of-analysis issue and the challenge of context. The author identifies several topics that have yet to be adequately mined and calls attention to two bridge-spanning articles in the second volume that, respectively, take us into the future (around the topic of identify formation) and back to the past (on the hidden curriculum). Finally, the author reflects on “directions home” in medicine’s noble search for its moral core and collective identity.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Creating Structured Opportunities for Social Engagement to Promote
           Well-Being and Avoid Burnout in Medical Students and Residents
    • Authors: Ziegelstein; Roy C.
      Abstract: Increasing attention is being paid to medical student and resident well-being, as well as to enhancing resilience and avoiding burnout in medical trainees. Medical schools and residency programs are implementing wellness initiatives that often include meditation and other mindfulness activities, self-reflection, journaling, and lectures or workshops on resilience tools such as metacognition and cognitive restructuring. These interventions have in common the creation of opportunities for trainees to become more aware of their experiences, to better recognize stressors, and to regulate their thoughts and feelings so that stressors are less likely to have harmful effects. They often enable trainees to temporarily distance themselves mentally and emotionally from a stressful environment. In this Invited Commentary, the author suggests that medical school leaders and residency program directors should also create structured opportunities for trainees to establish meaningful connections with each other to provide greater social support and thereby reduce the harmful effects of stress. Social connection and engagement, as well as group identification, have potential to promote well-being and reduce burnout during training.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Take-Home Lessons From Abroad
    • Authors: Medina; Cindy
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Removing Barriers and Facilitating Access: Increasing the Number of
           Physicians With Disabilities
    • Authors: Meeks; Lisa M.; Herzer, Kurt; Jain, Neera R.
      Abstract: Nearly one-fifth of the U.S. population has a disability, and many of these Americans experience disparities in the health care they receive. In part, these health care disparities result from a lack of understanding about disability by health care providers. The education of physicians is grounded in a biomedical model that emphasizes pathology, impairment, or dysfunction, rather than a social model of disability that focuses on removing barriers for individuals with disabilities and improving their capabilities. According to a recent report, only 2.7% of medical students disclosed having disabilities—far fewer than the proportion of people with disabilities in the U.S. population. Including students and other trainees with disabilities—those with lived experiences of disability who can empathize with patients and serve as an example for their peers—in medical education is one mechanism to address the health care disparities faced by individuals with disabilities. At present, medical students and residents with disabilities face structural barriers related to policies and procedures, clinical accommodations, disability and wellness support services, and the physical environment. Additionally, many face cultural barriers related to the overarching attitudes, beliefs, and values prevalent at their medical school. In this Commentary, the authors review the state of disability in medical education and training, summarize key findings from an Association of American Medical Colleges special report on disability, and discuss considerations for medical educators to improve inclusion, including emerging technologies that can enhance access for students with disabilities.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Are You Sure You Want to Do That' Fostering the Responsible Conduct of
           Medical Education Research
    • Authors: Maggio; Lauren A.; Artino, Anthony R. Jr; Picho, Katherine; Driessen, Erik W.
      Abstract: Engaging in questionable research practices (QRPs) is a noted problem across many disciplines, including medical education. While QRPs are rarely discussed in the context of medical education, that does not mean that medical education researchers are immune. Therefore, the authors seek to raise medical educators’ awareness of the responsible conduct of research (RCR) and call the community to action before QRPs negatively affect the field.The authors define QRPs and introduce examples that could easily happen in medical education research because of vulnerabilities particular to the field. The authors suggest that efforts in research, including medical education research, should focus on facilitating a change in the culture of research to foster RCR, and that these efforts should make explicit both the individual and system factors that ultimately influence researcher behavior. They propose a set of approaches within medical education training initiatives to foster such a culture: empowering research mentors as role models, open airing of research conduct dilemmas and infractions, protecting whistle blowers, establishing mechanisms for facilitating responsibly conducted research, and rewarding responsible researchers.The authors recommend that efforts at culture change be focused on the growing graduate programs, fellowships, and faculty academies in medical education to ensure that RCR training is an integral component for both students and faculty. They encourage medical education researchers to think creatively about solutions to the challenges they face and to act together as an international community to avoid wasting research efforts, damaging careers, and stunting medical education research through QRPs.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Five Dimensions of Research Ethics: A Stakeholder Framework for Creating a
           Climate of Research Integrity
    • Authors: DuBois; James M.; Antes, Alison L.
      Abstract: imageThe authors explore five dimensions of research ethics: (1) normative ethics, which includes meta-ethical questions; (2) compliance with regulations, statutes, and institutional policies; (3) the rigor and reproducibility of science; (4) social value; and (5) workplace relationships. Each of the five dimensions is important not only because it addresses an aspect of good research done in a good manner but also because it addresses the concerns of key stakeholders in the research enterprise. The five-dimension framework can guide institutions as they answer three questions central to any research ethics program: (1) Who should champion research ethics? (2) What should interventions look like? and (3) Who should participate in the interventions? The framework is valuable because the answers to these three questions are radically different depending on the dimension under consideration. An expanded vision of research ethics does not entail that institutions should require additional online training or approvals from institutional review boards. However, without acknowledging all five dimensions, programs risk missing an important aspect of research ethics or ignoring the interests of important stakeholders.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Broadening the Scope of Feedback to Promote Its Relevance to Workplace
           Learning
    • Authors: van der Leeuw; Renée M.; Teunissen, Pim W.; van der Vleuten, Cees P.M.
      Abstract: The common goal in medical education is to support the health care workforce, both present and future, in becoming and remaining competent professionals. Both during and after medical training, learning takes place in the clinical workplace. Yet, how feedback is defined in medical education and how it is practiced in clinical training situations, combined with a research focus on “what works,” limits its potential for learning. This article explores the theoretical background of learning in interaction and current trends in medical education to broaden the scope of feedback and promote its relevance to workplace learning.A new, wider perspective is outlined in which feedback could be redefined as “performance-relevant information” (PRI). PRI can incorporate all information that is deemed relevant to the learner, drawn from interaction in workplace learning and one’s interpretation of performance in the clinical workplace. This information can, for example, come from the evaluation of patient outcomes after treatment; observations of role models’ performance; evaluations and assessments; exploring feelings of failure or success; and responses of colleagues and peers.PRI draws attention to learning opportunities that better fit the highly social learning of clinical workplaces and current trends in medical education. It supports the interpretation of individual or team performance in terms of relevance to learning. This allows for a comprehensive way of viewing and stimulating workplace learning and the performance of professionals, providing an opportunity to create lifelong learning strategies and potentially improving the care of patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Criterion-Based Assessment in a Norm-Based World: How Can We Move Past
           Grades'
    • Authors: Pereira; Anne G.; Woods, Majka; Olson, Andrew P.J.; van den Hoogenhof, Suzanne; Duffy, Briar L.; Englander, Robert
      Abstract: In the United States, the medical education community has begun a shift from the Flexnerian time-based model to a competency-based medical education model. The graduate medical education (GME) community is substantially farther along in this transition than is the undergraduate medical education (UME) community.GME has largely adopted the use of competencies and their attendant milestones and increasingly is employing the framework of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) to assess trainee competence. The UME community faces several challenges to successfully navigating a similar transition. First is the reliance on norm-based reference standards in the UME–GME transition, comparing students’ performance versus their peers’ with grades, United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and Step 2 score interpretation, and the structured Medical School Performance Evaluation, or dean’s letter. Second is the reliance on proxy assessments rather than direct observation of learners. Third is the emphasis on summative rather than formative assessments.Educators have overcome a major barrier to change by establishing UME outcomes assessment criteria with the advent and general acceptance of the physician competency reference set and the Core EPAs for Entering Residency in UME. Now is the time for the hard work of developing assessments steeped in direct observation that can be accepted by learners and faculty across the educational continuum and can be shown to predict clinical performance in a much more meaningful way than the current measures of grades and examinations. The acceptance of such assessments will facilitate the UME transition toward competency-based medical education.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • U.S. Physician–Scientist Workforce in the 21st Century: Recommendations
           to Attract and Sustain the Pipeline
    • Authors: Salata; Robert A.; Geraci, Mark W.; Rockey, Don C.; Blanchard, Melvin; Brown, Nancy J.; Cardinal, Lucien J.; Garcia, Maria; Madaio, Michael P.; Marsh, James D.; Todd, Robert F. III
      Abstract: imageThe U.S. physician–scientist (PS) workforce is invaluable to the nation’s biomedical research effort. It is through biomedical research that certain diseases have been eliminated, cures for others have been discovered, and medical procedures and therapies that save lives have been developed. Yet, the U.S. PS workforce has both declined and aged over the last several years. The resulting decreased inflow and outflow to the PS pipeline renders the system vulnerable to collapsing suddenly as the senior workforce retires. In November 2015, the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine hosted a consensus conference on the PS workforce to address issues impacting academic medical schools, with input from early-career PSs based on their individual experiences and concerns. One of the goals of the conference was to identify current impediments in attracting and supporting PSs and to develop a new set of recommendations for sustaining the PS workforce in 2016 and beyond. This Perspective reports on the opportunities and factors identified at the conference and presents five recommendations designed to increase entry into the PS pipeline and nine recommendations designed to decrease attrition from the PS workflow.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Collaboration and Teamwork in the Health Professions: Rethinking the Role
           of Conflict
    • Authors: Eichbaum; Quentin
      Abstract: imageWhereas the business professions have long recognized that conflict can be a source of learning and innovation, the health professions still tend to view conflict negatively as being disruptive, inefficient, and unprofessional. As a consequence, the health professions tend to avoid conflict or resolve it quickly. This neglect to appreciate conflict’s positive attributes appears to be driven in part by (1) individuals’ fears about being negatively perceived and the potential negative consequences in an organization of being implicated in conflict, (2) constrained views and approaches to professionalism and to evaluation and assessment, and (3) lingering autocracies and hierarchies of power that view conflict as a disruptive threat.The author describes changing perspectives on collaboration and teamwork in the health professions, discusses how the health professions have neglected to appreciate the positive attributes of conflict, and presents three alternative approaches to more effectively integrating conflict into collaboration and teamwork in the health professions. These three approaches are (1) cultivating psychological safety on teams to make space for safe interpersonal risk taking, (2) viewing conflict as a source of expansive learning and innovation (via models such as activity theory), and (3) democratizing hierarchies of power through health humanities education ideally by advancing the health humanities to the core of the curriculum.The author suggests that understanding conflict’s inevitability and its innovative potential, and integrating it into collaboration and teamwork, may have a reassuring and emancipating impact on individuals and teams. This may ultimately improve performance in health care organizations.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • A Purpose-Driven Fourth Year of Medical School
    • Authors: Dewan; Mantosh; Norcini, John
      Abstract: imageThe fourth year of medical school has been repeatedly found to be ineffective, and concerns exist about its purpose and academic quality, as well as grade inflation. Since Flexner, the purpose of undergraduate medical training has moved from readiness for independent practice to readiness for postgraduate training. However, training directors report that medical graduates are inadequately prepared to enter residency. The authors propose a fourth year with two components: first, a yearlong, longitudinal ambulatory experience of at least three days each week on an interprofessional team with consistent faculty supervision and mentoring, increasing independence, and a focus on education; and second, rigorous clinical-scales-based assessment of meaningful outcomes.In the proposed model, the medical student has generous time with a limited panel of patients, and increasing autonomy, with faculty moving from supervising physicians to collaborating physicians. There is regular assessment and formative feedback. This more independent, longitudinal clinical experience uniquely allows assessment of the most meaningful work-based performance outcomes—that is, patient outcomes assessed by validated clinical scales. The proposed fourth year will require a realignment of resources and faculty time; however, models already exist. Barriers and possible solutions are discussed.A purpose-driven, assessment-rich fourth year with patient and supervisor continuity will provide real-world experience, making medical graduates more competent and confident on the first day of residency. Use of clinical scales will also allow educators new confidence that the performance-based competence of these more experienced and expert graduates leads to demonstrable collaboration, healing, and good patient outcomes.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Professionalism and Integrity in Research Program: Description and
           Preliminary Outcomes
    • Authors: DuBois; James M.; Chibnall, John T.; Tait, Raymond; Vander Wal, Jillon S.
      Abstract: imageViolations of rules and regulations in research can cause significant problems for human participants, animal subjects, data integrity, institutions, and investigators. The Professionalism and Integrity in Research Program (PI Program) provides remediation training that addresses the root causes of violations of rules and regulations in research. Through assessments, a three-day workshop, and follow-up coaching calls, the PI Program teaches evidence-based decision-making strategies designed to help researchers to compensate for bias, uncertainty, and work-related stress, and foster the skills needed to oversee research projects in today’s complex regulatory environments. Across its first three years (2013–2015), the program trained 39 researchers from 24 different institutions in the United States. Participant evaluations of the program’s faculty and workshop content were highly positive (4.7–4.8 and 4.5–4.6, respectively, on a 5-point scale). Preliminary program outcome assessment using validated measures of professional decision making and cognitive distortions in a pre- and postworkshop design indicated significant improvements. A follow-up survey of participants found statistically significant increases in a variety of target behaviors, including training research staff members to foster compliance and research quality, using standard operating procedures to support compliance and research integrity, performing self-audits of research operations, reducing job stressors, actively overseeing the work of the research team, and seeking help when experiencing uncertainty. Assessment of the PI Program was conducted with modest sample sizes, yet evaluation, outcome assessment, and self-reported survey data provided statistically significant evidence of effectiveness in achieving program goals.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Description and Early Outcomes of a Comprehensive Curriculum Redesign at
           the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
    • Authors: Heiman; Heather L.; O’Brien, Celia L.; Curry, Raymond H.; Green, Marianne M.; Baker, James F.; Kushner, Robert F.; Thomas, John X.; Corbridge, Thomas C.; Corcoran, Julia F.; Hauser, Joshua M.; Garcia, Patricia M.
      Abstract: imageIn 2012, the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine launched a redesigned curriculum addressing the four primary recommendations in the 2010 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching report on reforming medical education. This new curriculum provides a more standardized evaluation of students’ competency achievement through a robust portfolio review process coupled with standard evaluations of medical knowledge and clinical skills. It individualizes learning processes through curriculum flexibility, enabling students to take electives earlier and complete clerkships in their preferred order. The new curriculum is integrated both horizontally and vertically, combining disciplines within organ-based modules and deliberately linking elements (science in medicine, clinical medicine, health and society, professional development) and threads (medical decision making, quality and safety, teamwork and leadership, lifestyle medicine, advocacy and equity) across the three phases that replaced the traditional four-year timeline. It encourages students to conduct research in an area of interest and commit to lifelong learning and self-improvement. The curriculum formalizes the process of professional identity formation and requires students to reflect on their experiences with the informal and hidden curricula, which strongly shape their identities.The authors describe the new curriculum structure, explain their approach to each Carnegie report recommendation, describe early outcomes and challenges, and propose areas for further work. Early data from the first cohort to progress through the curriculum show unchanged United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and 2 scores, enhanced student research engagement and career exploration, and improved student confidence in the patient care and professional development domains.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Mansfield Park: [Excerpt]
    • Authors: Austen; Jane
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Commentary on an Excerpt From Mansfield Park
    • Authors: Arjmand; Susan
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Speaking Up: An Ethical Action Exercise
    • Authors: Dwyer; James; Faber-Langendoen, Kathy
      Abstract: imageProblem Health care professionals encounter situations in which they need to speak up to prevent harm, ensure better care, and/or address unprofessional behavior. Speaking up is often difficult, especially for medical students; nonetheless, it is a skill students must practice, so they can better advocate for patients.Approach The authors have designed an ethical action exercise and incorporated it into a required bioethics course that meets concurrently with third-year clerkships. The exercise requires students to speak up to try to correct, resolve, or improve one situation during a clerkship. The exercise involves overt action, but students determine how, where, and when to act.Outcomes In 2013–2014, 111 students at State University of New York Upstate Medical University completed the exercise. Most spoke up about situations in which they thought that some aspect of patient care could be improved (n = 78; 70%); others spoke up when they perceived unprofessional conduct (n = 32; 29%). Although most students found speaking up to be difficult (n = 96; 86%), speaking up often led to improved care (n = 46; 41%). As a result of completing the ethical action exercise, 2 students reported becoming less likely to speak up in the future, whereas 64 students reported becoming more likely.Next Steps Going forward, the authors want to address three issues: the development of lasting habits, the role of culture, and connections with other initiatives to improve care.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Using a Modified A3 Lean Framework to Identify Ways to Increase
           Students’ Reporting of Mistreatment Behaviors
    • Authors: Ross; Paula T.; Abdoler, Emily; Flygt, LeeAnne; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S.; Santen, Sally A.
      Abstract: imageProblem The proportion of students who experience mistreatment is significantly higher than the proportion of students who report mistreatment. Identifying ways to improve students’ reporting of these incidents is one strategy for increasing opportunities to achieve resolution and prevent future occurrences.Approach The authors applied a modified A3 Lean framework to examine medical student reporting of mistreatment behaviors at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) in 2013–2016. The A3 Lean framework is a stepwise approach that involves outlining the background to establish the context of the problem, describing the current condition, identifying the goal or desired outcome, analyzing causes of the problem, providing proposed countermeasures for improvement, and creating follow-up plans. The authors identified three reasons for the difference between students’ experiences and reporting of mistreatment and developed five countermeasures/action plan items to address this difference.Outcomes The proportion of students reporting mistreatment at UMMS increased 21.4% between 2013 and 2016. Compared with 2013, more students in 2016 indicated not reporting because the incident did not seem important enough or because they resolved the issue on their own.Next Steps The authors have enlisted the support of the health system’s human resources department and presented the inaugural grand rounds on improving the learning environment in 2016. Among other things, they are also partnering with this team to add questions about student mistreatment and civility to the annual employee engagement survey distributed to all 20,000 employees.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Lessons We Learned From Each Other
    • Authors: Gardner; Aimee K.
      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Why Does This Learner Perform Poorly on Tests' Using Self-Regulated
           Learning Theory to Diagnose the Problem and Implement Solutions
    • Authors: Andrews; Mary A.; Kelly, William F.; DeZee, Kent J.
      Abstract: imageProblem Learners who underperform on standardized tests are common throughout all levels of medical education and require considerable faculty time and effort to remediate. Current methods for remediating test-taking difficulties are typically not grounded in educational theory or supported by high-quality evidence.Approach A test-taking assessment was developed based on self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic assessment and training and used during academic year 2012–2013. This method assesses the SRL subprocesses of strategic planning, self-monitoring, causal attributions, and adaptive inferences during the educational task of answering test questions. The method was designed for one-on-one use by teacher and learner, and for learner self-assessment and practice.Outcomes At one academic institution, this method was used to categorize learners into struggling test-taker subtypes which correspond to deficiencies in the SRL subprocesses outlined above. A learning plan based on the SRL deficiency was developed for each struggling test-taker subtype. In a small number of internal medicine residents with low in-training examination scores, use of this method yielded improvements in 2013 in-training examination score that doubled the expected improvement based on historical averages.Next Steps This method is a novel application of SRL theory to a commonly encountered problem in medical education: the learner who performs poorly on tests. Large-scale, multicenter studies of medical learners at a variety of training levels and program types are needed to determine the effectiveness and generalizability of this intervention.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Race/Ethnicity and Success in Academic Medicine: Findings From a
           Longitudinal Multi-Institutional Study
    • Authors: Kaplan; Samantha E.; Raj, Anita; Carr, Phyllis L.; Terrin, Norma; Breeze, Janis L.; Freund, Karen M.
      Abstract: imagePurpose To understand differences in productivity, advancement, retention, satisfaction, and compensation comparing underrepresented medical (URM) faculty with other faculty at multiple institutions.Method A 17-year follow-up was conducted of the National Faculty Survey, a random sample from 24 U.S. medical schools, oversampled for URM faculty. The authors examined academic productivity, advancement, retention, satisfaction, and compensation, comparing white, URM, and non-URM faculty. Retention, productivity, and advancement data were obtained from public sources for nonrespondents. Covariates included gender, specialty, time distribution, and years in academia. Negative binomial regression was used for count data, logistic regression for binary outcomes, and linear regression for continuous outcomes.Results In productivity analyses, advancement, and retention, 1,270 participants were included; 604 participants responded to the compensation and satisfaction survey. Response rates were lower for African American (26%) and Hispanic faculty (39%) than white faculty (52%, P < .0001). URM faculty had lower rates of peer-reviewed publications (relative number 0.64; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.79), promotion to professor (OR = 0.53; CI: 0.30, 0.93), and retention in academic medicine (OR = 0.49; CI: 0.32, 0.75). No differences were identified in federal grant acquisition, senior leadership roles, career satisfaction, or compensation between URM and white faculty.Conclusions URM and white faculty had similar career satisfaction, grant support, leadership, and compensation; URM faculty had fewer publications and were less likely to be promoted and retained in academic careers. Successful retention of URM faculty requires comprehensive institutional commitment to changing the academic climate and deliberative programming to support productivity and advancement.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Actual Versus Idealized Self: Exploring Responses to Feedback About
           Implicit Bias in Health Professionals
    • Authors: Sukhera; Javeed; Milne, Alexandra; Teunissen, Pim W.; Lingard, Lorelei; Watling, Chris
      Abstract: imagePurpose Implicit bias can adversely affect health disparities. The implicit association test (IAT) is a prompt to stimulate reflection; however, feedback about bias may trigger emotions that reduce the effectiveness of feedback interventions. Exploring how individuals process feedback about implicit bias may inform bias recognition and management curricula. The authors sought to explore how health professionals perceive the influence of the experience of taking the IAT and receiving their results.Method Using constructivist grounded theory methodology, the authors conducted semistructured interviews with 21 pediatric physicians and nurses at the Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, Ontario, Canada, from September 2015 to November 2016 after they completed the mental illness IAT and received their result. Data were analyzed using constant comparative procedures to work toward axial coding and development of an explanatory theory.Results When provided feedback about their implicit attitudes, participants described tensions between acceptance and justification, and between how IAT results relate to idealized and actual personal and professional identity. Participants acknowledged desire for change while accepting that change is difficult. Most participants described the experience of taking the IAT and receiving their result as positive, neutral, or interesting.Conclusions These findings contribute to emerging understandings of the relationship between emotions and feedback and may offer potential mediators to reconcile feedback that reveals discrepancies between an individual’s actual and idealized identities. These results suggest that reflection informed by tensions between actual and aspirational aspects of professional identity may hold potential for implicit bias recognition and management curricula.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: A Study to Evaluate
           Compliance With Inclusion and Assessment of Women and Minorities in
           Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Authors: Geller; Stacie E.; Koch, Abigail R.; Roesch, Pamela; Filut, Amarette; Hallgren, Emily; Carnes, Molly
      Abstract: imagePurpose The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act of 1993 requires NIH-funded clinical trials to include women and minorities as participants and assess outcomes by sex and race or ethnicity. The objective of this study was to investigate current levels of compliance with these guidelines for inclusion, analysis, and reporting in NIH-funded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and compare the results with those from 2009 and 2004, which the authors reported previously.Method The authors identified 782 RCTs published in 14 leading U.S. medical journals in 2015 with a PubMed search. Of those, 142 were the primary report of an NIH-funded RCT, conducted in the United States, and eligible for analysis. The authors reviewed abstract, text, and tables of each eligible study as well as any follow-up published commentary to determine compliance with NIH guidelines.Results Thirty-five studies limited enrollment to one sex. The median enrollment of women in the remaining 107 studies was 46%, but 16 (15.0%) enrolled less than 30% women. Twenty-eight of the 107 (26%) reported at least one outcome by sex or explicitly included sex as a covariate in statistical analysis. Of the 142 studies, 19 (13.4%) analyzed or reported outcomes by race or ethnicity. There were no statistically significant changes in inclusion, analysis, or reporting by sex, race, or ethnicity compared with the previous studies.Conclusions NIH policies have not resulted in significant increases in reporting results by sex, race, or ethnicity. The authors recommend strong journal policies to increase compliance with NIH policies.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Effects and Unforeseen Consequences of Accessing References on a
           Maintenance of Certification Examination: Findings From a National Study
    • Authors: Feinberg; Richard A.; Jurich, Daniel P.; Foster, Lauren M.
      Abstract: imagePurpose Increasing criticism of maintenance of certification (MOC) examinations has prompted certifying boards to explore alternative assessment formats. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of allowing test takers to access reference material while completing their MOC Part III standardized examination.Method Item response data were obtained from 546 physicians who completed a medical subspecialty MOC examination between 2013 and 2016. To investigate whether accessing references was related to better performance, an analysis of covariance was conducted on the MOC examination scores with references (access or no access) as the between-groups factor and scores from the physicians’ initial certification examination as a covariate. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate how the new feature of accessing references influenced time management within the test day.Results Physicians scored significantly higher when references were allowed (mean = 534.44, standard error = 6.83) compared with when they were not (mean = 472.75, standard error = 4.87), F(1, 543) = 60.18, P < .001, ω2 = 0.09. However, accessing references affected pacing behavior; physicians were 13.47 times more likely to finish with less than a minute of test time remaining per section when reference material was accessible.Conclusions Permitting references caused an increase in performance, but also a decrease in the perception that the test has sufficient time limits. Implications for allowing references are discussed, including physician time management, impact on the construct assessed by the test, and the importance of providing validity evidence for all test design decisions.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Evolving Purposes of Medical Revalidation in the United Kingdom: A
           Qualitative Study of Professional and Regulatory Narratives
    • Authors: Tazzyman; Abigail; Ferguson, Jane; Walshe, Kieran; Boyd, Alan; Tredinnick-Rowe, John; Hillier, Charlotte; Regan De Bere, Samantha; Archer, Julian
      Abstract: imagePurpose Previous research found professionalism and regulation to be competing discourses when plans for medical revalidation in the United Kingdom were being developed in 2011. The purpose of this study was to explore how these competing discourses developed and how the perceived purposes of revalidation evolved as the policy was implemented.Method Seventy-one interviews with 60 UK policy makers and senior health care leaders were conducted during the development and implementation of revalidation: 31 in 2011, 26 in 2013, and 14 in 2015. Interviewees were selected using purposeful sampling. Across all interviews, questions focused around three areas: individual roles in relation to revalidation; interviewees’ understanding of revalidation, its purpose, and aims; and predictions or experiences of revalidation’s impact. The first two interview sets also included questions about measurement and evaluation of revalidation. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method to understand changes and continuities.Results Two main discourses regarding the purpose of revalidation were present across the implementation period: professionalism and regulation. The nature of the relationship between these two purposes and how they were described changed over time, with the separate discourses converging, and early concerns about actual or potential conflict being replaced by perceptions of coexistence or codependency.Conclusions The changing nature of the discourse about revalidation suggests that early concerns about adverse consequences were not borne out as organizations and professionals engaged with implementation and experienced the realities of revalidation in practice. Reconciling professional and regulatory narratives was arguably necessary to the effective implementation of revalidation.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Hidden Curricula of Medical Education: A Scoping Review
    • Authors: Lawrence; Carlton; Mhlaba, Tsholofelo; Stewart, Kearsley A.; Moletsane, Relebohile; Gaede, Bernhard; Moshabela, Mosa
      Abstract: imagePurpose To analyze the plural definitions and applications of the term “hidden curriculum” within the medical education literature and to propose a conceptual framework for conducting future research on the topic.Method The authors conducted a literature search of nine online databases, seeking articles published on the hidden, informal, or implicit curriculum in medical education prior to March 2017. Two reviewers independently screened articles with set inclusion criteria and performed kappa coefficient tests to evaluate interreviewer reliability. They extracted, coded, and analyzed key data, using grounded theory methodology.Results The authors uncovered 3,747 articles relating to the hidden curriculum in medical education. Of these, they selected 197 articles for full review. Use of the term “hidden curriculum” has expanded substantially since 2012. U.S. and Canadian medical schools are the focus of two-thirds of the empirical hidden curriculum studies; data from African and South American schools are nearly absent. Few quantitative techniques to measure the hidden curriculum exist. The “hidden curriculum” is understood as a mostly negative concept. Its definition varies widely, but can be understood via four conceptual boundaries: (1) institutional–organizational, (2) interpersonal–social, (3) contextual–cultural, and/or (4) motivational–psychological.Conclusions Future medical education researchers should make clear the conceptual boundary or boundaries they are applying to the term “hidden curriculum,” move away from general musings on its effects, and focus on specific methods for improving the powerful hidden curriculum.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • The Feedback Tango: An Integrative Review and Analysis of the Content of
           the Teacher–Learner Feedback Exchange
    • Authors: Bing-You; Robert; Varaklis, Kalli; Hayes, Victoria; Trowbridge, Robert; Kemp, Heather; McKelvy, Dina
      Abstract: imagePurpose To conduct an integrative review and analysis of the literature on the content of feedback to learners in medical education.Method Following completion of a scoping review in 2016, the authors analyzed a subset of articles published through 2015 describing the analysis of feedback exchange content in various contexts: audiotapes, clinical examination, feedback cards, multisource feedback, videotapes, and written feedback. Two reviewers extracted data from these articles and identified common themes.Results Of the 51 included articles, about half (49%) were published since 2011. Most involved medical students (43%) or residents (43%). A leniency bias was noted in many (37%), as there was frequently reluctance to provide constructive feedback. More than one-quarter (29%) indicated the feedback was low in quality (e.g., too general, limited amount, no action plans). Some (16%) indicated faculty dominated conversations, did not use feedback forms appropriately, or provided inadequate feedback, even after training. Multiple feedback tools were used, with some articles (14%) describing varying degrees of use, completion, or legibility. Some articles (14%) noted the impact of the gender of the feedback provider or learner.Conclusions The findings reveal that the exchange of feedback is troubled by low-quality feedback, leniency bias, faculty deficient in feedback competencies, challenges with multiple feedback tools, and gender impacts. Using the tango dance form as a metaphor for this dynamic partnership, the authors recommend ways to improve feedback for teachers and learners willing to partner with each other and engage in the complexities of the feedback exchange.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Six Strategies for Effective Learning
    • Authors: Sumeracki; Megan A.; Weinstein, Yana
      Abstract: imageNo abstract available
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT-
       
 
 
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